WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated solar arrays

  1. Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver, LISA-T will develop, test, and demonstrate a deployable structure on which lightweight photovoltaic...

  2. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  3. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  4. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a new subsystem technology for CubeSats. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) is an efficient, compact, high gain, low...

  5. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Yekan, Taha; Baktur, Reyhan; Swenson, Charles; Shaw, Harry; Kegege, Obadiah

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) is a high gain, efficient, lightweight, conformal Xband antenna array that is integrated with solar panels of a CubeSat. The antenna design is modular and independent from the solar cells, and therefore allows off-the-shelf components. In addition, the antenna elements are of low profile and do not require significant surface real estate. ISAAC will suit a multi-unit (≥ 3U) CubeSat that has sufficient area for solar cells (hence the an...

  6. Reverse bias protected solar array with integrated bypass battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for protecting the photovoltaic cells in a photovoltaic (PV) array from reverse bias damage by utilizing a rechargeable battery for bypassing current from a shaded photovoltaic cell or group of cells, avoiding the need for a bypass diode. Further, the method mitigates the voltage degradation of a PV array caused by shaded cells.

  7. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  8. NPS Solar Cell Array Tester Cubesat Flight Testing and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    of discharge EDU engineering design unit ELaNa Experimental Launch for Nanosatellites EPS electrical power subsystem ESP experimental solar...Launch for Nanosatellites IV (ELaNA IV) mission. NPS-SCAT survived vibration testing, to ensure that NPS-SCAT will survive the launch vibration... Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS) into a low earth orbit with an altitude of 500 km and inclination of 40.5 degrees. B. FLIGHT DATA NPS-SCAT

  9. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  10. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    wiring on the back of the panel. Each step increases the potential for occurrence of latent defects, loss of process control, and attrition of components. An EMCSA panel includes an integral cover made from a transparent material. The silicone cover supplants the individual cover glasses on the cells and serves as an additional unitary structural support that offers the advantage, relative to glass, of the robust, forgiving nature of the silcone material. The cover contains pockets that hold the solar cells in place during the lamination process. The cover is coated with indium tin oxide to make its surface electrically conductive, so that it serves as a contiguous, electrically grounded shield over the entire panel surface. The cells are mounted in proximity to metallic printed wiring. The painted-wiring layer comprises metal-film traces on a sheet of Kapton (or equivalent) polyimide. The traces include contact pads on one side of the sheet for interconnecting the cells. Return leads are on the opposite side of the sheet, positioned to form the return currents substantially as mirror images of, and in proximity to, the cell sheet currents, thereby minimizing magnetic moments. The printed-wiring arrangement mimics the back-wiring arrangement of conventional solar arrays, but the current-loop areas and the resulting magnetic moments are much smaller because the return-current paths are much closer to the solar-cell sheet currents. The contact pads are prepared with solder fo electrical and mechanical bonding to the cells. The pocketed cover/shield, the solar cells, the printed-wiring layer, an electrical bonding agent, a mechanical-bonding agent, a composite structural front-side face sheet, an aluminum honeycomb core, and a composite back-side face sheet are all assembled, then contact pads are soldered to the cells and the agents are cured in a single lamination process.

  11. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  12. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-10-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  13. SMEX-Lite Modular Solar Array Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John

    2002-01-01

    For the most part, Goddard solar arrays have been custom designs that are unique to each mission. The solar panel design has been frozen prior to issuing an RFP for their procurement. There has typically been 6-9 months between RFP release and contract award, followed by an additional 24 months for performance of the contract. For Small Explorer (SMEX) missions, with three years between mission definition and launch, this has been a significant problem. The SMEX solar panels have been sufficiently small that the contract performance period has been reduced to 12-15 months. The bulk of this time is used up in the final design definition and fabrication of flight solar cell assemblies. Even so, it has been virtually impossible to have the spacecraft design at a level of maturity sufficient to freeze the solar panel geometry and release the RFP in time to avoid schedule problems with integrating the solar panels to the spacecraft. With that in mind, the SMEX-Lite project team developed a modular architecture for the assembly of solar arrays to greatly reduce the cost and schedule associated with the development of a mission- specific solar array. In the modular architecture, solar cells are fabricated onto small substrate panels. This modular panel (approximately 8.5" x 17" in this case) becomes the building block for constructing solar arrays for multiple missions with varying power requirements and geometrical arrangements. The mechanical framework that holds these modules together as a solar array is the only mission-unique design, changing in size and shape as required for each mission. There are several advantages to this approach. First, the typical solar array development cycle requires a mission unique design, procurement, and qualification including a custom qualification panel. With the modular architecture, a single qualification of the SMEX-Lite modules and the associated mechanical framework in a typical configuration provided a qualification by

  14. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  15. Solar array manufacturing industry simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Firnett, P. J.; Kleine, B.

    1980-01-01

    Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program is a standardized model of industry to manufacture silicon solar modules for use in electricity generation. Model is used to develop financial reports that detail requirements, including amounts and prices for materials, labor, facilities, and equipment required by companies.

  16. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 12, January-April 1979 and proceedings of the 12th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period January through April 1979. It includes reports on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering and operations, and a discussion of the steps taken to integrate these efforts. It includes a report on, and copies of viewgraphs presented at the Project Integration Meeting held April 4-5, 1979.

  17. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  18. Solar cell array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  19. Si Microwire Array Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Warren, Emily L.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Si microwire-array solar cells with Air Mass 1.5 Global conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9% have been fabricated using an active volume of Si equivalent to a 4 μm thick Si wafer. These solar cells exhibited open-circuit voltages of 500 mV, short-circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) of up to 24 mA cm{sup -2}, and fill factors >65% and employed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric particles that scattered light incident in the space between the wires, a Ag back reflector that prevented the escape of incident illumination from the back surface of the solar cell, and an a-SiN{sub x}:H passivation/anti-reflection layer. Wire-array solar cells without some or all of these design features were also fabricated to demonstrate the importance of the light-trapping elements in achieving a high J{sub sc}. Scanning photocurrent microscopy images of the microwire-array solar cells revealed that the higher J{sub sc} of the most advanced cell design resulted from an increased absorption of light incident in the space between the wires. Spectral response measurements further revealed that solar cells with light-trapping elements exhibited improved red and infrared response, as compared to solar cells without light-trapping elements.

  20. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T): Second Generation Advancements and the Future of SmallSat Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren; Martinez, Armando; SanSoucie, Michael; Johnson, Les; Laue, Greg; Farmer, Brandon; Smith, Joseph C.; Robertson, Barrett; Johnson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the second generation advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. LISA-T is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. A matrix of options are in development, including planar (pointed) and omnidirectional (non-pointed) arrays. The former is seeking the highest performance possible while the latter is seeking GN&C simplicity. In both cases, power generation ranges from tens of watts to several hundred with an expected specific power >250W/kg and a stowed power density >200kW/m(sub 3). Options for leveraging both high performance, 'typical cost' triple junction thin-film solar cells as well as moderate performance, low cost cells are being developed. Alongside, both UHF (ultra high frequency) and S-band antennas are being integrated into the array to move their space claim away from the spacecraft and open the door for omnidirectional communications and electronically steered phase arrays.

  1. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  2. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  3. SEP solar array Shuttle flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.; Hill, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to verify the operational performance of a full-scale Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) solar array is described. Scheduled to fly on the Shuttle in 1983, the array will be deployed from the bay for ten orbits, with dynamic excitation to test the structural integrity being furnished by the Orbiter verniers; thermal, electrical, and sun orientation characteristics will be monitored, in addition to safety, reliability, and cost effective performance. The blanket, with aluminum and glass as solar cell mass simulators, is 4 by 32 m, with panels (each 0.38 by 4 m) hinged together; two live Si cell panels will be included. The panels are bonded to stiffened graphite-epoxy ribs and are storable in a box in the bay. The wing support structure is detailed, noting the option of releasing the wing into space by use of the Remote Manipulator System if the wing cannot be refolded. Procedures and equipment for monitoring the array behavior are outlined, and comprise both analog data and TV recording for later playback and analysis. The array wing experiment will also aid in developing measurement techniques for large structure dynamics in space.

  4. Wafer-Scale Integration of Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays for Advanced Light Trapping in Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suqiong; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; Li, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xi; Wang, Dan; He, Jian; Ying, Zhiqin; Ye, Jichun

    2016-12-01

    Crystalline silicon thin film (c-Si TF) solar cells with an active layer thickness of a few micrometers may provide a viable pathway for further sustainable development of photovoltaic technology, because of its potentials in cost reduction and high efficiency. However, the performance of such cells is largely constrained by the deteriorated light absorption of the ultrathin photoactive material. Here, we report an efficient light-trapping strategy in c-Si TFs (~20 μm in thickness) that utilizes two-dimensional (2D) arrays of inverted nanopyramid (INP) as surface texturing. Three types of INP arrays with typical periodicities of 300, 670, and 1400 nm, either on front, rear, or both surfaces of the c-Si TFs, are fabricated by scalable colloidal lithography and anisotropic wet etch technique. With the extra aid of antireflection coating, the sufficient optical absorption of 20-μm-thick c-Si with a double-sided 1400-nm INP arrays yields a photocurrent density of 39.86 mA/cm(2), which is about 76 % higher than the flat counterpart (22.63 mA/cm(2)) and is only 3 % lower than the value of Lambertian limit (41.10 mA/cm(2)). The novel surface texturing scheme with 2D INP arrays has the advantages of excellent antireflection and light-trapping capabilities, an inherent low parasitic surface area, a negligible surface damage, and a good compatibility for subsequent process steps, making it a good alternative for high-performance c-Si TF solar cells.

  5. Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Array and Solar Lantern

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith; M. Sameera Sarma

    2014-01-01

    A very detailed theortical analysis of a solar array has been carried out based on established values of solar radiation data to predict the performance of solar lamp . The analysis is based on established theory about flat-plate collectors. Top heat loss coefficient (Ut), Bottom heat loss coefficient (Ub), Overall heat loss coefficient (Ul), Useful energy (Qu), efficiency (hp) of the flat-plate solar array and efficiency (hl) of the solar lantern has been calculated.

  6. Exergetic Optimization of a Solar Photovoltaic Array

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhaddi, Faramarz; Farahat, Said; Ajam, Hossein; Behzadmehr, Amin

    2009-01-01

    An exergetic optimization is developed to determine the optimal performance and design parameters of a solar photovoltaic (PV) array. A detailed energy and exergy analysis is carried out to evaluate the electrical performance, exergy destruction components, and exergy efficiency of a typical PV array. The exergy efficiency of a PV array obtained in this paper is a function of climatic, operating, and design parameters such as ambient temperature, solar radiation intensity, PV array temperatur...

  7. SAMIS - A simulation of the solar array manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    SAMIS is a continuing activity of the Project Analysis and Integration Task of the Low-cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA). It provides a standardized procedure for producing reliable estimates of the cost of manufacturing solar arrays or their components. These estimates are based on descriptions of the manufacturing processes which are being studied and developed by LSSA subcontractors and will be used to assess the commercial viability of those processes and to set research priorities.

  8. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  9. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  10. Radiation hard solar cell and array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A power generating solar cell for a spacecraft solar array is hardened against transient response to nuclear radiation while permitting normal operation of the cell in a solar radiation environment by shunting the cell with a second solar cell whose contacts are reversed relative to the power cell to form a cell module, exposing the power cell only to the solar radiation in a solar radiation environment to produce an electrical output at the module terminals, and exposing both cells to the nuclear radiation in a nuclear radiation environment so that the radiation induced currents generated by the cells suppress one another

  11. Strain Actuated Solar Arrays (SASA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The team of CU Aerospace and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign propose multifunctional solar arrays, which can be used for attitude control of a...

  12. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  13. CubeSat Modular Deployable Solar Arrays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced CubeSat missions have demanding power requirements relative to their limited available surface area that drive the need for deployable solar arrays. Vendors...

  14. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  15. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  16. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  17. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  18. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  19. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  20. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  1. Solar panels offer array of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The installation of what is believed to be the largest array of solar thermal panels currently in use at a UK NHS hospital has taken place at an ideal time for the facility in question, Harlow's Princess Alexandra Hospital, with the hospital's gas bill alone having risen by 153% over the past nine months thanks to soaring energy prices, and the estates department keen to mitigate the effects in any way possible. Jonathan Baillie reports.

  2. Series-parallel method of direct solar array regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 40 watt experimental solar array was directly regulated by shorting out appropriate combinations of series and parallel segments of a solar array. Regulation switches were employed to control the array at various set-point voltages between 25 and 40 volts. Regulation to within + or - 0.5 volt was obtained over a range of solar array temperatures and illumination levels as an active load was varied from open circuit to maximum available power. A fourfold reduction in regulation switch power dissipation was achieved with series-parallel regulation as compared to the usual series-only switching for direct solar array regulation.

  3. Development testing of the advanced photovoltaic solar array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, P. M.; Kurland, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The latest design, fabrication and testing details of a prototype wing are discussed. Estimates of array-level performance are presented as a function of power level and solar cell technology for geosynchronous orbit (GEO) missions and solar electric propulsion missions through the Van Allen radiation belts. Design concepts are discussed that would allow the wing to be self-retractable and restowable. To date all testing has verified the feasibility and mechanical/electrical integrity of the baseline design. The beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power estimate for a nominal 10-kW (BOL) array is about 138 W/kg, with corresponding end-of-life (EOL) performance of about 93 W/kg for a 10-year GEO mission.

  4. An integral field spectrograph utilizing mirrorlet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-09-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 mÅ) across a 15 Å spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  5. An Integral Field Spectrograph Utilizing Mirrorlet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-01-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 m) across a 15 spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  6. Affordable High Performance Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an Electromagnetically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) with enhanced performance, in Watts/kg and Watts/m2, using flight proven, high efficiency solar cells. For...

  7. Deployable Solar Array Structures with High Stowed Volume Efficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objectives: High stowed volume efficiencies for deployable solar array structures is a space mission enabling technology. Stowing large areas into tight volumes...

  8. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  9. Optical performance of fluorescent collectors integrated with microlens arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsak, Pattareeya; Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescent collectors have been considered for being used as a light concentrator in photovoltaic applications. It is able to replace the expensive area of solar cells in order to minimize the energy cost. In this study, fluorescent collectors integrated with microlens arrays were developed in order to improve the collection efficiency. Fluorescent collectors were prepared by casting an epoxy resin solution containing Rhodamine 6G dye in the polydimethylsiloxane master mold. Polydimethylsiloxane-based microlens arrays with actual diameters of 804.06-1008.02 µm were fabricated using a replica molding technique. The microlens arrays were then integrated with the fluorescent collectors with various dye concentrations from 2.5  ×  10-4 to 4.5  ×  10-4 Molar. Experimental results were demonstrated that the implementation of polydimethylsiloxane microlens arrays on the top of fluorescent collectors was improved for both light absorption and fluorescent intensity.

  10. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  11. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  12. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  13. Monolithic Time Delay Integrated APD Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop monolithic time delay integrated avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays with sensitivity...

  14. Integrated Spatial Filter Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel Integrated Spatial...

  15. Performance analysis of solar cell arrays in concentrating light intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yongfeng; Li Ming; Lin Wenxian; Wang Liuling; Xiang Ming; Zhang Xinghua; Wang Yunfeng; Wei Shengxian

    2009-01-01

    Performance of concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system is researched by experiment and simulation calculation. The results show that the I-V curve of the GaAs cell array is better than that of crystal silicon solar cell arrays and the exergy produced by 9.51% electrical efficiency of the GaAs solar cell array can reach 68.93% of the photovoltaic/thermal system. So improving the efficiency of solar cell arrays can introduce more exergy and the system value can be upgraded. At the same time, affecting factors of solar cell arrays such as series resistance, temperature and solar irradiance also have been analyzed. The output performance of a solar cell array with lower series resistance is better and the working temperature has a negative impact on the voltage in concentrating light intensity. The output power has a -20 W/V coefficient and so cooling fluid must be used. Both heat energy and electrical power are then obtained with a solar trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  17. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  18. Multijunction Ultralight Solar Cells and Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a continuing need within NASA for solar cells and arrays with very high specific power densities (1000-5000 kW/kg) for generating power in a new generation...

  19. Modular Ultra-High Power Solar Array Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) will focus the proposed SBIR program on the development of a new highly-modularized and extremely-scalable solar array that...

  20. Robust, Highly Scalable Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar array systems currently under development are focused on near-term missions with designs optimized for the 30-50 kW power range. However, NASA has a vital...

  1. Deployable Structural Booms for Large Deployable Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a new generation of large, high power deployable solar arrays has been identified as the most significant challenge facing the development of...

  2. Multijunction Ultralight Solar Cells and Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a continuing need within NASA for solar cells and arrays with very high specific power densities (1000-5000 kW/kg) for generating power in a new generation...

  3. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; hide

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  4. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  5. Novel Deployment Mechanism for Conventional Solar Array Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgetts Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mechanism is described, by which flexible blankets could be deployed from existing solar panel designs. These blankets could be covered with flexible cells, or they could be reflective films to form a concentrator array. Either way, the performance of an existing array design could be enhanced.

  6. A users evaluation of SAMIS. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    SAMIS, the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation computer program was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) to provide a method whereby manufacturers or potential manufacturers of photovoltaics could simulate a solar industry using their own particular approach. This paper analyzes the usefulness of SAMIS to a growing photovoltaic industry and clearly illustrates its limitations as viewed by an industrial user.

  7. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  8. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  9. Planetary and deep space requirements for photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Bennett, R. B.; Stella, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the majority of interplanetary spacecraft have been powered by nuclear sources. However, as the emphasis on smaller, low cost missions gains momentum, the majority of missions now being planned will use photovoltaic solar arrays. This will present challenges to the solar array builders, inasmuch as planetary requirements usually differ from earth orbital requirements. In addition, these requirements often differ greatly, depending on the specific mission; for example, inner planets vs. outer planets, orbiters vs. flybys, spacecraft vs. landers, and so on. Also, the likelihood of electric propulsion missions will influence the requirements placed on solar array developers. The paper will discuss representative requirements for a range of planetary missions now in the planning stages. Insofar as inner planets are concerned, a Mercury orbiter is being studied with many special requirements. Solar arrays would be exposed to high temperatures and a potentially high radiation environment, and will need to be increasingly pointed off sun as the vehicle approaches Mercury. Identification and development of cell materials and arrays at high incidence angles will be critical to the design. Missions to the outer solar system that have been studied include a Galilean orbiter and a flight to the Kuiper belt. While onboard power requirements would be small (as low as 10 watts), the solar intensity will require relatively large array areas. As a result, such missions will demand extremely compact packaging and low mass structures to conform to launch vehicle constraints. In turn, the large are, low mass designs will impact allowable spacecraft loads. Inflatable array structures, with and without concentration, and multiband gap cells will be considered if available. In general, the highest efficiency cell technologies operable under low intensity, low temperature conditions are needed. Solar arrays will power missions requiring as little as approximately 100

  10. Mars Array Technology Experiment Developed to Test Solar Arrays on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Solar arrays will be the power supply for future missions to the planet Mars, including landers, rovers, and eventually human missions to explore the Martian surface. Until Mars Pathfinder landed in July 1997, no solar array had been used on the surface. The MATE package is intended to measure the solar energy reaching the surface, characterize the Martian environment to gather the baseline information required for designing power systems for long-duration missions, and to quantify the performance and degradation of advanced solar cells on the Martian surface. To measure the properties of sunlight reaching the Martian surface, MATE incorporates two radiometers and a visible/NIR spectrometer. The radiometers consist of multiple thermocouple junctions using thin-film technology. These devices generate a voltage proportional to the solar intensity. One radiometer measures the global broadband solar intensity, including both the direct and scattered sunlight, with a field of view of approximately 130. The second radiometer incorporates a slit to measure the direct (unscattered) intensity radiation. The direct radiometer can only be read once per day, with the Sun passing over the slit. The spectrometer measures the global solar spectrum with two 256-element photodiode arrays, one Si sensitive in the visible range (300 to 1100 nm), and a second InGaAs sensitive to the near infrared (900 to 1700 nm). This range covers 86 percent of the total energy from the Sun, with approximately 5-nm resolution. Each photodiode array has its own fiber-optic feed and grating. Although the purpose of the MATE is to gather data useful in designing solar arrays for Mars surface power systems, the radiometer and spectrometer measurements are expected to also provide important scientific data for characterizing the properties of suspended atmospheric dust. In addition to measuring the solar environment of Mars, MATE will measure the performance of five different individual solar cell types

  11. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  12. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  13. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  14. Integrated Arrays on Silicon at Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhayay, Goutam; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecil; Lin, Robert; Peralta, Alessandro; Mehdi, Imran; Llombert, Nuria; Thomas, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architecture for use in integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies and use of novel integrated antennas with silicon micromachining are reported. We report novel stacking of micromachined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages which easily leads to the development of 2- dimensioanl multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the terahertz frequency range. We also report an integrated micro-lens antenna that goes with the silicon micro-machined front-end. The micro-lens antenna is fed by a waveguide that excites a silicon lens antenna through a leaky-wave or electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonant cavity. We utilized advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass submillimeter-wave heterodyne frontend. When the micro-lens antenna is integrated with the receiver front-end we will be able to assemble integrated heterodyne array receivers for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  15. Development of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.; Krumweide, Duane; Gaddy, Edward; Katz, Ira

    2000-01-01

    The results of design, analysis, and qualification of an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panel are described. The objective of the ECSA design is to provide an electrostatic environment that does not interfere with sensitive instruments on scientific spacecraft. The ECSA design uses large, ITO-coated coverglasses that cover multiple solar cells, an aperture grid that covers the intercell areas, stress-relieved interconnects for connecting the aperture grid to the coverglasses, and edge clips to provides an electromagnetically shielded enclosure for the solar array active circuitry. Qualification coupons were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic response, conductivity, and survivability to launch acoustic and thermal cycling environments simulating LEO and GEO missions. The benefits of reducing solar panel interaction with the space environment are also discussed.

  16. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including Solar Array Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.

  17. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L.; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David

    2016-08-23

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  18. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  19. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  20. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  1. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  2. Solar observations with the prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Faria, C.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Madsen, F. H. R.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.

    The prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array BDA consists of 5 element alt-az mounted parabolic mesh type dishes of 4-meter diameter having base lines up to 220 meters in the E--W direction The array was put into regular operation at Cachoeira Paulista Brazil longitude 45 r 00 20 W and latitude 22 r 41 19 S This array operates in the frequency range of 1 2 -- 1 7 GHz Solar observations are carried at sim 1 4 GHz in transit and tracking modes Spatial fine structures superimposed on the one dimensional brightness map of the sun associated with active regions and or with solar activity and their time evolution will be presented In the second phase of the project the frequency range will be increased to 1 2 - 1 7 2 8 and 5 6 GHz Central part of the array will consist of 26 antennas with 4-meter diameter laid out randomically in the square of 256 by 256 meter with minimum and maximum base lines of 8 and 256 meters respectively Details of this array with imaging capabilities in snap shot mode for solar observations and procedure of the phase and amplitude calibrations will be presented The development of instrument will be completed by the beginning of 2008

  3. Integrated chemiresistor array for small sensor platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUGHES,ROBERT C.; CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; WESSENDORF,KURT O.; SAVIGNON,DANIEL J.; HIETALA,SUSAN LESLIE; PATEL,SANJAY V.

    2000-04-13

    Chemiresistors are fabricated from materials that change their electrical resistance when exposed to certain chemical species. Composites of soluble polymers with metallic particles have shown remarkable sensitivity to many volatile organic chemicals, depending on the ability of the analyte molecules to swell the polymer matrix. These sensors can be made extremely small (< 100 square microns), operate at ambient temperatures, and require almost no power to read-out. However, the chemiresistor itself is only a part of a more complex sensor system that delivers chemical information to a user who can act on the information. The authors present the design, fabrication and performance of a chemiresistor array chip with four different chemiresistor materials, heaters and a temperature sensor. They also show the design and fabrication of an integrated chemiresistor array, where the electronics to read-out the chemiresistors is on the same chip with the electrodes for the chemiresistors. The circuit was designed to perform several functions to make the sensor data more useful. This low-power, integrated chemiresistor array is small enough to be deployed on a Sandia-developed microrobot platform.

  4. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  5. Solar Array at Very High Temperatures: Ground Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Solar array design for any spacecraft is determined by the orbit parameters. For example, operational voltage for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limited by significant differential charging due to interactions with low temperature plasma. In order to avoid arcing in LEO, solar array is designed to generate electrical power at comparatively low voltages (below 100 volts) or to operate at higher voltages with encapsulation of all suspected discharge locations. In Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) differential charging is caused by energetic electrons that produce differential potential between the coverglass and the conductive spacecraft body in a kilovolt range. In such a case, the weakly conductive layer over coverglass, indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the possible measures to eliminate dangerous discharges on array surface. Temperature variations for solar arrays in both orbits are measured and documented within the range of minus150 degrees Centigrade to plus 1100 degrees Centigrade. This wide interval of operational temperatures is regularly reproduced in ground tests with radiative heating and cooling inside a shroud with flowing liquid nitrogen. The requirements to solar array design and tests turn out to be more complicated when planned trajectory crosses these two orbits and goes closer to the Sun. The conductive layer over coverglass causes a sharp increase in parasitic current collected from LEO plasma, high temperature may cause cracks in encapsulating (Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) material; radiative heating of a coupon in vacuum chamber becomes practically impossible above 1500 degrees Centigrade; conductivities of glass and adhesive go up with temperature that decrease array efficiency; and mechanical stresses grow up to critical magnitudes. A few test arrangements and respective results are presented in current paper. Coupons were tested against arcing in simulated LEO and GEO environments under elevated temperatures up to 2000 degrees

  6. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  7. Signal processing for solar array monitoring, fault detection, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Henry; Spanias, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although the solar energy industry has experienced rapid growth recently, high-level management of photovoltaic (PV) arrays has remained an open problem. As sensing and monitoring technology continues to improve, there is an opportunity to deploy sensors in PV arrays in order to improve their management. In this book, we examine the potential role of sensing and monitoring technology in a PV context, focusing on the areas of fault detection, topology optimization, and performance evaluation/data visualization. First, several types of commonly occurring PV array faults are considered and detection algorithms are described. Next, the potential for dynamic optimization of an array's topology is discussed, with a focus on mitigation of fault conditions and optimization of power output under non-fault conditions. Finally, monitoring system design considerations such as type and accuracy of measurements, sampling rate, and communication protocols are considered. It is our hope that the benefits of monitoring presen...

  8. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  9. The impact of solar cell technology on planar solar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael W.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a study into the potential impact of advanced solar cell technologies on the characteristics (weight, cost, area) of typical planar solar arrays designed for low, medium and geosynchronous altitude earth orbits are discussed. The study considered planar solar array substrate designs of lightweight, rigid-panel graphite epoxy and ultra-lightweight Kapton. The study proposed to answer the following questions: Do improved cell characteristics translate into array-level weight, size and cost improvements; What is the relative importance of cell efficiency, weight and cost with respect to array-level performance; How does mission orbital environment affect array-level performance. Comparisons were made at the array level including all mechanisms, hinges, booms, and harnesses. Array designs were sized to provide 5kW of array power (not spacecraft bus power, which is system dependent but can be scaled from given values). The study used important grass roots issues such as use of the GaAs radiation damage coefficients as determined by Anspaugh. Detailed costing was prepared, including cell and cover costs, and manufacturing attrition rates for the various cell types.

  10. Modal damping estimates of MOS-1 solar array paddle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Yoshinori; Kato, Junichi; Toda, Susumu

    The modal damping coefficients of MOS-1 solar array paddle have been estimated, based on experimental results of the paddle substrate—a prime load carrying component of the paddle structure—and on theoretical extrapolation. The damping coefficient values of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th substrate modes are 0.69% (14.5 Hz), 0.07% (49.7 Hz), 0.27% (61.2 Hz) and 0.07% (96.7 Hz) respectively. Also this substrate experiment reveals that the effect of the air vanishes at the level of 0.01 Torr and that the relative alignment of fibers in CFRP skin vs the lines of principal stresses in the deformed state is strongly correlated with the damping level. Zener theory of thermo-elasticity coupling model has been applied to derive the damping coefficients of the plate. Then the modal damping coefficients of MOS-1 solar array paddle whose resonances lie in the range of 0.2-2 Hz are estimated by making use of the fitted curves to the experimental data. Next, the estimate is improved by considering the additional contribution from the solar cells and adhesive. Supplementing the foregoing estimates, quantitative assessment on the damping effect due to interface friction somewhere in the structure is made leading to the final estimate that the modal damping coefficients of MOS-1 solar array paddle would not be lower than 0.003.

  11. The Damper Spring Unit of the Sentinel 1 Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doejaaren, Frans; Ellenbroek, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The Damper Spring Unit (DSU, see Figure 1) has been designed to provide the damping required to control the deployment speed of the spring driven solar array deployment in an ARA Mk3 or FRED based Solar Array in situations where the standard application of a damper at the root-hinge is not feasible. The unit consists of four major parts: a main bracket, an eddy current damper, a spring unit, an actuation pulley which is coupled via Kevlar cables to a synchro-pulley of a hinge. The damper slows down the deployment speed and prevents deployment shocks at deployment completion. The spring unit includes 4 springs which overcome the resistances of the damper and the specific DSU control cable loop. This means it can be added to any spring driven deployment system without major modifications of that system. Engineering models of the Sentinel 1 solar array wing have been built to identify the deployment behavior, and to help to determine the optimal pulley ratios of the solar array and to finalize the DSU design. During the functional tests, the behavior proved to be very sensitive for the alignment of the DSU. This was therefore monitored carefully during the qualification program, especially prior to the TV cold testing. During TV "Cold" testing the measured retarding torque exceeded the max. required value: 284 N-mm versus the required 247 N-mm. Although this requirement was not met, the torque balance analysis shows that the 284 N-mm can be accepted, because the spring unit can provide 1.5 times more torque than required. Some functional tests of the DSU have been performed without the eddy current damper attached. It provided input data for the ADAMS solar array wing model. Simulation of the Sentinel-1 deployment (including DSU) in ADAMS allowed the actual wing deployment tests to be limited in both complexity and number of tests. The DSU for the Sentinel-1 solar array was successfully qualified and the flight models are in production.

  12. Impacts of Solar PV Arrays on Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, A.; Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.; Bickhart, R.

    2017-12-01

    The deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is rapidly escalating. While PV can provide clean, renewable energy, there is uncertainty regarding its potential positive and/or negative impacts on the local environment. Specifically, its effects on the physicochemical properties of the underlying soil have not been systematically quantified. This study facilitates the discussion on the effects of PV installations related to the following questions: i. How do soil moisture, infiltration rates, total organic carbon, and nitrogen contents vary spatially under a PV array? ii. How do these physicochemical properties compare to undisturbed and adjacent land covered in native vegetation? iii. Are these variations statistically significant to provide insight on whether PV installations have beneficial or detrimental impacts on soil? We address these questions through field measurements of soil moisture, infiltration, grain particle size distribution, total organic carbon, and nitrogen content at a 1-MW solar PV array located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. We collect data via multiple transects underneath the PV array as as well as in an adjacent plot of undisturbed native vegetation. Measurements are taken at four positions under the solar panels; the east-facing edge, center area under the panel, west-facing edge, and interspace between panel rows to capture differences in sun exposure as well as precipitation runoff of panels. Measurements are collected before and after a precipitation event to capture differences in soil moisture and infiltration rates. Results of this work can provide insights for research fields associated with the co-location of agriculture and PV installations as well as the long term ecological impacts of solar energy development. Trends in physicochemical properties under and between solar panels can affect the viability of co-location of commercial crops in PV arrays, the

  13. Optical meta-films of alumina nanowire arrays for solar evaporation and optoelectronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Bae, Kyuyoung; Kang, Gumin; Baek, Seunghwa

    2017-05-01

    Nanowires with metallic or dielectric materials have received considerable interest in many research fields for optical and optoelectronic devices. Metal nanowires have been extensively studied due to the high optical and electrical properties and dielectric nanowires are also investigated owing to the multiple scattering of light. In this research, we report optical meta-films of alumina nanowire arrays with nanometer scale diameters by fabrication method of self-aggregate process. The aluminum oxide nanowires are transparent from ultraviolet to near infrared wavelength regions and array structures have strong diffusive light scattering. We integrate those optical properties from the material and structure, and produce efficient an optical haze meta-film which has high transparency and transmission haze at the same time. The film enhances efficiencies of optical devices by applying on complete products, such as organic solar cells and LEDs, because of an expanded optical path length and light trapping in active layers maintaining high transparency. On the other hands, the meta-film also produces solar steam by sputtering metal on the aluminum oxide nanowire arrays. The nanowire array film with metal coating exhibits ultrabroadband light absorption from ultraviolet to mid-infrared range which is caused by nanofocusing of plasmons. The meta-film efficiently produces water steam under the solar light by metal-coated alumina arrays which have high light-to-heat conversion efficiency. The design, fabrication, and evaluation of our light management platforms and their applications of the meta-films will be introduced.

  14. Integrated strain array for cellular mechanobiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C S; Sim, J Y; Baechtold, P; Chung, C; Borghi, N; Pruitt, B L; Gonzalez, A

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated strain array for cell culture enabling high-throughput mechano-transduction studies. Biocompatible cell culture chambers were integrated with an acrylic pneumatic compartment and microprocessor-based control system. Each element of the array consists of a deformable membrane supported by a cylindrical pillar within a well. For user-prescribed waveforms, the annular region of the deformable membrane is pulled into the well around the pillar under vacuum, causing the pillar-supported region with cultured cells to be stretched biaxially. The optically clear device and pillar-based mechanism of operation enables imaging on standard laboratory microscopes. Straightforward fabrication utilizes off-the-shelf components, soft lithography techniques in polydimethylsiloxane and laser ablation of acrylic sheets. Proof of compatibility with basic biological assays and standard imaging equipment were accomplished by straining C2C12 skeletal myoblasts on the device for 6 h. At higher strains, cells and actin stress fibers realign with a circumferential preference

  15. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  16. Initial solar observations with Prototype Brazilian Decimetric Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Andrade, M. C.; Subramanian, K. R.; Rajan, M. S. Sundara; Sawant, H. S.

    The Prototype Brazilian Decimetre Array (PBDA) consists of 5 element alt-azimuth mounted parabolic dishes of 4-m diameter, having baselines up to 216 m in East-West direction. We present initial solar observations carried out with the PBDA during the period 22nd November to 11th December, 2004. The frequency of observation was 1.6 GHz. The temporal and spatial resolution were 100 ms and 3 arcmin, respectively.

  17. Solar Array Power Conditioning for a Spinning Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Antonio; Chirulli, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The conditioning of the output power from a solar array can mainly be achieved by the adoption of DET or MPPT based architecture. There are several factors that can orientate the choice of the system designer towards one solution or the other; some of them maybe inherent to the mission derived requirements (Illumination levels, EMC cleanliness, etc.), others come directly from a careful assessment of performances and losses of both power conditioner and solar array.Definition of the criteria on which basis the final choice is justified is important as they have to guarantee a clear determination of the available versus the required power in all those mission conditions identifiable as design drivers for the overall satellite system both in terms of mass and costs.Such criteria cannot just be simple theoretical enunciations of principles; nor the meticulous definition of them on a case by case basis for different types of missions as neither option gives a guarantee of being conclusive.The aim of this paper is then to suggest assessment steps and guidelines that can be considered generically valid for any mission case, starting from the exposition of the trade off activity performed in order to choose the power conditioning solution for a spinning satellite having unregulated power bus architecture. Calculations and numerical simulations have been made in order to establish the needed solar array surface in case of adoption of a DET or MPPT solution, taking into account temperature and illumination levels on the solar cells, as well as power losses and inefficiencies from the solar generator to the main power bus, in different mission phases. Particular attention has been taken in order to correctly evaluate the thermal effects on the rest of the spacecraft as function of the adopted power system regulation.

  18. Age Induced Effects on ESD Characteristics of Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2012-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons provided by Space Systems/Loral were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined space environment exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is performing electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels [ISO-11221]. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of four cells constructed to form two strings. The ESD tests were performed at the beginning-of-life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point until end-of-life (EOL) at 15 years. The space environmental exposure sequence consisted of ultra-violet radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and Xenon ion thruster plume erosion. This paper describes the ESD test setup and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Arc inception voltage results along with ESD test behavior from the BOL condition through the 15th year age condition are discussed. In addition, results from a Xenon plasma plume exposure test with an EOL coupon under the full ESD test condition will be discussed.

  19. Solar cell array design handbook - The principles and technology of photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar cell array design and technology for ground-based and space applications are discussed from the user's point of view. Solar array systems are described, with attention given to array concepts, historical development, applications and performance, and the analysis of array characteristics, circuits, components, performance and reliability is examined. Aspects of solar cell array design considered include the design process, photovoltaic system and detailed array design, and the design of array thermal, radiation shielding and electromagnetic components. Attention is then given to the characteristics and design of the separate components of solar arrays, including the solar cells, optical elements and mechanical elements, and the fabrication, testing, environmental conditions and effects and material properties of arrays and their components are discussed.

  20. Latest developments in the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program was established to demonstrate a producible array system with a specific power greater than 130 W/kg at a 10-kW (BOL) power level. The latest program phase completed fabrication and initial functional testing of a prototype wing representative of a full-scale 5-kW (BOL) wing (except truncated in length to about 1 kW), with weight characteristics that could meet the 130-W/kg (BOL) specific power goal using thin silicon solar cell modules and weight-efficient structural components. The wing configuration and key design details are reviewed, along with results from key component-level and wing-level tests. Projections for future enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells and structural components are shown. Performance estimates are given for solar electric propulsion orbital transfer missions through the Van Allen radiation belts. The latest APSA program plans are presented.

  1. Structural design and analysis of a solar array substrate for a GEO satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Safak, Omer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the design of solar array substrate for a geostationary satellite. The design of deployable solar array substrate is realized based on the requirements which are provided by BILUZAY (Bilkent University Space Technologies Research Centre). This array is going to empower a telecommunication satellite which will be operating in a geostationary orbit during 15 years. The main work presented in this thesis consists of two principal directions: solar cell array area dimens...

  2. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    accuracy of the photogrammetric measurements. To verify the measured results, ISAG personnel conducted a second analysis using just the imagery of the solar arrays in an arbitrary coordinate system defined by the three corner points of the inboard-most panel, with the design distance between points A1 and A10 as the only scale. The new measurements agreed with the original results to within less than 1 in. RMS in each axis, confirming the original solar array measurements. ISAG produced a final report for the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office documenting an apparent anomaly in the retracted configuration of the port FGB solar arrays. A copy of the measurement report was translated and sent to the Russian Space Agency. During a Vehicle Integrated Performance and Resources (VIPeR) teleconference September 24, 2012, the Russians acknowledged receipt of a translated copy of the ISAG report. The Russian representative stated that the head of the solar array design team claimed that the measured configuration was impossible unless the structure was physically broken. The Russians acknowledged that they had no expertise in photogrammetry, so the analysis technique employed was a "black box" to them, and they did not know how to use the ISAG results. They asked for a single image in which the overextension of the port solar array could be obviously seen. On November 10, 2012, during a face-to-face meeting with their Russian counterparts at JSC, ISAG presented nadir-view imagery of the FGB acquired during Space Shuttle rendezvous. Using the known width of the pressurized portion of the FGB as a scale, this analysis clearly showed that the port FGB solar array was extended outboard further than the Russian design for the retracted solar array.

  3. Iron-copper metallization for flexible solar/cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavendel, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a copper-base metallization for shallow-junction cells applied in flexible solar arrays in space is discussed. This type of metallization will reduce usage of precious metals (such as silver), increase case of bonding (by welding or by soldering) and eliminate heavy high Z interconnects (such as molybdenum). The main points of concern are stability against thermally induced diffusion of copper into silicon which causes degradation of shallow cell junctions, and low series resistance of the contact with semiconductor which promotes cell efficiency.

  4. Advanced Composite Truss (ACT) Printing for Large Solar Array Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large solar arrays (100 kW-1 MW) are required in order to generate the power necessary for solar electric propulsion to drive NASA's future missions, including:...

  5. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  6. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  7. Light absorption and emission in nanowire array solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupec, Jan; Stoop, Ralph L; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2010-12-20

    Inorganic nanowires are under intense research for large scale solar power generation intended to ultimately contribute a substantial fraction to the overall power mix. Their unique feature is to allow different pathways for the light absorption and carrier transport. In this publication we investigate the properties of a nanowire array acting as a photonic device governed by wave-optical phenomena. We solve the Maxwell equations and calculate the light absorption efficiency for the AM1.5d spectrum and give recommendations on the design. Due to concentration of the incident sunlight at a microscopic level the absorptivity of nanowire solar cells can exceed the absorptivity of an equal amount of material used in thin-film devices. We compute the local density of photon states to assess the effect of emission enhancement, which influences the radiative lifetime of excess carriers. This allows us to compute the efficiency limit within the framework of detailed balance. The efficiency is highly sensitive with respect to the diameter and distance of the nanowires. Designs featuring nanowires below a certain diameter will intrinsically feature low short-circuit current that cannot be compensated even by increasing the nanowire density. Optimum efficiency is not achieved in densely packed arrays, in fact spacing the nanowires further apart (simultaneously decreasing the material use) can even improve efficiency in certain scenarios. We observe absorption enhancement reducing the material use. In terms of carrier generation per material use, nanowire devices can outperform thin-film devices by far.

  8. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  9. Solar Array Panels With Dust-Removal Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Stephen; Mardesich, Nick; Spence, Brian; White, Steve

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed to incorporate piezoelectric vibrational actuators into the structural supports of solar photovoltaic panels, for the purpose of occasionally inducing vibrations in the panels in order to loosen accumulated dust. Provided that the panels were tilted, the loosened dust would slide off under its own weight. Originally aimed at preventing obscuration of photovoltaic cells by dust accumulating in the Martian environment, the proposal may also offer an option for the design of solar photovoltaic panels for unattended operation at remote locations on Earth. The figure depicts a typical lightweight solar photovoltaic panel comprising a backside grid of structural spars that support a thin face sheet that, in turn, supports an array of photovoltaic cells on the front side. The backside structure includes node points where several spars intersect. According to the proposal, piezoelectric buzzers would be attached to the node points. The process of designing the panel would be an iterative one that would include computational simulation of the vibrations by use of finite- element analysis to guide the selection of the vibrational frequency of the actuators and the cross sections of the spars to maximize the agitation of dust.

  10. Efficient colored silicon solar modules using integrated resonant dielectric nanoscatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neder, Verena; Luxembourg, Stefan L.; Polman, Albert

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate photovoltaic modules with a bright green color based on silicon heterojunction solar cells integrated with arrays of light scattering dielectric nanoscatterers. Dense arrays of crystalline silicon nanocylinders, 100-120 nm wide, 240 nm tall, and 325 nm pitch, are made onto module cover slides using substrate-conformal soft-imprint lithography. Strong electric and magnetic dipolar Mie resonances with a narrow linewidth (Q ˜ 30) cause strong (35%-40%) specular light scattering on resonance (˜540 nm). The green color is observed over a wide range of angles (8°-75°). As the resonant nanoscatterers are transparent for the major fraction of the incident solar spectrum, the relative loss in short-circuit current is only 10%-11%. The soft-imprinted nanopatterns can be applied on full-size solar modules and integrated with conventional module encapsulation. The dielectric Mie resonances can be controlled by geometry, opening up a road for designing efficient colorful or white building-integrated photovoltaics.

  11. SCARLET I: Mechanization solutions for deployable concentrator optics integrated with rigid array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholz, James J.; Murphy, David M.

    1996-01-01

    The SCARLET I (Solar Concentrator Army with Refractive Linear Element Technology) solar array wing was designed and built to demonstrate, in flight, the feasibility of integrating deployable concentrator optics within the design envelope of typical rigid array technology. Innovative mechanism designs were used throughout the array, and a full series of qualification tests were successfully performed in anticipation of a flight on the Multiple Experiment Transporter to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. Even though the Conestoga launch vehicle was unable to place the spacecraft in orbit, the program effort was successful in achieving the milestones of analytical and design development functional validation, and flight qualification, thus leading to a future flight evaluation for the SCARLET technology.

  12. High Efficient Universal Buck Boost Solar Array Regulator SAR Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelmann, Stefan; Knorr, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    The high efficient universal Buck Boost Solar Array Regulator (SAR) module concept is applicable for a wide range of input and output voltages. The single point failure tolerant SAR module contains 3 power converters for the transfer of the SAR power to the battery dominated power bus. The converters are operating parallel in a 2 out of 3 redundancy and are driven by two different controllers. The output power of one module can be adjusted up to 1KW depending on the requirements. The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is placed on a separate small printed circuit board and can be used if no external tracker signal is delivered. Depending on the mode and load conditions an efficiency of more than 97% is achievable. The stable control performance is achieved by implementing the magnetic current sense detection. The sensed power coil current is used in Buck and Boost control mode.

  13. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by SSL. The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The coupon has many attributes of the flight design; e.g., substrate structure with graphite face sheets, integrated by-pass diodes, cell interconnects, RTV grout, wire routing, etc. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four array current (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micros to 2.9 ms. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-test Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS), Dark I-V, and By-Pass Diode tests showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. In addition, the post-test insulation resistance measured was > 50 G-ohms between cells and substrate. These test results indicate a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission application.

  14. By-Pass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By-Pass diodes are a key design feature of solar arrays and system design must be robust against local heating, especially with implementation of larger solar cells. By-Pass diode testing was performed to aid thermal model development for use in future array designs that utilize larger cell sizes that result in higher string currents. Testing was performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon provided by SSL. Test conditions were vacuum with cold array backside using discrete by-pass diode current steps of 0.25 A ranging from 0 A to 2.0 A.

  15. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  16. Output performance analyses of solar array on stratospheric airship with thermal effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Lv, Mingyun; Tan, Dongjie; Zhu, Weiyu; Sun, Kangwen; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model investigating the output power of solar array is proposed. • The output power in the cruise condition with thermal effect is researched. • The effect of some factors on output performance is discussed in detail. • A suitable transmissivity of external layer is crucial in preliminary design step. - Abstract: Output performance analyses of the solar array are very critical for solving the energy problem of a long endurance stratospheric airship, and the solar cell efficiency is very sensitive to temperature of the solar cell. But the research about output performance of solar array with thermal effect is rare. This paper outlines a numerical model including the thermal model of airship and solar cells, the incident solar radiation model on the solar array, and the power output model. Based on this numerical model, a MATLAB computer program is developed. In the course of the investigation, the comparisons of the simulation results with and without considering thermal effect are reported. Furthermore, effects of the transmissivity of external encapsulation layer of solar array and wind speed on the thermal performance and output power of solar array are discussed in detail. The results indicate that this method is helpful for planning energy management.

  17. Integration of spintronic interface for nanomagnetic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lyle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental demonstration utilizing a spintronic input/output (I/O interface for arrays of closely spaced nanomagnets is presented. The free layers of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs form dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays which can be applied to different contexts including Magnetic Quantum Cellular Automata (MQCA for logic applications and self-biased devices for field sensing applications. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays demonstrate adaptability to a variety of contexts due to the ability for tuning of magnetic response. Spintronics allows individual nanomagnets to be manipulated with spin transfer torque and monitored with magnetoresistance. This facilitates measurement of the magnetic coupling which is important for (yet to be demonstrated data propagation reliability studies. In addition, the same magnetic coupling can be tuned to reduce coercivity for field sensing. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays have the potential to be thousands of times more energy efficient than CMOS technology for logic applications, and they also have the potential to form multi-axis field sensors.

  18. Bypass Diode Temperature Tests of a Solar Array Coupon Under Space Thermal Environment Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie; Wu, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 56-cell Advanced Triple Junction solar array coupon whose purpose was to determine margin available for bypass diodes integrated with new, large multi-junction solar cells that are manufactured from a 4-inch wafer. The tests were performed under high vacuum with coupon back side thermal conditions of both cold and ambient. The bypass diodes were subjected to a sequence of increasing discrete current steps from 0 Amp to 2.0 Amp in steps of 0.25 Amp. At each current step, a temperature measurement was obtained via remote viewing by an infrared camera. This paper discusses the experimental methodology, experiment results, and the thermal model.

  19. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  20. Thruster array design approaches for a solar electric propulsion Encke Flyby mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Design approaches are described and evaluated for a mercury electron-bombardment ion thruster array. Such an array might be used on a solar electric interplanetary spacecraft that obtains electrical energy from large solar panels. Thruster array designs are described and evaluated as they would apply to an Encke Flyby mission. Besides several well known approaches, a new concept utilizing individual two-axis gimbal actuators on each thruster is described and shown to have many structural and thermal advantages.

  1. Performance Analysis of a NASA Integrated Network Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program is planning to integrate its individual networks into a unified network which will function as a single entity to provide services to user missions. This integrated network architecture is expected to provide SCaN customers with the capabilities to seamlessly use any of the available SCaN assets to support their missions to efficiently meet the collective needs of Agency missions. One potential optimal application of these assets, based on this envisioned architecture, is that of arraying across existing networks to significantly enhance data rates and/or link availabilities. As such, this document provides an analysis of the transmit and receive performance of a proposed SCaN inter-network antenna array. From the study, it is determined that a fully integrated internetwork array does not provide any significant advantage over an intra-network array, one in which the assets of an individual network are arrayed for enhanced performance. Therefore, it is the recommendation of this study that NASA proceed with an arraying concept, with a fundamental focus on a network-centric arraying.

  2. On Possible Arc Inception on Low Voltage Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Recent analysis of spacecraft failures during the period of 1990-2013 demonstrated clearly that electrostatic discharges caused more than 8 percent of all registered failures and anomalies, and comprised the most costly losses (25 percent) for operating companies and agencies. The electrostatic discharges on spacecraft surfaces are the results of differential charging above some critical (threshold) voltages. The mechanisms of differential charging are well known, and various methods have been developed to prevent a generation of significant electric fields in areas of triple junctions. For example, low bus voltages in Low Earth Orbit plasma environment and slightly conducting layer over cover-glass (ITO) in Geosynchronous Orbit surroundings are believed to be quite reliable measures to prevent discharges on respective surfaces. In most cases, the vulnerable elements of spacecraft (solar arrays, diode boards, etc.) go through comprehensive ground tests in vacuum chambers. However, tests articles contain the miniscule fragments of spacecraft components such as 10-30 solar cells of many thousands deployed on spacecraft in orbit. This is one reason why manufacturing defects may not be revealed in ground tests but expose themselves in arcing on array surface in space. The other reason for ineffectiveness of discharge preventive measures is aging of all materials in harsh orbital environments. The expected life time of modern spacecraft varies within the range of five-fifteen years, and thermal cycling, radiation damages, and mechanical stresses can result in surface erosion on conductive layers and microscopic cracks in cover-glass sheets and adhesive films. These possible damages may cause significant increases in local electric field strengths and subsequent discharges. The primary discharges may or may not be detrimental to spacecraft operation, but they can produce the necessary conditions for sustained arcs initiation. Multiple measures were developed to prevent

  3. Early commercial demonstration of space solar power using ultra-lightweight arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kevin; Willenberg, Harvey J.

    2009-11-01

    Space solar power shows great promise for future energy sources worldwide. Most central power stations operate with power capacity of 1000 MW or greater. Due to launch size limitations and specific power of current, rigid solar arrays, the largest solar arrays that have flown in space are around 50 kW. Thin-film arrays offer the promise of much higher specific power and deployment of array sizes up to several MW with current launch vehicles. An approach to early commercial applications for space solar power to distribute power to charge hand-held, mobile battery systems by wireless power transmission (WPT) from thin-film solar arrays in quasi-stationary orbits will be presented. Four key elements to this prototype will be discussed: (1) Space and near-space testing of prototype wireless power transmission by laser and microwave components including WPT space to space and WPT space to near-space HAA transmission demonstrations; (2) distributed power source for recharging hand-held batteries by wireless power transmission from MW space solar power systems; (3) use of quasi-geostationary satellites to generate electricity and distribute it to targeted areas; and (4) architecture and technology for ultra-lightweight thin-film solar arrays with specific energy exceeding 1 kW/kg. This approach would yield flight demonstration of space solar power and wireless power transmission of 1.2 MW. This prototype system will be described, and a roadmap will be presented that will lead to still higher power levels.

  4. Integration of solar energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Mennola, T.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.; Rasinkoski, A.; Spiers, D.; Eenilae, P. [Neste Advanced Power Systems (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    New photovoltaic building elements were developed and the uses of various solar technologies in buildings were optimised with computational design tools. The novel amorphous silicon photovoltaic elements allow for economic integration of photovoltaics in large facades. The cost of grid-connected systems may be reduced by approximately 20 % through the advanced design approaches developed. (orig.)

  5. Photovoltaic solar array technology required for three wide scale generating systems for terrestrial applications: rooftop, solar farm, and satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Three major options for wide-scale generation of photovoltaic energy for terrestrial use are considered: (1) rooftop array, (2) solar farm, and (3) satellite station. The rooftop array would use solar cell arrays on the roofs of residential or commercial buildings; the solar farm would consist of large ground-based arrays, probably in arid areas with high insolation; and the satellite station would consist of an orbiting solar array, many square kilometers in area. The technology advancement requirements necessary for each option are discussed, including cost reduction of solar cells and arrays, weight reduction, resistance to environmental factors, reliability, and fabrication capability, including the availability of raw materials. The majority of the technology advancement requirements are applicable to all three options, making possible a flexible basic approach regardless of the options that may eventually be chosen. No conclusions are drawn as to which option is most advantageous, since the feasibility of each option depends on the success achieved in the technology advancement requirements specified.

  6. Integrated Solar Concentrator and Shielded Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David Larry

    2010-01-01

    A shielded radiator is integrated within a solar concentrator for applications that require protection from high ambient temperatures with little convective heat transfer. This innovation uses a reflective surface to deflect ambient thermal radiation, shielding the radiator. The interior of the shield is also reflective to provide a view factor to deep space. A key feature of the shield is the parabolic shape that focuses incoming solar radiation to a line above the radiator along the length of the trough. This keeps the solar energy from adding to the radiator load. By placing solar cells along this focal line, the concentration of solar energy reduces the number and mass of required cells. By shielding the radiator, the effective reject temperature is much lower, allowing lower radiator temperatures. This is particularly important for lower-temperature processes, like habitat heat rejection and fuel cell operations where a high radiator temperature is not feasible. Adding the solar cells in the focal line uses the concentrating effect of the shield to advantage to accomplish two processes with a single device. This shield can be a deployable, lightweight Mylar structure for compact transport.

  7. Extremely Black Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhe; Wang, Huimin; Jian, Muqiang; Li, Yanshen; Xia, Kailun; Zhang, Mingchao; Wang, Chunya; Wang, Qi; Ma, Ming; Zheng, Quan-Shui; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-08-30

    The unique structure of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) array makes it behave most similarly to a blackbody. It is reported that the optical absorptivity of an extremely black VACNT array is about 0.98-0.99 over a large spectral range of 200 nm-200 μm, inspiring us to explore the performance of VACNT arrays in solar energy harvesting. In this work, we report the highly efficient steam generation simply by laminating a layer of VACNT array on the surface of water to harvest solar energy. It is found that under solar illumination the temperature of upper water can significantly increase with obvious water steam generated, indicating the efficient solar energy harvesting and local temperature rise by the thin layer of VACNTs. We found that the evaporation rate of water assisted by VACNT arrays is 10 times that of bare water, which is the highest ratio for solar-thermal-steam generation ever reported. Remarkably, the solar thermal conversion efficiency reached 90%. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the strong optical absorption and local temperature rise induced by the VACNT layer, as well as the ultrafast water transport through the VACNT layer due to the frictionless wall of CNTs. Based on the above, we further demonstrated the application of VACNT arrays in solar-driven desalination.

  8. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  9. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  10. High-Performance Elastically Self-Deployed Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable roll-out solar array (ROSA) structural platform that when combined with...

  11. High-Performance Elastically Self-Deployed Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable roll-out solar array (ROSA) structural platform that when combined with...

  12. TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Trusselator technology will enable on-orbit fabrication of support structures for high-power solar arrays and large antennas, achieving order-of-magnitude...

  13. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  14. Very Large Ultra-Lightweight Affordable Smart Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft for NASA, DoD and commercial missions need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of very high power missions....

  15. Next-Generation Ultra-Compact Stowage/Lightweight Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system that has game-changing performance metrics in terms of...

  16. Foldable Compactly Stowable Extremely High Power Solar Array System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a high performance solar array system that has game-changing performance metrics in terms of ultra-compact stowage...

  17. FDM-HAWK, A High Performance Compact Modular Solar Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a next generation high performance solar array with significant reduction in size and weight will result in improved NASA mission capabilities at lower...

  18. FDM-HAWK, A High Performance Compact Modular Solar Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a next generation high performance solar array with significant reduction in size and weight will result in improved NASA mission capabilities at lower...

  19. Active Gravity Offloading System for Deployable Solar Array Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  20. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  1. Tensioned Rollable Ultra-light Solar array System (TRUSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRUSS is a structurally efficient solar array concept that utilizes a TRAC rollable boom and tension-stiffened structure to exceed the program requirements for very...

  2. Optimally sizing of solar array and battery in a standalone photovoltaic system in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.X. [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2009-01-15

    Size optimization of solar array and battery in a standalone photovoltaic (SPV) system is investigated. Based on the energy efficiency model, the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) of the SPV system is calculated for different size combinations of solar array and battery. For the desired LPSP at the given load demand, the optimal size combination is obtained at the minimum system cost. One case study is given to show the application of the method in Malaysian weather conditions. (author)

  3. Degradation of Solar Array Components in a Combined UV/VUV High Temperature Test Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nömayr Christel

    2017-01-01

    A design verification test under UV/VUV conditions of sun exposed materials and technologies on component level is presented which forms part of the overall verification and qualification of the solar array design of the MTM and MPO. The test concentrates on the self-contamination aspects and the resulting performance losses of the solar array under high intensity and elevated temperature environment representative for the photovoltaic assembly (PVA.

  4. Integrated Electrode Arrays for Neuro-Prosthetic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Mojarradi, Mohammede

    2003-01-01

    Arrays of electrodes integrated with chip-scale packages and silicon-based integrated circuits have been proposed for use as medical electronic implants, including neuro-prosthetic devices that might be implanted in brains of patients who suffer from strokes, spinal-cord injuries, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The electrodes of such a device would pick up signals from neurons in the cerebral cortex, and the integrated circuit would perform acquisition and preprocessing of signal data. The output of the integrated circuit could be used to generate, for example, commands for a robotic arm. Electrode arrays capable of acquiring electrical signals from neurons already exist, but heretofore, there has been no convenient means to integrate these arrays with integrated-circuit chips. Such integration is needed in order to eliminate the need for the extensive cabling now used to pass neural signals to data-acquisition and -processing equipment outside the body. The proposed integration would enable progress toward neuro-prostheses that would be less restrictive of patients mobility. An array of electrodes would comprise a set of thin wires of suitable length and composition protruding from and supported by a fine-pitch micro-ball grid array or chip-scale package (see figure). The associated integrated circuit would be mounted on the package face opposite the probe face, using the solder bumps (the balls of the ball grid array) to make the electrical connections between the probes and the input terminals of the integrated circuit. The key innovation is the insertion of probe wires of the appropriate length and material into the solder bumps through a reflow process, thereby fixing the probes in place and electrically connecting them with the integrated circuit. The probes could be tailored to any distribution of lengths and made of any suitable metal that could be drawn into fine wires. Furthermore, the wires could be coated with an insulating layer using anodization or

  5. Energy management and parametric optimization of an integrated PV solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrawy, K.K.; Mahrous, A.-F.; Youssef, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical simulation model of an integrated PV solar house was proposed. • Developed model was validated with results available in the literature. • A solar house size of 12–24 m 3 /1 m 2 of collector area satisfies heating conditions. • A flow rate of 0.06 kg/s is accepted for a size of 24 m 3 /1 m 2 collector area. • Longitudinal configuration for the solar cell array is preferred. - Abstract: This paper concerns with optimum design and performance parameters related to energy management of a small solar house. The house is designed to satisfy the main requirements of electrical power and space heating. The proposed house has a south facing PV module employed for direct converting of solar energy into electricity as well as an air solar collector that is integrated behind the solar module. Integration of the solar collector with the PV module aims to enhance the efficiency as well as to decrease the capital cost of the unit. A heat and mass flow numerical model for the energy and mass balances of the flowing air behind the PV module is developed. Temperature variation of individual rooms inside the house is also considered in the study. The developed model has been employed to determine: an appropriate size for the solar house as regards to the given area of PV module, the optimum mass flow rate through the solar collector, and the best configuration of the solar cell array. The simulation results show that an area of 2 m 2 of the PV module would satisfy an acceptable room temperature in the season of winter with a solar house size of 24–48 m 3 . Besides, there would be a significant enhancement in thermal efficiency at high mass flow rate of flowing air through the system. Furthermore, higher thermal efficiency and an acceptable room temperature would be achieved in longitudinal configuration of PV module

  6. Methods of dark signal determination for CCD array spectroradiometers used in solar UVR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczynska, K.A.; Khazova, M.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of the dark signal determination by direct contemporaneous measurements using a light spectrum and modelling of the dark signal based on the dark signal characterisation data were discussed. These techniques were tested with two charge-couple detectors (CCD) array spectroradiometers used in solar UVR measurements. The sensitivity of both instruments was significantly reduced when shutters were used; the measured signal varied by up to 12% depending on the orientation of the shutter. The shutters should be permanently attached to the SSR, so that the orientation cannot be changed to prevent an increase in uncertainty. The method of using blind pixels from the optically inactive part of the CCD array in a light spectrum could be used to derive the dark signal with some limitations for integration times <10 s for the QE65000. An alternative method of deriving the dark signal from light measurements using out-of-range pixels has been proved impossible due to out-of-range stray light in both instruments. The dark signal was characterised for the range of integration times and ambient temperatures of 15-35 deg. C. Based on these data, the model of the dark signal was developed so that a single value of the dark signal can be subtracted over the whole spectral range if the instrument temperature is known. (authors)

  7. Transparent antennas for solar cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Tursunjan

    Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

  8. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  9. Light trapping characteristics of glass substrate with hemisphere pit arrays in thin film Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Le; Wang Qing-Kang; Wangyang Pei-Hua; Huang Kun; Shen Xiang-Qian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the light trapping characteristics of glass substrate with hemisphere pit (HP) arrays in thin film Si solar cells are theoretically studied via a numerical approach. It is found that the HP glass substrate has good antireflection properties. Its surface reflectance can be reduced by ∼ 50% compared with planar glass. The HP arrays can make the unabsorbed light return to the absorbing layer of solar cells, and the ratio of second absorption approximately equals 30%. Thus, the glass substrate with the hemisphere pit arrays (HP glass) can effectively reduce the total reflectivity of a solar cell from 20% to 13%. The HP glass can also prolong the optical path length. The numerical results show that the total optical path length of the thin film Si solar cell covered with the HP glass increases from 2ω to 4ω. These results are basically consistent with the experimental results. (paper)

  10. Evaluation end-of-life power generation of a satellite solar array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherbaneh, Mohsen; Ghafooifard, H.; Rezaie, A.H.; Rahimi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We present detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission. → All sources of losses and degradation of the solar panels are fully taken into account. → We introduce a comprehensive novel approach to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. → We use a simple model to calculate the operating temperature range of the solar panels. → We also calculate Mission End-of-Life electrone fluence using SPENVIS. -- Abstract: Knowing the power generated by of solar arrays in a space missions shall satisfy mission requirements; prediction of the power generated by a solar array used in a space mission is very important and necessary. In this research, a detailed design description and necessary considerations for solar panels utilized in a specific space mission is presented. All sources of losses and degradation of solar panels are fully taken into account. This research emphasizes on investigation, analysis and verification of a manufactured solar assembly for a satellite before launch. Solar panels' generated power should be estimated at the end of the mission. For this purpose, radiation values and temperature operating range are specified for the mission. Panels' temperature operating rate is determined through considering a simple model and different spins for the satellite. Mission end-of-life 1 MeV equivalent dose is calculated by SPENVIS suite software. Finally, a comprehensive novel approach is introduced to investigate the electrical behavior of the solar panels. This approach can be implemented in MATLAB environment to obtain output power characteristics of the solar panels for each specific mission. The results are in full accordance with the mission requirements either in beginning-of-life or end-of-life. Therefore, the power prediction of the designed solar array for the mentioned satellite completely satisfies its mission requirements.

  11. Design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel for enhancing solar energy collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an arrayed tunable prism panel enabling wide tracking and high solar concentration. • A microfluidic technology allows a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system. • Our prism panel enables high solar concentration up to 2032× factor. • Various liquid prism configurations (stacked prism arrays) and optical materials are considered. • Their impacts on solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration are studied. - Abstract: We present the design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel that enables wide solar tracking and high solar concentration while minimizing energy loss. Each of the liquid prism modules is implemented by a microfluidic (i.e. non-mechanical) technology based on electrowetting for adaptive solar beam steering. Therefore the proposed platform offers a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system while obviating the need for bulky and heavy mechanical moving parts essentially required for a conventional motor-driven solar tracker. In this paper, various liquid prism configurations in terms of design (single, double, triple and quad-stacked prism arrays) as well as optical materials are considered and their impact on optical performance aspects such as solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration is studied. Our system is able to achieve a wide solar tracking covering the whole-day movement of the Sun and a reflection loss below 4.4% with a Rayleigh’s film for a quad-stacked prism configuration. Furthermore, an arrayed prism panel is proposed to increase the aperture area and thus allows for the collection of large amounts of sunlight. Our simulation study based on the optical design software, ZEMAX, indicates that the prism panel is capable of high solar concentration up to 2032× factor even without conventional solar tracking devices. We also deal with dispersion characteristics of the materials and their corresponding effect on

  12. Dust Accumulation and Solar Panel Array Performance on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Eren H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most fundamental design considerations for any space vehicle is its power supply system. Many options exist, including batteries, fuel cells, nuclear reactors, radioisotopic thermal generators (RTGs), and solar panel arrays. Solar arrays have many advantages over other types of power generation. They are lightweight and relatively inexpensive, allowing more mass and funding to be allocated for other important devices, such as scientific instruments. For Mars applications, solar power is an excellent option, especially for long missions. One might think that dust storms would be a problem; however, while dust blocks some solar energy, it also scatters it, making it diffuse rather than beamed. Solar cells are still able to capture this diffuse energy and convert it into substantial electrical power. For these reasons, solar power was chosen to be used on the 1997 Mars Pathfinder mission. The success of this mission set a precedent, as NASA engineers have selected solar power as the energy system of choice for all future Mars missions, including the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project. Solar sells have their drawbacks, however. They are difficult to manufacture and are relatively fragile. In addition, solar cells are highly sensitive to different parts of the solar spectrum, and finding the correct balance is crucial to the success of space missions. Another drawback is that the power generated is not a constant with respect to time, but rather changes with the relative angle to the sun. On Mars, dust accumulation also becomes a factor. Over time, dust settles out of the atmosphere and onto solar panels. This dust blocks and shifts the frequency of the incoming light, degrading solar cell performance. My goal is to analyze solar panel telemetry data from the two MERs (Spirit and Opportunity) in an effort to accurately model the effect of dust accumulation on solar panels. This is no easy process due to the large number of factors involved. Changing solar

  13. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  14. ParaSol - A Novel Deployable Approach for Very Large Ultra-lightweight Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High power solar arrays with capabilities of >100kW are needed for projected NASA missions. Photovoltaic arrays using deployable membranes with thin cells have...

  15. Development of a New, High-Power Solar Array for Telecommunication Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airbus is currently developing the Next Generation Solar Array (NGSA for telecommunication satellites. It is based on a hybrid array concept which combines a conventional rigid panel array with lightweight, semi-rigid lateral panels. The main figures of merit power/mass and power/volume can be doubled through this concept. Mechanically, the semi-rigid panels are the key new element. Through acoustic testing as well as sine vibration testing in air and in vacuum it was verified that these panels are suitable as cell support in stowed configuration. With the help of finite element modelling it is demonstrated that the semi-rigid panels are compatible with a free deployment. Electrically, the new array is to be equipped with a new generation of 4 junction solar cells with efficiencies above 30%. The increased radiation dose due to electric orbit raising has to be taken into account to arrive at the optimum shielding while still minimizing the array mass. By adjusting the ratio of rigid to semi-rigid panels and through the choice of solar cell type and mass, the NGSA can be tailored in a wide range to needs of a given platform. This is illustrated for the solar array to be flown on the new Airbus platform Eurostar Neo.

  16. Optimal control of stretching process of flexible solar arrays on spacecraft based on a hybrid optimization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijia Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal control of multibody spacecraft during the stretching process of solar arrays is investigated, and a hybrid optimization strategy based on Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM and direct shooting method (DSM is presented. First, the elastic deformation of flexible solar arrays was described approximately by the assumed mode method, and a dynamic model was established by the second Lagrangian equation. Then, the nonholonomic motion planning problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem by using GPM. By giving fewer LG points, initial values of the state variables and control variables were obtained. A serial optimization framework was adopted to obtain the approximate optimal solution from a feasible solution. Finally, the control variables were discretized at LG points, and the precise optimal control inputs were obtained by DSM. The optimal trajectory of the system can be obtained through numerical integration. Through numerical simulation, the stretching process of solar arrays is stable with no detours, and the control inputs match the various constraints of actual conditions. The results indicate that the method is effective with good robustness. Keywords: Motion planning, Multibody spacecraft, Optimal control, Gauss pseudospectral method, Direct shooting method

  17. Concept, Design, and Prototyping of XSAS: A High Power Extendable Solar Array for CubeSat Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Patrick; Klesh, Andrew; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; McKague, Darren; Cutler, James

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats have proven themselves as a reliable and cost-effective method to perform experiments in space, but they are highly constrained by their specifications and size. One such constraint is the average continuous power, about 5 W, which is available to the typical CubeSat. To improve this constraint, we have developed the eXtendable Solar Array System (XSAS), a deployable solar array prototype in a CubeSat package, which can provide an average 23 W of continuous power. The prototype served as a technology demonstrator for the high risk mechanisms needed to release, deploy, and control the solar array. Aside from this drastic power increase, it is in the integration of each mechanism, their application within the small CubeSat form-factor, and the inherent passive control benefit of the deployed geometry that make XSAS a novel design. In this paper, we discuss the requirements and design process for the XSAS system and mechanical prototype, and provide qualitative and quantitative results from numerical simulations and prototype tests. We also discuss future work, including an upcoming NASA zero-gravity flight campaign, to further improve on XSAS and prepare it for future launch opportunities.

  18. Feasibility study of a 110 watt per kilogram lightweight solar array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F.; Stahle, C. V.; Schneider, A.; Hanson, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of a solar array panel subsystem which will produce 10,000 watts of electrical output at 1 A.U. with an overall beginning-of-life power-to-weight ratio of at least 110 watt/kg is reported. A description of the current baseline configuration which meets these requirements is presented. A parametric analysis of the single boom, two blanket planar solar array system was performed to arrive at the optimum system aspect ratio. A novel concept for the stiffening of a lightweight solar array by canting the solar cell blankets at a small angle to take advantage of the inherent in-plane stiffness to increase the symmetric out-of-plane frequency is introduced along with a preliminary analysis of the stiffening effect. A comparison of welded and soldered solar cell interconnections leads to the conclusion that welding is required on this ultralightweight solar array. The use of a boron/aluminum composite material in a BI-STEM type deployable boom is investigated as a possible advancement in the state-of-the-art.

  19. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  20. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  1. Integrated Access to Solar Observations With EGSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csillaghy, A.

    2003-12-01

    {\\b Co-Authors}: J.Aboudarham (2), E.Antonucci (3), R.D.Bentely (4), L.Ciminiera (5), A.Finkelstein (4), J.B.Gurman(6), F.Hill (7), D.Pike (8), I.Scholl (9), V.Zharkova and the EGSO development team {\\b Institutions}: (2) Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France); (3) INAF - Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (Italy); (4) University College London (U.K.); (5) Politecnico di Torino (Italy), (6) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (USA); (7) National Solar Observatory (USA); (8) Rutherford Appleton Lab. (U.K.); (9) Institut d'Astrophysique Spatial, Universite de Paris-Sud (France) ; (10) University of Bradford (U.K) {\\b Abstract}: The European Grid of Solar Observations is the European contribution to the deployment of a virtual solar observatory. The project is funded under the Information Society Technologies (IST) thematic programme of the European Commission's Fifth Framework. EGSO started in March 2002 and will last until March 2005. The project is categorized as a computer science effort. Evidently, a fair amount of issues it addresses are general to grid projects. Nevertheless, EGSO is also of benefit to the application domains, including solar physics, space weather, climate physics and astrophysics. With EGSO, researchers as well as the general public can access and combine solar data from distributed archives in an integrated virtual solar resource. Users express queries based on various search parameters. The search possibilities of EGSO extend the search possibilities of traditional data access systems. For instance, users can formulate a query to search for simultaneous observations of a specific solar event in a given number of wavelengths. In other words, users can search for observations on the basis of events and phenomena, rather than just time and location. The software architecture consists of three collaborating components: a consumer, a broker and a provider. The first component, the consumer, organizes the end user interaction and controls requests

  2. Low concentration solar louvres for building integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, D.; Aldegheri, F.; Baricordi, S.; Bernardoni, P.; Calabrese, G.; Guidi, V.; Pozzetti, L.

    2013-09-01

    The building integration of CPV modules offers several advantages over the integration of flat panel systems, but the decreasing price trend of standard modules observed in the last years has hampered the market expansion of CPV systems, which still don't rely on a low-cost mass production supply chain. To overcome this contingent issue and to foster the diffusion of innovative PV systems we developed a low concentration BIPV module with added functionalities, such as sunlight shading and building illumination. The electrical performances, retrieved under outdoor conditions, and the lighting performances of the Solar F-Light are shown. The latter indicate that it is suitable for ambient lighting, with a very limited power draw.

  3. Integrated Solar Upper Stage Technical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is participating in the Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) program. This program is a ground-based demonstration of an upper stage concept that will be used to generate both solar propulsion and solar power. Solar energy collected by a primary concentrator is directed into the aperture of a secondary concentrator and further concentrated into the aperture of a heat receiver. The energy stored in the receiver-absorber-converter is used to heat hydrogen gas to provide propulsion during the orbital transfer portion of the mission. During the balance of the mission, electric power is generated by thermionic diodes. Several materials issues were addressed as part of the technical support portion of the ISUS program, including: 1) Evaluation of primary concentrator coupons; 2) Evaluation of secondary concentrator coupons; 3) Evaluation of receiver-absorber-converter coupons; 4) Evaluation of in-test witness coupons. Two different types of primary concentrator coupons were evaluated from two different contractors-replicated coupons made from graphite-epoxy composite and coupons made from microsheet glass. Specular reflectivity measurements identified the replicated graphite-epoxy composite coupons as the primary concentrator material of choice. Several different secondary concentrator materials were evaluated, including a variety of silver and rhodium reflectors. The specular reflectivity of these materials was evaluated under vacuum at temperatures up to 800 C. The optical properties of several coupons of rhenium on graphite were evaluated to predict the thermal performance of the receiver-absorber-converter. Finally, during the ground test demonstration, witness coupons placed in strategic locations throughout the thermal vacuum facility were evaluated for contaminants. All testing for the ISUS program was completed successfully in 1997. Investigations related to materials issues have proven helpful in understanding the operation of the test

  4. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  5. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  6. Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDOGMUS, O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used for balanced the motor power and PV power to obtain a high efficiency. The results are performed by using MATLAB/SimPowerSystem blocks. In addition, the PV array is modeled to allow for the possibility of running as on-line adjustable in simulation environment without using lookup table. The performances of motor, MPPT and drive system are analyzed in different conditions as temperature and irradiation of PV array.

  7. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witham, C.R.

    1979-06-12

    MBA has been working on the automated array assembly task of the Low-Cost Solar Array project. A baseline sequence for the manufacture of solar cell modules is specified. Starting with silicon wafers, the process goes through damage etching, texture etching, junction formation, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, and screen printed metallization to produce finished solar cells which are then series connected on a ribbon and bonded into a finished glass, PVB, tedlar module. A number of steps required additional developmental effort to verify technical and economic feasibility. These steps include texture etching, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, array layup and interconnect, and module edge sealing and framing.

  8. Operation of Grid-tied 5 kWDC solar array to develop Laboratory Experiments for Solar PV Energy System courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jaime [Univ. of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)

    2012-12-14

    To unlock the potential of micro grids we plan to build, commission and operate a 5 kWDC PV array and integrate it to the UTPA Engineering building low voltage network, as a micro grid; and promote community awareness. Assisted by a solar radiation tracker providing on-line information of its measurements and performing analysis for the use by the scientific and engineering community, we will write, perform and operate a set of Laboratory experiments and computer simulations supporting Electrical Engineering (graduate and undergraduate) courses on Renewable Energy, as well as Senior Design projects.

  9. Miniaturized ultrasound imaging probes enabled by CMUT arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Yakub, B T; Oralkan, Omer; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Wygant, Ira O; Zhuang, Steve; Gencel, Mustafa; Choe, Jung Woo; Stephens, Douglas N; de la Rama, Alan; Chen, Peter; Lin, Feng; Dentinger, Aaron; Wildes, Douglas; Thomenius, Kai; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Mahajan, Aman; Seo, Chi Hyung; O'Donnell, Matthew; Truong, Uyen; Sahn, David J

    2010-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays are conveniently integrated with frontend integrated circuits either monolithically or in a hybrid multichip form. This integration helps with reducing the number of active data processing channels for 2D arrays. This approach also preserves the signal integrity for arrays with small elements. Therefore CMUT arrays integrated with electronic circuits are most suitable to implement miniaturized probes required for many intravascular, intracardiac, and endoscopic applications. This paper presents examples of miniaturized CMUT probes utilizing 1D, 2D, and ring arrays with integrated electronics.

  10. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  11. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin, E-mail: wangyl100@nenu.edu.cn; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn; Liu, Yichun, E-mail: ycliu@nenu.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The fabrication of perovskite solar cells utilizing TiO{sub 2} NR arrays. • Investigation of the interspace effect of TiO{sub 2} NR on perovskite layer. • Understanding of the balance between perovskite capping layer and pore filling. - Abstract: Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO{sub 2} nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO{sub 2}-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO{sub 2} NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO{sub 2}-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  12. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabrication of perovskite solar cells utilizing TiO 2 NR arrays. • Investigation of the interspace effect of TiO 2 NR on perovskite layer. • Understanding of the balance between perovskite capping layer and pore filling. - Abstract: Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO 2 nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO 2 -NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO 2 NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO 2 /perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO 2 -NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  13. Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markelov, G [Advanced Operations and Engineering Services (AOES) Group BV, Postbus 342, 2300 AH Leiden (Netherlands); Endemann, M [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAS, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wernham, D [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAQ, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: Gennady.Markelov@aoes.com

    2008-03-01

    ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes.

  14. Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markelov, G; Endemann, M; Wernham, D

    2008-01-01

    ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes

  15. Analysis of radiation damage in on-orbit solar array of Venus explorer Akatsuki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Takanobu; Takahashi, You; Imamura, Takeshi; Hada, Yuko; Ishii, Takako T.; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Shiota, Daikou

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of radiation damage in solar array of Venus explorer Akatsuki observed on orbit. The output voltage of the solar array have shown sudden drops, which are most reasonably associated with radiation damage, three times since its launch. The analysis of these radiation damages is difficult, because no direct observation data of the spectra and the amount of the high-energy particles is available. We calculated the radiation damage using the relative damage coefficient (RDC) method assuming a typical spectral shape of protons. (author)

  16. Solar Arrays for Low-Irradiance Low-Temperature and High-Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Andreea (Principal Investigator); Stella, Paul; Kerestes, Christopher; Sharps, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This is the Base Period final report DRAFT for the JPL task 'Solar Arrays for Low-Irradiance Low-Temperature and High-Radiation Environments', under Task Plan 77-16518 TA # 21, for NASA's Extreme Environments Solar Power (EESP) project. This report covers the Base period of performance, 7/18/2016 through 5/2/2017.The goal of this project is to develop an ultra-high efficiency lightweight scalable solar array technology for low irradiance, low temperature and high-radiation (LILT/Rad) environments. The benefit this technology will bring to flight systems is a greater than 20 reduction in solar array surface area, and a six-fold reduction in solar array mass and volume. The EESP project objectives are summarized in the 'NRA Goal' column of Table 1. Throughout this report, low irradiance low temperature (LILT) refers to 5AU -125 C test conditions; beginning of life (BOL) refers to the cell state prior to radiation exposure; and end of life (EOL) refers to the test article condition after exposure to a radiation dose of 4e15 1MeV e(-)/cm(exp 2).

  17. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  18. Reliability models applicable to space telescope solar array assembly system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A complex system may consist of a number of subsystems with several components in series, parallel, or combination of both series and parallel. In order to predict how well the system will perform, it is necessary to know the reliabilities of the subsystems and the reliability of the whole system. The objective of the present study is to develop mathematical models of the reliability which are applicable to complex systems. The models are determined by assuming k failures out of n components in a subsystem. By taking k = 1 and k = n, these models reduce to parallel and series models; hence, the models can be specialized to parallel, series combination systems. The models are developed by assuming the failure rates of the components as functions of time and as such, can be applied to processes with or without aging effects. The reliability models are further specialized to Space Telescope Solar Arrray (STSA) System. The STSA consists of 20 identical solar panel assemblies (SPA's). The reliabilities of the SPA's are determined by the reliabilities of solar cell strings, interconnects, and diodes. The estimates of the reliability of the system for one to five years are calculated by using the reliability estimates of solar cells and interconnects given n ESA documents. Aging effects in relation to breaks in interconnects are discussed.

  19. Solar-Array Substrate From Glass-Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirls, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Design elminiates glass superstrate and associated metal framing. Panel has two trapezoidal stiffening ribs for structural support. Strategic placement of ribs with embedded support tubes (standard PVC tubing) minimizes bending moments and resulting stresses produced by installation and windloads. Glass-reinforced concrete panel has smooth flat surface suitable for solar substrate and includes structural bracing for rigidity and design adaptable to mass production.

  20. Effects of pillar height and junction depth on the performance of radially doped silicon pillar arrays for solar energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, R.; Vijselaar, Wouter Jan, Cornelis; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of pillar height and junction depth on solar cell characteristics are investigated to provide design rules for arrays of such pillars in solar energy applications. Radially doped silicon pillar arrays are fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of silicon substrates followed by the

  1. Maximizing Solar Energy Capture Through Multi-Azimuth PV Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    By orienting photovoltaic (PV) arrays in multiple directions, significantly greater energy capture can be realized in high latitude locations. Conventional wisdom dictates orienting PV panels south (in the northern hemisphere), but multi-azimuth arrays can confer several advantages during the summer months: - Nearly even power production over a large part of the day (20+ hours) - Reduced issues with power quality in grid interactive systems - Support higher loads in independent, off-grid systems - Reduced energy storage (battery) requirements in off-grid systems This poster will present two multi-azimuth systems, one a grid-interactive system deployed at Summit Station, Greenland; the second an independent, off-grid system supporting a science project near Toolik Field Station, Alaska.

  2. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  3. Long linear arrays with time delay integration and element deselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, C. P.

    1997-08-01

    GEC-Marconi infra-red has developed a sensor technology based on lateral collection CdHgTe photodiode arrays mounted on custom designed CMOS multiplexer integrated circuits. The availability of submicron silicon processes has enabled a very high degree of functionality to be integrated within the detector thereby simplifying the overall system design. This paper describes a generic architecture that finds particular application for advanced infrared search-and-track, surveillance and high performance imaging applications. These applications require the highest possible performance and are therefore based on time-delay and integration (TDI) to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and detector element redundancy with defective element deselection (DED) to give resultant arrays with no dropouts. The detectors have fully variable integration period control, selectable integration capacitors, and a signal-to-noise enhancement capability at low infrared flux levels. The overall power consumption is low rendering the detectors suitable for engine cooling. The architecture is based on a number of unit cell designs and is readily adaptable to a wide range of configurations. The unit capacitor sizes within the design being rescaled to accommodate the required signal levels. In this way the numbers of elements in TDI and the number of TDI channels can be matched to the end application requirements. The architecture is applicable to both long and medium wave detectors. TDI channels are typically composed of 8 or 10 elements and in excess of 700 channels have been demonstrated. The results obtained from a number of prototype detectors are presented.

  4. A DP based scheme for real-time reconfiguration of solar cell arrays exposed to dynamic changing inhomogeneous illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liping; Brehm, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of solar cell arrays is highly effected by partial shading effects. Especially for solar panel arrays installed in environments which are exposed to inhomogeneous dynamic changing illuminations such as on roof tops of electrical vehicles the overall system...... efficiency is drastically reduced. Dynamic real-time reconfiguration of the solar panel array can reduce effects on the output efficiency due to partial shading. This results in a maximized power output of the panel array when exposed to dynamic changing illuminations. The optimal array configuration...... with respect to shading patterns can be stated as a combinatorial optimization problem and this paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm which finds the optimal feasible solution to reconfigure the solar panel array for maximum efficiency in real-time with linear time complexity. It is shown...

  5. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  6. LEO resistant PI-B-PDMS block copolymer films for solar array applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuyzen, H. van; Bongers, E.; Fischer, H.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low atomic oxygen erosion yields PI-b-PDMS block copolymer films have considerable potential for application onto space exposed surfaces of satellites in low earth orbit. On solar arrays these materials might be used as electrical electrical insulation film, flexprint outer layer,

  7. Enhanced Electron Photoemission by Collective Lattice Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle-Array Photodetectors and Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Uskov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We propose to use collective lattice resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays to enhance and tailor photoelectron emission in Schottky barrier photodetectors and solar cells. We show that the interaction between narrow-band lattice resonances (the Rayleigh anomaly) and broader-band individual-...

  8. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on Photovoltaic Metallization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic Metallization Research forum, under the sponsorship of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project consisted of five sessions, covering: (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques, and (5) future metallization challenges.

  9. Investigation Results on Solar Array Thermal & Electrical Imbalance Phenomenon on Power Systems Equipped with MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, F.; Samaniego, B.; Soriano, T.; Beaufils, G.; Fernandez Lisbona, E.; Dettlaff, K.; Jensen, H.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal / electrical imbalance phenomenon on the satellite solar arrays is a common issue inherent to the negative thermal voltage coefficient of the triple junction cells, which is usually already taken into account with basic precautions on the solar panel layout.In the frame of the ESA TRP study "Investigation on Solar Array thermal and electrical imbalance phenomenon on power systems equipped with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)" performed by Airbus Defence & Space (former Astrium Toulouse and Ottobrunn) and TERMA, in-depth analyses were conducted for the first time to better understand and characterize the secondary maximum power point phenomenon for various representative mission cases, whether in Earth vicinity or not. With the help of a newly developed detailed thermo-electrical coupled solver and a wide range of solar cell characterizations in flux and temperature, multiple sets of simulations were run to simulate realistic solar panel characteristics.The study showed that no secondary false maximum power point can be created on the solar panel characteristic IV curve for missions around Earth vicinity, at the sole exception of critical shadowing cases. Furthermore, the same conclusions apply for missions up to Mars orbit. The only potential threats come from the missions further than Mars (typically Jupiter missions) where various very high heterogeneities could lead to multiple maxima. This is deeply linked to the LILT (low illumination low temperature) conditions applied to the current solar cell triple junction characteristics and shape. Moreover, thermo-electrical imbalances that do not create secondary power point can still seriously grieve the solar array power output performances. This power loss can however be accurately assessed by the newly developed solver in support of in-development missions like Juice.

  10. Discussion on the solar concentrating thermoelectric generation using micro-channel heat pipe array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiqiang; Feng, Wei; Jin, Yi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Heat pipe is a high efficient tool in solar energy applications. In this paper, a novel solar concentrating thermoelectric generation using micro-channel heat pipe array (STEG-MCHP) was presented. The flat-plate micro-channel heat pipe array not only has a higher heat transfer performance than the common heat pipe, but also can be placed on the surface of TEG closely, which can further reduce the thermal resistance between the heat pipe and the TEG. A preliminary comparison experiment was also conducted to indicate the advantages of the STEG-MCHP. The optimization based on the model verified by the experiment was demonstrated, and the concentration ratio and selective absorbing coating area were also discussed. In addition, the cost analysis was also performed to compare between the STEG-MCHP and the common solar concentrating TEGs in series. The outcome showed that the solar concentrating thermoelectric generation using micro-channel heat pipe array has the higher electrical efficiency and lower cost, which may provide a suitable way for solar TEG applications.

  11. Point-Focus Concentration Compact Telescoping Array: Extreme Environments Solar Power Base Phase Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachen, Michael E.; Murphy, Dave; Meinhold, Shen; Spink, Jim; Eskenazi, Mike; O'Neill, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Orbital ATK, in partnership with Mark ONeill LLC (MOLLC), has developed a novel solar array platform, PFC-CTA, which provides a significant advance in performance and cost reduction compared to all currently available space solar systems. PFC refers to the Point Focus Concentration of light provided by MOLLCs thin, flat Fresnel optics. These lenses focus light to a point of approximately 100 times the intensity of the ambient light, onto a solar cell of approximately 125th the size of the lens. CTA stands for Compact Telescoping Array, which is the solar array blanket structural platform originally devised by NASA and currently being advanced by Orbital ATK and partners under NASA and AFRL funding to a projected TRL 5+ by late-2018.The NASA Game Changing Development Extreme Environment Solar Power (EESP) Base Phase study has enabled Orbital ATK to refine component designs, perform component level and system performance analyses, and test prototype hardware of the key elements of PFC-CTA, and increased the TRL of PFC-specific technology elements to TRL 4. Key performance metrics currently projected are as follows: Scalability from 5 kW to 300 kW per wing (AM0); Specific Power 500 Wkg (AM0); Stowage Efficiency 100 kWm3; 5:1 margin on pointing tolerance vs. capability; 50 launched cost savings; Wide range of operability between Venus and Saturn by active andor passive thermal management.

  12. A Comprehensive Review and Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Array Configurations under Partial Shaded Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramaprabha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of partial shading on energy output of different Solar Photovoltaic Array (SPVA configurations and to mitigate the losses faced in Solar Photovoltaic (SPV systems by incorporating bypass diodes. Owing to the practical difficulty of conducting experiments on varied array sizes, a generalized MATLAB M-code has been developed for any required array size, configuration, shading patterns, and number of bypass diodes. The proposed model which also includes the insolation-dependent shunt resistance can provide sufficient degree of precision without increasing the computational effort. All the configurations have been analyzed and comparative study is made for different random shading patterns to determine the configuration less susceptible to power losses under partial shading. Inferences have been drawn by testing several shading scenarios.

  13. Femtosecond laser written arrayed waveguide gratings with integrated photonic lanterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, G; Dreisow, F; Gross, S; Withford, M J

    2018-01-22

    We demonstrate for the first time functional arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. This fabrication technique is a mask-less alternative to lithography enabling design flexibility and rapid prototyping. It is ideal for customized small scale production for new applications. The devices were demonstrated in the visible region at 632.8 nm with a measured free spectral range (FSR) of 22.2 nm, and 1.35 nm resolution. To highlight the advantages of using a 3-dimensional fabrication technique, a 3-port photonic lantern was integrated with an AWG in a single monolithic chip. Integration of this type is not feasible with lithography-based AWG fabrication and can increase the functionality of AWGs for sensing applications.

  14. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  15. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m 2 , the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m 2 , the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  16. Commercial/industrial photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-cost solar array project engineering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in commercial and industrial applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to commercial and industrial photovoltaic array installation. Four general installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Each of the generic mounting types can be used in vertical wall mounting systems. This implies eight mounting types exist in the commercial/industrial sector. Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Cost drivers were identified. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. The general conclusion is that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in commercial/industrial arrays.

  17. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    input and output parameters required for efficiency calculations. 70 B. MPPT SELECTION 1. STEVAL SPV1020 MPPT with DC-DC Boost Converter The...the power output of the solar array. Currently, most military applications that utilize solar energy omit or use only a single MPPT per PV system. The...photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase the power output of the solar array. Currently, most military

  18. Integrated wireless neural interface based on the Utah electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Bhandari, R; Klein, M; Negi, S; Rieth, L; Tathireddy, P; Toepper, M; Oppermann, H; Solzbacher, F

    2009-04-01

    This report presents results from research towards a fully integrated, wireless neural interface consisting of a 100-channel microelectrode array, a custom-designed signal processing and telemetry IC, an inductive power receiving coil, and SMD capacitors. An integration concept for such a device was developed, and the materials and methods used to implement this concept were investigated. We developed a multi-level hybrid assembly process that used the Utah Electrode Array (UEA) as a circuit board. The signal processing IC was flip-chip bonded to the UEA using Au/Sn reflow soldering, and included amplifiers for up to 100 channels, signal processing units, an RF transmitter, and a power receiving and clock recovery module. An under bump metallization (UBM) using potentially biocompatible materials was developed and optimized, which consisted of a sputter deposited Ti/Pt/Au thin film stack with layer thicknesses of 50/150/150 nm, respectively. After flip-chip bonding, an underfiller was applied between the IC and the UEA to improve mechanical stability and prevent fluid ingress in in vivo conditions. A planar power receiving coil fabricated by patterning electroplated gold films on polyimide substrates was connected to the IC by using a custom metallized ceramic spacer and SnCu reflow soldering. The SnCu soldering was also used to assemble SMD capacitors on the UEA. The mechanical properties and stability of the optimized interconnections between the UEA and the IC and SMD components were measured. Measurements included the tape tests to evaluate UBM adhesion, shear testing between the Au/Sn solder bumps and the substrate, and accelerated lifetime testing of the long-term stability for the underfiller material coated with a a-SiC(x):H by PECVD, which was intended as a device encapsulation layer. The materials and processes used to generate the integrated neural interface device were found to yield a robust and reliable integrated package.

  19. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  20. Computer modeling of inversion layer MOS solar cells and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fat Duen

    1991-02-01

    A two dimensional numerical model of the inversion layer metal insulator semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cell is proposed by using the finite element method. The two-dimensional current flow in the device is taken into account in this model. The electrostatic potential distribution, the electron concentration distribution, and the hole concentration distribution for different terminal voltages are simulated. The results of simple calculation are presented. The existing problems for this model are addressed. Future work is proposed. The MIS structures are studied and some of the results are reported.

  1. TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes to develop and demonstrate a process for fabricating high-performance composite truss structures on-orbit and integrating them with thin film solar cell...

  2. Teaching Photovoltaic Array Modelling and Characterization Using a Graphical User Interface and a Flash Solar Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a set of laboratory tools aimed to support students with various backgrounds (no programming) to understand photovoltaic array modelling and characterization techniques. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Matlab, for modelling PV arrays and characterizing t...... the effect of different types of parameters and operating conditions, on the current-voltage and power-voltage curves. The GUI is supported by experimental investigation and validation on PV module level, with the help of an indoor flash solar simulator.......This paper presents a set of laboratory tools aimed to support students with various backgrounds (no programming) to understand photovoltaic array modelling and characterization techniques. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in Matlab, for modelling PV arrays and characterizing...

  3. Micro solar concentrators: Design and fabrication for microcells arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutteau, Sébastien; Paire, Myriam; Proise, Florian; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    In this work we look at a micro-concentrating system adapted to a new type of concentrator photovoltaic material, well known for flate-plate applications, Cu(In,Ga)Se2. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells are polycrystalline thin film devices that can be deposited by a variety of techniques. We proposed to use a microcell architecture [1], [2], with lateral dimensions varying from a few μm to hundreds of μm, to adapt the film cell to concentration conditions. A 5% absolute efficiency increase on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 microcells at 475 suns has been observed for a final efficiency of 21.3%[3]. We study micro-concentrating systems adapted to the low and middle concentration range, where thin film concentrator cells will lean to substrate fabrication simplification and cost savings. Our study includes optical design, fabrication and experimental tests of prototypes.

  4. The Murchison Widefield Array: solar science with the low frequency SKA Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, S. J.; Oberoi, D.; Cairns, I.; Donea, A.; Duffin, R.; Arcus, W.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Bunton, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A.; deSouza, L.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; R, Goeke; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Herne, D.; Hewitt, J. N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kennewell, J. A.; Kincaid, B. B.; Koenig, R.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Ord, S. M.; Pathikulangara, J.; Prabu, T.; Remillard, R. A.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Salah, J. E.; Sault, R. J.; Udaya-Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Stevens, J.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2013-06-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array is a low frequency (80 - 300 MHz) SKA Precursor, comprising 128 aperture array elements (known as tiles) distributed over an area of 3 km diameter. The MWA is located at the extraordinarily radio quiet Murchison Radioastronomy Observatory in the mid-west of Western Australia, the selected home for the Phase 1 and Phase 2 SKA low frequency arrays. The MWA science goals include: 1) detection of fluctuations in the brightness temperature of the diffuse redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionisation; 2) studies of Galactic and extragalactic processes based on deep, confusion-limited surveys of the full sky visible to the array; 3) time domain astrophysics through exploration of the variable radio sky; and 4) solar imaging and characterisation of the heliosphere and ionosphere via propagation effects on background radio source emission. This paper concentrates on the capabilities of the MWA for solar science and summarises some of the solar science results to date, in advance of the initial operation of the final instrument in 2013.

  5. Lightweight Innovative Solar Array (LISA): Providing Higher Power to Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John; Fabisinski, Leo; Russell,Tiffany; Smith, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is essential for all spacecraft and is a critical design driver for the next generation of smallsats, including cubesats, which are currently extremely power limited. The Lightweight Innovative Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to providing abundant power to large spacecraft in GEO and beyond. By using very thin, ultra-flexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume. The LISA array comprises a launch-stowed, orbit-deployed structure on which lightweight photovoltaic devices and, potentially, transceiver elements are embedded. The system will provide a 2.5 to 5 fold increase in specific power generation (Watts/kilogram) coupled with a >2x enhancement of stowed volume (Watts/cubic-meter) and a decrease in cost (dollars/Watt) when compared to state-of-the-art solar arrays.

  6. Aluminum oxide passivated radial junction sub-micrometre pillar array textured silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Elam, David; Ayon, Arturo A.

    2013-06-01

    We report radial, p-n junction, sub-micrometre, pillar array textured solar cells, fabricated on an n-type Czochralski silicon wafer. Relatively simple processing schemes such as metal-assisted chemical etching and spin on dopant techniques were employed for the fabrication of the proposed solar cells. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was employed as a surface passivation layer on the B-doped emitter surface. In spite of the fact that the sub-micrometre pillar array textured surface has a relatively high surface-to-volume ratio, we observed an open circuit voltage (VOC) and a short circuit current density (JSC) as high as 572 mV and 29.9 mA cm-2, respectively, which leads to a power conversion efficiency in excess of 11.30%, for the optimized structure of the solar cell described herein. Broadband omnidirectional antireflection effects along with the light trapping property of the sub-micrometre, pillar array textured surface and the excellent passivation quality of the ALD-grown Al2O3 on the B-doped emitter surface were responsible for the enhanced electrical performance of the proposed solar cells.

  7. Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.

  8. Design of a GaAs/Ge Solar Array for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

  9. The Abacus/Reflector and Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator: Concepts for Space Solar Power Collection and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John; Gerry, Mark; Perkinson, Don

    2000-01-01

    New energy sources are vital for the development of emerging nations, and the growth of industry in developed economies. Also vital is the need for these energy sources to be clean and renewable. For the past several years, NASA has been taking a new look at collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it to Earth, to planetary surfaces, and to orbiting spacecraft. Several innovative concepts are being studied for the space segment component of solar power beaming. One is the Abacus/Reflector, a large sun-oriented array structure fixed to the transmitter, and a rotating RF reflector that tracks a receiving rectenna on Earth. This concept eliminates the need for power-conducting slip rings in rotating joints between the solar collectors and the transmitter. Another concept is the Integrated Symmetrical Concentrator (ISC), composed of two very large segmented reflectors which rotate to collect and reflect the incident sunlight onto two centrally-located photovoltaic arrays. Adjacent to the PV arrays is the RF transmitter, which as a unit track the receiving rectenna, again eliminating power-conducting joints, and in addition reducing the cable lengths between the arrays and transmitter. The metering structure to maintain the position of the reflectors is a long mast, oriented perpendicular to the equatorial orbit plane. This paper presents a status of ongoing systems studies and configurations for the Abacus/Reflector and the ISC concepts, and a top-level study of packaging for launch and assembly.

  10. Integrated solar combined cycles using gas turbines with partial recuperation and solar integration at different pressure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Antonio; Sánchez, Consuelo; Fernández, Santiago; Muñoz, Marta; Barbero, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    This work studies and compares two alternatives to improve the solar-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency in integrated solar combined cycle power plants (ISCC), which are based on the use of combined cycles including partial recuperative gas turbines. Each alternative has been integrated into dual and triple pressure levels with reheat heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). Partial recuperation conveys lower heat recovery at the steam generator than in conventional plants, because each MW exchanged in the recuperator is not available at the HRSG. This thermal power decrease at the HRSG may be overcome by the integration of solar energy that is implemented using parabolic trough collectors. Moreover, with such an implementation each solar thermal MW integrated allows a MW of heat recuperation and, thus a MW of fossil fuel saving, thus the solar heat-to-electricity energy conversion rate may reach values up to 50 %, which makes the proposal interesting.

  11. Electrostatic Discharge Testing of Carbon Composite Solar Array Panels for Use in the Jovian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nelson W.; Dawson, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently considering a mission to investigate the moons of Jupiter. When designing a spacecraft for this type of mission, there are a number of engineering challenges, especially if the mission chooses to utilize solar arrays to provide the spacecraft power. In order for solar arrays to be feasible for the mission, their total mass needed to fit within the total budget for the mission, which strongly suggested the use of carbon composite facesheets on an aluminum core for the panel structure. While these composite structures are a good functional substitution for the metallic materials they replace, they present unique challenges when interacting with the harsh Jovian space environment. As a composite material, they are composed of more than one material and can show different base properties depending in differing conditions. Looking at the electrical properties, in an Earth-based environment the carbon component of the composite dominates the response of the material to external stimulus. Under these conditions, the structures strongly resembles a conductor. In the Jovian environment, with temperatures reaching 50K and under the bombardment from energetic electrons, the non-conducting pre-preg binding materials may come to the forefront and change the perceived response. Before selecting solar arrays as the baseline power source for a mission to Jupiter, the response of the carbon composites to energetic electrons while held at cryogenic temperatures needed to be determined. A series of tests were devised to exam the response of a sample solar array panel composed of an M55J carbon weave layup with an RS-3 pre-preg binder. Test coupons were fabricated and exposed to electrons ranging from 10 keV to 100 keV, at 1 nA/cm2, while being held at cryogenic temperatures. While under electron bombardment, electrical discharges were observed and recorded with the majority of discharges occurring with electron energies of 25 keV. A decrease in temperature to liquid

  12. Microcoil Spring Interconnects for Ceramic Grid Array Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, S. M.; Hester, J. D.; Gowan, A. K.; Montgomery, R. K.; Geist, D. L.; Blanche, J. F.; McGuire, G. D.; Nash, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    As integrated circuit miniaturization trends continue, they drive the need for smaller higher input/output (I/O) packages. Hermetically sealed ceramic area array parts are the package of choice by the space community for high reliability space flight electronic hardware. Unfortunately, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the ceramic area array package and the epoxy glass printed wiring board limits the life of the interconnecting solder joint. This work presents the results of an investigation by Marshall Space Flight Center into a method to increase the life of this second level interconnection by the use of compliant microcoil springs. The design of the spring and its attachment process are presented along with thermal cycling results of microcoil springs (MCS) compared with state-of-the-art ball and column interconnections. Vibration testing has been conducted on MCS and high lead column parts. Radio frequency simulation and measurements have been made and the MCS has been modeled and a stress analysis performed. Thermal cycling and vibration testing have shown MCS interconnects to be significantly more reliable than solder columns. Also, MCS interconnects are less prone to handling damage than solder columns. Future work that includes shock testing, incorporation into a digital signal processor board, and process evaluation of expansion from a 400 I/O device to a device with over 1,100 I/O is identified.

  13. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast...... the power output from PV and solar thermal collector systems. The first approach is based on a developed statistical clear-sky model, which is used for estimating the clear-sky output solely based on observations of the output. This enables local effects such as shading from trees to be taken into account....... The second approach to solar power forecasting is based on conditional parametric modelling. It is well suited for forecasting of solar thermal power, since is it can be make non-linear in the inputs. The approach is also extended to a probabilistic solar power forecasting model. The statistical clear...

  14. Design and spacecraft-integration of RTGs for solar probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, T.; Sankarankandath, V.

    1990-01-01

    The design, analysis, and spacecraft integration of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) to power the Solar Probe under study at NASA JPL is described. The mission of the Solar Probe is to explore the solar corona by performing in situ measurements at up to four solar radii to the sun. Design constraints for the RTG are discussed. The chief challenge in the design and system integration of the Solar Probe's RTG is a heat rejection problem. Two RTG orientations, horizontal and oblique, are analyzed for effectiveness and results are summarized in chart form. A number of cooling strategies are also investigated, including heat-pipe and reflector-cooled options. A methodology and general computer code are presented for analyzing the performance of arbitrarily obstructed RTGs with both axial and circumferential temperature, voltage, and current variation. This methodology is applied to the specific example of the Solar Probe RTG obstructed by a semicylindrical reflector of 15-inch radius.

  15. Recent progress in all-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingyao, E-mail: wangqingyao0532@163.com [Ludong University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Chen, Chao; Liu, Wei [Tongji University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Gao, Shanmin [Ludong University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Yang, Xiuchun, E-mail: yangxc@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    All-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells have been drawing great attention to solar energy conversion, which break through restrictions in traditional solar cells, such as the high recombination at interfaces of porous TiO{sub 2} films/sensitizers/hole conductors/counter electrodes, instability of dyes, and leakage of solution electrolyte, and so the novel solar cells exhibit promising applications in the future. In this Minireview article, the assembling of solar cells including the preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoanodes, quantum dot preparation and sensitization on photoanodes, filling of hole conductors in TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, and selection of counter electrodes are overviewed, and the development course of all-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells in recent years are summarized in detail. Moreover, the influences of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoanodes, quantum dots, solid electrolyte, and counter electrodes on photon-to-current efficiencies of solar cells are summarized. In addition, current problems of solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells are analyzed, and the corresponding improvements, such as multisensitizers and passivation layers, are proposed to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency. Finally, this Minireview provides a perspective for the future development of this novel solar cell.

  16. Array automated assembly task low cost silicon solar array project. Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Clayton

    1980-12-01

    The initial contract was a Phase II Process Development for a process sequence, but with concentration on two particular process steps: laserscribing and spray-on junction formation. The add-on portion of the contract was to further develop these tasks, to incorporate spray-on of AR Coating and aluminum and to study the application of microwave energy to solar cell fabrication. The overall process cost projection is 97.918 cents/Wp. The major contributor to this excess cost is the module encapsulation materials cost. During the span of this contract the study of microwave application to solar cell fabrication produced the ability to apply this technique to any requirement of 600/sup 0/C or less. Above this temperature, non-uniformity caused the processing to be unreliable. The process sequence is described in detail, and a SAMICS cost analysis for each valid process step studied is presented. A temporary catalog for expense items is included, and engineering specifications for the process steps are given. (WHK)

  17. An Integrated Approach to Modeling Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles During Long Duration, Near-Earth Orbit Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Sjauw, Waldy K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in utilizing solar electronic propulsion (SEP) technology to transfer payloads, e.g. from low-Earth orbit (LEO) to higher energy geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) or to Earth escape, has necessitated the development of high fidelity SEP vehicle models and simulations. These models and simulations need to be capable of capturing vehicle dynamics and sub-system interactions experienced during the transfer trajectories which are typically accomplished with continuous-burn (potentially interrupted by solar eclipse), long duration "spiral out" maneuvers taking several months or more to complete. This paper presents details of an integrated simulation approach achieved by combining a high fidelity vehicle simulation code with a detailed solar array model. The combined simulation tool gives researchers the functionality to study the integrated effects of various vehicle sub-systems (e.g. vehicle guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), electric propulsion system (EP)) with time varying power production. Results from a simulation model of a vehicle with a 50 kW class SEP system using the integrated tool are presented and compared to the results from another simulation model employing a 50 kW end-of-life (EOL) fixed power level assumption. These models simulate a vehicle under three degree of freedom dynamics (i.e. translational dynamics only) and include the effects of a targeting guidance algorithm (providing a "near optimal" transfer) during a LEO to near Earth escape (C (sub 3) = -2.0 km (sup 2) / sec (sup -2) spiral trajectory. The presented results include the impact of the fully integrated, time-varying solar array model (e.g. cumulative array degradation from traversing the Van Allen belts, impact of solar eclipses on the vehicle and the related temperature responses in the solar arrays due to operating in the Earth's thermal environment, high fidelity array power module, etc.); these are used to assess the impact on vehicle performance (i

  18. The applicability of DOE solar cell and array technology to space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Berman, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Current trends in terrestrial photovoltaics that might benefit future space power needs are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the Low-Cost Solar Array Project with attention given to the materials task, the silicon sheet task, the production processes and equipment task, and encapsulation. The Photovoltaic Concentrator Technology Development Project is also discussed. It is concluded that terrestrial photovoltaic technology that has either been developed to date or is currently under development will not have any significant effect on the performance or cost of solar cells and panels for space over the near term (1980-1990).

  19. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  20. Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreitmueller, K. R.

    1982-11-01

    Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

  1. Solarbus Solar Array Innovative Light Weight Mechanical Architecture with Thin Lateral Panels Deployed with Shape Memory Alloy Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrigeon, Laurent; Carpine, Anne; Laduree, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The standard ALCATEL SOLAR ARRAY PLANAR CONCEPT on the TELECOM market today on flight is named SOLARBUS.This concept is:• 3 to 10 identical panels covered with Si Hi-η celltechnology.• A central mast constitute by 3 to 4 panels and 1yoke linked together by hinges and synchronizedby cables.• From 2 to 6 lateral panelsThis concept is able to fit with the customer requirements in order to have a competitive "global offer at system level" (mass to power ratio 48-50 W/Kg)But, for the near future, in line with the market trend, and based on the previous experience, an improvement of the SOLARBUS Solar Array concept in term of W/kg/€ is essential in order to maintain the competitiveness of the global ALCATEL offer at system level.In order to increase the W/Kg performance Alcatel has developed a new architecture named Lightweight Panel Structure (LPS). The objectives of this new structure are :• To decrease the kg/m2 ratio • To be compatible of all promising cells technology including Si Hi-n, GaAs, GaAs+ small reflectors. This new architecture is based on the fact that during the 3 major life phases of a Solar Array (Launch/Deployment/Deployed orbital life), the structural needs are more important for the central panels than for the lateral panels.So two different panels have been designed :• Central panels (named LPS1)• Lateral panels (named LPS2)The stowing configuration as been adapted : 2 thin lateral panels LPS2 between 2 structural central panels LPS1, and local bumpers to transfer the loads from LPS2 to LPS1.Also one of the more stringent loads applied to the panels are corresponding to deployment loads. In order to limit the mass of reinforcement of the panels, a deployment speed regulator shall be used. In the frame of the new generation of solar arrays, Alcatel has developed a new actuator based on shape memory alloy torsional rod. This light weight component is directly connected to heaters lines and is able to provide great actuation torque

  2. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  3. Singular formalism and admissible control of spacecraft with rotating flexible solar array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Dongning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the attitude control of a three-axis-stabilized spacecraft which consists of a central rigid body and a flexible sun-tracking solar array driven by a solar array drive assembly. Based on the linearization of the dynamics of the spacecraft and the modal identities about the flexible and rigid coupling matrices, the spacecraft attitude dynamics is reduced to a formally singular system with periodically varying parameters, which is quite different from a spacecraft with fixed appendages. In the framework of the singular control theory, the regularity and impulse-freeness of the singular system is analyzed and then admissible attitude controllers are designed by Lyapunov’s method. To improve the robustness against system uncertainties, an H∞ optimal control is designed by optimizing the H∞ norm of the system transfer function matrix. Comparative numerical experiments are performed to verify the theoretical results.

  4. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  5. NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, LEO Spacecraft Solar Array Charging Design Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    Two new NASA Standards are now official. They are the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (NASA-STD-4005) and the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook (NASA-HDBK-4006). They give the background and techniques for controlling solar array-induced charging and arcing in LEO. In this paper, a brief overview of the new standards is given, along with where they can be obtained and who should be using them.

  6. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  7. Anti-reflective microstructure array and its performance evaluation in thin film flexible solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhan, Xinghua; Gao, Mengyu; Tie, Shengnian; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    The anti-reflective (AR) structure greatly reduces the light reflection. When it is applied on solar cells, it enables more light to be absorbed by the cells, increasing the energy of the incident light and improving the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. In this study, the optical properties of AR microstructures are investigated followed by the performance evaluation of solar cells. The AR microstructure is arrayed in a uniform and periodic fashion. When it is applied on PMMA, only 1.0% of the light is reflected away while 2.6% of the light is reflected on glass. The angular dependence performance is also improved with AR structure with 9.4% more light absorption, which can increase the effective energy generation duration for the solar cell. The AR structure is applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells by nano-imprinting technology. The solar cell with AR structure gained 8.63% more power compared to the conventional solar cells.

  8. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. -M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, J. [RePPAE; Lefton, S. A. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Agan, D. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  9. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  10. A dynamical approach in exploring the unknown mass in the Solar system using pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. J.; Lee, K. J.; Caballero, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The error in the Solar system ephemeris will lead to dipolar correlations in the residuals of pulsar timing array for widely separated pulsars. In this paper, we utilize such correlated signals, and construct a Bayesian data-analysis framework to detect the unknown mass in the Solar system and to measure the orbital parameters. The algorithm is designed to calculate the waveform of the induced pulsar-timing residuals due to the unmodelled objects following the Keplerian orbits in the Solar system. The algorithm incorporates a Bayesian-analysis suit used to simultaneously analyse the pulsar-timing data of multiple pulsars to search for coherent waveforms, evaluate the detection significance of unknown objects, and to measure their parameters. When the object is not detectable, our algorithm can be used to place upper limits on the mass. The algorithm is verified using simulated data sets, and cross-checked with analytical calculations. We also investigate the capability of future pulsar-timing-array experiments in detecting the unknown objects. We expect that the future pulsar-timing data can limit the unknown massive objects in the Solar system to be lighter than 10-11-10-12 M⊙, or measure the mass of Jovian system to a fractional precision of 10-8-10-9.

  11. Optical simulations of P3HT/Si nanowire array hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Li, Xinhua; Wen, Long; Zhao, Yufeng; Duan, Huahua; Zhou, Bukang; Shi, Tongfei; Zeng, Xuesong; Li, Ning; Wang, Yuqi

    2014-01-01

    An optical simulation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/Si nanowire array (NWA) hybrid solar cells was investigated to evaluate the optical design requirements of the system by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Steady improvement of light absorption was obtained with increased P3HT coating shell thickness from 0 to 80 nm on Si NWA. Further increasing the thickness caused dramatic decrease of the light absorption. Combined with the analysis of ultimate photocurrents, an optimum geometric structure with a coating P3HT thickness of 80 nm was proposed. At this structure, the hybrid solar cells show the most efficient light absorption. The optimization of the geometric structure and further understanding of the optical characteristics may contribute to the development for the practical experiment of the promising hybrid solar cells.

  12. Solar coolfacades : Framework for the integration of solar cooling technologies in the building envelope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto Hoces, A.I.; Knaack, U.; Auer, Thomas; Klein, T.

    2017-01-01

    Solar cooling systems have gained increased attention these last years, for its potential to lower indoor temperatures using renewable energy. However, architectural integration of these systems in buildings has not been fully explored. Current developments such as small scale solar driven heat

  13. Development of compact integral field unit for spaceborne solar spectro-polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Koyama, M.; Sukegawa, T.; Enokida, Y.; Saito, K.; Okura, Y.; Nakayasu, T.; Ozaki, S.; Tsuneta, S.

    2017-11-01

    A 1.5-m class aperture Solar Ultra-violet Visible and IR telescope (SUVIT) and its instruments for the Japanese next space solar mission SOLAR-C [1] are under study to obtain critical physical parameters in the lower solar atmosphere. For the precise magnetic field measurements covering field-of-view of 3 arcmin x3 acmin, a full stokes polarimetry at three magnetic sensitive lines in wavelength range of 525 nm to 1083 nm with a four-slit spectrograph of two dinesional image scanning mechanism is proposed: one is a true slit and the other three are pseudo-slits from integral field unit (IFU). To suit this configuration, besides a fiber bundle IFU, a compact mirror slicer IFU is designed and being developed. Integral field spectroscopy (IFS), which is realized with IFU, is a two dimensional spectroscopy, providing spectra simultaneously for each spatial direction of an extended two-dimensional field. The scientific advantages of the IFS for studies of localized and transient solar surface phenomena are obvious. There are in general three methods [2][3] to realize the IFS depending on image slicing devices such as a micro-lenslet array, an optical fiber bundle and a narrow rectangular image slicer array. So far, there exist many applications of the IFS for ground-based astronomical observations [4]. Regarding solar instrumentations, the IFS of micro-lenslet array was done by Suematsu et al. [5], the IFS of densely packed rectangular fiber bundle with thin clads was realized [6] and being developed for 4-m aperture solar telescope DKIST by Lin [7] and being considered for space solar telescope SOLAR-C by Katsukawa et al. [8], and the IFS with mirror slicer array was presented by Ren et al. [9] and under study for up-coming large-aperture solar telescope in Europe by Calcines et al. [10] From the view point of a high efficiency spectroscopy, a wide wavelength coverage, a precision spectropolarimetry and space application, the image slicer consisting of all reflective

  14. Detection of very long period solar free oscillations in ambient seismic array noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, R.; Pavlis, G. L.; Thomson, D. J.; Vernon, F.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly two decades long-period seismologists have been aware that the Earth's free oscillations are in a constant state of excitement, even in the absence of large earthquakes. This phenomenon is now called the "Earth's hum," and much research has been done to determine what generates this hum. Here we examine a hypothesis first put forward by Thomson et al. in 2007 that a portion of the hum's energy comes from the sun. They hypothesized that solar free oscillations couple into the solid Earth, likely through electromagnetic processes, and produce signals that are observable in the frequency domain. If this is true, then at least some measurement of helioseismic oscillations may be possible using relatively cheap, ground-based instruments rather than spacecraft. In this project we attempt to improve upon previous studies by producing spectra from seismic arrays, rather than a single station. We use data from two arrays: The Homestake Mine 3D array in Lead, SD, and the Pinyon Flats array, which has seismometers in boreholes drilled into bedrock. Both have exceptionally low noise levels at ultra long periods and show easily visible earth tides on horizontal component data filtered to below the microseism band. In the Homestake data, below 500 μHz we have found evidence of what we suggest may be closely spaced solar g-mode lines. Such modes are produced by a density inversion at the top of the solar core. There is no sign of these modes in the Pinyon Flats data, but we find this is likely due to the signal-to-noise ratio of those data, which is significantly lower than Homestake. Significance tests of bands below 500 μHz indicate with probability levels as high as 40σ that these lines are not the result of random processes. Critical examination of our processing steps for sources of bias indicate that the observed line structure is not a processing artifact.

  15. Microfluidic valve array control system integrating a fluid demultiplexer circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Kentaro; Shoji, Shuichi; Arima, Kenta; Morita, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient control method for the large-scale integration of microvalves in microfluidic systems. The proposed method can control 2 n individual microvalves with 2n + 2 control lines (where n is an integer). The on-chip valves are closed by applying pressure to a control line, similar to conventional pneumatic microvalves. Another control line closes gate valves between the control line to the on-chip valves and the on-chip valves themselves, to preserve the state of the on-chip valves. The remaining control lines select an activated gate valve. While the addressed gate valve is selected by the other control lines, the corresponding on-chip valve is actuated by applying input pressure to the control line to the on-chip valves. Using this method would substantially reduce the number of world-to-chip connectors and off-chip valve controllers. Experiments conducted using a fabricated 2 8 microvalve array device, comprising 256 individual on-chip valves controlled with 18 (2   ×   8 + 2) control lines, yielded switching speeds for the selected on-chip valve under 90 ms. (paper)

  16. Design structure for in-system redundant array repair in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Quellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-11-25

    A design structure for repairing an integrated circuit during operation of the integrated circuit. The integrated circuit comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The design structure provides the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The design structure further passes the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  17. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  18. Optimizing the size of a solar cell array; Optimiser la taille d'un panneau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, J. [Linear Technology, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2006-06-15

    The electronic power conversion system is a strategic part of solar power supply systems. An ideal diode controller combined to a compensated switching regulator allows to optimize the operation of the battery and to optimize the dimensioning of the solar cells array. The ideal diode controller limits the discharge of the battery inside the non-exposed solar cells and limits the related direct voltage drop and loss of power. The switching regulator charger lowers the solar cells voltage to charge the battery and ensures the optimum operation of the solar elements. (J.S.)

  19. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  20. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  1. The Use, Evolution and Lessons Learnt of Deployable Static Solar Array Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Mark; Haslehurst, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the mechanisms incorporated into SSTL's static deployable arrays; namely the sprung-hinges and hold down and release mechanism (HDRM). Combined, the HDRM and hinges form the hold down release system (HDRS). The deployable static solar array HDRS has been successfully used on several missions, first launched upon the DMC-CFESAT spacecraft in 2007 for a U.S. customer (Figure 1), and later used on DMC-UK2 and EXACTVIEW-1 launched in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The simple, robust and low-cost solution HDRS has been evident in allowing missions to satisfy an ever increasing power demand, allowing the solar arrays to increase in size and have a preferable sun angle for increased cell efficiency. The system is now being employed on the first mission out of SSTL's U.S. office (SST-US) on the Orbital Test Bed platform. This paper shall cover details of the original design and development program, problems incurred on latter missions, and evolution of the HDRS for the present Orbital Test Bed mission. Both the original development and recent evolutions have taken place in rapid timescales, to satisfy the high-turnaround of SSTL missions.

  2. Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otnes, Gaute; Barrigón, Enrique; Sundvall, Christian; Svensson, K Erik; Heurlin, Magnus; Siefer, Gerald; Samuelson, Lars; Åberg, Ingvar; Borgström, Magnus T

    2018-04-27

    III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

  3. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  4. Fixed Nadir Focus Concentrated Solar Power Applying Reflective Array Tracking Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; DAMayanti, A. M.; Murdani, A.; Habibi, I. I. A.; Wakidah, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The Sun is one of the most potential renewable energy develoPMent to be utilized, one of its utilization is for solar thermal concentrators, CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). In CSP energy conversion, the concentrator is as moving the object by tracking the sunlight to reach the focus point. This method need quite energy consumption, because the unit of the concentrators has considerable weight, and use large CSP, means the existence of the usage unit will appear to be wider and heavier. The addition of weight and width of the unit will increase the torque to drive the concentrator and hold the wind gusts. One method to reduce energy consumption is direct the sunlight by the reflective array to nadir through CSP with Reflective Fresnel Lens concentrator. The focus will be below the nadir direction, and the position of concentrator will be fixed position even the angle of the sun’s elevation changes from morning to afternoon. So, the energy concentrated maximally, because it has been protected from wind gusts. And then, the possibility of dAMage and changes in focus construction will not occur. The research study and simulation of the reflective array (mechanical method) will show the reflective angle movement. The distance between reflectors and their angle are controlled by mechatronics. From the simulation using fresnel 1m2, and efficiency of solar energy is 60.88%. In restriction, the intensity of sunlight at the tropical circles 1KW/peak, from 6 AM until 6 PM.

  5. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  6. Maskless beam pen lithography based on integrated microlens array and spatial-filter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Nazmul; Dinh, Duc-Hanh; Chien, Hung-Liang; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2017-11-01

    A beam pen lithography system is proposed for ultraviolet (UV) patterning of complicated patterns in a maskless manner. The system consists of a single UV light-emitting diode (LED), a double-sided microlens/spatial-filter array (MLSFA), and a motorized x-y stage. The double-sided MLSFA contains a pinhole array sandwiched by two microlens arrays. The microlens arrays are fabricated by an excimer laser micromachining system to achieve accurate and optimized lens profiles obtained from optical simulation. Techniques have been developed in the fabrication processes to guarantee good alignment between the pinhole array and the two microlens arrays. Finally, arrayed UV spots are formed with feature size around 4 to 5 μm. Through mechanical movement of stage and intensity control on the UV LED, a number of complicated patterns are experimentally demonstrated using this type of beam pen lithography. It offers a simple, inexpensive, and portable choice on maskless UV patterning with great potential for future applications.

  7. Highly integrated synthesis of heterogeneous nanostructures on nanowire heater array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chun Yan; Yun, Jeonghoon; Kim, Jung; Yang, Daejong; Kim, Dong Hwan; Ahn, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Kwang-Cheol; Park, Inkyu

    2014-11-06

    We have proposed a new method for the multiplexed synthesis of heterogeneous nanostructures using a top-down fabricated nanowire heater array. Hydrothermally synthesized nanostructures can be grown only on the heated nanowire through nanoscale temperature control using a Joule heated nanowire. We have demonstrated the selective synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures, as well as their surface modification with noble metal nanoparticles, using a nanowire heater array. Furthermore, we could fabricate an array of heterogeneous nanostructures via Joule heating of individual nanowire heaters and changing of the precursor solutions in a sequential manner. We have formed a parallel array of palladium (Pd) coated ZnO nanowires and gold (Au) coated ZnO nanowires, as well as a parallel array of ZnO nanowires and CuO nanospikes, in the microscale region by using the developed method.

  8. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  9. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  10. Integration of Antibody Array Technology into Drug Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Whittaker, Kelly; Zhang, Huihua; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Si-Wei; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    Antibody arrays represent a high-throughput technique that enables the parallel detection of multiple proteins with minimal sample volume requirements. In recent years, antibody arrays have been widely used to identify new biomarkers for disease diagnosis or prognosis. Moreover, many academic research laboratories and commercial biotechnology companies are starting to apply antibody arrays in the field of drug discovery. In this review, some technical aspects of antibody array development and the various platforms currently available will be addressed; however, the main focus will be on the discussion of antibody array technologies and their applications in drug discovery. Aspects of the drug discovery process, including target identification, mechanisms of drug resistance, molecular mechanisms of drug action, drug side effects, and the application in clinical trials and in managing patient care, which have been investigated using antibody arrays in recent literature will be examined and the relevance of this technology in progressing this process will be discussed. Protein profiling with antibody array technology, in addition to other applications, has emerged as a successful, novel approach for drug discovery because of the well-known importance of proteins in cell events and disease development.

  11. Multiple Solutions for Reconfiguration to Address Partial Shading Losses in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikesh; Pareek, Smita; Chaturvedi, Nitin; Dahiya, Ratna

    2018-03-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems are steadily rising and considered as the best alternatives to meet the rising demand of energy. In developing countries like India, SPV’s contribution being a clean energy is the most favourable. However, experiences have shown that produced power of these systems is usually affected due to day, night, seasonal variations, insolation, partial shading conditions etc. Among these parameters, partial shading causes a huge reduction in output power of PV systems. This results in lack of confidence for this technology among users. Thus, it is important and a major challenge in PV systems to minimize the effect of partial shading on their energy production. The work in this paper aims to propose solutions for reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays in order to reduce partial shading losses and thus to enhance power generation.

  12. Protection of solar array blankets from attack by low earth orbital atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Nahra, Henry K.

    1985-01-01

    The ram impact of low earth orbital atomic oxygen causes oxidation of spacecraft materials including polymers such as polyimides. The rate of oxidation is sufficiently high to potentially compromise the long term durability of Kapton solar array blankets. Ion beam sputter deposited atomic oxygen protective coatings of aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and codeposited silicon dioxide with small amounts of polytetrafluoroethylene were evaluated both in RF plasma asher tests and in low earth orbit. Deposition techniques, mechanical properties, and atomic oxygen protection performance are presented.

  13. Characterization of a Ga-assisted GaAs nanowire array solar cell on si substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; Wood, B.

    2016-01-01

    A single-junction core-shell GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cell on Si (1 1 1) substrates is presented. A Ga-assisted vapor–liquid–solid growth mechanism was used for the formation of a patterned array of radial p-i-n GaAs NWs encapsulated in AlInP passivation. Novel device fabrication utilizing facet......-dependent properties to minimize passivation layer removal for electrical contacting is demonstrated. Thorough electrical characterization and analysis of the cell is reported. The electrostatic potential distribution across the radial p-i-n junction GaAs NW is investigated by off-axis electron holography....

  14. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  15. Optimizing of solar chimney performance using electrohydrodynamic system based on array geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamchi, Mehrdad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ghalamchi, Mehran; Fadaei, Niloufar; Daneshazarian, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different electrohydrodynamic layouts are applied in the solar chimney pilot. • Effective parameters of electrohydrodynamic is represented in every layout. • The air velocity and heat transfer were increased outstandingly. • The temperature distribution in the absorber surface and the fluid is investigated. • The performance and the efficiency of the solar chimney pilot are increased. - Abstract: The effect of the electrohydrodynamic system with various electrode layouts on a solar chimney pilot is investigated experimentally. A pilot setup was constructed which consisted of a chimney with 3 m height and 3 m collector diameter. The purpose of this research was to enhance the solar chimney performance with the electrohydrodynamic system for the parallel, radial, and symmetric layouts. By using of corona wind, the outlet fluid temperature is increased, and the outlet absorber is decreased. For the three layouts, the most growth in the outlet fluid temperature is 14 °C, which is observed in the parallel layout. Also, in the parallel array, the most outlet absorber temperature drop is 7 °C. The results show that parallel layout with six electrodes and 3 cm spacing between the electrodes has the best performance. Also, various hours of the day are studied and the best time for turning on the electrohydrodynamic system is 1:00 p.m. The electrohydrodynamic system makes an increase in the fluid velocity from 1.7 to 2.3 m s −1 , and this growth improves the performance about 28%.

  16. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  17. Integrated marketing communications at solar energy equipment market

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Litovchenko; I.A. Shkurupskaya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the development of the concept of «integrated marketing communications», as well as its adaptation to a specific market of solar energy equipment. The theoretical development of foreign and domestic scholars in the field of IMC is considered. The aim of the article is to define the concept of «integrated marketing communications» and use them in the market of solar еnergy equipment in an information economy. The author's definition of the c...

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel integrated solar combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ISCC scheme with two-stage DSG fields has been proposed and analyzed. • HRSG and steam turbine working parameters have been optimized to match the solar integration. • New scheme exhibits higher solar shares in the power output and solar-to-electricity efficiency. • Thermodynamic performances between new and reference systems have been investigated and compared. - Abstract: Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems have become more and more popular due to their high fuel and solar energy utilization efficiencies. Conventional ISCC systems with direct steam generation (DSG) have only one-stage solar input. A novel ISCC with DSG system has been proposed and analyzed in this paper. The new system consists two-stage solar input, which would significantly increase solar share in the total power output. Moreover, how and where solar energy is input into ISCC system would have impact on the solar and system overall efficiencies, which have been analyzed in the paper. It has been found that using solar heat to supply latent heat for vaporization of feedwater would be superior to that to be used for sensible heating purposes (e.g. Superheating steam). The study shows that: (1) producing both the high- and low-pressure saturated steam in the DSG trough collector could be an efficient way to improve process and system performance; (2) for a given live steam pressure, the optimum secondary and reheat steam conditions could be matched to reach the highest system thermal efficiency and net solar-to-electricity efficiency; (3) the net solar-to-electricity efficiency could reach up to 30% in the novel two-stage ISCC system, higher than that in the one-stage ISCC power plant; (4) compared with the conventional combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power system, lower stack temperature could be achieved, owing to the elimination of the approach-temperature-difference constraint, resulting in better thermal match in the heat recovery steam generator

  19. Row-Column Addressed 2-D CMUT Arrays with Integrated Apodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results from row-column addressed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with integrated apodization are presented. The apodization is applied by varying the density of CMUT cells in the array with the objective of damping the edge waves originating from the element...... ends. Two row-column addressed 32+32 CMUT arrays are produced using a wafer-bonding technique, one with and one without integrated apodization. Hydrophone measurements of the emitted pressure field from the array with integrated apodization show a reduction in edge wave energy of 8.4 dB (85 %) compared...

  20. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume 1: An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A quick reference for obtaining estimates of available solar insolation for numerous locations and array angles is presented. A model and a computer program are provided which considered the effects of array shadowing reflector augmentation as design variables.

  1. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A [Croton-on-Hudson, NY; Crumley, Paul G [Yorktown Heights, NY; Dombrowa, Marc B [Bronx, NY; Douskey, Steven M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Oakland, Steven F [Colchester, VT; Ouellette, Michael R [Westford, VT; Strissel, Scott A [Byron, MN

    2008-07-08

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  2. One-Dimensional Self-Standing TiO2Nanotube Array Layers Designed for Perovskite Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Pauporté, Thierry

    2015-08-03

    Nanotube (NT) layers of TiO 2 are important one-dimensional nanostructures for advanced applications. ZnO nanowire arrays prepared through electrochemical deposition with tuned morphological properties are converted into anatase TiO 2 NTs by using a titanate solution adjusted to an ad hoc pH. The tubes are polycrystalline and their diameter and length can be tuned to obtain nanostructures of tailored dimensions. The layers are integrated in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Their morphology is optimized for maximum performance and is compared to mesoscopic TiO 2 PSCs. As compared to the latter, the use of NTs improved the perovskite absorbance in the green-to-near-infrared solar spectral region. Moreover, it is shown that the surface treatment of the TiO 2 NTs with TiCl 4 optimizes the interface between the oxide and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , which leads to better charge injection between the perovskite layer and the TiO 2 NTs. The current density-voltage curve hysteresis index is low for the best NT morphology and significantly increases with tube length and diameter. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Building integration of concentrating solar systems for heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsou, Sapfo; Infante Ferreira, Carlos; Krieg, Jan; Ezzahiri, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A new solar collection system integrated on the façade of a building is investigated for Dutch climate conditions. The solar collection system includes a solar façade, a receiver tube and 10 Fresnel lenses. The Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses considered were linear, non-imaging, line – focused with a system tracking the position of the sun that ensures vertical incidence of the direct solar radiation on the lenses. For the heating system a double-effect absorption heat pump, which requires high temperature of the heating fluid, was used, working with water and lithium-bromide as refrigerant and solution respectively. The Fresnel lens system is connected with the absorption heat pump through a thermal energy storage tank which accumulates the heat from the Fresnel lens system to provide it to the high pressure generator of the absorption heat pump. - Highlights: • The integration of Fresnel lenses in solar thermal building façades is investigated. • Using building integrated Fresnel lenses, 43% heating energy can be saved. • Energy savings in Mediterranean countries are significantly larger. • The absorption heat pump could make great contribution to energy savings for Dutch climate conditions

  4. Basic properties and application of shape memory polymer composite to deployable hinge for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2007-07-01

    This paper is concerned about the basic properties of deployment of shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) and its application to deployable hinge for solar arrays. Shape memory polymer (SMP) used in this study is a thermoset styrene-based shape memory resin in contrast to normal thermoplastic SMPs. Carbon fiber fabric reinforced SMPC is discussed here. In order to investigate the basic performances of deployment for SMPC hinge, the experimental methods are used as follows: dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), three point bending test and deployment tests. Results indicate that the glass transition temperature (T g) of SMPC is approximate 63°C. SMPC shows typical linear elasticity and high bending modulus before glass transition in SMP, while exhibits apparent nonlinear viscoelasticity and low bending modulus within the range of glass transition in SMP. The shape recovery ratio of SMPC is above 90% at/above T g, while drops sharply at below T g. The deployment properties of SMPC depend strongly on the number of thermomechanical cycles, which become relatively stable after some packaging/deployment cycles. Moreover, deployment velocity and shape recovery ratio rise remarkably with the increase of temperature of SMPC. In the end, a prototype of solar array actuated by SMPC hinge, which is heated by passing an electrical current, deploys from about 180° to 0° in one minute. This SMPC hinge performs good deployment performances during numerous thermomechanical cycles.

  5. Boost Converter Fed High Performance BLDC Drive for Solar PV Array Powered Air Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the utilization of a DC-DC boost converter as a mediator between a Solar Photovoltaic (SPV array and the Voltage Source Inverters (VSI in an SPV array powered air cooling system to attain maximum efficiency. The boost converter, over the various common DC-DC converters, offers many advantages in SPV based applications. Further, two Brushless DC (BLDC motors are employed in the proposed air cooling system: one to run the centrifugal water pump and the other to run a fan-blower. Employing a BLDC motor is found to be the best option because of its top efficiency, supreme reliability and better performance over a wide range of speeds. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink environment considering the steady state variation in the solar irradiance. Further, the efficiency of BLDC drive system is compared with a conventional Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor drive system and from the simulated results it is found that the proposed system performs better.

  6. Analytical Kinematics and Coupled Vibrations Analysis of Mechanical System Operated by Solar Array Drive Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M.; Wei, C.; Jalali, A.; Sattar, R.

    2017-07-01

    To address the impact of solar array (SA) anomalies and vibrations on performance of precision space-based operations, it is important to complete its accurate jitter analysis. This work provides mathematical modelling scheme to approximate kinematics and coupled micro disturbance dynamics of rigid load supported and operated by solar array drive assembly (SADA). SADA employed in analysis provides a step wave excitation torque to activate the system. Analytical investigations into kinematics is accomplished by using generalized linear and Euler angle coordinates, applying multi-body dynamics concepts and transformations principles. Theoretical model is extended, to develop equations of motion (EoM), through energy method (Lagrange equation). The main emphasis is to research coupled frequency response by determining energies dissipated and observing dynamic behaviour of internal vibratory systems of SADA. The disturbance model captures discrete active harmonics of SADA, natural modes and vibration amplifications caused by interactions between active harmonics and structural modes of mechanical assembly. The proposed methodology can help to predict true micro disturbance nature of SADA operating rigid load. Moreover, performance outputs may be compared against actual mission requirements to assess precise spacecraft controller design to meet next space generation stringent accuracy goals.

  7. Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array: Providing a Flexible, Efficient Solution to Space Power Systems for Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Len; Fabisinski, Leo; Cunningham, Karen; Justice, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and convenient access to electrical power is critical to consumers, spacecraft, military and other applications alike. In the aerospace industry, an increased emphasis on small satellite flights and a move toward CubeSat and NanoSat technologies, the need for systems that could package into a small stowage volume while still being able to power robust space missions has become more critical. As a result, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office identified a need for more efficient, affordable, and smaller space power systems to trade in performing design and feasibility studies. The Lightweight Inflatable Solar Array (LISA), a concept designed, prototyped, and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama provides an affordable, lightweight, scalable, and easily manufactured approach for power generation in space or on Earth. This flexible technology has many wide-ranging applications from serving small satellites to soldiers in the field. By using very thin, ultraflexible solar arrays adhered to an inflatable structure, a large area (and thus large amount of power) can be folded and packaged into a relatively small volume (shown in artist rendering in Figure 1 below). The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the progress to date on the LISA project as well as a look at its potential, with continued development, to revolutionize small spacecraft and portable terrestrial power systems.

  8. Assessment of integrated solar ultraviolet radiation by PM-355 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2000-01-01

    The increase in environmental solar UV radiation due to depletion of ozone layer is a recent challenge to human health (skin cancer and eye effects) in countries having clear skies. Therefore, applying integrated, passive and inexpensive techniques to assess solar UV radiation is very much essential. Measurements of environmental solar UV radiation in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia area were carried out for a period of two months in the summer period in 1996 using two techniques in parallel namely: passive nuclear track detectors and active solar UV radiometers. Some of the nuclear track detectors were mounted in different conditions such as: under shadow band, on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays. Others were mounted on perpendicular, tilted and horizontal surfaces in sunlight. All detectors were attached to a wooden background of the same thickness (0.5 cm) to eliminate interference of the heat effect of various support materials and have uniformity of the support materials. The assessment was carried out for different periods extending from two to nine weeks continuously. The investigated period covered the hottest months in Saudi Arabia (July and August) when the sky was clear of clouds. The results indicate linear correlation between alpha track diameters and the integrated exposure to solar UV as measured by the solar UV radiometer for all nuclear track detector positions and orientations. The highest slope has been observed for the detectors placed on solar tracking mechanism following the solar rays and the lowest from detectors oriented under the shadow band on horizontal position (measuring the diffused UV radiation only). The results show that most of the measured UV radiation (60%) were from the diffused UV radiation. The characteristics of the upper layer of the detectors are changed after chemical etching very quickly, with increase in the exposure time to UV solar radiation at certain orientation. The results encourage the use of nuclear track

  9. The kilopixel array pathfinder project (KAPPa), a 16-pixel integrated heterodyne focal plane array: characterization of the single pixel prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Groppi, Christopher E.; Mani, Hamdi; McGarey, Patrick; Kuenzi, Linda; Weinreb, Sander; Russell, Damon S.; Kooi, Jacob W.; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Walker, Christopher K.; Kulesa, Craig

    2014-07-01

    We report on the laboratory testing of KAPPa, a 16-pixel proof-of-concept array to enable the creation THz imaging spectrometer with ~1000 pixels. Creating an array an order of magnitude larger than the existing state of the art of 64 pixels requires a simple and robust design as well as improvements to mixer selection, testing, and assembly. Our testing employs a single pixel test bench where a novel 2D array architecture is tested. The minimum size of the footprint is dictated by the diameter of the drilled feedhorn aperture. In the adjoining detector block, a 6mm × 6mm footprint houses the SIS mixer, LNA, matching and bias networks, and permanent magnet. We present an initial characterization of the single pixel prototype using a computer controlled test bench to determine Y-factors for a parameter space of LO power, LO frequency, IF bandwidth, magnet field strength, and SIS bias voltage. To reduce the need to replace poorly preforming pixels that are already mounted in a large format array, we show techniques to improve SIS mixer selection prior to mounting in the detector block. The 2D integrated 16-pixel array design has been evolved as we investigate the properties of the single pixel prototype. Carful design of the prototype has allowed for rapid translation of single pixel design improvements to be easily incorporated into the 16-pixel model.

  10. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  11. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  12. Design considerations for large roof-integrated photovoltaic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, M.E.; Begovic, M.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Long, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States). Office of Facilities

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes calculations and modeling used in the design of the photovoltaic (PV) array built on the roof of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center, the aquatic sports venue for the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The software package PVFORM (version 3.3) was extensively utilized; because of its importance to this work, it is thoroughly reviewed here. Procedures required to adapt PVFORM to this particular installation are described. The expected behavior and performance of the system, including maximum power output, annual energy output and maximum expected temperature, are then presented, and the use of this information in making informed design decisions is described. Finally, since the orientation of the PV array is not optimal, the effect of the unoptimized array orientation on the system`s performance is quantified. (author)

  13. Highly Integrated, Reconfigurable, Large-Area, Flexible Radar Antenna Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Highly-integrated, reconfigurable radar antenna arrays fabricated on flexible substrates offer high functionality in a portable package that can be rolled up and...

  14. Solar Energy Delivering Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Holterman, H.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this investigation is the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high

  15. A Guided Ultrasonic Waves Array for Structural Integrity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Lowe, M.; Cawley, P.

    2005-04-01

    Constant, long-term monitoring of large plate-like structures, e.g., oil storage tanks, can be performed using permanently attached remote sensors. A guided ultrasonic waves array, consisting of piezoelectric transducer elements for the excitation and reception of the first antisymmetric Lamb wave mode A0, has been designed and built. Laboratory measurements for a steel plate containing various defects have been performed. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and the sensitivity of the array device for defect detection is ascertained.

  16. Generation of substrate-free III–V nanodisks from user-defined multilayer nanopillar arrays for integration on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naureen, S; Shahid, N; Dev, A; Anand, S

    2013-01-01

    High material quality InP-based multilayer nanopillar (NP) arrays are fabricated using a combination of self-assembly of silica particles for mask generation and dry etching. In particular, the NP arrays are made from user-defined epitaxial multilayer stacks with specific materials and layer thicknesses. An additional degree of flexibility in the structures is obtained by changing the lateral diameters of the NP multilayer stacks. Pre-defined NP arrays made from InGaAsP/InP and InGaAs/InP NPs are then used to generate substrate-free nanodisks of a chosen material from the stack by selective etching. A soft-stamping method is demonstrated to transfer the generated nanodisks with arbitrary densities onto Si. The transferred nanodisks retain their smooth surface morphologies and their designed geometrical dimensions. Both InP and InGaAsP nanodisks display excellent photoluminescence properties, with line-widths comparable to unprocessed reference epitaxial layers of similar composition. The multilayer NP arrays are potentially attractive for broad-band absorption in third-generation solar cells. The high optical quality, substrate-free InP and InGaAsP nanodisks on Si offer a new path to explore alternative ways to integrate III–V on Si by bonding nanodisks to Si. The method also has the advantage of re-usable III–V substrates for subsequent layer growth. (paper)

  17. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Generation of electrical power under human skin by subdermal solar cell arrays for implantable bioelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwangsun; Han, Jung Hyun; Yang, Hyung Chae; Nam, Kwang Il; Lee, Jongho

    2017-06-15

    Medical electronic implants can significantly improve people's health and quality of life. These implants are typically powered by batteries, which usually have a finite lifetime and therefore must be replaced periodically using surgical procedures. Recently, subdermal solar cells that can generate electricity by absorbing light transmitted through skin have been proposed as a sustainable electricity source to power medical electronic implants in bodies. However, the results to date have been obtained with animal models. To apply the technology to human beings, electrical performance should be characterized using human skin covering the subdermal solar cells. In this paper, we present electrical performance results (up to 9.05mW/cm 2 ) of the implantable solar cell array under 59 human skin samples isolated from 10 cadavers. The results indicate that the power densities depend on the thickness and tone of the human skin, e.g., higher power was generated under thinner and brighter skin. The generated power density is high enough to operate currently available medical electronic implants such as pacemakers that require tens of microwatt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: 10 years of progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The objectives were to develop the flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array technologies required for large-scale terrestrial use late in the 1980s and in the 1990s; advance crystalline silicon PV technologies; develop the technologies required to convert thin-film PV research results into viable module and array technology; and to stimulate transfer of knowledge of advanced PV materials, solar cells, modules, and arrays to the PV community. Progress reached on attaining these goals, along with future recommendations are discussed.

  20. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colon, C. J.; Merrigan, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection

  1. Hawaii Solar Integration Study: Solar Modeling Developments and Study Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orwig, K.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Schuerger, M.; Matsuura, M.; Roose, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaii Solar Integration Study (HSIS) is a follow-up to the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study completed in 2010. HSIS focuses on the impacts of higher penetrations of solar energy on the electrical grid and on other generation. HSIS goes beyond the island of Oahu and investigates Maui as well. The study examines reserve strategies, impacts on thermal unit commitment and dispatch, utilization of energy storage, renewable energy curtailment, and other aspects of grid reliability and operation. For the study, high-frequency (2-second) solar power profiles were generated using a new combined Numerical Weather Prediction model/ stochastic-kinematic cloud model approach, which represents the 'sharp-edge' effects of clouds passing over solar facilities. As part of the validation process, the solar data was evaluated using a variety of analysis techniques including wavelets, power spectral densities, ramp distributions, extreme values, and cross correlations. This paper provides an overview of the study objectives, results of the solar profile validation, and study results.

  2. Transition-edge sensor pixel parameter design of the microcalorimeter array for the x-ray integral field unit on Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Miniussi, A. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Sakai, K.; Wakeham, N. A.; Wassell, E. J.; Yoon, W.; Bennett, D. A.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Morgan, K. M.; Pappas, C. G.; Reintsema, C. N.; Swetz, D. S.; Ullom, J. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; den Hartog, R.; Jackson, B. D.; van der Kuur, J.; Barret, D.; Peille, P.

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU) for ESA's Athena X-ray observatory will consist of 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters optimized for the energy range of 0.2 to 12 keV. The instrument will provide unprecedented spectral resolution of 2.5 eV at energies of up to 7 keV and will accommodate photon fluxes of 1 mCrab (90 cps) for point source observations. The baseline configuration is a uniform large pixel array (LPA) of 4.28" pixels that is read out using frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). However, an alternative configuration under study incorporates an 18 × 18 small pixel array (SPA) of 2" pixels in the central 36" region. This hybrid array configuration could be designed to accommodate higher fluxes of up to 10 mCrab (900 cps) or alternately for improved spectral performance (trade-offs between designs. The basis of the pixel parameter selection is discussed in the context of existing TES arrays that are being developed for solar and x-ray astronomy applications. We describe the latest results on DC biased diagnostic arrays as well as large format kilo-pixel arrays and discuss the technical challenges associated with integrating different array types on to a single detector die.

  3. Environmental Assessment of the Construction and Operation of a Solar Photovoltaic Array (SPVA) Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Buckley AFB system during electrical failures and lightning strikes. The SPVA would be designed to continuously feed power to the Buckley electrical...ernate and P roposed Solar PV Array Site Locat ion Prol~ton:Oolor.sloSII* .. ~CenRII [a ..... ; l ’lld ZJHARJI U"’l ls fe~J Final EA Construction and...2009 3-7 Figure 3-1. Proposed Site Detail on IRP Site 3 Alternate and Proposed Solar PV Array Site Location l’r<llecl¢n:OOI0131o811*1󈧑

  4. Solar cells and architecture - Copenhagen Solar City ( building integrated photovoltaics - BIPV); Solceller og arkitektur - Copenhagen Solar City (byorienteret BIPV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, J. (Kuben Byfornyelse Danmark A/S, Valby (Denmark)); Vejsig Pedersen, P. (Cenergia, Herlev (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the project was to create 3 architecturally well functioning PV retrofit low-cost solutions. This was done in collaboration with well-known and estimated architect firms and Danish's producers of building materials. The 3 types of solutions have large implementation potentials on Danish buildings. The solutions are: (1) Moveable solar shutter (solar panel), (2) Horizontal PV integrated with insulation, (3) PV integrated with solar air heating on roofs. One of the most innovative solutions was the development of the SOLTAG roof top apartment which was developed in a partnership between VELUX and Rubow Architects. (See www.SOLTAG.net) It is a CO{sub 2} neutral building exhibited in OErestad in 2005 and later on moved to the premises of VELUX in Hoersholm. It has lead to a number of new innovative projects in VELUX: Attica, Active Housing, Green Light House etc. (author)

  5. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  6. Development of a solar array drive mechanism for micro-satellite platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatis, Giorgos; Guo, Jian; Buursink, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar array (PVSA) systems are the most widely used method for spacecraft power generation. However, in many satellite missions, the optimum orientation of the PVSA system is not always compatible with that of the payload orientation. Many methods, have been examined in the past to overcome this problem. Up to date, the most widely used active method for large costly satellites is the Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM). The SADM serves as the interface between the satellite body and the PVSA subsystem, enabling the decoupling of their spatial orientation. Nonetheless, there exists a research and development gap for such systems regarding low cost micro-satellites. During the literature study of this paper, individual orbital parameters of various micro-satellites have been extracted and compared to the rotational freedom of the corresponding SADMs used. The findings demonstrated that the implemented SADMs are over designed. It is therefore concluded that these components are not tailored made for each spacecraft mission individually, but rather, exhibit a generic design to full fill a majority of mission profiles and requirements. Motivated by the above analysis, the cardinal objective of the current research is to develop a low cost mechanism that will be precisely tailored for the use of a low Earth orbit (LEO) micro-satellite platform orbiting in altitudes of 500 - 1000km . The design of the mechanism may vary from the existing miniaturized SADMs. For example, the preliminary analysis of the current research suggests, that the conventional use of the slip ring system as the electronic transfer unit can be replaced by a seMI Orientation Unit (MIOU). Systems engineering tools for concept generation and selection have been used. In addition, simulation and mathematical modelling have been implemented on component and system level, to accurately predict the behaviour of the system under various modes of operation. The production and system testing of

  7. Effect of Extended Extinction from Gold Nanopillar Arrays on the Absorbance Spectrum of a Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effects of enhanced absorption/scattering from arrays of Au nanopillars of varied size and spacing on the spectral response of a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell. Nanopillar array-patterned devices do show increased optical extinction within a narrow range of wavelengths compared to control samples without such arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency and calculated absorbance, however, both show a decrease near the corresponding wavelengths. Numerical simulations indicate that for relatively narrow nanopillars, the increased optical extinction is dominated by absorption within the nanopillars, rather than scattering, and is likely dissipated by Joule heating.

  8. Performance Analysis of Grid Integrated Hydro and Solar Based Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeka Meshram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy systems (RESs are an attractive option to electrify the community as they are environment friendly, free of cost, and all-pervading. The efficiency of these energy systems is very low and can be improved by integrating them in parallel. In this paper, hydro (7.5 kW and solar systems (10 kW are taken as RESs and connected with the utility grid. Due to the intermittent nature of both the hydro and photovoltaic energy sources, utility grid is connected to the system for ensuring the continuous power flow. The hydro power generation system uses the self excited induction generator (SEIG and converters. The AC/DC/AC converter is used as interface to connect the hydro turbine to the utility grid to adjust the generated voltage to the utility grid voltage. The solar generation system is the combination of PV array, boost converter, and solar inverter. The control of both the hydro and solar power plants is provided through the constant current controller. The analysis has been done to verify the existence of the proposed system. Results demonstrate that the proposed system is able to be put into service and can feed the community.

  9. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof... certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 6 and 10... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power...

  10. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  11. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  12. Integration of Small Solar Tower Systems Into Distributed Power Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-parks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leading to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begun. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostats configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs

  13. Integration of Small Solar tower Systems into Distributed Power Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Tellez, F. M.; Blanco, M.; Fernandez, V.; Baonza, F.; Berger, S. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    One of the short-term priorities for renewable energies in Europe is their integration for local power supply into communities and energy islands (blocks of buildings, new neighborhoods in residential areas, shopping centers, hospitals, recreational areas, eco-paks, small rural areas or isolated ones such as islands or mountain communities). Following this strategy, the integration of small tower fields into so-called MIUS (Modular Integrated Utility Systems) is proposed. This application strongly influences field concepts leadings to modular multi-tower systems able to more closely track demand, meet reliability requirements with fewer megawatts of installed power and spread construction costs over time after output has begum. In addition, integration into single-cycle high-efficiency gas turbines plus waste-heat applications clearly increments the solar share. The chief questions are whether solar towers can be redesigned for such distributed markets and the keys to their feasibility. This paper includes the design and performance analysis of a 1.36-MW plant and integration in the MIUS system, as well as the expected cost of electricity and a sensitivity analysis of the small tower plant's performance with design parameters like heliostat configuration and tower height. A practical application is analyzed for a shopping center with 85% power demand during day-time by using a hybrid solar tower and a gas turbine producing electricity and waste heat for hot water and heating and cooling of spaces. The operation mode proposed is covering night demand with power from the grid and solar-gas power island mode during 14 hours daytime with a maximum power production of 1.36 MW. (Author) 26 refs.

  14. Performance of 128×128 solar-blind AlGaN ultraviolet focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dafu; Chu, Kaihui; Wang, Ling; Li, Xiangyang

    2009-07-01

    Ozone layer intensively absorbs 240nm to 285 nm incidence, when the sunshine goes through stratospheric. There is almost no UVC (200nm-280nm) band radiation existing below stratospheric. Because the radiation target presents a strong contrast between atmosphere and background, solar-blind band radiation is very useful. Wide band gap materials, especially III-V nitride materials, have attracted extensive interest. The direct band gap of GaN and A1N is 3.4 and 6.2 eV, respectively. Since they are miscible with each other and form a complete series of AlGaN alloys, AlGaN has direct band gaps from 3.4 to 6.2 eV, corresponding to cutoff wavelengths from 365 to 200 nm. A back-illuminated hybrid FPA has been developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Science. This paper reports the performance of the 128x128 solar-blind AlGaN UV Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs). More and more a CTIA (capacitivetransimpedance) readout circuit architecture has been proven to be well suited for AlGaN detectors arrays. The bared readout circuit was first tested to find out optimal analog reference voltage. Second, this ROIC was tested in a standard 20-pin shielded dewar at 115 K to 330K. Then, a new test system was set up to obtain test UV FPA noise, swing voltage, data valid time, operating speed, dynamic range, UV response etc. The results show that 128x128 back-illuminated AlGaN PIN detector SNR is as high as 74db at the speed of above30 frame per second. Also, some noise test method is mentioned.

  15. Hybrid Solar: A Review on Photovoltaic and Thermal Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity generation is growing rapidly. New ideas on hybrid solar technology evolve for a wide range of applications, such as in buildings, processing plants, and agriculture. In the building sector in particular, the limited building space for the accommodation of solar devices has driven a demand on the use of hybrid solar technology for the multigeneration of active power and/or passive solar devices. The importance is escalating with the worldwide trend on the development of low-carbon/zero-energy buildings. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collector systems had been studied theoretically, numerically, and experimentally in depth in the past decades. Together with alternative means, a range of innovative products and systems has been put forward. The final success of the integrative technologies relies on the coexistence of robust product design/construction and reliable system operation/maintenance in the long run to satisfy the user needs. This paper gives a broad review on the published academic works, with an emphasis placed on the research and development activities in the last decade.

  16. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank; Pease, John; Scholz, Cristian; Erbring, Hans-Peter; Schlunke, Stephan; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to compare and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.

  17. Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy W. Lowry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used here is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose.

  18. Summary of flat-plate solar array project documentation: Abstracts of published documents, 1975-1986, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of final reports, or the latest quarterly or annual, of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Contractor of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in-house activities are presented. Also presented is a list of proceedings and publications, by author, of work connected with the project. The aim of the program has been to stimulate the development of technology that will enable the private sector to manufacture and widely use photovoltaic systems for the generation of electricity in residential, commercial, industrial, and Government applications at a cost per watt that is competitive with utility generated power. FSA Project activities have included the sponsoring of research and development efforts in silicon refinement processes, advanced silicon sheet growth techniques, higher efficiency solar cells, solar cell/module fabrication processes, encapsulation, module/array engineering and reliability, and economic analyses.

  19. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  20. Development of micro-mirror slicer integral field unit for space-borne solar spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Kosuke; Koyama, Masatsugu; Enokida, Yukiya; Okura, Yukinobu; Nakayasu, Tomoyasu; Sukegawa, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and a manufacturing method that overcomes optical limitations of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of a micro-mirror slicer of 45 arrayed, highly narrow, flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo-pupil-mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates that the final optical quality is sufficiently high for a visible light spectrograph. Each slicer micro-mirror is 1.58 mm long and 30 μm wide with surface roughness ≤1 nm rms, and edge sharpness ≤ 0.1 μm, etc. This IFU is small size and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics, in which one slit is real and the others are pseudo slits from the IFU. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a space-qualified, protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength regions. These properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph such as the future Japanese solar space mission SOLAR-C. We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU, and space qualification tests of the silver coating.

  1. Consideration of coordinated solar tracking of an array of compact solar-pumped lasers combined with photovoltaic cells for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ichiki, Akihisa; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Ito, Tadashi; Kajino, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2015-08-01

    A monochromatic laser light with a photon energy just above the band edge of photovoltaic cells can be converted into electricity with minimal thermal loss. To attain efficient conversion of sunlight to laser light, a coordinated solar tracking system for an array of originally designed compact solar-pumped lasers of 50 mm aperture diameter is being constructed. As for the feasibility of this system, a prototype with a holding capacity of 25 compact solar-pumped lasers has been fabricated. The primary requisite of this system is that the angular accuracy of tracking should be below 1 mrad for all 25 compact solar-pumped lasers to sustain their continuous lasing. To realize this, imperative challenges have been elucidated including thermal expansion under sunlight. A prototype fabricated with its main frame made of Super Invar alloy was found to fulfill the requisite by measurement using a three-dimensional coordinate measuring machine.

  2. 3D probe array integrated with a front-end 100-channel neural recording ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Yao, Lei; Tan, Kwan Ling; Lim, Ruiqi; Li, Peng; Chen, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Brain-machine interface technology can improve the lives of spinal cord injury victims and amputees. A neural interface system, consisting of a 3D probe array and a custom low-power (1 mW) 100-channel (100-ch) neural recording application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), was designed and implemented to monitor neural activity. In this study, a microassembly 3D probe array method using a novel lead transfer technique was proposed to overcome the bonding plane mismatch encountered during orthogonal assembly. The proposed lead transfer technique can be completed using standard micromachining and packaging processes. The ASIC can be stacking-integrated with the probe array, minimizing the form factor of the assembled module. To minimize trauma to brain cells, the profile of the integrated probe array was controlled within 730 μm. The average impedance of the assembled probe was approximately 0.55 MΩ at 1 kHz. To verify the functionality of the integrated neural probe array, bench-top signal acquisitions were performed and discussed.

  3. Facade integration of solar thermal collectors. A breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roecker, Christian; Munari-Probst, MariaCristina; Chambrier, Estelle de; Schueler, Andreas; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment

    2008-07-01

    One main barrier to the acceptability of facade use of solar thermal collectors is their black appearance and the visibility of piping or absorber irregularities through the glazing. To facilitate facade integration, a project was set up to develop selective filters reflecting only a small part of the solar spectrum in the visible range while letting the rest of the radiation heat the absorber. These filters were successfully produced and, combined with a diffusing glass treatment, have achieved the desired masking effect with minor impact on the collector efficiency (less than 10%). Glasses of various colours combined with several diffusing finishing (acid etching, structured glass etc..) can be produced that are able to hide the absorber. Such glazings will allow the use of the same product both in front of facade areas equipped with solar absorbers (as collector external glass) and in front of the non exposed areas (as facade cladding), opening the way to a broad variety of active facade designs. The active elements can then be positioned at will on the exposed areas, and their quantity determined only by thermal needs. By freeing the dimension of the facade area that can be clad with this glazing from the thermally needed surface for collectors, a major step to help architects use solar thermal on facades has been taken. (orig.)

  4. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and others have recently developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), offering unprecedented performance...

  5. Catchment Integration of Sensor Array Observations to Understand Hydrologic Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, S.; Livneh, B.; Molotch, N. P.; Suding, K.; Neff, J. C.; Hinckley, E. L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity and the land surface water balance are likely to be impacted by climate change in the coming years. Although recent work has started to demonstrate that climate modulates connectivity, we still lack knowledge of how local ecology will respond to environmental and atmospheric changes and subsequently interact with connectivity. The overarching goal of this research is to address and forecast how climate change will affect hydrologic connectivity in an alpine environment, through the use of near-surface observations (temperature, humidity, soil moisture, snow depth) from a new 16-sensor array (plus 5 precipitation gauges), together with a distributed hydrologic model, over a small catchment on Colorado's Niwot Ridge (above 3000m). Model simulations will be constrained to distributed sensor measurements taken in the study area and calibrated with streamflow. Periods of wetting and dry-down will be analyzed to identify signatures of connectivity across the landscape, its seasonal signals and its sensitivity to land cover. Further work will aim to develop future hydrologic projections, compare model output with related observations, conduct multi-physics experiments, and continue to expand the existing sensor network.

  6. Comprehensive Solutions for Integration of Solar Resources into Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, Kenneth [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Makarov, Yuri V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rajagopal, Sankaran [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Loutan, Clyde [California Independent System Operator; Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Laurie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lu, Bo [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Mansingh, Ashmin [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Zack, John [MESO, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sherick, Robert [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Romo, Abraham [Southern California Edison; Habibi-Ashrafi, Farrokh [Southern California Edison; Johnson, Raymond [Southern California Edison

    2016-01-14

    The need for proactive closed-loop integration of uncertainty information into system operations and probability-based controls is widely recognized, but rarely implemented in system operations. Proactive integration for this project means that the information concerning expected uncertainty ranges for net load and balancing requirements, including required balancing capacity, ramping and ramp duration characteristics, will be fed back into the generation commitment and dispatch algorithms to modify their performance so that potential shortages of these characteristics can be prevented. This basic, yet important, premise is the motivating factor for this project. The achieved project goal is to demonstrate the benefit of such a system. The project quantifies future uncertainties, predicts additional system balancing needs including the prediction intervals for capacity and ramping requirements of future dispatch intervals, evaluates the impacts of uncertainties on transmission including the risk of overloads and voltage problems, and explores opportunities for intra-hour generation adjustments helping to provide more flexibility for system operators. The resulting benefits culminate in more reliable grid operation in the face of increased system uncertainty and variability caused by solar power. The project identifies that solar power does not require special separate penetration level restrictions or penalization for its intermittency. Ultimately, the collective consideration of all sources of intermittency distributed over a wide area unified with the comprehensive evaluation of various elements of balancing process, i.e. capacity, ramping, and energy requirements, help system operators more robustly and effectively balance generation against load and interchange. This project showed that doing so can facilitate more solar and other renewable resources on the grid without compromising reliability and control performance. Efforts during the project included

  7. Encapsulation task of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; White, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an investigation of solar module encapsulation systems applicable to the Low-Cost Solar Array Project 1986 cost and performance goals are presented. Six basic construction elements were identified and their specific uses in module construction defined. A uniform coating basis was established for each element. The survey results were also useful in revealing price ranges for classes of materials and estimating the cost allocation for each element within the encapsulating cost goal. The six construction elements were considered to be substrates, superstrates, pottants, adhesives, outer covers and back covers.

  8. Gate array type integrated circuits: technology and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumurdjian, P.

    1984-03-01

    This paper summarizes a study on a logical C-MOS circuit. After a short presentation, the technical parameters and performance desired are given. On this basis, the dispersion of measurements, according to the series, is examined. The processes of personalization are then analyzed. Finally, some results on the burn-in and aging of circuits are presented. This paper concludes with the methods adopted to obtain a reliable integrated circuit [fr

  9. Ultrafast pulse generation in integrated arrays of anapole nanolasers

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-11-02

    One of the main challenges in photonics is the integration of ultrafast coherent sources in silicon compatible platforms at the nanoscale [1]. Generally, the emission of ultra-short pulses is achieved by synchronizing the cavity modes of the system via external active components, such as, e.g., Q-switch or saturable absorbers. Consequently, the required optical setups are complex and difficult to integrate on-chip. To address these difficulties, we propose a novel type of integrated source based on the spontaneous synchronization of several near-field nanolasers. We design our near-field lasers by considering the nonlinear amplification of non-radiating Anapole modes [2]. Anapoles represent an intriguing non-conventional state of radiation, whose excitation is responsible for the formation of scattering suppression states in dielectric nanostructures [3]. Due to their inherent near-field emission properties, an ensemble of anapole-based nanolasers represent an ideal candidate to investigate and tailor spontaneous synchronization phenomena in a silicon-compatible framework. Additionally, their mutual non-linear interaction can be precisely controlled within standard nanofabrication tolerances.

  10. Towards Cost-Effective Crystalline Silicon Based Flexible Solar Cells: Integration Strategy by Rational Design of Materials, Process, and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2017-11-30

    The solar cells market has an annual growth of more than 30 percent over the past 15 years. At the same time, the cost of the solar modules diminished to meet both of the rapid global demand and the technological improvements. In particular for the crystalline silicon solar cells, the workhorse of this technology. The objective of this doctoral thesis is enhancing the efficiency of c-Si solar cells while exploring the cost reduction via innovative techniques. Contact metallization and ultra-flexible wafer based c-Si solar cells are the main areas under investigation. First, Silicon-based solar cells typically utilize screen printed Silver (Ag) metal contacts which affect the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used for the front contact grid lines. In this work, investigation of the microstructure and the electrical characteristics of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) ohmic contacts on the rear side of c-Si solar cells has been carried out. Significant enhancement in the fill factor leading to increasing the total power conversion efficiency is observed. Second, advanced classes of modern application require a new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience. However, silicon is a brittle material with a fracture strains <1%. Highly flexible Si-based solar cells are available in the form thin films which seem to be disadvantageous over thick Si solar cells due to the reduction of the optical absorption with less active Si material. Here, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology based integration strategy is designed where corrugation architecture to enable an ultra-flexible solar cell module from bulk mono-crystalline silicon solar wafer with 17% efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells

  11. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  12. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuntang; Wang, Xiuqin; Lu, Pengfei; Ding, Jianning; Yuan, Ningyi

    2013-09-23

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed.

  13. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m 2 ·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  14. W-band Phased Array Systems using Silicon Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Young

    This thesis presents the silicon-based on-chip W-band phased array systems. An improved quadrature all-pass filter (QAF) and its implementation in 60--80 GHz active phase shifter using 0.13 microm SiGe BiCMOS technology is presented. It is demonstrated that with the inclusion of an Rs/R in the high Q branches of C and L, the sensitivity to the loading capacitance, therefore the I/Q phase and amplitude errors are minimized. This technique is especially suited for wideband millimeter-wave circuits where the loading capacitance (CL) is comparable to the filter capacitance (C). A prototype 60--80 GHz active phased shifter using the improved QAF is demonstrated. The overall chip size is 1.15 x 0.92 mm2 with the power consumption of 108 mW. The measured S11 and S22 are pass pi-network. The chip size is 0.45 x 0.3 mm2 without pads and consumes virtually no power. The measured S11 and S22 is 8 dBm and the simulated IIP3 is > 22 dBm. A low-power 76--84 GHz 4-element phased array receiver using the designed passive phase shifter is presented. The power consumption is minimized by using a single-ended design and alternating the amplifiers and phase shifter cells to result in a low noise figure at a low power consumption. A variable gain amplifier and the 11° phase shifter are used to correct for the rms gain and phase errors at different operating frequencies. The overall chip size is 2.0 x 2.7 mm2 with the current consumption of 18 mA/channel with 1.8 V supply voltage. The measured S11 and S 22 is circuits are designed differentially to result in less sensitivity to packaging effect and high channel-to-channel isolation. The overall chip size is 5.0 x 5.8 mm 2 with the power consumption of 500--600 mA from 2 V supply voltage. The measured S11 and S22 for all 16 phase states is 10 dB for 76.4--90 GHz with the rms gain error of -45 dB. The measured NF is 11.2--13 dB at 77--87 GHz at the maximum gain state. And the measured input P1dB is 20 dBm at 77 GHz and -25.8 dBm at the

  15. Hydrodynamic Performance of an Array of Wave Energy Converters Integrated with a Pontoon-Type Breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Zhi Ning

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cost of wave energy converters (WECs can be reduced significantly by integrating WECs into other marine facilities, especially in sea areas with a mild wave climate. To reduce the cost and increase the efficiency, a hybrid WEC system, comprising a linear array (medium farm of oscillating buoy-type WECs attached to the weather side of a fixed-type floating pontoon as the base structure is proposed. The performance of the WEC array is investigated numerically using a boundary element method (BEM based on the linear potential flow theory. The linear power take-off (PTO damping model is used to calculate the output power of the WEC array. The performance of the WEC array and each individual WEC device is balanced by using the mean interaction factor and the individual interaction factor. To quantify the effect of the pontoon, the hydrodynamic results of the WEC arrays with and without a pontoon are compared with each other. Detailed investigations on the influence of the structural and PTO parameters are performed in a wide wave frequency range. Results show that the energy conversion efficiency of a WEC array with a properly designed pontoon is much higher than that without a pontoon. This integration scheme can achieve the efficiency improvement and construction-cost reduction of the wave energy converters.

  16. Effects of ZnS layer on the performance improvement of the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Gao, Yanping; Xing, Yonglei [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Kong, Ling Bing, E-mail: ELBKong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-08-01

    The impact of ZnS layer as an interface modification on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire arrays solar cells was studied. CdS, CdSe and ZnS were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by SILAR method. When a ZnS layer was deposited, the quantum dot barrier was indirectly become in contact with the electrolyte, which thus restrained the flow of electrons. The CdS sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 0.55% with the deposition of the ZnS(3) layer, that is, with a deposition of three times, whereas the CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells has an efficiency of 2.03% with the deposition of the ZnS(1) layer. It was also noted that as the thickness of the of ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc}, I{sub sc} and efficiencies of both the solar cells were first increased and then decreased. In addition, the CdS/N719 solar cells has an efficiency of 0.75% with the deposition of the ZnS(2) layer. - Highlights: • The impact of ZnS layer on the photosensitive ZnO nanowire solar cells was studied. • ZnS layer restrained the flow of electrons to the electrolyte. • CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells have higher efficiency than CdS solar cells. • When ZnS layer was increased, V{sub oc} and I{sub sc} firstly increased and then decreased.

  17. Assembly and Integration Process of the First High Density Detector Array for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Choi, Steve; Ho, Shuay-Pwu; Crowley, Kevin T.; Salatino, Maria; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroicTransition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol. Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.

  18. A new approach to solar hydrogen production: a ZnO-ZnS solid solution nanowire array photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao Ming; Chen, Chih Kai; Liu, Ru-Shi [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Wu, Ching-Chen; Chang, Wen-Sheng [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu (China); Chen, Kuei-Hsien [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences Academia Sinica, Taipei (China); Chan, Ting-Shan; Lee, Jyh-Fu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu (China); Tsai, Din Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China)

    2011-10-15

    A ZnO-ZnS solid solution nanowire array photoanode is developed based on an alternative sensitization of a ZnO-ZnS solid solution nanowire array for solar hydrogen generation with considerably enhanced photocurrent - more than 195% greater compared to pristine ZnO nanowires. This solid solution structure demonstrates a better photoactivity enhancement effect than traditional quantum dot sensitization, as well as allowing hydrogen generation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Constructing Well-Ordered CdTe/TiO2Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Ahmed; Wang, Zijie; Zhou, Min; Tarish, Samar; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Lei, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Well-ordered CdTe/TiO 2 heteronanostructure arrays are fabricated via a convenient anodic aluminum oxide template-directed approach and applied to photoelectrochemistry and solar energy devices. Both the CdTe and TiO 2 present a decent crystalline quality. In comparison to the photoanode with only TiO 2 nanotube array, the CdTe/TiO 2 heteronanostructure electrodes possess a dramatic performance improvement. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Real object pickup method of integral imaging using offset lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Junkyu; Choi, Ki-Hong; Min, Sung-Wook

    2017-05-01

    We propose the pickup system of integral imaging using the offset lens array (OLA), which is a useful optical component for both the pickup and display processes. The main purpose of our system is resolving the pseudoscopic image problem of integral imaging. Also, the flipped image of integral imaging that has the wrong perspective information can be removed by adding an external barrier in the display process. In this paper, the above properties are explained in detail, and the experimental results to verify the feasibility of the proposed system are presented. We are certain that our system can also be applied to other various pickup systems based on integral imaging.

  1. Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Remote Chemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël DAVENAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disordered arrays of silicon nanowires have been produced by the OAG technique. The UV-visible absorption spectrum of the SiNWs shows a main increase of the absorption extending in the near infrared and similar absorption than bulk crystalline silicon below 400 nm. T EMT simulation of the UV absorption of silicon nanowires predicts a main optical absorption for a nanowire orientation parallel to the electric field vector of the incident light, as expected for SiNW lying with a dominant orientation parallel to the substrate. The enhanced optical absorption tail extending above 400 nm has been attributed to the combination of band gap opening shown by the PL emission and high densities of silicon surface states at high surface/volume ratio. Hybrid solar cells have been fabricated through the dispersion of silicon nanowires in a poly(3-hexylthiophene thin film leading to a 1.14 % conversion yield, which was increased to 3.04 % upon SiNW surface functionalization, opening new perspectives for self sufficient power supplies applicable to remote sensing.

  2. Planar rigid-flexible coupling spacecraft modeling and control considering solar array deployment and joint clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zilu; Wang, Cong; Huang, Wenhu

    2018-01-01

    Based on Nodal Coordinate Formulation (NCF) and Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF), this paper establishes rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model of the spacecraft with large deployable solar arrays and multiple clearance joints to analyze and control the satellite attitude under deployment disturbance. Considering torque spring, close cable loop (CCL) configuration and latch mechanisms, a typical spacecraft composed of a rigid main-body described by NCF and two flexible panels described by ANCF is used as a demonstration case. Nonlinear contact force model and modified Coulomb friction model are selected to establish normal contact force and tangential friction model, respectively. Generalized elastic force are derived and all generalized forces are defined in the NCF-ANCF frame. The Newmark-β method is used to solve system equations of motion. The availability and superiority of the proposed model is verified through comparing with numerical co-simulations of Patran and ADAMS software. The numerical results reveal the effects of panel flexibility, joint clearance and their coupling on satellite attitude. The effects of clearance number, clearance size and clearance stiffness on satellite attitude are investigated. Furthermore, a proportional-differential (PD) attitude controller of spacecraft is designed to discuss the effect of attitude control on the dynamic responses of the whole system.

  3. Thermal Analysis and Correlation of the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft's Solar Array During Aerobraking Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; George, Benjamin E.

    2002-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey spacecraft made use of multipass aerobraking to gradually reduce its orbit period from a highly elliptical insertion orbit to its final science orbit. Aerobraking operations provided an opportunity to apply advanced thermal analysis techniques to predict the temperature of the spacecraft's solar array for each drag pass. Odyssey telemetry data was used to correlate the thermal model. The thermal analysis was tightly coupled to the flight mechanics, aerodynamics, and atmospheric modeling efforts being performed during operations. Specifically, the thermal analysis predictions required a calculation of the spacecraft's velocity relative to the atmosphere, a prediction of the atmospheric density, and a prediction of the heat transfer coefficients due to aerodynamic heating. Temperature correlations were performed by comparing predicted temperatures of the thermocouples to the actual thermocouple readings from the spacecraft. Time histories of the spacecraft relative velocity, atmospheric density, and heat transfer coefficients, calculated using flight accelerometer and quaternion data, were used to calculate the aerodynamic heating. During aerobraking operations, the correlations were used to continually update the thermal model, thus increasing confidence in the predictions. This paper describes the thermal analysis that was performed and presents the correlations to the flight data.

  4. Integration of 2D CMUT arrays with front-end electronics for volumetric ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Ira O; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Yeh, David T; Oralkan, Omer; Sanli Ergun, A; Karaman, Mustafa; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2008-02-01

    For three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging, connecting elements of a two-dimensional (2D) transducer array to the imaging system's front-end electronics is a challenge because of the large number of array elements and the small element size. To compactly connect the transducer array with electronics, we flip-chip bond a 2D 16 x 16-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array to a custom-designed integrated circuit (IC). Through-wafer interconnects are used to connect the CMUT elements on the top side of the array with flip-chip bond pads on the back side. The IC provides a 25-V pulser and a transimpedance preamplifier to each element of the array. For each of three characterized devices, the element yield is excellent (99 to 100% of the elements are functional). Center frequencies range from 2.6 MHz to 5.1 MHz. For pulse echo operation, the average - 6-dB fractional bandwidth is as high as 125%. Transmit pressures normalized to the face of the transducer are as high as 339 kPa and input-referred receiver noise is typically 1.2 to 2.1 mPa/pHz. The flip-chip bonded devices were used to acquire 3D synthetic aperture images of a wire-target phantom. Combining the transducer array and IC, as shown in this paper, allows for better utilization of large arrays, improves receive sensitivity, and may lead to new imaging techniques that depend on transducer arrays that are closely coupled to IC electronics.

  5. 3-D Imaging Using Row-Column-Addressed Arrays With Integrated Apodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Bagge, Jan Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication, characterization, and experimental imaging results of a 62+62 element λ/2-pitch row-column-addressed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with integrated apodization. A new fabrication process was used to manufacture a 26.3 mm by 26...

  6. High-efficiency thin and compact concentrator photovoltaics with micro-solar cells directly attached to a lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Inoue, Daijiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsushita, Akio; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Aya, Youichirou; Nakagawa, Tohru

    2015-06-01

    We propose a thin and compact concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module, about 20 mm thick, one tenth thinner than those of conventional CPVs that are widely deployed for mega-solar systems, to broaden CPV application scenarios. We achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 37.1% at a module temperature of 25 °C under sunlight irradiation optimized for our module. Our CPV module has a lens array consisting of 10 mm-square unit lenses and micro solar cells that are directly attached to the lens array, to reduce the focal length of the concentrator and to reduce optical losses due to reflection. The optical loss of the lens in our module is about 9.0%, which is lower than that of conventional CPV modules with secondary optics. This low optical loss enables our CPV module to achieve a high energy conversion efficiency.

  7. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  8. Approach of a solar building integrated with multiple novel solar technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Ji; Zhi Yu; Wei Sun; Wu Wang

    2014-01-01

    A novel solar building is constructed in Hefei, China. The solar energy can supply the building with solar power, solar space heating, solar-cooling and solar-hot water by corresponding novel solar technologies and components. Preliminary simulation by TRNSYS showed that the solar building could reduce >30% of the energy consumption compared with the same scale of the office building in Hefei during the heating season. In an experiment performed on 20 February 2013, the max temperatures of bo...

  9. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  10. Simulation of a solar collector array consisting of two types of solar collectors, with and without convection barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The installed area of solar collectors in solar heating fields is rapidly increasing in Denmark. In this scenario even relatively small performance improvements may lead to a large increase in the overall energy production. Both collectors with and without polymer foil, functioning as convection...... barrier, can be found on the Danish market. Depending on the temperature level at which the two types of collectors operate, one can perform better than the other. This project aimed to study the behavior of a 14 solar collector row made of these two different kinds of collectors, in order to optimize...... the composition of the row. Actual solar collectors available on the Danish market (models HT-SA and HT-A 35-10 manufactured by ARCON Solar A/S) were used for this analysis. To perform the study, a simulation model in TRNSYS was developed based on the Danish solar collector field in Braedstrup. A parametric...

  11. Experience with building integrated solar collectors; Erfaring med bygningsintegrerte solfangere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Ingeborg; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the research 'Zero Emission Buildings' ZEB is to develop products and solutions that provide buildings with zero greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production, operation and disposal. Can we make this happen must the building produce more energy than it needs to compensate for greenhouse gas emissions from the production of materials and the actual construction.To build up knowledge on experience with building integrated solar collectors in Norway, we have in this study made interviews with suppliers and manufacturers of solar collectors and some building owners. Since the focus is on climate shell, we have limited the study to include solar collectors to replace a part of the cladding or roofing. Construction upstairs roofing, outside facade or freestanding rack is not considered as building integrated in this context. The providers we have been in contact with appeals to slightly different parts of the market. This is reflected in the product's development, assembly and approach to the calculation of energy delivery. Overall, providers may offer a range of products suitable for both the professional and skilled carpenter, the interested 'man in the street' . The feedback we have received shows generally good experiences with the product and the installation. Because of the preliminary short operating periods of the investigated plants we have little data on energy supply from these plants. In summary, we can say that the knowledge and the products are available and it is up to use to use them.(Author)

  12. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  13. Luminescent solar concentrators for building-integrated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Bruni, Francesco; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-12-01

    The transition to fully energetically sustainable architecture through the realization of so-called net zero-energy buildings is currently in progress in areas with low population density. However, this is not yet true in cities, where the cost of land for the installation of ground photovoltaic (PV) is prohibitively high and the rooftop space is too scarce to accommodate the PV modules necessary for sustaining the electrical requirements of tall buildings. Thus, new technologies are being investigated to integrate solar-harvesting devices into building façades in the form of PV windows or envelope elements. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are the most promising technology for semi-transparent, electrodeless PV glazing systems that can be integrated 'invisibly' into the built environment without detrimental effects to the aesthetics of the building or the quality of life of the inhabitants. After 40 years of research, recent breakthroughs in the realization of reabsorption-free emitters with broadband absorption have boosted the performance of LSCs to such a degree that they might be commercialized in the near future. In this Perspective, we explore the successful strategies that have allowed this change of pace, examining and comparing the different types of chromophores and waveguide materials, and discuss the issues that remain to be investigated for further progress.

  14. Experimental investigations of the performance of a solar air collector with latent heat thermal storage integrated with the solar absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejcik J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental investigations of the performance of a solar air collector with latent heat thermal storage integrated with the solarabsorber. The main purpose of heat storage in solar thermal systems is to store heat when the supply of solar heat exceeds demand and release it when otherwise. A number of heat storage materials can be used for this purpose; the phase change materials among them. Short-term latent heat thermal storage integrated with the solar absorber can stabilize the air temperature at the outlet of the collector on cloudy days when solar radiation intensity incident on a solar collector fluctuates significantly. Two experimental front-and-back pass solar air collectors of the same dimensions have been built for the experimental investigations. One collector had a “conventional” solar absorber made of a metal sheet while the solar absorber of the other collector consisted of containers filled with organic phase change material. The experimental collectors were positioned side by side during the investigations to ensure the same operating conditions (incident solar radiation, outdoor temperature.

  15. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez‐Solano, Alberto; Delgado‐Sánchez, José‐Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miranda‐Muñoz, José M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez‐Cortezón, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one‐dimensional photonic crystals and in‐plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide‐area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost‐efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large‐scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in‐plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long‐term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27656090

  16. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Delgado-Sánchez, José-Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miranda-Muñoz, José M; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez-Cortezón, Emilio; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of the depth of field in hexagonal array integral imaging systems based on modulation transfer function and Strehl ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Ayatollah

    2016-04-10

    Integral imaging is a technique for displaying three-dimensional images using microlens arrays. In this paper, a method for calculating root mean squared wavefront error and modulation transfer function (MTF) of a defocused integral imaging capture system with hexagonal aperture microlens arrays is introduced. Also, maximum allowable depth of field with Century MTF analyzing and Strehl criterion are obtained.

  18. Integration of solar installations in heating technology; Integration der Solaranlage in die Heizungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [Solvis Energiesysteme GmbH und Co KG, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Future heating systems must be geared to the task of providing the comfort of warm rooms and warm water while giving due consideration to the consequences this has for the environment. The present paper discusses the development of heating energy demand, the integration and adjustment of the heating circuit for solar energy, and the dimensioning and layout of a solar installation for water warming. It also deals with the testing of solar buffer storages. [Deutsch] Wie kann der Komfort warmer Raeume und warmem Wassers erreicht werden und welche Konsquenzen hat das fuer die Umwelt, dies sind die Kriterien an denen sich die Waermeversorgung der Zukunft orientieren muss. Die Entwicklung des Heizenergiebedarfs, die Einbindung und Abstimmung des Heizkrieses fuer Solarenergie sowie die Dimensionierung und Auslegung einer Solaranlage zur Warmwassererw armung werden erlaeutert. Ein weiterer Punkt betrifft den Test von Solarpufferspeichern.

  19. 24-GHz LTCC Fractal Antenna Array SoP With Integrated Fresnel Lens

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2012-09-30

    A novel 24-GHz mixed low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) tape based system-on-package (SoP) is presented, which incorporates a fractal antenna array with an integrated grooved Fresnel lens. The four-element fractal array employs a relatively low dielectric constant substrate (CT707, εr = 6.4), whereas the lens has been realized on a high-dielectric-constant superstrate (CT765, εr = 68.7 ). The two (substrate and superstrate) are integrated through four corner posts to realize the required air gap (focal distance). The fractal array alone provides a measured gain of 8.9 dBi. Simulations predict that integration of this array with the lens increases the gain by 6 dB. Measurements reveal that the design is susceptible to LTCC fabrication tolerances. In addition to high gain, the SoP provides a bandwidth of 8%. The high performance and compact size (24 × 24 × 4.8 mm3 ) of the design makes it highly suitable for emerging wireless applications such as automotive radar front end.

  20. Monolithic integration of GaAs SAW chemical microsensor arrays and detection electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; HELLER,EDWIN J.; ASON,GREGORY CHARLES; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-04-17

    The authors describe the integration of an array of surface acoustic wave delay line chemical sensors with the associated RF microelectronics such that the resulting device operates in a DC in/DC out mode. The microelectronics design for on-chip RF generation and detection is presented. Both hybrid and monolithic approaches are discussed. This approach improves system performance, simplifies packaging and assembly, and significantly reduces overall system size. The array design can be readily scaled to include a large number of sensors.

  1. 600 Volt Stretched Lens Array for Solar Electric Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past six years, ENTECH, Auburn, NASA, and other organizations have developed a new space photovoltaic array called the Stretched Lens Array (SLA), which...

  2. Phase 2 of the automated array assembly task of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, M.G.; Grenon, L.P.; Pastirik, E.M.; Pryor, R.A.; Sparks, T.G.

    1978-11-01

    This report presents the results of investigations and analyses of an advanced process sequence for manufacturing high efficiency solar cells and modules in a cost-effective manner. The entire process sequence is presented and discussed step by step. Emphasis is on process simplicity and minimizing consumed materials. The process sequence incorporates texture etching, plasma processes for damage removal and patterning, ion implantation, low pressure silicon nitride deposition, and plated metal. A reliable module design is presented. Specific process step developments are presnted. Further, a detailed cost analysis has been performed to indicate future areas of fruitful cost reduction effort. Finally, recommendations for advanced investigations are presented.

  3. Studies of Enhanced Performance of the Mileura Widefield Array for Solar Observation and Space Weather

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salah, Joseph E; Oberoi, Divya; Lonsdale, Colin J; Cappallo, Roger C

    2006-01-01

    ...) for solar and space weather measurements. Enhancement of the angular resolution of the MWA-LFD to observe Type II Solar Radio Bursts was determined to be the best option, and can be accomplished by increasing the physical diameter...

  4. Enhancement of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells with front-surface hexagonal plasmonic arrays from nanoscale lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenlong; Gwamuri, Jephias; Cvetanovic, Sandra; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Guney, Durdu O.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2017-07-01

    The study first uses numerical simulations of hexagonal triangle and sphere arrays to optimize the performance of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photovoltaic devices. The simulations indicated the potential for a sphere array to provide optical enhancement (OE) up to 7.4% compared to a standard cell using a nanosphere radius of 250 nm and silver film thickness of 50 nm. Next a detailed series of a-Si:H cells were fabricated and tested for quantum efficiency and characteristic and current-voltage (I-V) profiles using a solar simulator. Triangle and sphere array based cells, as well as the uncoated reference cells are analyzed and the results find that the simulation does not precisely predict the observed enhancement, but it forecasts a trend and can be used to guide fabrication. In general, the measured OE follows the simulated trend: (1) for triangular arrays no enhancement is observed and as the silver thickness increases the more degradation of the cell; (2) for annealed arrays both measured and simulated OE occur with the thinner silver thickness. Measured efficiency enhancement reached 20.2% and 10.9% for nanosphere diameter D = 500 nm, silver thicknesses h = 50 nm and 25 nm, respectively. These values, which surpass simulation results, indicate that this method is worth additional investigation.

  5. Low cost solar array project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the LSA Silicon Material Task is to establish a chemical process for producing silicon at a rate and price commensurate with the production goals of the LSA project for solar-cell modules. As part of the overall Silicon Material Task, Union Carbide developed the silane-silicon process and advanced the technology to the point where it has a definite potential for providing high-purity polysilicon on a commercial scale at a price of $14/kg by 1986 (1980 dollars). This process for preparing semiconductor-grade silicon in the EPSDU from metallurgical-grade (M-G) silicon is based on a well-integrated arrangement of purification steps that provides a cost-effective process system. The three basic steps entail converting M-G silicon to trichlorosilane, redistributing the trichlorosilane to produce silane, and thermally decomposing the silane to form amorphous silicon powder. The powder is then melted and the molten silicon is cast into polycrystalline silicon for subsequent use in fabricating solar cells. Progress is reported on the following tasks: (1) design, fabricate, install, and operate an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) sized for 100 MT/Yr to obtain extensive performance data to establish the data base for the design of commercial facilities; (2) perform supporting research and development to provide an information base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economic analysis for potential scale-up of the process; and (3) perform iterative economic analyses of the estimated product cost for the product of semiconductor-grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000 MT/Yr. (WHK)

  6. Low-Cost Solar-Array Project. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of the LSA Silicon Material Task is to establish a chemical process for producing silicon at a rate and price commensurate with the production goals of the LSA project for solar-cell modules. As part of the overall Silicon Material Task, Union Carbide developed the silane-silicon process and advanced the technology to the point where it has a definite potential for providing high-purity polysilicon on a commercial scale at a price of $14/kg by 1986 (1980 dollars). This work, completed under Phases I and II of the contract, provided a firm base for the Phase III Program (initiated in April 1979) aimed at establishing the practicality of the process by pursuing the following specific objectives: (1) design, fabricate, install, and operate an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) sized for 100 MT/yr to obtain extensive performance data to establish the data base for the design of commercial facilities; (2) perform support research and development to provide an information base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economic analysis for potential scale-up of the process; and (3) perform iterative economic analyses of the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor-grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000 MT/yr. This process for preparing semiconductor-grade silicon in the EPSDU from metallurgical-grade (M-G) silicon is based on a well-integrated arrangement of purification steps that provides a cost-effective process system. The three basic steps entail converting M-G silicon to trichlorosilane, redistributing the trichlorosilane to produce silane, and thermally decomposing the silane to form amorphous silicon powder. The powder is then melted and the molten silicon is cast to polycrystalline for subsequent use in fabricating solar cells. Progress is reported in detail. (WHK)

  7. 3D-printed concentrator arrays for external light trapping on thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Lourens; Marcus, E. A. Pepijn; Oostra, A. Jolt; Schropp, Ruud E. I.; Di Vece, Marcel

    After our recent demonstration of a 3D-printed external light trap on a small solar cell, we now consider its potential for large solar panels. An external light trap consists of a parabolic concentrator and a spacer that redirects the photons that are reflected by the solar cell back towards the

  8. Solar on the brink : more and more engineers are being asked to integrate solar technologies into building designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methods of integrating solar technologies into building designs were discussed in this article. Ontario's feed-in-tariff (FIT) program will make Ontario a centre for solar technology and is expected to generate new jobs in the alternative energy industry. While photovoltaic (PV) systems eliminate the need for building new electricity and distribution networks, PV systems are the least efficient solar technology in relation to economics, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) offsets, and energy generation. Many buildings in Canada have significant ventilation air heating loads that are not best served by heat recovery technologies. The economic performance of solar thermal systems can only be understood in relation to the operational efficiency of a building's heating plant. Solar PV systems can provide returns on investment when considered alongside Ontario's FIT program tariffs. Without the tariffs, many payback periods are in excess of PV system product lifetimes. Maintenance contracts and budgets must be carefully considered when commissioning solar energy projects. 3 figs.

  9. Building integrated multi PV/T/A solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ami Elazari

    2000-01-01

    Previous development in solar energy for residential applications proved that there is merit in further development and improvement of combined electricity and hot water and hot air collectors. The justification stems from the fact that waste heat is generated when PV cells are producing electricity but it decrease its efficiency dramatically, and any effective way to cool the cells can improve their efficiency and long while the heat that generated from this cooling process could be stored and used as standard solar hot water/air system. The core unit comprises of integrated PV cells mounted on a flat-plate collector for water and air, hot water storage tank hot air inlet pips to the house electric battery bank, inverter, connecting cables and controller. Double-glazing serving as solar trap to triple the amount of sun ray reaching the PV cells and other technical innovation make the system more cost effective and cost benefit for stand alone and grid connected domestic application. Two way interconnection with the electric grid like in all the roof top program may bring it to economic viability by selling excess electricity during the costly peak hours while buying low cost electricity during the night off-peak hours, and free electricity from the sun plus free hot water and hot air for domestic use as by-product. A basic domestic two-collector system may deliver up to 4 kWh of electricity and 12000 kcal of hot water and air daily. Some 22 systems are currently operating at various locations in Israel, some for 8 years with very good results. (Author)

  10. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  11. In vivo optical modulation of neural signals using monolithically integrated two-dimensional neural probe arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yoojin; Jenny Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Jeongyeon; Shin, Hyogeun; Choi, Nakwon; Justin Lee, C.; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Yoon, Euisik; Wise, Kensall D.; Geun Kim, Tae; Cho, Il-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Integration of stimulation modalities (e.g. electrical, optical, and chemical) on a large array of neural probes can enable an investigation of important underlying mechanisms of brain disorders that is not possible through neural recordings alone. Furthermore, it is important to achieve this integration of multiple functionalities in a compact structure to utilize a large number of the mouse models. Here we present a successful optical modulation of in vivo neural signals of a transgenic mouse through our compact 2D MEMS neural array (optrodes). Using a novel fabrication method that embeds a lower cladding layer in a silicon substrate, we achieved a thin silicon 2D optrode array that is capable of delivering light to multiple sites using SU-8 as a waveguide core. Without additional modification to the microelectrodes, the measured impedance of the multiple microelectrodes was below 1 MΩ at 1 kHz. In addition, with a low background noise level (±25 μV), neural spikes from different individual neurons were recorded on each microelectrode. Lastly, we successfully used our optrodes to modulate the neural activity of a transgenic mouse through optical stimulation. These results demonstrate the functionality of the 2D optrode array and its potential as a next-generation tool for optogenetic applications.

  12. An Integrated Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Chemical Microsensor Array for Gas-Phase Chemical Analysis Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalnuovo, stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    1999-07-20

    This paper describes preliminary results in the development of an acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor array. The array is based on a novel configuration that allows for three sensors and a phase reference. Two configurations of the integrated array are discussed: a hybrid multichip-module based on a quartz SAW sensor with GaAs microelectronics and a fully monolithic GaAs-based SAW. Preliminary data are also presented for the use of the integrated SAW array in a gas-phase chemical micro system that incorporates microfabricated sample collectors and concentrators along with gas chromatography (GC) columns.

  13. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  14. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ssLAPSS expands on the SOP LAPSS by upgrading the light sources to enable future solar cell technologies while maintaining all of the current, proven calibration...

  15. Performance enhancement of quantum dot sensitized solar cells under TiO2 nanotube arrays membranes optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli; Zhao, Yinghan; Liao, Lida; Chen, Jian

    2017-07-01

    One-dimensional single crystalline TiO2 nanotube arrays with different length are prepared, and transferred onto the FTO glass substrate with different concentration of Ti-precursor. The relationships between the concentration of Ti-precursor and the optical properties, as well as the photovoltaic performance of the as-prepared solar cells have been investigated. The optical absorption intensity is obviously enhanced and optical absorption edge is expanded to 800 nm for the CdSe/CdS/TiO2 NTs solar cells. In addition, 20 μm - CdSe/CdS/TiO2 NTs solar cells with 0.1 M Ti-precursor have the great photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 4.18%. The excellent photovoltaic performance is attributed to the suitable TiO2 connection layer from 0.1 M Ti-precursor and length of TiO2 NTs, which greatly enhances the electron-hole generation and charge transfer performance in the solar cells. Finally, the photovoltaic efficiency of the as-fabricated solar cells can be further enhanced to 4.51% through the ZnS passivation layer deposition.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  17. 16.1% Efficient Hysteresis-Free Mesostructured Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Synergistically Improved ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Significant efficiency improvements are reported in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on the development of a low-temperature solution-processed ZnO nanorod (NR) array exhibiting higher NR aspect ratio, enhanced electron density, and substantially reduced work function than conventional ZnO NRs. These features synergistically result in hysteresis-free, scan-independent, and stabilized devices with an efficiency of 16.1%. Electron-rich, nitrogen-doped ZnO (N:ZnO) NR-based electron transporting materials (ETMs) with enhanced electron mobility produced using ammonium acetate show consistently higher efficiencies by one to three power points than undoped ZnO NRs. Additionally, the preferential electrostatic interaction between the -nonpolar facets of N:ZnO and the conjugated polyelectrolyte polyethylenimine (PEI) has been relied on to promote the hydrothermal growth of high aspect ratio NR arrays and substantially improve the infiltration of the perovskite light absorber into the ETM. Using the same interactions, a conformal PEI coating on the electron-rich high aspect ratio N:ZnO NR arrays is -successfully applied, resulting in a favorable work function shift and altogether leading to the significant boost in efficiency from <10% up to >16%. These results largely surpass the state-of-the-art PCE of ZnO-based perovskite solar cells and highlight the benefits of synergistically combining mesoscale control with doping and surface modification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on Settlement AGENCY: U.S...

  19. Integrated Automation of High-Throughput Screening and Reverse Phase Protein Array Sample Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    multiplexing readouts, but this has a natural limitation. High-content screening via image acquisition and analysis allows multiplexing of few parameters, but is connected to substantial time consumption and complex logistics. We report on integration of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA)-based readouts...... into automated robotic high-throughput screens, which allows subsequent protein quantification. In this integrated solution, samples are directly forwarded to automated cell lysate preparation and preparation of dilution series, including reformatting to a protein spotter-compatible format after the high...

  20. Solar Array Disturbances to Spacecraft Pointing During the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU) to provide body rates for attitude propagation. Rate is computed by differentiating accumulated angle provided by the MIMU. The Observing Mode controller is required to maintain fine pointing while a large fully-articulated solar array (SA) maintains its panel normal to the solar incidence. This paper describes the disturbances to the attitude control resulting from the SA articulation. Observing Mode performance in the presence of this disturbance was assessed while the spacecraft was in an initial elliptical low altitude orbit during the commissioning phase, which started about two weeks after launch and lasted for 90 days. LRO demonstrated excellent pointing performance during Observing Mode nadir and inertial attitude target operations during this phase. Transient LRO attitude errors observed during commissioning resulted primarily from three sources, Diviner instrument calibrations, RW zero crossings, and SA articulation. Even during times of considerable disturbance from SA articulation, the attitude errors were maintained below the statistical attitude error requirement level of 15 arc-sec (3 sigma).

  1. Fabricating process of hollow out-of-plane Ni microneedle arrays and properties of the integrated microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Cao, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Yigui; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Di

    2013-07-01

    Although microfluidic devices that integrate microfluidic chips with hollow out-of-plane microneedle arrays have many advantages in transdermal drug delivery applications, difficulties exist in their fabrication due to the special three-dimensional structures of hollow out-of-plane microneedles. A new, cost-effective process for the fabrication of a hollow out-of-plane Ni microneedle array is presented. The integration of PDMS microchips with the Ni hollow microneedle array and the properties of microfluidic devices are also presented. The integrated microfluidic devices provide a new approach for transdermal drug delivery.

  2. A hybrid desalination system using humidification-dehumidification and solar stills integrated with evacuated solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshir, S.W.; Peng, Guilong; Yang, Nuo; Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Kabeel, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evacuated solar water heater integrated with humidification-dehumidification system. • Reuse of warm water drained from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills. • The thermal performance of hybrid system is increased by 50% and maximum yield is 63.3 kg/day. • The estimated price of the freshwater produced from the hybrid system is $0.034/L. - Abstract: This paper offers a hybrid solar desalination system comprising a humidification-dehumidification and four solar stills. The developed hybrid desalination system reuses the drain warm water from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills to stop the massive warm water loss during desalination. Reusing the drain warm water increases the gain output ratio of the system by 50% and also increased the efficiency of single solar still to about 90%. Furthermore, the production of a single solar still as a part of the hybrid system was more than that of the conventional one by approximately 200%. The daily water production of the conventional one, single solar still, four solar still, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were 3.2, 10.5, 42, 24.3 and 66.3 kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the cost per unit liter of distillate from conventional one, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were around $0.049, $0.058 and $0.034, respectively.

  3. Volumetric imaging using single chip integrated CMUT-on-CMOS IVUS array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Gurun, Gokce; Satir, Sarp; Xu, Toby; Hochman, Michael; Degertekin, F Levent

    2012-01-01

    An intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheter that can provide forward viewing volumetric ultrasound images would be an invaluable clinical tool for guiding interventions. Single chip integration of front-end electronics with capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is highly desirable to reduce the interconnection complexity and enable miniaturization in IVUS catheters. For this purpose we use the monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS integration where CMUTs are fabricated directly on top of pre-processed CMOS wafers. This minimizes parasitic capacitances associated with connection lines. We have recently implemented a system design including all the required electronics using 0.35-µm CMOS process integrated with a 1.4-mm diameter CMUT array. In this study, we present the experimental volumetric imaging results from an ex-vivo chicken heart phantom. The imaging results demonstrate that the single-chip forward looking IVUS (FL-IVUS) system with monolithically integrated electronics has potential to visualize the front view of coronary arteries.

  4. Silicon materials task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project: Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Hanes, M. H.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of impurities and processing on the characteristics of silicon and terrestrial silicon solar cells were defined in order to develop cost benefit relationships for the use of cheaper, less pure solar grades of silicon. The amount of concentrations of commonly encountered impurities that can be tolerated in typical p or n base solar cells was established, then a preliminary analytical model from which the cell performance could be projected depending on the kinds and amounts of contaminants in the silicon base material was developed. The impurity data base was expanded to include construction materials, and the impurity performace model was refined to account for additional effects such as base resistivity, grain boundary interactions, thermal processing, synergic behavior, and nonuniform impurity distributions. A preliminary assessment of long term (aging) behavior of impurities was also undertaken.

  5. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Efficient solar photoelectrosynthesis of methanol from carbon dioxide using hybrid CuO-Cu2O semiconductor nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Ghazaleh; de Tacconi, Norma R; Chanmanee, Wilaiwan; Janaky, Csaba; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2013-02-14

    Solar photoelectrosynthesis of methanol was driven on hybrid CuO-Cu(2)O semiconductor nanorod arrays for the first time at potentials ~800 mV below the thermodynamic threshold value and at Faradaic efficiencies up to ~95%. The CuO-Cu(2)O nanorod arrays were prepared on Cu substrates by a two-step approach consisting of the initial thermal growth of CuO nanorods followed by controlled electrodeposition of p-type Cu(2)O crystallites on their walls. No homogeneous co-catalysts (such as pyridine, imidazole or metal cyclam complexes) were used contrasting with earlier studies on this topic using p-type semiconductor photocathodes. The roles of the core-shell nanorod electrode geometry and the copper oxide composition were established by varying the time of electrodeposition of the Cu(2)O phase on the CuO nanorod core surface.

  7. Ordered crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanohexagon arrays for improving conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Hafiz Muhammad Asif [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Yin, Xingtian; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Asghar, Ali; Shao, Jinyou [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Kong, Ling Bing, E-mail: ELBKong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} nanohexagon arrays were grown by using an anodization process of Ti foil in fluoride containing electrolytes. Photoanode based on the as-grown anatase TiO{sub 2} nanohexagon arrays for DSSCs showed a power photoconversion efficiency of 4.01% and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 68%, which are significantly higher than those of the device based on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. This improvement in power conversion efficiency should be attributed to the fact that the nanotubes with hexagonal structure have higher surface area to allow the uploading of more dye molecules for light harvesting. Also, the spacing introduced inside the hexagon might allow the dye molecules to cover the interior of the walls. In addition, it is believed that the photoconversion efficiency can be further increased by optimizing the hexagonal structure through the electrochemical conditions. - Graphical abstract: Nanotubes with hexagonal structure have higher surface area to allow the uploading of more dye molecules for light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • A unique TiO{sub 2} nanohexagon arrays were grown by an anodization process. • Higher surface area for dye uploading provided by the hexagon structure. • TiO{sub 2} nanohexagon based photoanode has PCE of 4.01% and IPCE of 68%.

  8. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  9. Reuniting the Solar System: Integrated Education and Public Outreach Projects for Solar System Exploration Missions and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Leslie; Lindstrom, Marilyn; Stockman, Stephanie; Scalice, Daniela; Klug, Sheri

    2003-01-01

    The Solar System Exploration Education Forum has worked for five years to foster Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) cooperation among missions and programs in order to leverage resources and better meet the needs of educators and the public. These efforts are coming together in a number of programs and products and in '2004 - The Year of the Solar System.' NASA's practice of having independent E/PO programs for each mission and its public affairs emphasis on uniqueness has led to a public perception of a fragmented solar system exploration program. By working to integrate solar system E/PO, the breadth and depth of the solar system exploration program is revealed. When emphasis is put on what missions have in common, as well as their differences, each mission is seen in the context of the whole program.

  10. Influence of local environmental, social, economic and political variables on the spatial distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Calvin Lee

    2012-01-01

    This study used ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census to investigate the influence of local environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States. Current locations of residential solar PVs were documented using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project. A zero-inflated negative binomial reression model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables. Using the same model, predicted residential solar PV shares were generated and illustrated using GIS software. The results of the model indicate solar insolation, cost of electricity and amount of available financial incentives are important factors influencing adoption of residential solar PV arrays. Results also indicate the Southwestern region of the United States and the state of Florida are currently underperforming in terms of number of housing units with solar PV installations. - Highlights: ► I look at the effect of environmental, socio-economic and political factors on residential solar PV adoption. ► Over and underperforming areas respective to residential solar PV adoption in the United States were identified. ► GIS was used to evaluate predicted and observed residential solar PV shares by ZIP Code. ► Cost of electricity and financial incentives are positively correlated with solar PV adoption.

  11. Solar power arrays for the concentration of energy technical report covering task 4b. Solar hybrid plants: power system interface analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertson, V.D.

    1975-11-01

    A model is developed which yields the solar flux density distribution on the surface of a vertical cylindrical receiver mounted on a tower centrally located in a horizontal circular ring-shaped mirror field. The flux density at a given location on the receiver surface is shown to be given by the numerical integration of a simple analytical expression. Strategies are examined for redistributing the solar flux input to obtain a desired distribution or maintain a specified distribution throughout the day. The solar flux density distribution is expressed as a dimensionless concentration ratio which can be derived from universal curves and then used in the design of receivers to meet specified flux levels. (auth)

  12. High performance integrated solar combined cycles with minimum modifications to the combined cycle power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Off-design model of a 390 MW e three pressure combined cycle developed and validated. • The off-design model is used to evaluate different hybridization schemes with solar. • Power boosting and fuel saving with different design modifications are considered. • Maximum solar share of total electricity is only 1% with the existing equipment. • The maximum incremental solar radiation-to-electrical efficiency approaches 29%. - Abstract: The integration of solar energy into natural gas combined cycles has been successfully demonstrated in several integrated solar combined cycles since the beginning of this decade in many countries. There are many motivations that drive investments on integrated solar combined cycles which are primarily the repowering of existing power plants, the compliance with more severe environmental laws on emissions and the mitigation of risks associated with large solar projects. Integrated solar combined cycles are usually developed as brownfield facilities by retrofitting existing natural gas combined cycles and keeping the existing equipment to minimize costs. In this work a detailed off-design model of a 390 MW e three pressure level natural gas combined cycle is built to evaluate different integration schemes of solar energy which either keep the equipment of the combined cycle unchanged or include new equipment (steam turbine, heat recovery steam generator). Both power boosting and fuel saving operation strategies are analyzed in the search for the highest annual efficiency and solar share. Results show that the maximum incremental power output from solar at design solar irradiance is limited to 19 MW e without modifications to the existing equipment. Higher values are attainable only including a larger steam turbine. High solar radiation-to-electrical efficiencies in the range 24–29% can be achieved in the integrated solar combined cycle depending on solar share and extension of tube banks in the heat recovery

  13. EPRI 25kW high concentration photovoltaic integrated array concept and associated economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.A.; Dostalek, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a cost effective photovoltaic array design for the high concentration technology being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute for utility scale applications. The concept of an ''integrated array'' is to attach Fresnel lens parquets directly to the front of the tracker structure and PV panels directly to the back of the structure thereby eliminating redundant structural components. The concept also incorporates the maximum use of automated manufacturing techniques for all components thereby minimizing material waste, fabrication and assembly labor. This paper also describes the results of a first approach cost and economic study for the technology which shows the potential for levelized energy cost below $0.10/kWh for a 50 MW ac plant given a mature technology

  14. Digital cell counting device integrated with a single-cell array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Saeki

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel cell counting method accomplished using a single-cell array fabricated on an image sensor, complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. The single-cell array was constructed using a microcavity array, which can trap up to 7,500 single cells on microcavities periodically arranged on a plane metallic substrate via the application of a negative pressure. The proposed method for cell counting is based on shadow imaging, which uses a light diffraction pattern generated by the microcavity array and trapped cells. Under illumination, the cell-occupied microcavities are visualized as shadow patterns in an image recorded by the complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor due to light attenuation. The cell count is determined by enumerating the uniform shadow patterns created from one-on-one relationships with single cells trapped on the microcavities in digital format. In the experiment, all cell counting processes including entrapment of non-labeled HeLa cells from suspensions on the array and image acquisition of a wide-field-of-view of 30 mm(2 in 1/60 seconds were implemented in a single integrated device. As a result, the results from the digital cell counting had a linear relationship with those obtained from microscopic observation (r(2  = 0.99. This platform could be used at extremely low cell concentrations, i.e., 25-15,000 cells/mL. Our proposed system provides a simple and rapid miniaturized cell counting device for routine laboratory use.

  15. Algorithm for the synthesis of linear antenna arrays with desired radiation pattern and integral amplitude coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadchenko A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahe problem of technical implementation of phased array antennas (PAR with the required radiation pattern (RP is the complexity of the construction of the beamforming device that consists of a set of controlled attenuators and phase shifters. It is possible to simplify the technical implementation of PAR, if complex representation of coefficients of amplitude-phase distribution of the field along the lattice is approximated by real values in the synthesis stage. It is known that the amplitude distribution of the field in the aperture of the antenna array and the radiation pattern are associated with Fourier transform. Thus, the amplitude and phase coefficients are first calculated using the Fourier transform, and then processed according to the selected type of circuit realization of attenuators and phase shifters. The calculation of the inverse Fourier transform of the modified coefficients allows calculating the synthesized orientation function. This study aims to develop a search algorithm for amplitude and phase coefficients, taking into account the fact that integer-valued amplitudes and phases are technically easier to implement than real ones. Synthesis algorithm for equidistant linear array with a half-wavelength irradiators pitch (&l;/2 is as follows. From a given directivity function the discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the form of an array of complex numbers is found, the resulting array is then transformed into a set of attenuations for attenuators and phase shifts for phase shifters, while the amplitude coefficients are rounded off to integers, and phases are binarizated (0, ?. The practical value of this algorithm is particularly high when using controlled phase shifters and attenuators integrally. The work confirms the possibility of a thermoelectric converter of human body application for an electronic medical thermometer power supply.

  16. Design of a front-end integrated circuit for 3D acoustic imaging using 2D CMUT arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, İhsan; Cicek, Ihsan; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Karaman, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    Integration of front-end electronics with 2D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays has been a challenging issue due to the small element size and large channel count. We present design and verification of a front-end drive-readout integrated circuit for 3D ultrasonic imaging using 2D CMUT arrays. The circuit cell dedicated to a single CMUT array element consists of a high-voltage pulser and a low-noise readout amplifier. To analyze the circuit cell together with the CMU...

  17. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m 2 ) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m 2 ·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I sc and P max decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  18. Potential impacts of solar arrays on highway environment, safety and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The advent of solar energy utilization in highway infrastructure around the country has been increasing in : recent years. Right of Ways (ROWs) have several advantages for energy development such as the existing : electrical infrastructure aligned wi...

  19. SOLAROSA (Stretched Optical Lens Architecture on Roll-Out Solar Array) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS), in partnership with Entech Solar (ENTECH) and Carbon-Free Energy (CFE) will focus the proposed NASA Phase 1 effort on the...

  20. Design aspects of integrated compact thermal storage system for solar dryer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.; Velraj, R.; Renganarayanan, S.

    2000-01-01

    Solar energy is an excellent source for drying of crops, fruits, vegetables and other agricultural and forest products. Though the availability of solar energy is plenty, it is time dependent in nature. The energy need for some applications is also time dependent, but in a different pattern and phase from the solar energy supply. This implies that the solar dryer should be integrated with an efficient thermal storage system to match the time-dependent supply and end-use requirements. Based on the studies carried out on Latent Heat Thermal Storage (LHTS) Systems, it is observed that when air is used as the heat transfer fluid in LHTS system, nearly uniform surface heat flux can be achieved. Hence the LHTS systems are most suitable for air based solar drying applications. In the present work some major conclusions arrived from the investigations on LHTS systems and the design considerations for the integrated latent heat thermal storage for the solar dryer are reported. (Author)

  1. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  2. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Workshop - Solar cells and daylight. Solar cell house. House building with integrated solar cell systems; Workshop - Solceller og dagslys. Solcellehus. Boligbyggeri med integrerede solcelleanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Mio; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2005-04-15

    The workshop 'Solar cells and daylight' at Aarhus School of Architecture aimed at studying and developing architectural potentials of integrating solar cell systems in building components for future house building. The aim of the process was to stress that technical conditions such as energy technological component design might work as central points of support in the future shaping and organisation of qualitative and functional design of houses. (BA)

  4. Multi-functional hinge equipped with a magneto-rheological rotary damper for solar array deployment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingfu; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Wu, Zhengzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the design and simulation of a novel multi-functional hinge equipped with a rotary magnetorheological damper for solar array deployment system, which is comprised of a hinge, an angular sensor, a positioning and locking mechanism and a rotary damper. In order to achieve the compact design in structure, some components were reused in different function modules. It's the first to use magnet-rheological fluid (MRF) to dissipate the energy in solar array deployment system. The main advantage in using MR rotary damper instead of a viscous fluid rotary damper is that the damping force of MR damper can be adjusted according to the external magnetic field environment excited. A mechanic model was built and the structure design was focused on the MR rotary damper, a damping force model of this damper is deduced based on hydromechanics with Bingham plastic constitutive model. A simulation of deployment motion was taken to validate the motion sequence of various components during the unfolding and locking process. It can be obtained that a constant damping coefficient can hardly balance the different performance of solar deployment system, then a simulation of the proposed deployment system equipped with rotary MR damper was carried out. According to the simulation, it can be obtained that the terminal velocity decreased by 75.81% and the deployment time decreased by 72.37% compared with a given constant damping coefficients. Therefore, the proposed new type of rotary damper can reach a compromise with different performance utilizing an on-off control strategy.

  5. Transient deflection response in microcantilever array integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan R; Hu, Weisheng; Noh, Jong Wook; Dahlquist, William C; Ness, Stanley J; Gustafson, Timothy M; Richards, Danny C; Kim, Seunghyun; Mazzeo, Brian A; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2011-06-21

    We report the integration of a nanomechanical sensor consisting of 16 silicon microcantilevers with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidics. For microcantilevers positioned near the bottom of a microfluidic flow channel, a transient differential analyte concentration for the top versus bottom surface of each microcantilever is created when an analyte-bearing fluid is introduced into the flow channel (which is initially filled with a non-analyte containing solution). We use this effect to characterize a bare (nonfunctionalized) microcantilever array in which the microcantilevers are simultaneously read out with our recently developed high sensitivity in-plane photonic transduction method. We first examine the case of non-specific binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to silicon. The average maximum transient microcantilever deflection in the array is -1.6 nm, which corresponds to a differential surface stress of only -0.23 mN m(-1). This is in excellent agreement with the maximum differential surface stress calculated based on a modified rate equation in conjunction with finite element simulation. Following BSA adsorption, buffer solutions with different pH are introduced to further study microcantilever array transient response. Deflections of 20-100 nm are observed (2-14 mN m(-1) differential surface stress). At a flow rate of 5 μL min(-1), the average measured temporal width (FWHM) of the transient response is 5.3 s for BSA non-specific binding and 0.74 s for pH changes.

  6. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  7. Location optimization of solar plants by an integrated hierarchical DEA PCA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Maghsoudi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Unique features of renewable energies such as solar energy has caused increasing demands for such resources. In order to use solar energy as a natural resource, environmental circumstances and geographical location related to solar intensity must be considered. Different factors may affect on the selection of a suitable location for solar plants. These factors must be considered concurrently for optimum location identification of solar plants. This article presents an integrated hierarchical approach for location of solar plants by data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT). Furthermore, an integrated hierarchical DEA approach incorporating the most relevant parameters of solar plants is introduced. Moreover, 2 multivariable methods namely, PCA and NT are used to validate the results of DEA model. The prescribed approach is tested for 25 different cities in Iran with 6 different regions within each city. This is the first study that considers an integrated hierarchical DEA approach for geographical location optimization of solar plants. Implementation of the proposed approach would enable the energy policy makers to select the best-possible location for construction of a solar power plant with lowest possible costs

  8. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated at t...

  9. Flexible PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with integrated grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    spectra of the active layer. This optimized solar cell structure leads to an enhanced absorption in the active layer and thus improved short-circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies in the fabricated devices. Fabrication of the solar cells on thin polyimide substrates which are compatible...

  10. Design and testing of an all-digital readout integrated circuit for infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael; Berger, Robert; Colonero, Curtis; Gregg, Mark; Model, Joshua; Mooney, Daniel; Ringdahl, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The digital focal plane array (DFPA) project demonstrates the enabling technologies necessary to build readout integrated circuits for very large infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs). Large and fast FPAs are needed for a new class of spectrally diverse sensors. Because of the requirement for high-resolution (low noise) sampling, and because of the sample rate needed for rapid acquisition of high-resolution spectra, it is highly desirable to perform analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion right at the pixel level. A dedicated A/D converter located under every pixel in a one-million-plus element array, and all-digital readout integrated circuits will enable multi- and hyper-spectral imaging systems with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution and wide area coverage. DFPAs provide similar benefits to standard IR imaging systems as well. We have addressed the key enabling technologies for realizing the DFPA architecture in this work. Our effort concentrated on demonstrating a 60-micron footprint, 14-bit A/D converter and 2.5 Gbps, 16:1 digital multiplexer, the most basic components of the sensor. The silicon test chip was fabricated in a 0.18-micron CMOS process, and was designed to operate with HgxCd1-xTe detectors at cryogenic temperatures. Two A/D designs, one using static logic and one using dynamic logic, were built and tested for performance and power dissipation. Structures for evaluating the bit-error-rate of the multiplexer on-chip and through a differential output driver were implemented for a complete performance assessment. A unique IC probe card with fixtures to mount into an evacuated, closed-cycle helium dewar were also designed for testing up to 2.5 Gbps at temperatures as low as 50 K.

  11. System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

  12. Tunable, Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET for Flexible Bio-sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    closed together using an electrolyte and indium tin dioxide-coated PET . 201 3. Results and Discussion Figure 5 shows the effects of methanol...Oxide Coated PET for Flexible Bio-sensitized Solar Cells JOSHUA J. MARTIN, UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE MENTORS: DR. SHASHI KARNA AND DR. MARK GRIEP U.S...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tunable, Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays On Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET For Flexible Bio-sensitized Solar Cells 5a

  13. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  14. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano; Buonasera, Katia; Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. ► The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. ► Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. ► The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 μM and 4.5 μM, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 μM and 35 μM respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  15. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, K T; Chung, C K

    2016-01-01

    An integrated technology of CO 2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO 2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO 2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO 2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold. (paper)

  16. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  17. Smart thermal grid with integration of distributed and centralized solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Libing; Entchev, Evgueniy; Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Smart thermal grids (STGs) are able to perform the same function as classical grids, but are developed in order to make better use of distributed, possibly intermittent, thermal energy resources and to provide the required energy when needed through efficient resources utilization and intelligent management. District heating (DH) plays a significant role in the implementation of future smart energy systems. To fulfil its role, DH technologies must be further developed to integrate renewable resources, create low-temperature networks, and consequently to make existing or new DH networks ready for integration into future STGs. Solar heating is a promising option for low-temperature DH systems. Thermal energy storage (TES) can make the availability of the energy supply match the demand. An integration of centralized seasonal and distributed short-term thermal storages would facilitate an efficient recovery of the solar energy. This study, through modelling and simulation, investigates the impacts of such integration on the overall performance of a community-level solar DH system. The performance analysis results show that the solar DH system with integration of distributed and centralized seasonal TESs improves system overall efficiency, and reduces DH network heat losses, primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, in comparison to the one without integration. - Highlights: • STG should be designed to store energy in the most efficient way at the most effective location. • Integration of centralized seasonal and distributed TESs in a solar DH system is proposed. • Performance of such integrated solar DH system is evaluated and compared to the one without. • The integration results in reduction of primary energy consumption and GHG emission. • The integration improves the overall efficiency of the total solar energy system.

  18. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.

  19. Recording of remote ground explosions in the Barents Region by the Seismic &Infrasound Integrated Array "Apatity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, A.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1996, Kola Regional Seismological Centre (KRSC) has been engaged in infrasonic research and development. As part of this effort, a small-aperture microbarographic array was installed in conjunction with the seismic array near lake Imandra in the Kola Peninsula; the digitised data are transmitted in real time to the Processing Centre in Apatity; a data processing includes frequency-wavenumber analysis of the array recordings, estimation of phase velocity and azimuth, and evaluation of group velocity based on travel time calculations. The whole system was named the Seismic and InfraSound Integrated Array (SISIA) "Apatity". We present some examples of coupled recordings for selected events in the Kola Peninsula and adjacent regions. Explosions at large mines in the Barents region are routinely detected by the seismic systems installed in northern Fennoscandia and NW Russia. Seismic and infrasound emission from Khibiny, Pechenga, Kovdor and Olenegorsk mines in the Murmansk County are recording by SISIA "Apatity", and the presented 19 reference records show a high sensitivity of the system and a good accuracy for localisation of events within distance range of 30 to 220 km. A capability of the SISIA for detection of events in a remote zone (more than 220 km) was evaluated in case study performed in September 04 - 09, 2002. A set of explosions caused by ammunition demolition in Northern Finland, at a distance of 300 km from the array, have been successfully recorded in Apatity. Three separate phase arrivals for each of five events were identified as follows: the Tropospheric arrival (Iw), the Stratospheric arrival (Is) and the Thermospheric arrival (It). Was found, that all 15 estimates of azimuth are very consistent, ranging from 278 to 288 degrees (true azimuth is 284 degrees). The observed group velocities (average travel velocities) range between 326-336 m/s for the Iw arrival, 300-305 m/s for the Is arrival and 244-254 m/s for the It arrival. The phase

  20. The Bepicolombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO Solar Array Design, Major Developments and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loehberg A.

    2017-01-01

    The MPO solar generator is composed of one wing consisting of three panels and provides an average power output up to 1800W during the nominal 1 Earth year mission around Mercury. The wing design is characterised by temperature reduction measures. The flight wing has already passed the majority of the environmental test program.

  1. Ultra-Flexible Advanced Stiffness Truss for Large Solar Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal in Phase II will be to develop several prototypes of the Ultra-FAST boom that is needed as the Trunk beam in the 300 kW GRA Solar Electric Propulsion...

  2. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D.E.; Gallagher, P.T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E.P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M.M.; Kerdraon, A.; Avruch, I.M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio

  3. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morosan, D.E.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.; Markoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio

  4. The upper limit of the solar antineutrino flux according to the LSD array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'etta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Badino, D.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the experimental data obtained at the LSD liquid scintillation detector is carried out with the aim of searching the possible flux of electron antineutrinos from Sun. The most strong at present upper limit for the electron antineutrino flux of solar origin is determined: ≤ 1.0 x 10 5 cm -2 x s -1 (the reliability level of 90%)

  5. Standard house with integrated solar cell system. Technical final report; Typehus med integreret solcelleanlaeg. Faglig slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The interest in solar cell technology among Danish house owners is increasing, but there are many considerations to be made before the house owner choose to install solar cells on the house. Major barriers are the solar cell systems' price and appearance. This interdisciplinary development project will show that both aesthetic and economic advantages can be derived from integrating solar cells already when the first sketches of the house are being made. In order to promote utilization of solar cells in Denmark the solutions must be attractive, both economically and aesthetically. Therefore the solar cell solutions in this project are developed in preparation for marketing both as an aesthetic expression and a high-technological, green and prestigious element. (BA)

  6. Handbook of solar energy data for south-facing surfaces in the United States. Volume I. An insolation, array shadowing, and reflector augmentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.

    1980-01-15

    This handbook provides estimates of average available solar insolation to fixed, flat-plate, south-facing collector surfaces at various array tilt angles at numerous sites in the US. This first volume contains average daily, total insolation estimates, by month, and annual totals for 235 locations. A model that estimates the direct, diffuse, and reflected components of total insolation on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis is presented. A shadow loss model and a reflector augmentation model providing estimates of the losses and gains associated with various fixed array geometries are also described. These models can be used with the insolation model provided or with other recorded data. A FORTRAN computer program with user's guide is presented. The program can be used to generate additional handbook values or to examine the effects of array shadowing and fixed reflector augmentation effects on a daily, monthly, or annual basis. Array shadowing depends on location, array size, array tilt, array separation, and time. The program can be used to examine trade-offs between array spacing and insolation losses due to shadowing. The reflector augmentation program can be used to examine trade-offs among array size and tilt, separation, and reflector tilt to determine the combination of design values that optimize the economic objectives or technical criteria of the system.

  7. Integrating solar energy and climate research into science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alan K.; Hamilton, James; Ligon, Sam; Mahar, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes multi-year records of solar flux and climate data from two solar power sites in Vermont. We show the inter-annual differences of temperature, wind, panel solar flux, electrical power production, and cloud cover. Power production has a linear relation to a dimensionless measure of the transmission of sunlight through the cloud field. The difference between panel and air temperatures reaches 24°C with high solar flux and low wind speed. High panel temperatures that occur in summer with low wind speeds and clear skies can reduce power production by as much as 13%. The intercomparison of two sites 63 km apart shows that while temperature is highly correlated on daily (R2=0.98) and hourly (R2=0.94) timescales, the correlation of panel solar flux drops markedly from daily (R2=0.86) to hourly (R2=0.63) timescales. Minimum temperatures change little with cloud cover, but the diurnal temperature range shows a nearly linear increase with falling cloud cover to 16°C under nearly clear skies, similar to results from the Canadian Prairies. The availability of these new solar and climate datasets allows local student groups, a Rutland High School team here, to explore the coupled relationships between climate, clouds, and renewable power production. As our society makes major changes in our energy infrastructure in response to climate change, it is important that we accelerate the technical education of high school students using real-world data.

  8. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  9. Controllable preparation of TiO2 nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 nanowire arrays with controlled morphology and density have been synthesized on Ti mesh substrates by hydrothermal approach for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells which showed well photovoltaic efficiency of 3.42%. - Highlights: • Flexible titanium mesh was first used for hydrothermal preparation of TiO 2 NWAs. • The formation mechanism of the TiO 2 nanostructures was discussed. • The density, average diameter, and morphology of TiO 2 NWAs can be controlled. • The effects of the sensitization temperature and time on the properties were studied. - Abstract: TiO 2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO 2 nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO 2 nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO 2 nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO 2 NWAs (with a length of about 14 μm) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm −2 , an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved

  10. Controllable preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays on titanium mesh for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenwu; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min, E-mail: guomin@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays with controlled morphology and density have been synthesized on Ti mesh substrates by hydrothermal approach for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells which showed well photovoltaic efficiency of 3.42%. - Highlights: • Flexible titanium mesh was first used for hydrothermal preparation of TiO{sub 2} NWAs. • The formation mechanism of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures was discussed. • The density, average diameter, and morphology of TiO{sub 2} NWAs can be controlled. • The effects of the sensitization temperature and time on the properties were studied. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanowire arrays (NWAs) with an average diameter of 80 nm have been successfully synthesized on titanium (Ti) mesh substrates via hydrothermal method. The effects of preparing conditions such as concentration of NaOH solution, reaction time, and hydrothermal temperature on the growth of TiO{sub 2} nanoarrays and its related photovoltaic properties were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photovoltaic properties test. The growth mechanism of the Ti mesh-supported TiO{sub 2} nanostructures was discussed in detail. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to determine the optimized temperature and time of the dye sensitized process for the flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is demonstrated that hydrothermal parameters had obvious influence on the morphology and growth density of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoarrays. In addition, the performance of the flexible DSSC depended strongly on the sensitization temperature and time. By utilizing Ti mesh-supported TiO{sub 2} NWAs (with a length of about 14 μm) as a photoanode, the flexible DSSC with a short circuit current density of 10.49 mA cm{sup −2}, an open-circuit voltage of 0.69 V, and an overall power conversion efficiency of 3.42% was achieved.

  11. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.U.; Siddiqui, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  12. Technical and economic analysis of integrating low-medium temperature solar energy into power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Jun; Deng, Shuai; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of solar thermal energy. • Economic analysis was conducted on new built plants and retrofitted power plants. • Using solar thermal energy to preheat high pressure feedwater shows the best performance. - Abstract: In order to mitigate CO 2 emission and improve the efficiency of the utilization of solar thermal energy (STE), solar thermal energy is proposed to be integrated into a power plant. In this paper, seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of STE. A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the reference, chemical absorption using monoethanolamine solvent was employed for CO 2 ​capture, and parabolic trough collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used for STE collection. Both technical analysis and economic evaluation were conducted. Results show that integrating solar energy with post-combustion CO 2 ​ capture can effectively increase power generation and reduce the electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO 2 capture. Among the different configurations, Config-2 and Config-6, which use medium temperature STE to replace high pressure feedwater without and with CO 2 capture, show the highest net incremental solar efficiency. When building new plants, integrating solar energy can effectively reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The lowest LCOE, 99.28 USD/MWh, results from Config-6, with a parabolic trough collector price of 185 USD/m 2 . When retrofitting existing power plants, Config-6 also shows the highest net present value (NPV), while Config-2 has the shortest payback time at a carbon tax of 50 USD/ton CO 2 . In addition, both LCOE and NPV/payback time are clearly affected by the relative solar load fraction, the price of solar thermal collectors and the carbon tax. Comparatively, the carbon tax can affect the configurations with CO 2 capture more clearly than those without CO 2 capture.

  13. 3-D Imaging Using Row–Column-Addressed Arrays With Integrated Apodization. Part I: Apodization Design and Line Element Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of transducerintegrated apodization in row–column-addressed arrays and presents a beamforming approach specific for such arrays. Row–column addressing 2-D arrays greatly reduces the number of active channels needed to acquire a 3-D volume. A disadvantage of row–....... In Part II of this work, experimental results from a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with integrated roll-off apodization are given to validate the effect of integrating apodization into the line elements.......–column-addressed arrays is an apparent ghost effect in the point spread function caused by edge waves. This paper investigates the origin of the edge waves and the effect of introducing an integrated apodization to reduce the ghost echoes. The performance of a λ/2-pitch 5-MHz 128 + 128 row–column-addressed array...... with different apodizations is simulated. A Hann apodization is shown to decrease imaging performance away from the center axis of the array because of a decrease in main lobe amplitude. Instead, a static roll-off apodization region located at the ends of the line elements is proposed. In simulations, the peak...

  14. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lu, L.; Largeau, L.; Maugain, O.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Glas, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Gogneau, N.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ˜12.7 mW cm-3. This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  15. A smart fully integrated micromachined separator with soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays for cell isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Zhang, Yulong; Egeland, Eirik B.; Gu, Dan D.; Calabrese, Paolo; Kapiris, Matteo J.; Karlsen, Frank; Minh, Nhut T.; Wang, K.; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2010-11-01

    A smart fully integrated micromachined separator with soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays has been developed and demonstrated, which can merely employ one independent lab-on-chip to realize cell isolation. The simulation, design, microfabrication and test for the new electromagnetic micro separator were executed. The simulation results of the electromagnetic field in the separator show that special soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays can amplify and redistribute the electromagnetic field generated by the micro-coils. The separator can be equipped with a strong magnetic field to isolate the target cells with a considerably low input current. The micro separator was fabricated by micro-processing technology. An electroplating bath was hired to deposit NiCo/NiFe to fabricate the micro-pillar arrays. An experimental system was set up to verify the function of the micro separator by isolating the lymphocytes, in which the human whole blood mixed with Dynabeads® FlowComp Flexi and monoclonal antibody MHCD2704 was used as the sample. The results show that the electromagnetic micro separator with an extremely low input current can recognize and capture the target lymphocytes with a high efficiency, the separation ratio reaching more than 90% at a lower flow rate. For the electromagnetic micro separator, there is no external magnetizing field required, and there is no extra cooling system because there is less Joule heat generated due to the lower current. The magnetic separator is totally reusable, and it can be used to separate cells or proteins with common antigens.

  16. Carbon fiber/Co9S8 nanotube arrays hybrid structures for flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenxi; Chen, Chang; Ye, Meidan; Lv, Miaoqiang; Lin, Changjian

    2014-04-07

    Recently, hybrid carbon materials and inorganic nanocrystals have received an intensive amount of attention and have opened up an exciting new field in the design and fabrication of high-performance catalysts. Here we present a novel kind of hybrid counter electrode (CE) consisting of a carbon fiber (CF) and Co9S8 nanotube arrays (NTs) for fiber-shaped flexible quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The growth mechanisms of Co(CO3)0.35Cl0.20(OH)1.10 nanowire arrays (NWs) on the CFs were discussed, and the catalytic activity of the CF, Pt and Co9S8/CF hybrid structure (Co9S8@CF) were elucidated systematically as well. An absolute energy conversion efficiency of 3.79% has been demonstrated under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination by using Co9S8@CF as a CE. This work not only demonstrates an innovative approach for growing cobalt sulfide NTs on flexible substrates that can be applied in flexible devices for energy harvesting and storage, but also provides a kind of hybrid structure and high-efficiency CE for QDSSCs.

  17. ISS Solar Array Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Bearing Failure and Recovery: Technical and Project Management Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Krantz, Timothy L.; Dube, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar panels on the International Space Station (ISS) track the Sun through continuous rotating motion enabled by large bearings on the main truss called solar array alpha rotary joints (SARJs). In late 2007, shortly after installation, the starboard SARJ had become hard to turn and had to be shut down after exceeding drive current safety limits. The port SARJ, of the same design, had been working well for over 2 years. An exhaustive failure investigation ensued that included multiple extravehicular activities to collect information and samples for engineering forensics, detailed structural and thermal analyses, and a careful review of the build records. The ultimate root cause was determined to be kinematic design vulnerability coupled with inadequate lubrication, and manufacturing flaws; this was corroborated through ground tests, metallurgical studies, and modeling. A highly successful recovery plan was developed and implemented that included replacing worn and damaged components in orbit and applying space-compatible grease to improve lubrication. Beyond the technical aspects, however, lie several key programmatic lessons learned. These lessons, such as running ground tests to intentional failure to experimentally verify failure modes, are reviewed and discussed so they can be applied to future projects to avoid such problems.

  18. Halide perovskite solar cells using monocrystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays as electron transport layers: impact of nanorod morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ujwal Kumar; Askar, Abdelrahman M.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Wiltshire, Benjamin D.; Kar, Piyush; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    This is the first report of a 17.6% champion efficiency solar cell architecture comprising monocrystalline TiO2 nanorods (TNRs) coupled with perovskite, and formed using facile solution processing without non-routine surface conditioning. Vertically oriented TNR ensembles are desirable as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) because of potential advantages such as vectorial electron percolation pathways to balance the longer hole diffusion lengths in certain halide perovskite semiconductors, ease of incorporating nanophotonic enhancements, and optimization between a high contact surface area for charge transfer (good) versus high interfacial recombination (bad). These advantages arise from the tunable morphology of hydrothermally grown rutile TNRs, which is a strong function of the growth conditions. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of the HPSCs demonstrated a stronger quenching of the perovskite PL when using TNRs as compared to mesoporous/compact TiO2 thin films. Due to increased interfacial contact area between the ETL and perovskite with easier pore filling, charge separation efficiency is dramatically enhanced. Additionally, solid-state impedance spectroscopy results strongly suggested the suppression of interfacial charge recombination between TNRs and perovskite layer, compared to other ETLs. The optimal ETL morphology in this study was found to consist of an array of TNRs ∼300 nm in length and ∼40 nm in width. This work highlights the potential of TNR ETLs to achieve high performance solution-processed HPSCs.

  19. Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chin-Hung; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Szu-Ying; Yen, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Wei-Chen; Liao, Yu-Kuang; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lai, Chih-Huang; Chen, Lih-Juann; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2011-10-12

    In this paper, we demonstrated direct formation of large area Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) nanotip arrays (CIGS NTRs) by using one step Ar(+) milling process without template. By controlling milling time and incident angles, the length of CIGS NTRs with adjustable tilting orientations can be precisely controlled. Formation criteria of these CIGS NTRs have been discussed in terms of surface curvature, multiple components, and crystal quality, resulting in a highly anisotropic milling effect. The CIGS NTRs have very low reflectance solar cell were measured to be ∼390 mV and ∼22.56 mA/cm(2), yielding the filling factor and the efficiency of 59 and 5.2%, respectively. In contrast to CIGS thin film solar cell with efficiency of 3.2%, the nanostructured CIGS NTRs can have efficiency enhancement of ∼160% due to the higher light absorption ability because of the nanostructure. The merits of current approach include the latest way via template-free direct creating process of nanostructured CIGS NTRs with controllable dimensionality and large scale production without postselenization process.

  20. Calibration and post-processing for photon-integrating pixel array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Weiss, Joel T; Gruner, Sol M

    2013-01-01

    We have developed calibration and data processing techniques optimized specifically for photon-integrating pixel array detectors (PADs). Primary effects to be calibrated are pixel gain variation and pixel area variation. Gain variations originate in pixel electronics and may be corrected for via a multiplicative factor. In contrast, area variations result from doping inhomogeneities in the sensor diode, which induce lateral fields that disturb the path of charge carriers as they traverse the diode, resulting in variation in the area mapped to each pixel, depending on the x-ray energy. Methods for measuring both effects are described. Additionally, the single-photon sensitivity used in the gain calibration enables flexible thresholding of events in low-fluence data.

  1. Integrated circuits for volumetric ultrasound imaging with 2-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Anshuman; Choe, Jung Woo; Lee, Byung Chul; Wygant, Ira O; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Oralkan, Ömer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2013-12-01

    Real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging systems require transmit and receive circuitry to generate ultrasound beams and process received echo signals. The complexity of building such a system is high due to requirement of the front-end electronics needing to be very close to the transducer. A large number of elements also need to be interfaced to the back-end system and image processing of a large dataset could affect the imaging volume rate. In this work, we present a 3-D imaging system using capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology that addresses many of the challenges in building such a system. We demonstrate two approaches in integrating the transducer and the front-end electronics. The transducer is a 5-MHz CMUT array with an 8 mm × 8 mm aperture size. The aperture consists of 1024 elements (32 × 32) with an element pitch of 250 μm. An integrated circuit (IC) consists of a transmit beamformer and receive circuitry to improve the noise performance of the overall system. The assembly was interfaced with an FPGA and a back-end system (comprising of a data acquisition system and PC). The FPGA provided the digital I/O signals for the IC and the back-end system was used to process the received RF echo data (from the IC) and reconstruct the volume image using a phased array imaging approach. Imaging experiments were performed using wire and spring targets, a ventricle model and a human prostrate. Real-time volumetric images were captured at 5 volumes per second and are presented in this paper.

  2. Comparative study of solar cooling systems with building-integrated solar collectors for use in sub-tropical regions like Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Lee, C.K.; Chow, T.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance of building-integrated solar collectors analyzed. ► Comparisons made with solar collectors installed on roof. ► Use of building-integrated solar collectors increased the total primary consumption. ► Reduction in the building load could not compensate drop in solar collector output. ► Building-integrated solar collectors only used when roof space insufficient. -- Abstract: The performance of solar cooling systems with building-integrated (BI) solar collectors was simulated and the results compared with those having the solar collectors installed conventionally on the roof based on the weather data in Hong Kong. Two types of solar collectors and the corresponding cooling systems, namely the flat-plate collectors for absorption refrigeration and the PV panels for DC-driven vapour compression refrigeration, were used in the analysis. It was found that in both cases, the adoption of BI solar collectors resulted in a lower solar fraction (SF) and consequently a higher primary energy consumption even though the zone loads were reduced. The reduction in SF was more pronounced in the peak load season when the solar radiation was nearly parallel to the solar collector surfaces during the daytimes, especially for those facing the south direction. Indeed, there were no outputs from the BI flat-plate collectors facing the south direction between May and July. The more severe deterioration in the system performance with the BI flat-plate type collectors made them technically infeasible in terms of the energy-saving potential. It was concluded that the use of BI solar collectors in solar cooling systems should be restricted only to situations where the availability of the roof was limited or insufficient when applied in sub-tropical regions like Hong Kong.

  3. Controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays by hierarchical solution growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaoming; Peng Lihua; Shang Xiaoying; Zhang Zhengguo

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays on fluorine-doped SnO 2 -coated glass substrates by the hierarchical solution growth method. In the secondary growth, the concentration of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 /hexamethylenetetramine plays an important role in controlling the morphology of the branched nanorod arrays, besides that of diaminopropane used as a structure-directing agent to induce the growth of branches. The population density and morphology of the branched nanorod arrays depend on those of the nanorod arrays obtained from the primary growth, which can be modulated though the concentration of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 /hexamethylenetetramine in the primary growth solution. The dye-sensitized ZnO branched nanorod arrays exhibit much stronger optical absorption as compared with its corresponding primary nanorod arrays, suggesting that the addition of the branches improves light harvesting. The dye-sensitized solar cell based on the optimized ZnO branched nanorod array reaches a conversion efficiency of 1.66% under the light radiation of 1000 W/m 2 . The branched nanorod arrays can also be applied in other application fields of ZnO.

  4. Preliminary Design of a Solar Photovoltaic Array for Net-Zero Energy Buildings at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate photovoltaic (solar electric systems) systems for a single building at NASA Langley as a representative case for alternative sustainable power generation. Building 1250 in the Science Directorate is comprised of office and laboratory space, and currently uses approximately 250,000 kW/month of electrical power with a projected use of 200,000 kW/month with additional conservation measures. The installation would be applied towards a goal for having Building 1250 classified as a net-zero energy building as it would produce as much energy as it uses over the course of a year. Based on the facility s electrical demand, a photovoltaic system and associated hardware were characterized to determine the optimal system, and understand the possible impacts from its deployment. The findings of this investigation reveal that the 1.9 MW photovoltaic electrical system provides favorable and robust results. The solar electric system should supply the needed sustainable power solution especially if operation and maintenance of the system will be considered a significant component of the system deployment.

  5. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  6. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photovoltaic array reliability optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the photovoltaic array reliability problem is presented, and a high reliability/minimum cost approach to this problem is presented. Design areas covered are cell failure, interconnect fatigue, and electrical insulation breakdown, and three solution strategies are discussed. The first involves controlling component failures in the solar cell (cell cracking, cell interconnects) and at the module level (must be statistically treated). Second, a fault tolerant circuit is designed which reduces array degradation, improves module yield losses, and controls hot-spot heating. Third, cost optimum module replacement strategies are also effective in reducing array degradation. This can be achieved by minimizing the life-cycle energy cost of the photovoltaic system. The integration of these solutions is aimed at reducing the 0.01% failure rate.

  8. Miniaturized high throughput detection system for capillary array electrophoresis on chip with integrated light emitting diode array as addressed ring-shaped light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Liang, Qionglin; Mu, Xuan; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming

    2009-03-07

    A novel miniaturized, portable fluorescence detection system for capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) on a microfluidic chip was developed, consisting of a scanning light-emitting diode (LED) light source and a single point photoelectric sensor. Without charge coupled detector (CCD), lens, fibers and moving parts, the system was extremely simplified. Pulsed driving of the LED significantly increased the sensitivity, and greatly reduced the power consumption and photobleaching effect. The highly integrated system was robust and easy to use. All the advantages realized the concept of a portable micro-total analysis system (micro-TAS), which could work on a single universal serial bus (USB) port. Compared with traditional CAE detecting systems, the current system could scan the radial capillary array with high scanning rate. An 8-channel CAE of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled arginine (Arg) on chip was demonstrated with this system, resulting in a limit of detection (LOD) of 640 amol.

  9. Integration of solar thermal for improved energy efficiency in low-temperature-pinch industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, Martin J.; Walmsley, Michael R.W.; Morrison, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal systems have the potential to provide renewable industrial process heat and are especially suited for low pinch temperature processes such as those in the food, beverage, and textile sectors. When correctly integrated within an industrial process, they can provide significant progress towards both increased energy efficiency and reduction in emissions. However, the integration of renewable solar energy into industrial processes presents a challenge for existing process integration techniques due to the non-continuous nature of the supply. A thorough pinch analysis study of the industrial process, taking in to account non-continuous operating rates, should be performed to evaluate the utility demand profile. Solar collector efficiency data under variable climatic conditions should also be collected for the specific site. A systematic method of combining this information leads to improved design and an optimal operating strategy. This approach has been applied to a New Zealand milk powder plant and benefits of several integration strategies, including mass integration, are investigated. The appropriate placement of the solar heat is analogous to the placement of a hot utility source and an energy penalty will be incurred when the solar thermal system provides heat below the pinch temperature.

  10. Optimization and modeling of a photovoltaic solar integrated system by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh'd Sami S.

    2008-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar integrated system is modeled with artificial neural networks (ANN's). Data relevant to the system performance was collected on April, 4th 1993 and every 15 min during the day. This input-output data is used to train the ANN. The ANN approximates the data well and therefore can be relied on in predicting the system performance, namely, system efficiencies. The solar system consists of a solar trainer which contains a photovoltaic panel, a DC centrifugal pump, flat plate collectors, storage tank, a flowmeter for measuring the water mass flow rate, pipes, pyranometer for measuring the solar intensity, thermocouples for measuring various system temperatures and wind speed meter. The complex method constrained optimization is applied to the solar system ANN model to find the operating conditions of the system that will produce the maximum system efficiencies. This information will be very hard to obtain by just looking at the available historical input-output data

  11. Design of a front-end integrated circuit for 3D acoustic imaging using 2D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciçek, Ihsan; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Karaman, Mustafa

    2005-12-01

    Integration of front-end electronics with 2D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays has been a challenging issue due to the small element size and large channel count. We present design and verification of a front-end drive-readout integrated circuit for 3D ultrasonic imaging using 2D CMUT arrays. The circuit cell dedicated to a single CMUT array element consists of a high-voltage pulser and a low-noise readout amplifier. To analyze the circuit cell together with the CMUT element, we developed an electrical CMUT model with parameters derived through finite element analysis, and performed both the pre- and postlayout verification. An experimental chip consisting of 4 X 4 array of the designed circuit cells, each cell occupying a 200 X 200 microm2 area, was formed for the initial test studies and scheduled for fabrication in 0.8 microm, 50 V CMOS technology. The designed circuit is suitable for integration with CMUT arrays through flip-chip bonding and the CMUT-on-CMOS process.

  12. Fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays via a two-step method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays were prepared on the F-doped tin oxide (FTO substrate through a two-step method of hydrothermal and d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of the samples were characterized respectively by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and UV–vis spectrometer. The results showed that the TiO2 composite nanorod arrays possess the nature of high surface area for more dye molecule absorption and the strong light scattering effects. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiO2 composite nanorod arrays exhibited a 80% improvement in the overall energy conversion efficiency compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays photoanode.

  13. An integrated solar thermal power system using intercooled gas turbine and Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shuo; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang; Wang, Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    A new solar tower thermal power system integrating the intercooled gas turbine top cycle and the Kalina bottoming cycle is proposed in the present paper. The thermodynamic performance of the proposed system is investigated, and the irreversibility of energy conversion is disclosed using the energy–utilization diagram method. On the top cycle of the proposed system, the compressed air after being intercooled is heated at 1000 °C or higher at the solar tower receiver and is used to drive the gas turbine to generate power. The ammonia–water mixture as the working substance of the bottom cycle recovers the waste heat from the gas turbine to generate power. A concise analytical formula of solar-to-electric efficiency of the proposed system is developed. As a result, the peak solar-to-electric efficiency of the proposed system is 27.5% at a gas turbine inlet temperature of 1000 °C under the designed solar direct normal irradiance of 800 W/m 2 . Compared with a conventional solar power tower plant, the proposed integrated system conserves approximately 69% of consumed water. The results obtained in the current study provide an approach to improve solar-to-electric efficiency and offer a potential to conserve water for solar thermal power plants in arid area. -- Highlights: ► An Integrated Solar Thermal Power System is modeled. ► A formula forecasting the thermodynamic performance is proposed. ► The irreversibility of energy conversion is disclosed using an energy utilization method. ► The effect of key operational parameters on thermal performance is examined.

  14. Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS) system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments.

  15. A microfluidic platform with integrated arrays for immunologic assays for biological pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Richard; Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Julich, Sandra; Miethe, Peter; Moche, Christian; Schattschneider, Sebastian; Tomaso, Herbert; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The ability to integrate complete assays on a microfluidic chip helps to greatly simplify instrument requirements and allows the use of lab-on-a-chip technology in the field. A core application for such field-portable systems is the detection of pathogens in a CBRN scenario such as permanent monitoring of airborne pathogens, e.g. in subway stations or hospitals etc. An immunological assay was chosen as method for the pathogen identification. The conceptual approach was its realization as a lab-on-a-chip system, enabling an easy handling of the sample in an automated manner. The immunological detection takes place on an antibody array directly implemented in the microfluidic network. Different immobilization strategies will be presented showing the performance of the system. Central elements of the disposable microfluidic device like fluidic interface, turning valves, liquid introduction and waste storage, as well as the architecture of measurement and control fluidic network, will be introduced. Overall process times of about 30 minutes were achieved and assays for the detection of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis are presented. An important feature of the integrated lab-on-a-chip approach is that all waste liquids remain on-chip and contamination risks can be avoided.

  16. Ultra-high sensitivity photodetector arrays with integrated amplification and passivation nano-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Wang, Sean; Zhou, Jack; Li, Ken; Lange, Michael; Yang, Weiguo; Gardner, Patrick; Peltz, Leora; Frampton, Robert; Hunt, Jeffrey H.; Becker, Jill

    2009-02-01

    Miniaturized field-deployable spectrometers used for rapid analysis of chemical and biological substances require high-sensitivity photo detectors. For example, in a Raman spectroscopy system, the receiver must be capable of high-gain, low-noise detection performance due to the intrinsically weak signals produced by the Raman effects of most substances. We are developing a novel, high-gain hetero-junction phototransistor (HPT) detector which employs two nano-structures simultaneously: a 3-30 nm passivation layer that enables micron-sized devices, large-scale integration and low-cost products; and a 50-65 nm amplification layer that offers high sensitivity with 1,000x amplification and zero avalanche access noise. We report preliminary tests on single pixels, validating the design target of >1,000 Ampere/Watt responsivity at the near infrared wavelength of 1550nm, which is 100 times more sensitive than InGaAs avalanche photodiodes, the most sensitive commercially available photo-detector in this wavelength range, under their normal operation conditions. Integrated into a detector array, this technology has application for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), pollution monitoring, pharmaceutical manufacturing by reaction monitoring, chemical & biological transportation safety, and bio-chemical analysis in planetary exploration.

  17. Halbach array-based design and simulation of disc coreless permanen-magnet integrated starter generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. B.; Yang, Z. X.; Chen, W.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The functional performance, such as magnetic flux leakage, power density and efficiency, is related to the structural characteristics and design technique for the disc permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). Halbach array theory-based magnetic circuit structure is developed, and Maxwell3D simulation analysis approach of PMSG is proposed in this paper for integrated starter generator (ISG). The magnetization direction of adjacent permanent magnet is organized in difference of 45 degrees for focusing air gap side, and improving the performance of the generator. The magnetic field distribution and functional performance in load and/or unload conditions are simulated by Maxwell3D module. The proposed approach is verified by simulation analysis, the air gap flux density is 0.66T, and the phase voltage curve has the characteristics of a preferable sinusoidal wave and the voltage amplitude 335V can meet the design requirements while the disc coreless PMSG is operating at rated speed. And the developed magnetic circuit structure can be used for engineering design of the disc coreless PMSG to the integrated starter generator.

  18. Design, Fabrication, and Packaging of an Integrated, Wirelessly-Powered Optrode Array for Optogenetics Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED dies and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments.

  19. Efficient and stable CH3NH3PbI3-sensitized ZnO nanorod array solid-state solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dongqin; Boschloo, Gerrit; Schwarzmüller, Stefan; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2013-11-01

    We report for the first time the use of a perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) absorber in combination with ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) for solar cell applications. The perovskite material has a higher absorption coefficient than molecular dye sensitizers, gives better solar cell stability, and is therefore more suited as a sensitizer for ZnO NRAs. A solar cell efficiency of 5.0% was achieved under 1000 W m-2 AM 1.5 G illumination for a solar cell with the structure: ZnO NRA/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-MeOTAD/Ag. Moreover, the solar cell shows a good long-term stability. Using transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements it was found that the electron transport time and lifetime vary with the ZnO nanorod length, a trend which is similar to that in dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs, suggesting a similar charge transfer process in ZnO NRA/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells as in conventional DSCs. Compared to CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 solar cells, ZnO shows a lower performance due to more recombination losses.

  20. Forward-looking intracardiac ultrasound imaging using a 1-D CMUT array integrated with custom front-end electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoozadeh, Amin; Wygant, Ira O; Lin, Der-Song; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, A Sanli; Stephens, Douglas N; Thomenius, Kai E; Dentinger, Aaron M; Wildes, Douglas; Akopyan, Gina; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Mahajan, Aman; Sahn, David J; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2008-12-01

    Minimally invasive catheter-based electrophysiological (EP) interventions are becoming a standard procedure in diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. As a result of technological advances that enable small feature sizes and a high level of integration, nonfluoroscopic intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) imaging catheters are attracting increasing attention. ICE catheters improve EP procedural guidance while reducing the undesirable use of fluoroscopy, which is currently the common catheter guidance method. Phased-array ICE catheters have been in use for several years now, although only for side-looking imaging. We are developing a forward-looking ICE catheter for improved visualization. In this effort, we fabricate a 24-element, fine-pitch 1-D array of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT), with a total footprint of 1.73 mm x 1.27 mm. We also design a custom integrated circuit (IC) composed of 24 identical blocks of transmit/ receive circuitry, measuring 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm. The transmit circuitry is capable of delivering 25-V unipolar pulses, and the receive circuitry includes a transimpedance preamplifier followed by an output buffer. The CMUT array and the custom IC are designed to be mounted at the tip of a 10-Fr catheter for high-frame-rate forward-looking intracardiac imaging. Through-wafer vias incorporated in the CMUT array provide access to individual array elements from the back side of the array. We successfully flip-chip bond a CMUT array to the custom IC with 100% yield. We coat the device with a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to electrically isolate the device for imaging in water and tissue. The pulse-echo in water from a total plane reflector has a center frequency of 9.2 MHz with a 96% fractional bandwidth. Finally, we demonstrate the imaging capability of the integrated device on commercial phantoms and on a beating ex vivo rabbit heart (Langendorff model) using a commercial ultrasound imaging system.

  1. Cost-effectiveness optimization of a solar hot water heater with integrated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Syahri, M.; Shahrir, A.; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2006-01-01

    Solar processes are generally characterized by high first cost and low operating costs. Therefore, the basic economic problem is one of comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating cost. This paper present the cost-benefit ratio of solar collector with integrated storage system. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector are performed and the ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio is presented for difference combination of mass flow rate, solar collector length and channel depth. Using these cost-effectiveness curves, the user can select optimum design features, which correspond to minimum AC/AEG

  2. Porous ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved metal wire for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Binglei; Li, Aidong; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-05-01

    Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm-2 illumination, and this η was found to be much higher than that of the DSSC with ZnO nanowire (NW) as the photoanode (0.71%). The far superior performance of the DSSC with ZnO-NS is essentially attributed to: (i) the film consisting of nanosheets with interconnected nanocrystallites can allow relatively direct pathways for the transportation of electrons as the nanosheets have a regular structure with the sheets being oriented to the electrode; (ii) the nanocrystallites assembly and porous character of the nanosheets can provide a large surface area for dye adsorption, which is in favor of enhancing the light absorption and the light propagation; (iii) the nanopores embedded in the nanosheet can act as ``branch lines'' for more efficient electrolyte diffusion into the interstice of the densely packed nanosheets in the array. A further improvement in the efficiency of the DSSC with ZnO-NS was achieved through the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an ultrathin titanium oxide (TiO2) layer onto the ZnO-NS layer. The larger charge transfer resistance along with the introduction of a TiO2 shell is thought to reduce the surface recombination and thus contribute to the increase in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs and higher conversion efficiency (3.09%).Porous zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet (NS) arrays constructed by connected nanocrystallites were built on weaved metal wire (WMW) via hydrothermal treatment followed by calcination, and used as photoanodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). An overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 2.70% was achieved for the DSSC under 100 mW cm

  3. Laser scribing integration of polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Michele; Manilia, Filomena; Antezza, Roberto; Catellani, Cristina; Candiani, Alessandro; Coscelli, Enrico; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Menossi, Daniele; Bosio, Alessio

    2013-03-01

    The growing demand for high productivity in the thin-film photovoltaic module industry, together with the request for more and more efficient devices, needs high-performance laser-scribing. The results of scribing tests on CdTe and CIGS solar cells samples are here presented. A comparison between the scribes obtained with ns regime fiber lasers, and a ps regime diode pumped solid state laser will be also reported.

  4. Numerical investigation of flow past rod arrays for determining main parameters of the integral model of turbulence: longitudinal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, M.N.; Korsun, A.S.; Maslov, Yu.A.; Merinov, I.G.; Kharitonov, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic numerical calculations have been performed for studying the longitudinal flow past an array of rods with a corridor or chess-board packing in a broad range of flow Reynolds numbers. Structures with the porosity varied in a broad range have been studied and the main parameters of the proposed integral model of turbulence are determined [ru

  5. Advances in Small Pixel TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeter Arrays for Solar Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, S. R.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We are developing small-pixel transition-edge-sensor (TES) for solar physics and astrophysics applications. These large format close-packed arrays are fabricated on solid silicon substrates and are designed to accommodate count-rates of up to a few hundred counts/pixel/second at a FWHM energy resolution approximately 2 eV at 6 keV. We have fabricated versions that utilize narrow-line planar and stripline wiring. We present measurements of the performance and uniformity of kilo-pixel arrays, incorporating TESs with single 65-micron absorbers on a 7s-micron pitch, as well as versions with more than one absorber attached to the TES, 4-absorber and 9-absorber "Hydras". We have also fabricated a version of this detector optimized for lower energies and lower count-rate applications. These devices have a lower superconducting transition temperature and are operated just above the 40mK heat sink temperature. This results in a lower heat capacity and low thermal conductance to the heat sink. With individual single pixels of this type we have achieved a FWHM energy resolution of 0.9 eV with 1.5 keV Al K x-rays, to our knowledge the first x-ray microcalorimeter with sub-eV energy resolution. The 4-absorber and 9-absorber versions of this type achieved FWHM energy resolutions of 1.4 eV and 2.1 eV at 1.5 keV respectively. We will discuss the application of these devices for new astrophysics mission concepts.

  6. Integrating sphere for solar transmittance measurement of planar and nonplanar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, J G; Christie, E A; Peck, M K

    1982-08-01

    A new apparatus that incorporates an integrating sphere is described, which enables the solar transmittance of test samples to be measured as a function of both angle of incidence and azimuth angle. This apparatus was developed to perform measurements on both planar and nonplanar samples of larger dimensions than can be accommodated in a spectrophotometer. Solar transmittance measurements from this apparatus are compared with those from a Gier & Dunkle spectrophotometer for a range of sample materials, and excellent agreement has been found. Errors in solar transmittance measurement may arise from changes in the integrating sphere entrance port reflectance due to placement and then the removal of the test sample from the port. A correction procedure is derived to take account of these errors and is applicable to all single-beam integrating spheres.

  7. Preliminary experimental study of post-combustion carbon capture integrated with solar thermal collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Zhao, Jun; Li, Hailong; Deng, Shuai; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar assisted chemical absorption pilot system with two types of collectors (parabolic trough and linear Fresnel reflector) has been constructed. • Performance of two types of solar collectors has been investigated and compared at steady and transient states. • The operations of the pilot system with and without solar assisted have been tested. • The pilot system responds to the temperature of the heat transfer fluid regularly. - Abstract: The amine-based chemical absorption for CO 2 capture normally needs to extract steam from the steam turbine cycle for solvent regeneration. Integrating solar thermal energy enables the reduction of steam extraction and therefore, can reduce the energy penalty caused by CO 2 capture. In this paper, a pilot system of the solar thermal energy assisted chemical absorption was built to investigate the system performance. Two types of solar thermal energy collectors, parabolic trough and linear Fresnel reflector, were tested. It was found that the values of operation parameters can meet the requirements of designed setting parameters, and the solar collectors can provide the thermal energy required by the reboiler, while its contribution was mainly determined by solar irradiation. The solvent regeneration was investigated by varying the heat input. The results show that the response time of the reboiler heat duty is longer than those of the reboiler temperature and desorber pressure. This work provides a better understanding about the overall operation and control of the system.

  8. 1Mbps NLOS solar-blind ultraviolet communication system based on UV-LED array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaotian; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Ping'an; Qin, Yu; Bai, Tingzhu

    2018-01-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a high data rate ultraviolet communication system based on a 266nm UV LED array with 50mW luminous power. The emitting source is driven by a three outputs constant-current control circuit, whose driving speed is up to 2Mbps. At the receiving side, in order to achieve the amplification for high-speed signal, a two-stage differential preamplifier is designed to make I-V conversion. The voltage-current gain is up to 140dB and bandwidth is 1.9MHz. An experiment is conducted to test the performance of the UV communication system. The effects of elevation angles and transmission distance are analyzed. It is shown that the ultraviolet communication system has high data rate of up to 921.6kbps and bit error rate of less than 10-7 in 150m, which can beat the best record created by UV-LED communication system in terms of the transmission rate.

  9. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Tian; Li, Zhaosong; Feng, Bingjie; Li, Siqian; Duan, Jinxia; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    A careful control of ZnO nanorod arrays with various densities and thickness were achieved by hydrothermal method. An obvious increase in the ZnO nanorod density is observed as the concentrations of zinc acetate dropped as expected through the surface SEM images. On the other hand, samples with and without TiO2 compact layer were also studied and results had been analyzed to seek for an optimized substrate structure for light absorbing layer and increase the efficiency. What's more, a deep research for the drying temperature for perovskite layer was also conducted. As a result, SEM images discribe a promising surface appearance of perovskite layer which is finely attached onto the nanorod structure. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) of FTO/ZnO seed layer/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/spiro-OMe-TAD/Au electrode photovoltaic device reached ∼9.15% together with open-circuit voltage of 957 mV, short-circuit current density of 17.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.537.

  10. Analysis of an Integrated 8-Channel Tx/Rx Body Array for Use as a Body Coil in 7-Tesla MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Orzada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Object: In this work an 8-channel array integrated into the gap between the gradient coil and bore liner of a 7-Tesla whole-body magnet is presented that would allow a workflow closer to that of systems at lower magnetic fields that have a built-in body coil; this integrated coil is compared to a local 8-channel array built from identical elements placed directly on the patient.Materials and Methods: SAR efficiency and the homogeneity of the right-rotating B1 field component (B1+ are investigated numerically and compared to the local array. Power efficiency measurements are performed in the MRI System. First in vivo gradient echo images are acquired with the integrated array.Results: While the remote array shows a slightly better performance in terms of (B1+ homogeneity, the power efficiency and the SAR efficiency are inferior to those of the local array: the transmit voltage has to be increased by a factor of 3.15 to achieve equal flip angles in a central axial slice. The g-factor calculations show a better parallel imaging g-factor for the local array. The field of view of the integrated array is larger than that of the local array. First in vivo images with the integrated array look subjectively promising.Conclusion: Although some RF performance parameters of the integrated array are inferior to a tight-fitting local array, these disadvantages might be compensated by the use of amplifiers with higher power and the use of local receive arrays. In addition, the distant placement provides the potential to include more elements in the array design.

  11. Analysis of an integrated 8-channel Tx/Rx body array for use as a body coil in 7-Tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzada, Stephan; Bitz, Andreas K.; Johst, Sören; Gratz, Marcel; Völker, Maximilian N.; Kraff, Oliver; Abuelhaija, Ashraf; Fiedler, Thomas M.; Solbach, Klaus; Quick, Harald H.; Ladd, Mark E.

    2017-06-01

    Object In this work an 8-channel array integrated into the gap between the gradient coil and bore liner of a 7-Tesla whole-body magnet is presented that would allow a workflow closer to that of systems at lower magnetic fields that have a built-in body coil; this integrated coil is compared to a local 8-channel array built from identical elements placed directly on the patient. Materials and Methods SAR efficiency and the homogeneity of the right-rotating B1 field component (B_1^+) are investigated numerically and compared to the local array. Power efficiency measurements are performed in the MRI System. First in vivo gradient echo images are acquired with the integrated array. Results While the remote array shows a slightly better performance in terms of B_1^+ homogeneity, the power efficiency and the SAR efficiency are inferior to those of the local array: the transmit voltage has to be increased by a factor of 3.15 to achieve equal flip angles in a central axial slice. The g-factor calculations show a better parallel imaging g-factor for the local array. The field of view of the integrated array is larger than that of the local array. First in vivo images with the integrated array look subjectively promising. Conclusion Although some RF performance parameters of the integrated array are inferior to a tight-fitting local array, these disadvantages might be compensated by the use of amplifiers with higher power and the use of local receive arrays. In addition, the distant placement provides the potential to include more elements in the array design.

  12. The Solar System/El Sistema Solar--A Fully Integrated Instructional Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heukelem, Tom; Mercado, Maria de Jesus

    This lesson plan for the second grade uses information on the solar system to provide science education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in San Diego, California. The lesson has been developed to be taught in a bilingual class, a Spanish-language immersion class, or a two-way bilingual class. Lessons are arranged so that native…

  13. The BlackGEM array in search of black hole mergers: integrated performance modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Klein Wolt, Marc; Bloemen, Steven; Groot, Paul; Bettonvil, Felix; Balster, Harry; Dolron, Peter; van Elteren, Arjen; Engels, Arno; de Haan, Menno; ter Horst, Rik; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Nelemans, Gijs; Paalberends, Willem Jelle; Pal, Sari; Raskin, Gert; Rutten, Harrie; Scheers, Bart; Schuil, Menno; Sybilski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The Radboud University Nijmegen in collaboration with the NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation group at ASTRON is currently leading the development and realization of the BlackGEM observing facility. The BlackGEM science team aims to be the first to catch the optical counterpart of a gravitational wave event. The BlackGEM project will put an array of three medium-sized optical telescopes at the La Silla site of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. It is uniquely equipped to achieve a combination of wide-field and high sensitivity through its array-like approach. Each BlackGEM unit telescope is a modified Dall-Kirkham-type telescope consisting of a 65cm primary mirror, a 21cm spherical secondary mirror and a triplet corrector lens. The spatial resolution on the sky will be 0.56 asec/pixel and the total field-of-view per telescope is 2.7 square degrees. The main requirement is to achieve a 5-sigma sensitivity of 23rd magnitude within a 5-minute exposure under 15 m/s wind gust conditions. This demands a very stable optical system with tight control of all the error contributions. This has been realized with a spreadsheet based integrated instrument model. The model contains all relevant telescope instrument parameters and environmental conditions. The spreadsheet is partly used for performance calculations and partly used to combine and integrate the output from several other sources. The spreadsheet model calculates the overall performance based on an Exposure Time Calculator using the Noise Equivalent Area metric (NEA). The NEA is further budgeted over 7 main High Level Requirements. The spreadsheet model is coupled to 1) a ZEMAX telescope optical model 2) a telescope FEM analysis to predict the optomechanical response under various gravity, temperature and wind load conditions, 3) a Matlab Simulink thermal model to predict the transient temperature behaviour of the most important telescope elements and 4) a Matlab Simulink control model to predict the

  14. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  15. Enhanced omnidirectional and weatherability of Cu2ZnSnSe4solar cells with ZnO functional nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-I; Yang, Jui-Fu; Liao, Wei-Xiang; Kuo, Shou-Yi

    2017-11-02

    This paper presents the use of nanorods of different sizes, deposited from a chemical solution, as an antireflection layer in copper-zinc-tin selenide (CZTSe) solar cells. With the aid of the nanorods, the surface reflection of the CZTSe solar cells was reduced from 7.76% to 2.97%, and a cell efficiency of 14% was obtained as a result. Omni-directional anti-reflection was verified by the angle-dependent reflection measurements. The nanorod arrays also provided the CZTSe solar cells with a hydrophobic surface, allowing it to exhibit high resistance against humidity during weatherability tests. This shows that the surface passivation brought by the nanorod layer at the surface could effectively extend the lifetime of the CZTSe solar cells. The rate of efficiency decay of the CZTSe solar cells was reduced by 46.85% from that of the device without a nanorod array at the surface, indicating that this surface layer not only provided effective resistance against reflection at the device surface, but also served as a passivation layer and humidity-resistant surface-protection layer.

  16. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  17. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  18. CoS acicular nanorod arrays for the counter electrode of an efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lin, Chia-Yu; Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Vittal, R; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-08-28

    One-dimensional cobalt sulfide (CoS) acicular nanorod arrays (ANRAs) were obtained on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a two-step approach. First, Co(3)O(4) ANRAs were synthesized, and then they were converted to CoS ANRAs for various periods. The compositions of the films obtained after various conversion periods were verified by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; their morphologies were examined at different periods by scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic images. Electrocatalytic abilities of the films toward I(-)/I(3)(-) were verified through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel polarization curves. Long-term stability of the films in I(-)/I(3)(-) electrolyte was studied by CV. The FTO substrates with CoS ANRAs were used as the counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells; a maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.67% was achieved for a cell with CoS ANRAs, under 100 mW/cm(2), which is nearly the same as that of a cell with a sputtered Pt counter electrode (7.70%). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to substantiate the photovoltaic parameters.

  19. Three-dimensional architecture hybrid perovskite solar cells using CdS nanorod arrays as an electron transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zihang; Tong, Guoqing; Li, Huan; Li, Guopeng; Ma, Shuai; Yu, Shimeng; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) architecture perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using CdS nanorod (NR) arrays as an electron transport layer were designed and prepared layer-by-layer via a physical-chemical vapor deposition (P-CVD) process. The CdS NRs not only provided a scaffold to the perovskite film, but also increased the interfacial contact between the perovskite film and electron transport layer. As an optimized result, a high power conversion efficiency of 12.46% with a short-circuit current density of 19.88 mA cm‑2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.01 V and a fill factor of 62.06% was obtained after 12 h growth of CdS NRs. It was four times the efficiency of contrast planar structure with a similar thickness. The P-CVD method assisted in achieving flat and voidless CH3NH3PbI3‑x Cl x perovskite film and binding the CdS NRs and perovskite film together. The different density of CdS NRs had obvious effects on light transmittance of 350–550 nm, the interfacial area and the difficulty of combining layers. Moreover, the efficient 1D transport paths for electrons and multiple absorption of light, which are generated in 3D architecture, were beneficial to realize a decent power conversion efficiency.

  20. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  1. Solar energy captured by a curved collector designed for architectural integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, D.; Belmonte, J.F.; Izquierdo-Barrientos, M.A.; Molina, A.E.; Rosengarten, G.; Almendros-Ibáñez, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new prototype of solar collector for architectural integration. • Equations of the solar radiation on a curved surface. • We compare the energy intercepted by the prototype with the energy intercepted by conventional collectors. • The prototype can be competitive compared with conventional collectors. - Abstract: In this paper we present a prototype for a new type of solar thermal collector designed for architectural integration. In this proposal, the conventional geometry of a flat solar thermal collector is changed to a curved geometry, to improve its visual impact when mounted on a building facade or roof. The mathematical equations for the beam and diffuse solar radiation received by a collector with this geometry are developed for two different orientations, horizontal and vertical. The performance of this curved prototype, in terms of solar radiation received, is compared with a conventional tilted-surface collector for different orientations in Madrid (Spain). The comparison is made for typical clear-sky days in winter and summer as well as for an entire year. The results demonstrate that the curved collector only receives between 12% and 25% less radiation than the conventional tilted-surface collectors when oriented horizontally, depending on the azimuth of the curved surface, although these percentages are reduced to approximately 50% when the collector is oriented vertically

  2. Design and implementation of Gm-APD array readout integrated circuit for infrared 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-xia; Yang, Jun-hao; Liu, Zhao; Dong, Huai-peng; Wu, Jin; Sun, Wei-feng

    2013-09-01

    A single-photon detecting array of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) capable of infrared 3D imaging by photon detection and time-of-flight measurement is presented in this paper. The InGaAs avalanche photon diodes (APD) dynamic biased under Geiger operation mode by gate controlled active quenching circuit (AQC) are used here. The time-of-flight is accurately measured by a high accurate time-to-digital converter (TDC) integrated in the ROIC. For 3D imaging, frame rate controlling technique is utilized to the pixel's detection, so that the APD related to each pixel should be controlled by individual AQC to sense and quench the avalanche current, providing a digital CMOS-compatible voltage pulse. After each first sense, the detector is reset to wait for next frame operation. We employ counters of a two-segmental coarse-fine architecture, where the coarse conversion is achieved by a 10-bit pseudo-random linear feedback shift register (LFSR) in each pixel and a 3-bit fine conversion is realized by a ring delay line shared by all pixels. The reference clock driving the LFSR counter can be generated within the ring delay line Oscillator or provided by an external clock source. The circuit is designed and implemented by CSMC 0.5μm standard CMOS technology and the total chip area is around 2mm×2mm for 8×8 format ROIC with 150μm pixel pitch. The simulation results indicate that the relative time resolution of the proposed ROIC can achieve less than 1ns, and the preliminary test results show that the circuit function is correct.

  3. Fully 3D printed integrated reactor array for point-of-care molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadimisetty, Karteek; Song, Jinzhao; Doto, Aoife M; Hwang, Young; Peng, Jing; Mauk, Michael G; Bushman, Frederic D; Gross, Robert; Jarvis, Joseph N; Liu, Changchun

    2018-06-30

    Molecular diagnostics that involve nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are crucial for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a simple, inexpensive, disposable, fully 3D printed microfluidic reactor array that is capable of carrying out extraction, concentration and isothermal amplification of nucleic acids in variety of body fluids. The method allows rapid molecular diagnostic tests for infectious diseases at point of care. A simple leak-proof polymerization strategy was developed to integrate flow-through nucleic acid isolation membranes into microfluidic devices, yielding a multifunctional diagnostic platform. Static coating technology was adopted to improve the biocompatibility of our 3D printed device. We demonstrated the suitability of our device for both end-point colorimetric qualitative detection and real-time fluorescence quantitative detection. We applied our diagnostic device to detection of Plasmodium falciparum in plasma samples and Neisseria meningitides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples by loop-mediated, isothermal amplification (LAMP) within 50 min. The detection limits were 100 fg for P. falciparum and 50 colony-forming unit (CFU) for N. meningitidis per reaction, which are comparable to that of benchtop instruments. This rapid and inexpensive 3D printed device has great potential for point-of-care molecular diagnosis of infectious disease in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The challenges and opportunities for integration of solar syngas production with liquid fuel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, James T.; McNaughton, Robbie K.; Pye, John; Saw, Woei; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2016-05-01

    Reforming of methane is practiced on a vast scale globally for the production of syngas as a precursor for the production of many commodities, including hydrogen, ammonia and synthetic liquid fuels. Solar reforming can reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of syngas production by up to about 40% by using solar thermal energy to provide the endothermic heat of reaction, traditionally supplied by combustion of some of the feed. This has the potential to enable the production of solar derived synthetic fuels as drop in replacements for conventional fuels with significantly lower CO2 intensity than conventional gas to liquids (GTL) processes. However, the intermittent nature of the solar resource - both diurnal and seasonal - poses significant challenges for such a concept, which relies on synthesis processes that typically run continuously on very stable feed compositions. We find that the integration of solar syngas production to a GTL process is a non-trivial exercise, with the ability to turn down the capacity of the GTL synthesis section, and indeed to suspend operations for short periods without significant detriment to product quality or process operability, likely to be a key driver for the commercial implementation of solar liquid fuels. Projected costs for liquid fuel synthesis suggest that solar reforming and small scale gas to liquid synthesis can potentially compete with conventional oil derived transport fuels in the short to medium term.

  5. A Solar Atlas for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Electricity Resource Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    While photovoltaic energy gathers momentum as power costs increase and panel costs decrease, the total technical and economic potentials for building integrated solar energy in Denmark remain largely unidentified. The current net metering feed-in scheme is restricted to 6kW plant size, limiting...... large scale application. This paper presents a solar atlas based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of all 2.9 million buildings in the country, combined with a building register. The 1.6 m resolution DEM has been processed into global radiation input, solar energy output and production....... The continuous assessment of solar electricity generation potentials by marginal costs, ownership and plant type presented in the paper may be used for defining long term policies for the development of photovoltaic energy, as well as political instruments such as a multi-tier feed-in tariff....

  6. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3 – Frequency Response and Transient Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. W. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Shao, M. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pajic, S. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States); D' Aquila, R. [GE Energy Management, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Power system operators and utilities worldwide have concerns about the impact of high-penetration wind and solar generation on electric grid reliability (EirGrid 2011b, Hydro-Quebec 2006, ERCOT 2010). The stability of North American grids under these conditions is a particular concern and possible impediment to reaching future renewable energy goals. Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3) considers a 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration level that results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system, including different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior of wind and solar generation. WWSIS-3 evaluates two specific aspects of fundamental frequency system stability: frequency response and transient stability.

  7. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-06-12

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  8. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlationare proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope's bandwidth (the so-called "FX" structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with 2 opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chipmemory and the CMACs are re-used as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the IC's size and power consumption. It isintended for fabrication in a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76 to 3.3 pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N = 4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-levelI/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5 to 7 pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N = 32) and ALMA (N = 64) telescopes achieve about 5000 pJ and 1000 pJ respectively usingapplication-specific ICs in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA atN = 256; it

  9. Investigation the Advantages of CPV for Building Integrated PV : 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Craats; R.G. Catau; Piet Sonneveld; J.V. Sahedi; A.R. Sparemberger

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this concept is a significant reduction of energy consumption in greenhouses and buildings with large facades and windows by using available solar energy. The scope of this investigation is to study the advantages of a building integrated CPV system. The basic idea is that a larger

  10. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  11. Performance analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle using Direct Steam Generation in parabolic trough collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Munoz, M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar hybridization improves the performance of CCGT in a very hot and dry weather. → The scheme analyzed is a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the Rankine cycle. → An annual simulation has been carried out for two locations: Almeria and Las Vegas. → Economical analysis shows that this scheme is a cheaper way to exploit solar energy. → For that, solar hybridization must be limited to a small fraction of the CCGT power. - Abstract: The contribution of solar thermal power to improve the performance of gas-fired combined cycles in very hot and dry environmental conditions is analyzed in this work, in order to assess the potential of this technique, and to feature Direct Steam Generation (DSG) as a well suited candidate for achieving very good results in this quest. The particular Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) power plant proposed consists of a DSG parabolic trough field coupled to the bottoming steam cycle of a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power plant. For this analysis, the solar thermal power plant performs in a solar dispatching mode: the gas turbine always operates at full load, only depending on ambient conditions, whereas the steam turbine is somewhat boosted to accommodate the thermal hybridization from the solar field. Although the analysis is aimed to studying such complementary effects in the widest perspective, two relevant examples are given, corresponding to two well-known sites: Almeria (Spain), with a mediterranean climate, and Las Vegas (USA), with a hot and dry climate. The annual simulations show that, although the conventional CCGT power plant works worse in Las Vegas, owing to the higher temperatures, the ISCC system operates better in Las Vegas than in Almeria, because of solar hybridization is especially well coupled to the CCGT power plant in the frequent days with great solar radiation and high temperatures in Las Vegas. The complementary effect will be clearly seen in these cases, because the thermal

  12. Thermodynamics investigation of a solar power system integrated oil and molten salt as heat transfer fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qibin; Bai, Zhang; Sun, Jie; Yan, Yuejun; Gao, Zhichao; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concentrating solar power system with a dual-solar field is proposed. • The superheated steam with more than 773 K is produced. • The performances of the proposed system are demonstrated. • The economic feasibility of the proposed system is validated. - Abstract: In this paper, a new parabolic trough solar power system that incorporates a dual-solar field with oil and molten salt as heat transfer fluids (HTFs) is proposed to effectively utilize the solar energy. The oil is chosen as a HTF in the low temperature solar field to heat the feeding water, and the high temperature solar field uses molten salt to superheat the steam that the temperature is higher than 773 K. The produced superheated steam enters a steam turbine to generate power. Energy analysis and exergy analysis of the system are implemented to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Under considerations of variations of solar irradiation, the on-design and off-design thermodynamic performances of the system and the characteristics are investigated. The annual average solar-to-electric efficiency and the nominal efficiency under the given condition for the proposed solar thermal power generation system reach to 15.86% and 22.80%, which are higher than the reference system with a single HTF. The exergy losses within the solar heat transfer process of the proposed system are reduced by 7.8% and 45.23% compared with the solar power thermal systems using oil and molten salt as HTFs, respectively. The integrated approach with oil and molten salt as HTFs can make full use of the different physical properties of the HTFs, and optimize the heat transfer process between the HTFs and the water/steam. The exergy loss in the water evaporation and superheated process are reduced, the system efficiency and the economic performance are improved. The research findings provide a new approach for the improvement of the performances of solar thermal power plants.

  13. Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of

  14. Highly integrated application specific MMICs for active phased array radar applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    1999-01-01

    Application specific MMIC solutions for active array radar, developed at TNO-FEL, are presented. The use and application of these MMICs in their respective radar systems will be shown. These MMICs address the needs for current and future phased-array topologies as for example the concept of "smart

  15. Highly Integrated Application Specific MMICS for Active Phased Array Radar Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Application specific MMIC solutions for active array radar, developed at TNO-FEL. are presented. The use and application of these MMICs in their respective radar systems will be shown. These MMICs address the needs for current and future phased-array topologies as for example the concept of "smart

  16. Chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay cartridge with integrated amorphous silicon photosensors array for human serum albumin detection in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangheri, Martina; Di Nardo, Fabio; Mirasoli, Mara; Anfossi, Laura; Nascetti, Augusto; Caputo, Domenico; De Cesare, Giampiero; Guardigli, Massimo; Baggiani, Claudio; Roda, Aldo

    2016-12-01

    A novel and disposable cartridge for chemiluminescent (CL)-lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) with integrated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photosensors array was developed and applied to quantitatively detect human serum albumin (HSA) in urine samples. The presented analytical method is based on an indirect competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a tracer, which is detected by adding the luminol/enhancer/hydrogen peroxide CL cocktail. The system comprises an array of a-Si:H photosensors deposited on a glass substrate, on which a PDMS cartridge that houses the LFIA strip and the reagents necessary for the CL immunoassay was optically coupled to obtain an integrated analytical device controlled by a portable read-out electronics. The method is simple and fast with a detection limit of 2.5 mg L -1 for HSA in urine and a dynamic range up to 850 mg L -1 , which is suitable for measuring physiological levels of HSA in urine samples and their variation in different diseases (micro- and macroalbuminuria). The use of CL detection allowed accurate and objective analyte quantification in a dynamic range that extends from femtomoles to picomoles. The analytical performances of this integrated device were found to be comparable with those obtained using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as a reference off-chip detector. These results demonstrate that integrating the a-Si:H photosensors array with CL-LFIA technique provides compact, sensitive and low-cost systems for CL-based bioassays with a wide range of applications for in-field and point-of-care bioanalyses. Graphical Abstract A novel integrated portable device was developed for direct quantitative detection of human serum albumin (HSA) in urine samples, exploiting a chemiluminescence lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The device comprises a cartridge that holds the LFIA strip and all the reagents necessary for the analysis, an array of amorphous silicon photosensors, and a custom read-out electronics.

  17. Solar Panel Integration as an Alternate Power Source on Centaur 2 (SPIAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Christine A.; Schuetze, Nich A.; Knochel, Aviana M.; Magruder, Darby F.

    2011-01-01

    The dream of exploration has inspired thousands throughout time. Space exploration, in particular, has taken the past century by storm and caused a great advance in technology. In this project, a retractable solar panel array will be developed for use on the Centaur 2 Rover. Energy generated by the solar panels will go to power the Centaur 2 Robot (C2) or Regolith & Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, an in-situ resource utilization project. Such payload is designed to drill into lunar and Martian terrain as well as be able to conduct other geological testing; RESOLVE is slated for testing in 2012. Ultimately, this project will fit into NASA s larger goal of deep space exploration as well as long term presence outside Earth s orbit.

  18. CMOS/CdHgTe hybrid technology for long-linear arrays with time delay and integration and element deselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, C. P.; Baker, Ian M.; Crimes, Graham J.; Bains, S.; Murray, D. C.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses the technology used by GMIRL for high performance long linear arrays based on CdHgTe/CMOS hybrid multiplexers. Modern silicon processes allow the realization of a high degree of functionality within focal plane detectors. GMIRL have used this enhanced functionality to facilitate the deselection of defective elements within a diode array and provide time delay and integration. Two design approaches have been evaluated leading to the design and manufacture of high performance arrays for imaging applications. The resulting detector allows the enhancement of the signal to noise ratio at low IR flux levels and has a low overall power consumption, while requiring the minimum of real time correction for nonuniformities. The design can be readily adapted to suit arrays of varying length. The infrared sensor technology is based on CdHgTe (CMT) material grown by a tellurium rich, liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) process. Lateral collection photodiode arrays are fabricated within this material as a silicon CMT hybrid structure.

  19. Imaging Ionospheric/Plasmaspheric Disturbances Triggered by the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse with the Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmboldt, Joseph; Schinzel, Frank K.; VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    2018-01-01

    Along with many Americans and several other observatories, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) was observing the Sun before, during, and after the total solar eclipse on 21 August 2017. However, the VLA also simultaneously conducted a unique set of observations aimed at characterizing the effects of the eclipse on Earth’s ionosphere/plasmasphere. While most of the VLA antennas were pointed at the Sun, 12 were looking at the bright radio galaxy M87. These 12 antennas are part of the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE; http://vlite.nrao.edu), a dedicated backend that continuously captures, correlates, and analyzes data in the 320-384 MHz frequency range. In addition to traditional synthesis imaging, VLITE also characterizes fluctuations in ionospheric/plasmaspheric density via measured variations in visibility phases. When observing a bright cosmic source, this can be done with unmatched precision, the equivalent of ~1-10 ppm. To look for ionospheric/plasmaspheric disturbances tied to the eclipse, a specialized spectral decomposition was applied to the M87 VLITE data. This method exploits the fact that disturbed flux tubes within the plasmasphere appear as magnetic eastward-directed waves to the VLA because the plasmasphere is dynamically dominated by co-rotation. The phase speeds of these waves are proportional to distance, allowing for a reconstruction of the electron density gradient as a function of (slant) range and time. The time ranges spanned by the large-scale ionospheric depletion seen within concurrent Global Positioning System (GPS) data as a function of longitude were mapped to the flux tubes imaged with this method using the M87 observations. With the exception of some solar flare-induced fluctuations, the observed disturbances appear confined to this part of the range/time image. This strongly implies the disturbances resulted from the rapid depletion and slower recovery of the ionosphere/plasmasphere system brought on by

  20. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  1. Short-length and high-density TiO2 nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    The TiO 2 nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm −2 were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI 2 ·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH 3 NH 3 I/CH 3 NH 3 Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO 2 nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO 2 nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Graphical abstract: The TiO 2 nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm −2 were prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. The optimal annealing temperature of TiO 2 nanorod arrays was 450 °C. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO 2 nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93% and the average PCE of 13.41±2.52%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO 2 nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% and the average PCE of 10.54±2.28% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO 2 nanorod array with length of 70 nm and density of 1000 µm −2 . • Influence of annealing temperatures on the -OH content of Ti

  2. Short-length and high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-05-15

    The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm{sup −2} were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI{sub 2}·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm{sup −2} were prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. The optimal annealing temperature of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays was 450 °C. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93% and the average PCE of 13.41±2.52%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% and the average PCE of 10.54±2.28% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Highlights:

  3. Real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics using a microfluidic cell culture system with integrated electrode array and potentiostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zor, Kinga; Vergani, M.; Heiskanen, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A versatile microfluidic, multichamber cell culture and analysis system with an integrated electrode array and potentiostat suitable for electrochemical detection and microscopic imaging is presented in this paper. The system, which allows on-line electrode cleaning and modification, was developed...... for real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics, exemplified in this work by monitoring of redox metabolism inside living yeast cells and dopamine release from PC12 cells....

  4. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-25

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO 2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO 2 . In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO 2 /Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc ) of 0.026 mA cm -2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO 2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO 2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO 2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO 2 . This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO 2 heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Solution-processed all-oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells based on CuO nanaorod array and TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Qiao, Qiquan; Bahrami, Behzad; Chen, Ke; Pathak, Rajesh; Tong, Yanhua; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Tiansheng; Jian, Ronghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a method to synthesize CuO nanorod array/TiO2 nanocrystals bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass, in which single-crystalline p-type semiconductor of the CuO nanorod array is grown on the FTO glass by hydrothermal reaction and the n-type semiconductor of the TiO2 precursor is filled into the CuO nanorods to form well-organized nano-interpenetrating BHJ after air annealing. The interface charge transfer in CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction is studied by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM results demonstrate that the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction can realize the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the CuO nanorod array to TiO2. In this work, a solar cell with the structure FTO/CuO nanoarray/TiO2/Al is successfully fabricated, which exhibits an open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.20 V and short-circuit current density (J sc) of 0.026 mA cm‑2 under AM 1.5 illumination. KPFM studies indicate that the very low performance is caused by an undesirable interface charge transfer. The interfacial surface potential (SP) shows that the electron concentration in the CuO nanorod array changes considerably after illumination due to increased photo-generated electrons, but the change in the electron concentration in TiO2 is much less than in CuO, which indicates that the injection efficiency of the photo-generated electrons from CuO to TiO2 is not satisfactory, resulting in an undesirable J sc in the solar cell. The interface photovoltage from the KPFM measurement shows that the low V oc results from the small interfacial SP difference between CuO and TiO2 because the low injected electron concentration cannot raise the Fermi level significantly in TiO2. This conclusion agrees with the measured work function results under illumination. Hence, improvement of the interfacial electron injection is primary for the CuO nanorod array/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  7. Integral method of treatment of experimental data from radiochemical solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Kopylov, A.V.; Streltsov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the statistical errors in solar neutrino detection by radiochemical detectors at different times of exposure. It is shown that short exposures (tau/sub e/ = one-half to one half-life) give minimal one-year error. The possibility is considered of the detection of the solar neutrino flux variation due to annual changes of the Earth-Sun distance. The integral method of treatment of the experimental data is described. Results are given of the statistical treatment of computer simulated data

  8. Enhanced depth-of-field of an integral imaging microscope using a bifocal holographic optical element-micro lens array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Chul; Lim, Young-Tae; Shin, Chang-Won; Erdenebat, Munkh-Uchral; Hwang, Jae-Moon; Kim, Nam

    2017-08-15

    We propose and implement an integral imaging microscope with extended depth-of-field (DoF) using a bifocal holographic micro lens array (MLA). The properties of the two MLAs are switched via peristrophic multiplexing, where different properties of the MLA are recorded onto the single holographic optical element (HOE). The recorded MLA properties are perpendicular to each other: after the first mode is recorded, the HOE is rotated by 90° clockwise, and the second mode is recorded. The experimental results confirm that the DoF of the integral imaging microscopy system is extended successfully by using the bifocal MLA.

  9. Mass-Optimized Ultra Flex Solar Array with Integrated IMM Cell Flexible Blanket, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS), in partnership with ATK Space and EMCORE, is focusing on the design development and optimization of the most promising advanced space...

  10. Mass-Optimized UltraFlex Solar Array with Integrated IMM Cell Flexible Blanket, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS), in partnership with ATK Space and EMCORE, will focus the proposed SBIR program on the optimization and design development of the most...

  11. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Phase 2. Annual technical report, September 20, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang S.; Jones, Gregory T.; Allison, Kimberly L.

    1978-01-01

    This program was conducted to develop and demonstrate those solar cells and module process steps which have the technological readiness or capability to achieve the 1986 LSA goals. Results are reported. Seventeen process groups were investigated. Very promising results were achieved. A laserscribe computer program was developed. It demonstrated that silicon solar cells could be trimmed and holed by laser without causing mechanical defects (i.e., microcracks) nor any major degradation in solar cell electrical performance. The silicon wafer surface preparation task demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput texturizing process readily adaptable to automation. Performance verification tests of a laser scanning system showed a limited capability to detect hidden cracks or defects in solar cells. A general review of currently available thick film printing equipment provided the indication that state-of-the-art technology can adequately transform the capability of current printing machines to the elevated rate of 7200 wafers per hour. The LFE System 8000 silicon nitride plasma deposition system with the inclusion of minor equipment modifications was shown to be consistent with the 1986 LSA pricing goals. The performance verification test of the silicon nitride A.R. coating process provided the result that texturized, A.R. coated solar cells display a 14.1% improvement in electrical performance over identical solar cells without an A.R. coating. A new electroless nickel plating system was installed and demonstrated a low-cost, high throughput process readily adaptable to automation. A multiple wafer dipping method was investigated and operational parameters defined. A flux removal method consisting of a three stage D.I. water cascade rinse system with ultrasonic agitator was found to be very promising. Also, a SAMICS cost analysis was performed. (WHK)

  12. Integration properties of disaggregated solar, geothermal and biomass energy consumption in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Tsoumas, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration properties of disaggregated solar, geothermal and biomass energy consumption in the U.S. The analysis is performed for the 1989-2009 period and covers all sectors which use these types of energy, i.e., transportation, residence, industrial, electric power and commercial. The results suggest that there are differences in the order of integration depending on both the type of energy and the sector involved. Moreover, the inclusion of structural breaks traced from the regulatory changes for these energy types seem to affect the order of integration for each series. - Highlights: → Increasing importance of renewable energy sources. → Integration properties of solar, geothermal and biomass energy consumption in the U.S. → The results show differences in the order of integration depending on the type of energy. → Structural breaks traced for these energy types affect the order of integration. → The order of integration is less than 1, so energy conservation policies are transitory.

  13. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  14. Toward Open Science at the European Scale: Geospatial Semantic Array Programming for Integrated Environmental Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rigo, Daniele; Corti, Paolo; Caudullo, Giovanni; McInerney, Daniel; Di Leo, Margherita; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    of the science-policy interface, INRMM should be able to provide citizens and policy-makers with a clear, accurate understanding of the implications of the technical apparatus on collective environmental decision-making [1]. Complexity of course should not be intended as an excuse for obscurity [27-29]. Geospatial Semantic Array Programming. Concise array-based mathematical formulation and implementation (with array programming tools, see (b) ) have proved helpful in supporting and mitigating the complexity of WSTMe [40-47] when complemented with generalized modularization and terse array-oriented semantic constraints. This defines the paradigm of Semantic Array Programming (SemAP) [35,36] where semantic transparency also implies free software use (although black-boxes [12] - e.g. legacy code - might easily be semantically interfaced). A new approach for WSTMe has emerged by formalizing unorganized best practices and experience-driven informal patterns. The approach introduces a lightweight (non-intrusive) integration of SemAP and geospatial tools (c) - called Geospatial Semantic Array Programming (GeoSemAP). GeoSemAP (d) exploits the joint semantics provided by SemAP and geospatial tools to split a complex D- TM into logical blocks which are easier to check by means of mathematical array-based and geospatial constraints. Those constraints take the form of precondition, invariant and postcondition semantic checks. This way, even complex WSTMe may be described as the composition of simpler GeoSemAP blocks, each of them structured as (d). GeoSemAP allows intermediate data and information layers to be more easily an formally semantically described so as to increase fault-tolerance [17], transparency and reproducibility of WSTMe. This might also help to better communicate part of the policy-relevant knowledge, often difficult to transfer from technical WSTMe to the science-policy interface [1,15]. References de Rigo, D., 2013. Behind the horizon of reproducible

  15. Performance Analysis of a Savonius Wind Turbine in the Solar Integrated Rotor House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL LATIFMANGANHAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rooftop, building integrated and building augmented micro wind systems have the potential for small scale power generation in the built environment. Nevertheless, the expansion of micro wind technology is very slow and its market is strongly affected by the low efficiency of conventional wind generators. WAG-RH (Wind Accelerating and Guiding Rotor House which is a new technique introduced to enhance the efficiency of vertical axis rotor. The present study utilizes other green energy element by integrating the WAG-RH with a solar heating system. In this effort roof of the WAG-RH has been utilized to heat air through micro solar chimney for creating buoyancy effect in the air flow channel at rotor zone in the WAG-RH. The integration is capable of improving the performance of rotor setup in the WAG-RH as well as providing hot air with sufficient air mass flow rate for space heating. The WAG-RH had brought about 138% increase in the performance coefficient(Cp of conventional three bladed Savonius rotor, whereas solar integrated WAG-RH has contributed 162% increase in the Cp of the same rotor.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  17. Plug and Play Solar Power: Simplifying the Integration of Solar Energy in Hybrid Applications; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, Blake R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-05

    The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is Australia's national science agency. CSIRO received funding from the Australian Solar Institute (ASI) for the United States-Australia Solar Energy Collaboration (USASEC) project 1-USO032 Plug and Play Solar Power: Simplifying the Integration of Solar Energy in Hybrid Applications (Broader Project). The Australian Solar Institute (ASI) operated from August 2009 to December 2012 before being merged into the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). The Broader Project sought to simplify the integration, accelerate the deployment, and lower the cost of solar energy in hybrid distributed generation applications by creating plug and play solar technology. CSIRO worked with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as set out in a Joint Work Statement to review communications protocols relevant to plug-and-play technology and perform prototype testing in its Energy System Integration Facility (ESIF). For the avoidance of doubt, this CRADA did not cover the whole of the Broader Project and only related to the work described in the Joint Work Statement, which was carried out by NREL.

  18. Building-Integrated Solar Energy Devices based on Wavelength Selective Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulavi, Tejas

    A potentially attractive option for building integrated solar is to employ hybrid solar collectors which serve dual purposes, combining solar thermal technology with either thin film photovoltaics or daylighting. In this study, two hybrid concepts, a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector and a hybrid 'solar window', are presented and analyzed to evaluate technical performance. In both concepts, a wavelength selective film is coupled with a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to reflect and concentrate the infrared portion of the solar spectrum onto a tubular absorber. The visible portion of the spectrum is transmitted through the concentrator to either a thin film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar panel for electricity generation or into the interior space for daylighting. Special attention is given to the design of the hybrid devices for aesthetic building integration. An adaptive concentrator design based on asymmetrical truncation of CPCs is presented for the hybrid solar window concept. The energetic and spectral split between the solar thermal module and the PV or daylighting module are functions of the optical properties of the wavelength selective film and the concentrator geometry, and are determined using a Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing (MCRT) model. Results obtained from the MCRT can be used in conjugation with meteorological data for specific applications to study the impact of CPC design parameters including the half-acceptance angle thetac, absorber diameter D and truncation on the annual thermal and PV/daylighting efficiencies. The hybrid PV/T system is analyzed for a rooftop application in Phoenix, AZ. Compared to a system of the same area with independent solar thermal and PV modules, the hybrid PV/T provides 20% more energy, annually. However, the increase in total delivered energy is due solely to the addition of the thermal module and is achieved at an expense of a decrease in the annual electrical efficiency from 8.8% to 5.8% due to shading by

  19. Analysis of Dynamic Characteristic for Solar Arrays in Series and Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Optimal Initial Value Incremental Conductance Strategy under Partially Shaded Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading (PS is an unavoidable condition which significantly reduces the efficiency and stability of a photovoltaic (PV system. With PS, the system usually exhibits multiple-peak output power characteristics, but single-peak is also possible under special PS conditions. In fact it is shown that the partial shading condition (PSC is the necessary but not sufficient condition for multiple-peak. Based on circuit analysis, this paper shows that the number of peak points can be determined by short-circuit currents and maximum-power point currents of all the arrays in series. Then the principle is established based on which the number of the peak points is to be determined. Furthermore, based on the dynamic characteristic of solar array, this paper establishes the rule for determination of the relative position of the global maximum power point (GMPP. In order to track the GMPP within an appropriate period, a reliable technique and the corresponding computer algorithm are developed for GMPP tracking (GMPPT control. It exploits a definable nonlinear relation has been found between variable environmental parameters and the output current of solar arrays at every maximum power point, obtained based on the dynamic performance corresponding to PSC. Finally, the proposed method is validated with MATLAB®/Simulink® simulations and actual experiments. It is shown that the GMPPT of a PV generation system is indeed realized efficiently in a realistic environment with partial shading conditions.

  20. Short-length and high-density TiO2 nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-05-01

    The TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 μm-2 were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI2·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH3NH3I/CH3NH3Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO2 nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO2 nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50-54%.