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Sample records for integrated salt disposition

  1. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  3. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during

  4. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-01

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f 2 , were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f 2 reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f 2 which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP filter. (4

  5. Mixing Modeling Analysis For SRS Salt Waste Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  6. Blending Study For SRR Salt Disposition Integration: Tank 50H Scale-Modeling And Computer-Modeling For Blending Pump Design, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where

  7. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where

  8. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  9. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  10. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  11. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-01

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ''Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data

  12. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  13. Computational analysis of the SRS Phase III salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In late 1997, the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP), facility was shut down and an evaluation of alternative methods to process the liquid high-level waste stored in the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste storage tanks was begun. The objective was to determine whether another process might avoid the operational difficulties encountered with ITP for a lower cost than modifying the existing structured approach to evaluating proposed alternatives on a common basis to identify the best one. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and a secondary salt disposition alternative. This paper describes the process by which the computation needs were identified, addressed, and accomplished with a limited staff under stringent schedule constraints

  14. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  15. Bases, assumptions, and results of the flowsheet calculations for the decision phase salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, under the sponsorship of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High Level Waste (HLW) Vice President and General Manager. The Team is chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted waste form

  16. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  17. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Identification Preconceptual Phase I Summary Report (Including Attachments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the process used by the Team to systematically develop alternative methods or technologies for final disposition of HLW salt. Additionally, this report summarizes the process utilized to reduce the total list of identified alternatives to an ''initial list'' for further evaluation. This report constitutes completion of the team charter major milestone Phase I Deliverable

  18. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J. T.; Renfro, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team down-selected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their down-selection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives

  19. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  20. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  1. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

  2. Results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR). Further work will report the results of the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing (Task 5 of the TTR) using the Tank 21H material. Task 4 of the TTR (MST Strike) will not be completed for Salt Batch 10.

  3. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  4. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process

  5. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation

  6. Relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among special education integration program teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Tajularipin; a/l Kuppusamy, Suresh Kumar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among the Special Education Integration Programme (SEIP) teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The level of critical thinking dispositions and teaching efficacy in the SEIP were compared based on teaching experience and gender. The study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy at SEIP. The research adopted a quantitative survey approach. A total of 190 primary school teachers from the SEIP in Negeri Sembilan were selected using proportional sampling method. The instrument used in this study comprised of three sections; demography, critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Analysis shows that the respondents have a moderate level of critical thinking disposition (M = 2.99, S.D = 0.160) and teaching efficacy (M = 3.01 S.D. = 0.128) was at a high level. For teaching experience, the analysis showed that thinking disposition of novice teachers (mean = 2.52, SD = .503) are significantly higher than experienced teachers (mean = 2.35, SD = .481, t = 2.244, p critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Findings also indicated that there is a significant positive moderate relationship (r = .477) between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among SEIP teachers. This study suggests that critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy play an important role to enhance the performance of SEIP teachers.

  7. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  8. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  9. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, D. [Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  10. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, D., E-mail: dleblanc@terrestrialenergy.com [Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  11. Numerical estimation of structural integrity of salt cavern wells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Schreppers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analyses were performed to estimate axial deformation of cavern wells due to gas storage operations in solution-mined salt caverns. Caverns shrink over time due to salt creep and the cavern roof subsides potentially threatening well integrity. Cavern deformation, deformation of salt

  12. DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE DISPOSITION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the Department of Energy's (DOE's) current efforts to strengthen its activities for the management and disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In August 2002 an integrated, ''corporate project'' was initiated by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to develop a fully integrated strategy for disposition of the approximately ∼250,000 DOE SNF assemblies currently managed by EM. Through the course of preliminary design, the focus of this project rapidly evolved to become DOE-wide. It is supported by all DOE organizations involved in SNF management, and represents a marked change in the way DOE conducts its business. This paper provides an overview of the Corporate Project for Integrated/Risk-Driven Disposition of SNF (Corporate SNF Project), including a description of its purpose, scope and deliverables. It also summarizes the results of the integrated project team's (IPT's) conceptual design efforts, including the identification of project/system requirements and alternatives. Finally, this paper highlights the schedule of the corporate project, and its progress towards development of a DOE corporate strategy for SNF disposition

  13. Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-02-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

  14. The disposition of nuclear waste: an integrated international approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes the establishment of a new, globally integrated approach for dealing with spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high-level waste, and plutonium supplies. The end product is envisioned to be a new global agency (tentatively called the International Nuclear Waste Authority, or INWA), which would have the authority to establish and enforce all nuclear waste disposal standards and subsequently execute all financial arrangements appropriate for obtaining full-scale global implementation. We suggest the IAEA as the logical existing organization to facilitate generating the structure for the INWA. (author)

  15. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  16. Development of an integrated crucible for the salt separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Pyroprocessing has been developed for the recovery of actinide elements from spent fuel due to its advantages. Electrorefining is a key step in pyroprocessing. The electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps. The deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode and the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode. The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode process sing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, the integrated salt separation system was developed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits

  17. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  18. Physics studies of weapons plutonium disposition in the Integral Fast Reactor closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Liaw, J.R.; Fujita, E.K.

    1995-01-01

    The core performance impact of weapons plutonium introduction into the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) closed fuel cycle is investigated by comparing three disposition scenarios: a power production mode, a moderate destruction mode, and a maximum destruction mode, all at a constant heat rating of 840 MW(thermal). For each scenario, two fuel cycle models are evaluated: cores using weapons material as the sole source of transuranics in a once-through mode and recycle cores using weapons material only as required for a makeup feed. In addition, the impact of alternative feeds (recycled light water reactor or liquid-metal reactor transuranics) on burner core performance is assessed. Calculated results include mass flows, detailed isotopic distributions, neutronic performance characteristics, and reactivity feedback coefficients. In general, it is shown that weapons plutonium does not have an adverse effect on IFR core performance characteristics; also, favorable performance can be maintained for a wide variety of feed materials and fuel cycle strategies

  19. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Site Integrated Management plan, uranium 233 storage and disposition. Volume 1: Project scope and description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.B.; Erickson, R.

    1997-01-01

    This Site Integration Management plan provides the Los Alamos Response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 97-1. This recommendation addresses the safe storage and management of the Departments uranium 233 ( 233 U) inventory. In the past, Los Alamos has used 233 U for a variety of different weapons related projects. The material was used at a variety of sites in varying quantities. Now, there is a limited need for this material and the emphasis has shifted from use to storage and disposition of the material. The Los Alamos program to address the DNFSB Recommendation 97-1 has two emphases. First, take corrective action to address near term deficiencies required to provide safe interim storage of 233 U. Second, provide a plan to address long term storage and disposition of excess inventory at Los Alamos

  1. Remediation Approach for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, P.G.; Stephens, Jr.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) is a multi-billion-dollar remediation effort being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scope of the IFDP encompasses remedial actions related to activities conducted over the past 65 years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental media and facilities became contaminated as a result of operations, leaks, spills, and past waste disposal practices. ORNL's mission includes energy, environmental, nuclear security, computational, and materials research and development. Remediation activities will be implemented at ORNL as part of IFDP scope to meet remedial action objectives established in existing and future decision documents. Remedial actions are necessary (1) to comply with environmental regulations to reduce human health and environmental risk and (2) to release strategic real estate needed for modernization initiatives at ORNL. The scope of remedial actions includes characterization, waste management, transportation and disposal, stream restoration, and final remediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and groundwater. Activities include removal of at or below-grade substructures such as slabs, underground utilities, underground piping, tanks, basins, pits, ducts, equipment housings, manholes, and concrete-poured structures associated with equipment housings and basement walls/floors/columns. Many interim remedial actions involving groundwater and surface water that have not been completed are included in the IFDP remedial action scope. The challenges presented by the remediation of Bethel Valley at ORNL are formidable. The proposed approach to remediation endeavors to use the best available technologies and technical approaches from EPA and other federal agencies and lessons learned from previous cleanup efforts. The objective is to minimize cost, maximize remedial

  2. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  3. Toward Integrated Career Assessment: Using Story to Appraise Career Dispositions and Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the validity of using stories to appraise career dispositions and problems associated with career adaptability. Premedical students (63 women, 37 men) wrote narratives about Thematic Apperception Test cards (TAT) and responded to the Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Independent raters identified identical career adaptability…

  4. Integrating Vocational Interests, Competencies, and Interpersonal Dispositions in Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Sandro M.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational interests and interpersonal dispositions have been well researched in adults from the perspectives of Holland's RIASEC (1997) model of interests and the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC), respectively. Few studies have applied either model to children and no studies have examined their overlap in children. A vector fitting procedure was…

  5. Wanting, having, and needing: integrating motive disposition theory and self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schüler, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Four studies explored the motivational and experiential dynamics of psychological needs, applying both self-determination theory and motive disposition theory. In all 4 studies, motive dispositions toward achievement and affiliation ("wanting" particular experiences) predicted corresponding feelings of competence and relatedness ("having" those experiences). Competence and relatedness in turn predicted well-being, again indicating that these 2 experiences may really be "needed." Illuminating how wanting gets to having, in Studies 2 and 3, participants reported greater self-concordance for motive-congruent goals, which, in longitudinal Study 3, predicted greater attainment of those goals and thus enhanced well-being. Study 4 replicated selected earlier results using an implicit as well as an explicit motive disposition measure. Supporting the presumed universality of competence and relatedness needs, in no studies did motive dispositions moderate the effects of corresponding need-satisfaction on well-being. Discussion focuses on a "sequential process" model of psychological needs that views needs as both motives that instigate and outcomes that reward behavior.

  6. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I.; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: → A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. → Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. → INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  7. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Li, E-mail: li.jin@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Paul [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Siegel, Donald I. [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Findlay, Stuart [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: > A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. > Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. > INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  8. Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits in Integrated Crucible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Chang, J. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non-volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation.

  9. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1 of 2: Technical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities

  10. Dispositional logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  11. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  12. The disposition to understand for oneself at university: integrating learning processes with motivation and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2013-06-01

    A re-analysis of several university-level interview studies has suggested that some students show evidence of a deep and stable approach to learning, along with other characteristics that support the approach. This combination, it was argued, could be seen to indicate a disposition to understand for oneself. To identify a group of students who showed high and consistent scores on deep approach, combined with equivalently high scores on effort and monitoring studying, and to explore these students' experiences of the teaching-learning environments they had experienced. Re-analysis of data from 1,896 students from 25 undergraduate courses taking four contrasting subject areas in eleven British universities. Inventories measuring approaches to studying were given at the beginning and the end of a semester, with the second inventory also exploring students' experiences of teaching. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with differing patterns of response on the inventory scales, with a particular focus on students showing high, stable scores. One cluster clearly showed the characteristics expected of the disposition to understand and was also fairly stable over time. Other clusters also had deep approaches, but also showed either surface elements or lower scores on organized effort or monitoring their studying. Combining these findings with interview studies previously reported reinforces the idea of there being a disposition to understand for oneself that could be identified from an inventory scale or through further interviews. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  14. Multi-site risk-based project planning, optimization, sequencing, & budgeting process and tool for the integrated facility disposition project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.G.; Castillo, C.; Huntsman, J.; Killoy, S.; Lucek, H.; Marks, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex Transformation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming and inherently introduces bias of the scheduler or organization into the process. Clearly a well-defined process, quantitative risk-based tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). Faced with limited available data, innovation was needed to extrapolate intelligent relative data for key risk parameters based on known data elements. The IFDP Supermodel was customized and expanded to provide this capability for conceptual planning of diverse project portfolios and multiple sites. (author)

  15. Monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility and salt repository integration: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This MRS Facility and Salt Repository Integration Study evaluates the impacts of an integrated MRS/Salt Repository Waste Management System on the Salt Repository Surface facilities' design, operations, cost, and schedule. Eight separate cases were studied ranging from a two phase repository design with no MRS facility to a design in which the repository only received package waste from the MRS facility for emplacement. The addition of the MRS facility to the Waste Management System significantly reduced the capital cost of the salt repository. All but one of the cases studied were capable of meeting the waste acceptance data. The reduction in the size and complexity of the Salt Repository waste handling building with the integration of the MRS facility reduces the design and operating staff requirements. 7 refs., 35 figs., 43 tabs

  16. AFM visualization of sub-50nm polyplex disposition to the nuclear pore complex without compromising the integrity of the nuclear envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helene; Parhamifar, Ladan; Hunter, A Christy

    2016-01-01

    that were microinjected into the oocytes of Xenopus laevis, as an example of a non-dividing cell, is exclusive to the nuclear pore complex (NPC). AFM images show NPCs clogged only with sub-50nm polyplexes. This mode of disposition neither altered the morphology/integrity of the nuclear membrane nor the NPC...

  17. Foucaults Dispositive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    While Foucault’s work has had a crucial impact on organizational research, the analytical potential of the dispositive has not been sufficiently developed. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct the notion of the dispositive as a key conception in Foucault’s thought, particularly in his...

  18. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  19. Preliminary model validation for integral stability behavior in molten salt natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chuangxiong; He Zhaozhong; Chen Kun

    2017-01-01

    Passive safety system is an important characteristic of Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR). In order to remove the decay heat, a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) which uses the passive safety technology is proposed to the FHR as the ultimate heat sink. The DRACS is relying on the natural circulation, so the study of molten salt natural circulation plays an important role at TMSR. A high-temperature molten salt natural circulation test loop has been designed and constructed at the TMSR center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) to understand the characteristics of the natural circulation and verify the design model. It adopts nitrate salt as the working fluid to simulate fluoride salts, and uses air as the ultimate heat sink. The test shows the operation very well and has a very nice performance, the Heat transfer coefficients (salt-salt or salt-air), power of the loop, heat loss of molten salt pool (or molten salt pipe or air cooling tower), starting time of the loop, flow rate that can be verified in this loop. A series of experiments have been done and the results show that the experimental data are well matched with the design data. This paper aims at analyzing the molten salt circulation model, studying the characteristics of the natural circulation, and verifying the Integral stability behavior by three different natural circulation experiments. Also, the experiment is going on, and more experiments will been carry out to study the molten salt natural circulation for optimizing the design. (author)

  20. Integration of membrane distillation into traditional salt farming method: Process development and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizam, S.; Bilad, M. R.; Putra, Z. A.

    2017-10-01

    Farmers still practice the traditional salt farming in many regions, particularly in Indonesia. This archaic method not only produces low yield and poor salt quality, it is also laborious. Furthermore, the farming locations typically have poor access to fresh water and are far away from electricity grid, which restrict upgrade to a more advanced technology for salt production. This paper proposes a new concept of salt harvesting method that improves the salt yield and at the same time facilitates recovery of fresh water from seawater. The new concept integrates solar powered membrane distillation (MD) and photovoltaic cells to drive the pumping. We performed basic solar still experiments to quantify the heat flux received by a pond. The data were used as insight for designing the proposed concept, particularly on operational strategy and the most effective way to integrate MD. After the conceptual design had been developed, we formulated mass and energy balance to estimate the performance of the proposed concept. Based on our data and design, it is expected that the system would improve the yield and quality of the salt production, maximizing fresh water harvesting, and eventually provides economical gain for salt farmers hence improving their quality of life. The key performance can only be measured via experiment using gain output ratio as performance indicator, which will be done in a future study.

  1. Integrated geophysical study of the Triassic salt bodies' geometry and evolution in central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiez, Hajer; Amri, Dorra Tanfous; Gabtni, Hakim; Bedir, Mourad; Soussi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study, integrating gravity, magnetic and seismic reflection data, has been used to resolve the complex Triassic salt body geometry and evolution in central Tunisia. Regional seismic lines across the study area show a detachment level in the Upper Triassic evaporites, associated with chaotic seismic facies below the Souinia, Majoura, and Mezzouna structures. The Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous seismic horizons display pinching-outs and onlapping around these structures. A stack-velocity section confirms the existence of a high-velocity body beneath the Souinia Mountain. Regional gravity and magnetic profiles in this area were elaborated from ETAP (the Tunisian Firm of Petroleum Activities) measure stations. These profiles were plotted following the same layout from the west (Souinia) to the east (Mezzouna), across the Majoura and Kharrouba mountains. They highlight associated gravity and magnetic negative anomalies. These gravity and magnetic data coupled to the reflection seismic data demonstrate that, in the Souinia, Majoura, and El Hafey zones, the Triassic salt reaches a salt pillow and a salt-dome stage, without piercing the cover. These stages are expressed by moderately low gravity anomalies. On the other hand, in the Mezzouna area (part of the North-South Axis), the Triassic salt had pierced its cover during the Upper Cretaceous and the Tertiary, reaching a more advanced stage as a salt diapir and salt wall. These stages express important low gravity and magnetic anomalies. These results confirm the model of Tanfous et al. (2005) of halokinetic movements by fault intrusions inducing, from the west to the east, structures at different stages of salt pillow, salt dome, and salt diapir.

  2. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  3. Multi-site risk-based project planning, optimization, sequencing and budgeting process and tool for the integrated facility disposition project - 59394

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jerel; Castillo, Carlos; Huntsman, Julie; Lucek, Heather; Marks, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Faced with the DOE Complex Transformation, NNSA was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming, labor intensive, and inherently introduces bias and unaccounted for aspects of the scheduler or organization in the process. Clearly a tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline optimized project sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). In generating an integrated disposition schedule, each project (including facilities, environmental sites, and remedial action units) was identified, characterized, then ranked relative to other projects. Risk matrices allowed for core project data to be extrapolated into probable contamination levels, relative risks to the public, and other technical and risk parameters to be used in the development of an overall ranking. These matrices ultimately generated a complete data set that were used in the Ranking and Sequencing Model (RSM), commonly referred to as the SUPER model, for its numerous abilities to support D and D planning, prioritization, and sequencing

  4. An Investigation of the Integrity of Cemented Casing Seals with Application to Salt Cavern Sealing and Abandonment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Skaug, N.T.; Bruno, M.S.

    2001-04-19

    This research project was pursued in three key areas. (1) Salt permeability testing under complex stress states; (2) Hydraulic and mechanical integrity investigations of the well casing shoe through benchscale testing; and (3) Geomechanical modeling of the fluid/salt hydraulic and mechanical interaction of a sealed cavern.

  5. 49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.19 Disposition. (a) Standard of review. FRA reviews an...

  6. Dispositional greed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, Terri G; Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Ven, Niels; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2015-06-01

    Greed is an important motive: it is seen as both productive (a source of ambition; the motor of the economy) and destructive (undermining social relationships; the cause of the late 2000s financial crisis). However, relatively little is known about what greed is and does. This article reports on 5 studies that develop and test the 7-item Dispositional Greed Scale (DGS). Study 1 (including 4 separate samples from 2 different countries, total N = 6092) provides evidence for the construct and discriminant validity of the DGS in terms of positive correlations with maximization, self-interest, envy, materialism, and impulsiveness, and negative correlations with self-control and life satisfaction. Study 2 (N = 290) presents further evidence for discriminant validity, finding that the DGS predicts greedy behavioral tendencies over and above materialism. Furthermore, the DGS predicts economic behavior: greedy people allocate more money to themselves in dictator games (Study 3, N = 300) and ultimatum games (Study 4, N = 603), and take more in a resource dilemma (Study 5, N = 305). These findings shed light on what greed is and does, how people differ in greed, and how greed can be measured. In addition, they show the importance of greed in economic behavior and provide directions for future studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. An integrated approach to prevent the erosion of salt marshes in the lagoon of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Barausse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of coastal habitats is a widespread problem in Europe. To protect the intertidal salt marshes of the lagoon of Venice from the erosion due to natural and human causes which is diffusely and intensely impacting them, the European Commission has funded the demonstrative project LIFE VIMINE. LIFE VIMINE aims to protect the most interior, hard-to-access salt marshes in the northern lagoon of Venice through an integrated approach, whose core is the prevention of erosion through numerous, small but spatially-diffuse soil-bioengineering protections works, mainly placed through semi-manual labour and with low impact on the environment and the landscape. The effectiveness of protection works in the long term is ensured through routine, temporally-continuous and spatially-diffuse actions of monitoring and maintenance. This method contrasts the common approach to managing hydraulic risk and erosion in Italy which is based on large, one-off and irreversible protection actions. The sustainability of the LIFE VIMINE approach is ensured by the participatory involvement of stakeholders and the recognition that protecting salt marshes means defending the benefits they provide to society through their ecological functions, as well as protecting the jobs linked to the existence or conservation of this habitat.

  8. Development of a multimetric index for integrated assessment of salt marsh ecosystem condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jessica L.; Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Rocks, Erika N.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Grace, James B.; Skidds, Dennis; Stevens, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Tools for assessing and communicating salt marsh condition are essential to guide decisions aimed at maintaining or restoring ecosystem integrity and services. Multimetric indices (MMIs) are increasingly used to provide integrated assessments of ecosystem condition. We employed a theory-based approach that considers the multivariate relationship of metrics with human disturbance to construct a salt marsh MMI for five National Parks in the northeastern USA. We quantified the degree of human disturbance for each marsh using the first principal component score from a principal components analysis of physical, chemical, and land use stressors. We then applied a metric selection algorithm to different combinations of about 45 vegetation and nekton metrics (e.g., species abundance, species richness, and ecological and functional classifications) derived from multi-year monitoring data. While MMIs derived from nekton or vegetation metrics alone were strongly correlated with human disturbance (r values from −0.80 to −0.93), an MMI derived from both vegetation and nekton metrics yielded an exceptionally strong correlation with disturbance (r = −0.96). Individual MMIs included from one to five metrics. The metric-assembly algorithm yielded parsimonious MMIs that exhibit the greatest possible correlations with disturbance in a way that is objective, efficient, and reproducible.

  9. The Dispositions Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robin D.; Lindquist, Cynthia; Altemueller, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Globally, teacher dispositions along with knowledge and skills continue to be the focal point of teacher education programs. Teachers influence children's development and therefore dispositions are a universal concern. For the past 20 years in the United States, teacher education programs have assessed dispositions. We, however, must now also use…

  10. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western's net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western's purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western's net revenue is computed

  11. Thermodynamics investigation of a solar power system integrated oil and molten salt as heat transfer fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qibin; Bai, Zhang; Sun, Jie; Yan, Yuejun; Gao, Zhichao; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concentrating solar power system with a dual-solar field is proposed. • The superheated steam with more than 773 K is produced. • The performances of the proposed system are demonstrated. • The economic feasibility of the proposed system is validated. - Abstract: In this paper, a new parabolic trough solar power system that incorporates a dual-solar field with oil and molten salt as heat transfer fluids (HTFs) is proposed to effectively utilize the solar energy. The oil is chosen as a HTF in the low temperature solar field to heat the feeding water, and the high temperature solar field uses molten salt to superheat the steam that the temperature is higher than 773 K. The produced superheated steam enters a steam turbine to generate power. Energy analysis and exergy analysis of the system are implemented to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Under considerations of variations of solar irradiation, the on-design and off-design thermodynamic performances of the system and the characteristics are investigated. The annual average solar-to-electric efficiency and the nominal efficiency under the given condition for the proposed solar thermal power generation system reach to 15.86% and 22.80%, which are higher than the reference system with a single HTF. The exergy losses within the solar heat transfer process of the proposed system are reduced by 7.8% and 45.23% compared with the solar power thermal systems using oil and molten salt as HTFs, respectively. The integrated approach with oil and molten salt as HTFs can make full use of the different physical properties of the HTFs, and optimize the heat transfer process between the HTFs and the water/steam. The exergy loss in the water evaporation and superheated process are reduced, the system efficiency and the economic performance are improved. The research findings provide a new approach for the improvement of the performances of solar thermal power plants.

  12. Integrated Affinity Biosensing Platforms on Screen-Printed Electrodes Electrografted with Diazonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate selection of the electrode surface and the strategies for its modification to enable subsequent immobilization of biomolecules and/or nanomaterials integration play a major role in the performance of electrochemical affinity biosensors. Because of the simplicity, rapidity and versatility, electrografting using diazonium salt reduction is among the most currently used functionalization methods to provide the attachment of an organic layer to a conductive substrate. This particular chemistry has demonstrated to be a powerful tool to covalently immobilize in a stable and reproducible way a wide range of biomolecules or nanomaterials onto different electrode surfaces. Considering the great progress and interesting features arisen in the last years, this paper outlines the potential of diazonium chemistry to prepare single or multianalyte electrochemical affinity biosensors on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs and points out the existing challenges and future directions in this field.

  13. Integrated Affinity Biosensing Platforms on Screen-Printed Electrodes Electrografted with Diazonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Campuzano, Susana; Pingarrón, José M

    2018-02-24

    Adequate selection of the electrode surface and the strategies for its modification to enable subsequent immobilization of biomolecules and/or nanomaterials integration play a major role in the performance of electrochemical affinity biosensors. Because of the simplicity, rapidity and versatility, electrografting using diazonium salt reduction is among the most currently used functionalization methods to provide the attachment of an organic layer to a conductive substrate. This particular chemistry has demonstrated to be a powerful tool to covalently immobilize in a stable and reproducible way a wide range of biomolecules or nanomaterials onto different electrode surfaces. Considering the great progress and interesting features arisen in the last years, this paper outlines the potential of diazonium chemistry to prepare single or multianalyte electrochemical affinity biosensors on screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and points out the existing challenges and future directions in this field.

  14. Integrated membrane distillation-crystallization: process design and cost estimations for seawater treatment and fluxes of single salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, R.J.M.; Medevoort, J. van; Roelands, C.P.M.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Leerdam, R.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research is to design an integrated membrane distillation-crystallization (MDC) process for desalination of seawater with pure water and dry salts as the only products. The process is based on a combination of membrane distillation (MD) and osmotic distillation (OD) steps with

  15. The FERONIA Receptor Kinase Maintains Cell-Wall Integrity during Salt Stress through Ca2+ Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Kita, Daniel; Peaucelle, Alexis; Cartwright, Heather N; Doan, Vinh; Duan, Qiaohong; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Steinhorst, Leonie; Schmitz-Thom, Ina; Yvon, Robert; Kudla, Jörg; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y; Dinneny, José R

    2018-03-05

    Cells maintain integrity despite changes in their mechanical properties elicited during growth and environmental stress. How cells sense their physical state and compensate for cell-wall damage is poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we report that FERONIA (FER), a plasma-membrane-localized receptor kinase from Arabidopsis, is necessary for the recovery of root growth after exposure to high salinity, a widespread soil stress. The extracellular domain of FER displays tandem regions of homology with malectin, an animal protein known to bind di-glucose in vitro and important for protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of malectin-like domains in FER and related receptor kinases has led to widespread speculation that they interact with cell-wall polysaccharides and can potentially serve a wall-sensing function. Results reported here show that salinity causes softening of the cell wall and that FER is necessary to sense these defects. When this function is disrupted in the fer mutant, root cells explode dramatically during growth recovery. Similar defects are observed in the mur1 mutant, which disrupts pectin cross-linking. Furthermore, fer cell-wall integrity defects can be rescued by treatment with calcium and borate, which also facilitate pectin cross-linking. Sensing of these salinity-induced wall defects might therefore be a direct consequence of physical interaction between the extracellular domain of FER and pectin. FER-dependent signaling elicits cell-specific calcium transients that maintain cell-wall integrity during salt stress. These results reveal a novel extracellular toxicity of salinity, and identify FER as a sensor of damage to the pectin-associated wall. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Integration of Auxin and Salt Signals by the NAC Transcription Factor NTM2 during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungmin; Kim, Youn-Sung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Je-Chang; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Seed germination is regulated through elaborately interacting signaling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into hormonal signaling pathways. Roles of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid in germination have been studied extensively using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants having alterations in seed germination. Auxin has also been implicated in seed germination. However, how auxin influences germination is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that auxin is linked via the IAA30 gene with a salt signaling cascade mediated by the NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 transcription factor NTM2/Arabidopsis NAC domain-containing protein 69 (for NAC with Transmembrane Motif1) during seed germination. Germination of the NTM2-deficient ntm2-1 mutant seeds exhibited enhanced resistance to high salinity. However, the salt resistance disappeared in the ntm2-1 mutant overexpressing the IAA30 gene, which was induced by salt in a NTM2-dependent manner. Auxin exhibited no discernible effects on germination under normal growth conditions. Under high salinity, however, whereas exogenous application of auxin further suppressed the germination of control seeds, the auxin effects were reduced in the ntm2-1 mutant. Consistent with the inhibitory effects of auxin on germination, germination of YUCCA 3-overexpressing plants containing elevated levels of active auxin was more severely influenced by salt. These observations indicate that auxin delays seed germination under high salinity through cross talk with the NTM2-mediated salt signaling in Arabidopsis. PMID:21450938

  17. Integration of health physics, safety and operational processes for management and disposition of recycled uranium wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, James; Buckley, James

    2003-01-01

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald), the contractor for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), recently submitted a new baseline plan for achieving site closure by the end of calendar year 2006. This plan was submitted at DOE's request, as the FEMP was selected as one of the sites for their accelerated closure initiative. In accordance with the accelerated baseline, the FEMP Waste Management Project (WMP) is actively evaluating innovative processes for the management and disposition of low-level uranium, fissile material, and thorium, all of which have been classified as waste. These activities are being conducted by the Low Level Waste (LLW) and Uranium Waste Disposition (UWD) projects. Alternatives associated with operational processing of individual waste streams, each of which poses potentially unique health physics, industrial hygiene and industrial hazards, are being evaluated for determination of the most cost effective and safe met hod for handling and disposition. Low-level Mixed Waste (LLMW) projects are not addressed in this paper. This paper summarizes historical uranium recycling programs and resultant trace quantity contamination of uranium waste streams with radionuclides, other than uranium. The presentation then describes how waste characterization data is reviewed for radiological and/or chemical hazards and exposure mitigation techniques, in conjunction with proposed operations for handling and disposition. The final part of the presentation consists of an overview of recent operations within LLW and UWD project dispositions, which have been safely completed, and a description of several current operations

  18. ISDP salt batch #2 supernate qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2009-01-05

    This report covers the laboratory testing and analyses of the second Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) salt supernate samples, performed in support of initial radioactive operations of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Major goals of this work include characterizing Tank 22H supernate, characterizing Tank 41H supernate, verifying actinide and strontium adsorption with a standard laboratory-scale test using monosodium titanate (MST) and filtration, and checking cesium mass transfer behavior for the MCU solvent performance when contacted with the liquid produced from MST contact. This study also includes characterization of a post-blend Tank 49H sample as part of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). In addition, a sampling plan will be written to guide analytical future work. Safety and environmental aspects of the work were documented in a Hazard Assessment Package.

  19. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  20. What is a Dispositive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    perspective – indeed it forms a lesser known intermediary between these. Foucault’s dispositional analysis articulates a history of connected social technologies that we have constructed to relate to each other. Expounding these points, the article distinguishes various dispositional prototypes and develops...... key ‘socio-ontological’ implications of the analy-sis. Reinstating the proper analytical status of the dispositive contributes to the reception of the important notion; the interpretation of Foucault’s entire oeuvre; and a resourceful approach to the study of contemporary societal problems....

  1. 25 CFR 226.29 - Disposition of casings and other improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.29 Disposition of casings... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of casings and other improvements. 226.29... bearing fresh water, oil, gas, salt water, and other minerals, and to protect it against invasion of...

  2. Integrating biomass, sulphate and sea-salt aerosol responses into a microphysical chemical parcel model: implications for climate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Smith, M H; Rap, A

    2007-11-15

    Aerosols are known to influence significantly the radiative budget of the Earth. Although the direct effect (whereby aerosols scatter and absorb solar and thermal infrared radiation) has a large perturbing influence on the radiation budget, the indirect effect (whereby aerosols modify the microphysical and hence the radiative properties and amounts of clouds) poses a greater challenge to climate modellers. This is because aerosols undergo chemical and physical changes while in the atmosphere, notably within clouds, and are removed largely by precipitation. The way in which aerosols are processed by clouds depends on the type, abundance and the mixing state of the aerosols concerned. A parametrization with sulphate and sea-salt aerosol has been successfully integrated within the Hadley Centre general circulation model (GCM). The results of this combined parametrization indicate a significantly reduced role, compared with previous estimates, for sulphate aerosol in cloud droplet nucleation and, consequently, in indirect radiative forcing. However, in this bicomponent system, the cloud droplet number concentration, N(d) (a crucial parameter that is used in GCMs for radiative transfer calculations), is a smoothly varying function of the sulphate aerosol loading. Apart from sea-salt and sulphate aerosol particles, biomass aerosol particles are also present widely in the troposphere. We find that biomass smoke can significantly perturb the activation and growth of both sulphate and sea-salt particles. For a fixed salt loading, N(d) increases linearly with modest increases in sulphate and smoke masses, but significant nonlinearities are observed at higher non-sea-salt mass loadings. This non-intuitive N(d) variation poses a fresh challenge to climate modellers.

  3. Integrating role of ethylene and ABA in tomato plants adaptation to salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amjad, Muhammad; Akhtar, Javaid; Anwar-ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    concentrations of ABA and ethylene under saline conditions compared to control (0mM NaCl) and salt-sensitive genotype. The concentration of hormones was significantly higher in the treatment where no K was applied and it was lower in treatments where K was applied indicating that K application reduced...

  4. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR DISPOSITION OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; Parker, Frank L.

    2003-02-27

    During the past 45 years, one of the most challenging scientific, engineering, socio-economic, and political tasks and obligations of our time has been to site and develop technical, politically acceptable, solutions to the safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). However, at the end of the year 2002, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in the United States of America (USA) hosts the world's only operating LLRM-disposal system, which (1) is based on the LLRM-disposal principles recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1957, i.e., deep geological disposal in a ''stable'' salt vault/repository, (2) complies with the nation's ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'', and (3) may receive 175,584 cubic meters (m3) of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW)a. Pending the scheduled opening of repositories for once-used nuclear fuel (OUNF) in the USA, Sweden, and Finland in the years 2010, 2015, and 2017, respectively, LLRM-disposal solutions remain the missing link in all national LLRM-disposition programs. Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, many nations with nuclear programs have chosen a ''spectator'' stance in terms of enhancing the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, and have either ''slow-tracked'' or deferred their LLRM-disposal programs to allow time for an informed national consensus to evolve based on LLRM-disposition experiences and solutions gained elsewhere. In the meantime, LLRMs will continue to amass in different types and levels of safeguarded storage facilities around the world. In an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, the authors developed the sample holistic approach for synergistic disposition of LLRMs comprising LLRM-disposition

  5. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR DISPOSITION OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.; Dials, George E.; Parker, Frank L.

    2003-01-01

    During the past 45 years, one of the most challenging scientific, engineering, socio-economic, and political tasks and obligations of our time has been to site and develop technical, politically acceptable, solutions to the safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). However, at the end of the year 2002, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in the United States of America (USA) hosts the world's only operating LLRM-disposal system, which (1) is based on the LLRM-disposal principles recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 1957, i.e., deep geological disposal in a ''stable'' salt vault/repository, (2) complies with the nation's ''Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'', and (3) may receive 175,584 cubic meters (m3) of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW)a. Pending the scheduled opening of repositories for once-used nuclear fuel (OUNF) in the USA, Sweden, and Finland in the years 2010, 2015, and 2017, respectively, LLRM-disposal solutions remain the missing link in all national LLRM-disposition programs. Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, many nations with nuclear programs have chosen a ''spectator'' stance in terms of enhancing the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, and have either ''slow-tracked'' or deferred their LLRM-disposal programs to allow time for an informed national consensus to evolve based on LLRM-disposition experiences and solutions gained elsewhere. In the meantime, LLRMs will continue to amass in different types and levels of safeguarded storage facilities around the world. In an attempt to contribute to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety culture and the nuclear renaissance, the authors developed the sample holistic approach for synergistic disposition of LLRMs comprising LLRM-disposition components considered either ''proven'' or ''promising'' by the authors. The

  6. Scaling options for integral experiments for molten salt fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe Bardet; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Molten fluoride salts have potentially large benefits for use in high-temperature heat transport in fission and fusion energy systems, due to their very very low vapor pressures at high temperatures. Molten salts have high volumetric heat capacity compared to high-pressure helium and liquid metals, and have desirable safety characteristics due to their chemical inertness and low pressure. Therefore molten salts have been studied extensively for use in fusion blankets, as an intermediate heat transfer fluid for thermochemical hydrogen production in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, as a primary coolant for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor, and as a solvent for fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor. This paper presents recent progress in the design and analysis of scaled thermal hydraulics experiments for molten salt systems. We have identified a category of light mineral oils that can be used for scaled experiments. By adjusting the length, velocity, average temperature, and temperature difference scales of the experiment, we show that it is possible to simultaneously match the Reynolds (Re), Froude (Fr), Prandtl (Pr) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers in the scaled experiments. For example, the light mineral oil Penreco Drakesol 260 AT can be used to simulate the molten salt flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ). At 110 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 600 deg. C flibe, and at 165 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 900 deg. C flibe. Re, Fr, and Ra can then be matched at a length scale of Ls/Lp = 0.40, velocity scale of U s /U p = 0.63, and temperature difference scale of ΔT s /ΔT p = 0.29. The Weber number is then matched within a factor of two, We s /We p = 0.7. Mechanical pumping power scales as Qp s /Qp p = 0.016, while heat inputs scale as Qh s /Qh p = 0.010, showing that power inputs to scaled experiments are very small compared to the prototype system. The scaled system has accelerated time, t s /t p = 0.64. When Re, Fr, Pr and Ra are matched, geometrically scaled

  7. Salt geologic evaluation of the impact of cryogenic fissures and halokinetic deformation processes on the integrity of the geological barrier of the salt dome Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Joerg; Fleig, Stephanie; Mingerzahn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    In several salt domes of the area close to Hannover fissures were observed that might be caused by thermally induced fissure formation due to cold periods (cryogenic fissures). Comprehensive substantial-structural analyses are performed as an example for the salt dome Bokeloh with respect to genesis and transferability to the salt dome Gorleben. Based on recent structure-geological, mineralogical-geochemical and micro-paleontological studies and thermo-mechanical modeling a solely thermally induced fissure formation due to cold periods is unlikely for the salt dome Bokeloh. There is a direct relation between the genesis of the salt dome Bokeloh, its regional tectonic site and the fissure formation. Due to the completely different genesis and another regional-tectonic situation the existence of cryogenic fissures is excluded for the salt dome Gorleben. The salt-geologic and experimental studies on the deformation of anhydrite layers in salt domes are summarized and evaluated with respect to the long-term consequences for a potential final repository for high-level heat-generating radioactive waste in the salt dome Gorleben. The studies confirm the older BGR studies that anhydrite layers do not represent hydraulic potential ling-distance liquid paths.

  8. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements

  9. Measuring Teacher Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a top priority of our national agenda. There is empirical evidence that suggests that teacher inputs have impact on student outcomes. It is also believed that teacher dispositions are as crucial for student achievement as a teacher's pedagogical and content knowledge/skills. The National Council for Accreditation of…

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  11. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  13. Comparative economic analysis of the Integral Molten Salt Reactor and an advanced PWR using the G4-ECONS methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samalova, Ludmila; Chvala, Ondrej; Maldonado, G. Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of economic viability of a new reactor concept is crucial particularly during the early stages of its concept development. The G4-ECONS methodology provides a standardized top-down estimate of electricity cost and parametric sensitivities, not specifically targeted toward an accurate prediction of the final cost when deployed, but rather seeking an approximation of cost variations relative to other systems. This study presents an analysis of the Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR) concept in comparison with a consistent analysis of an advanced PWR reactor (represented by AP1000). Estimation of levelized unit electricity costs, as well as sensitivity analyses to the discount rate and uranium or SWU prices, are presented using this methodology.

  14. Fernald waste management and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.L.; Fisher, L.A.; Frost, M.L.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Historically waste management within the Department of Energy complex has evolved around the operating principle of packaging waste generated and storing until a later date. In many cases wastes were delivered to onsite waste management organizations with little or no traceability to origin of generation. Sites then stored their waste for later disposition offsite or onsite burial. While the wastes were stored, sites incurred additional labor costs for maintaining, inspecting and repackaging containers and capital costs for storage warehouses. Increased costs, combined with the inherent safety hazards associated with storage of hazardous material make these practices less attractive. This paper will describe the methods used at the Department of Energy's Fernald site by the Waste Programs Management Division to integrate with other site divisions to plan in situ waste characterization prior to removal. This information was utilized to evaluate and select disposal options and then to package and ship removed wastes without storage

  15. Character, attitude and disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  16. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle; Stauffer, Philip H.; Weaver, Douglas James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Otto, Shawn; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Jordan, Amy B.; Chu, Shaoping; Zyvoloski, George Anthony; Johnson, Peter Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  17. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  18. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  19. Analytical results from salt batch 9 routine DSSHT and SEHT monthly samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 9 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Cs removal continues to be acceptable, with decontamination factors (DF) averaging 25700 (107% RSD). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior, other than lacking the anticipated degree of dilution that is calculated to occur during Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing.

  20. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  1. An integrated model of tritium transport and corrosion in Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs) – Part I: Theory and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John D., E-mail: john.stempien@inl.gov; Ballinger, Ronald G., E-mail: hvymet@mit.edu; Forsberg, Charles W., E-mail: cforsber@mit.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A model was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. • Model results match results of tritium diffusion experiments. • Corrosion simulations show reasonable agreement with molten salt loop experiments. • This is the only existing model of tritium transport and corrosion in FHRs. • Model enables proposing and evaluating tritium control options in FHRs. - Abstract: The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) is a pebble bed nuclear reactor concept cooled by a liquid fluoride salt known as “flibe” ({sup 7}LiF-BeF{sub 2}). A model of TRITium Diffusion EvolutioN and Transport (TRIDENT) was developed for use with FHRs and benchmarked with experimental data. TRIDENT is the first model to integrate the effects of tritium production in the salt via neutron transmutation, with the effects of the chemical redox potential, tritium mass transfer, tritium diffusion through pipe walls, tritium uptake by graphite, selective chromium attack by tritium fluoride, and corrosion product mass transfer. While data from a forced-convection polythermal loop of molten salt containing tritium did not exist for comparison, TRIDENT calculations were compared to data from static salt diffusion tests in flibe and flinak (0.465LiF-0.115NaF-0.42KF) salts. In each case, TRIDENT matched the transient and steady-state behavior of these tritium diffusion experiments. The corrosion model in TRIDENT was compared against the natural convection flow-loop experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from the 1960s and early 1970s which used Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel-salt containing UF{sub 4}. Despite the lack of data required by TRIDENT for modeling the loops, some reasonable results were obtained. The TRIDENT corrosion rates follow the experimentally observed dependence on the square root of the product of the chromium solid-state diffusion coefficient with time. Additionally the TRIDENT model predicts mass

  2. Integrity and stability of oral liposomes containing bile salts studied in simulated and ex vivo gastrointestinal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunwen; Niu, Mengmeng; Hu, Fuqiang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Yin, Zongning; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this study was to investigate the integrtity and stability of oral liposomes containing glycocholate (SGC-Lip) in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media and ex vivo GI media from rats in comparison with conventional liposomes (CH-Lip) composed of soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Membrane integrity of liposomes was evaluated by monitoring calcein release, particle size and distribution in different simulated GI media. The stability of liposomes encapsulating insulin was investigated in simulated GI fluids containing pepsin or pancreatin and ex vivo GI enzyme fluids. Simulated GI media with low pH or physiological bile salts resulted in significant increase in calcein release, but dynamic laser scattering data showed that the size and distribution were generally stable. SGC-Lip retained the major amount of the initially encapsulated insulin as compared with CH-Lip in simulated GI fluids (SGF, FaSSGF, SIF and FeSSIF-V2). SGC-Lip retained respectively 17.1% and 20.5% of the initially encapsulated insulin in ex vivo GI fluid, which were also significantly more than CH-Lip. These results suggested that SGC-Lip could protect insulin from degradation to some degree during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract and contributed to enhanced oral absorption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An integrated methodology for salt damage assessment and remediation: The case of San Jerónimo Monastery (Granada, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.; Sawdy, A.; Hees, R. van; Price, C.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2011-01-01

    San Jerónimo Monastery (Granada, Spain) was selected as a case study for the investigation of the effect of indoor environmental conditions on salt weathering and for on-site testing of a remediation treatment using crystallization inhibitors on account of the extreme salt damage affecting both the

  4. An integrated methodology for salt damage assessment and remediation : The case of San Jeronimo Monastery (Granada, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.; Sawdy, A.; Van Hees, R.; Price, C.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-01-01

    San Jeronimo Monastery (Granada, Spain) was selected as a case study for the investigation of the effect of indoor environmental conditions on salt weathering and for on-site testing of a remediation treatment using crystallization inhibitors on account of the extreme salt damage affecting both the

  5. Early Stages of Musical Development: Relationships between Sensory Integration Dysfunction, Parental Influence, and Musical Disposition of a Three-Year-Old "Maestro"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; McPherson, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Current literature offers only scant information on very young children who display high attention and engagement in music, but who are not drawn from normal populations. This study of three-year-old Danny, who possesses the neurological disorder Sensory Integration Dysfunction, provides a case study of the types of parent-child interactions that…

  6. Salt Lake City Utah Integrated Projects electric power marketing. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 5: Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  7. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Sections 1--16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  8. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing final environmental impact statement. Volume 4: Appendixes B-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alter native

  9. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Tracy R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  10. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  11. Plutonium dispositioning in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Feinroth, H.; Luxat, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to evaluate salient technical, strategic, schedule, and cost-related parameters of using CANDU reactors for dispositioning of weapons-grade plutonium in the form of Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel. A study team, consisting of key staff from the CANDU reactor designers and researchers (AECL), operators (Ontario Hydro) and fuel suppliers, analyzed all significant factors involved in such application, with the objective of identifying an arrangement that would permit the burning of MOX in CANDU at the earliest date. One of Ontario Hydro's multi-unit stations, Bruce A nuclear generating station (4x769 MW(e)), was chosen as the reference for the study. The assessment showed that no significant modifications of reactor or process systems are necessary to operate with a full MOX core. Plant modifications would be limited to fuel handling and modifications necessary to accommodate enhanced security and safeguards requirements. No safety limitations were identified

  12. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Khan, Abdulaziz M.; Tang, Yu; Nguyen, Luan; Ziani, Ahmed; Jacobs, Benjamin W; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Sarathy, S Mani; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2017-01-01

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  13. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-26

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  14. The concept of fuel cycle integrated molten salt reactor for transmuting Pu+MA from spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Japan should need a new fuel cycle, not to save spent fuels indefinitely as the reusable resources but to consume plutonium and miner actinides orderly without conventional reprocessing. The key component is a molten salt reactor fueled with the Pu+MA (PMA) separated from LWR spent fuels using fluoride volatility method. A double-tiered once-through reactor system can burn PMA down to 5% remnant ratio, and can make PMA virtually free from the HAW to be disposed geometrically. A key issue to be demonstrated is the first of all solubility behavior of trifluoride species in the molten fuel salt of 7 LiF-BeF 2 mixture. (author)

  15. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  16. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  17. Characteristics of an integrated cathode assembly for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Bin Park; Byung Heung Park; Sang Mun Jeong; Jin Mok Hur; Chung Seok Seo; Seong Won Park; Seung-Hoon Choi

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of the reduction of uranium oxide was studied in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt system with an integrated cathode assembly. The mechanism for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was studied through cyclic voltammetry. By means of a chronopotentiometry, the effects of the thickness of the uranium oxide, the thickness of the MgO membrane and the material of the conductor of an integrated cathode assembly on the overpotential of the cathode were investigated. From the voltamograms, the reduction potential of the uranium oxide and Li 2 O was obtained and the two mechanisms of the electrolytic reduction were considered with regard to the applied cathode potential. From the chronopotentiograms, the exchange current, the transfer coefficient and the maximum allowable current based on the Tafel behavior were obtained with regard to the thickness of the uranium oxide, and of the MgO membrane and the material of the conductor of an integrated cathode assembly. (author)

  18. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  19. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  20. Integrated use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen for sustainable production of maize under salt-affected conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Jamil, M.; Akhtar, F.U.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most critical constraints hampering agricultural production throughout the world, including Pakistan. Some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the ability to reduce the deleterious effect of salinity on plants due to the presence of ACC-deaminase enzyme along with some other mechanisms. The integrated use of organic, chemical and biofertilizers can reduce dependence on expensive chemical inputs. To sustain high crop yields without deterioration of soil fertility, it is important to work out optimal combination of chemical and biofertilizers, and manures in the cropping system. A pot trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of PGPR, chemical nitrogen, and biogas slurry for sustainable production of maize under salt-stressed conditions and for good soil health. Results showed that sole application of PGPR, chemical nitrogen and biogas slurry enhanced maize growth but their combined application was more effective. Maximum improvement in maize growth, yield, ionic concentration in leaves and nutrient concentration in grains was observed in the treatment where PGPR and biogas slurry was used in the presence of 100% recommended nitrogen as chemical fertilizer. It also improved the soil pH, ECe, and available N, P and K contents. It is concluded that integrated use of PGPR, biogas slurry and chemical nitrogen not only enhanced maize growth, yield and quality but also improved soil health. So, it may be evaluated under field conditions to get sustained yield of maize from salt-affected soils. (author)

  1. Disposition Options for Uranium-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Dole, L.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; Storch, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (MD), in support of the U.S. arms-control and nonproliferation policies, has initiated a program to disposition surplus weapons-usable fissile material by making it inaccessible and unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. Weapons-usable fissile materials include plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU), and uranium-233 (sup 233)U. In support of this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory led DOE's contractor efforts to identify and characterize options for the long-term storage and disposal of excess (sup 233)U. Five storage and 17 disposal options were identified and are described herein

  2. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  3. Happiness, Dispositions and the Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2016-01-01

    I argue that happiness is an exclusively categorical mental state. Daniel Haybron’s inclusion of dispositions into his emotional state theory rests of a confusion of constituents of happiness in the narrow psychological sense with objects of prudential concern, to which obviously belong “mood...... propensities” and other dispositional states. I further argue that while it is probably correct to require of a constituent of happiness that it must in some sense be “deep” and belong to, or directly impact on, a persons’ self, the importance of depth may be overrated by the emotional state theory, which also...

  4. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  5. Assessing Technical and Programmatic Viability of Nuclear Waste and Material Stream Disposition Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. S. Hill; B. Griebenow

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) has responsibility for cleanup and disposition of nuclear wastes and excess materials that are a legacy of the nuclear arms race. In fulfilling this responsibility, EM applies a systems engineering approach to identify baseline disposition plans for the wastes and materials (storage, stabilization, treatment, and disposal), assess the path viability, and develop integration opportunities to improve the disposition viability or to combine, eliminate, and/or simplify activities, technologies, and facilities across the DOE Complex, evaluate the baseline and alternatives to make informed decisions, and implement and track selected opportunities. This paper focuses on processes used to assess the disposition path viability - the likelihood that current planning for disposition of nuclear waste and materials can be implemented

  6. A disposition of interpolation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A large collection of interpolation techniques is available for application in environmental research. To help environmental scientists in choosing an appropriate technique a disposition is made, based on 1) applicability in space, time and space-time, 2) quantification of accuracy of interpolated

  7. Dispositional optimism and stock investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, D.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between dispositional optimism and stock investments, controlling for cognitive skills and personality traits such as trust, social interactions and risk aversion. We use data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) on investors aged

  8. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    In theoretical work we distinguish living beings from inanimate objects on the basis of some paramount attributes, such as agency and autonomy. These abstract features are not directly accessible to our scrutiny, but we surmise their nature through observation of the purpose-oriented behavior of organisms. I intend to show that organismal purposefulness springs from the intrinsic, constitutive kind of finality that is the hallmark of all semiotic transactions. To this aim I develop a dispositionalist account of organismal causation based on a distinction between two kinds of causal dispositions: fixed (efficient) dispositions and traveling dispositions. Fixed dispositions are rigidly attached to physical structures and processes; these are the dispositions regularly invoked in current discussions of causal explanation. Traveling dispositions are able to move freely from one location to another by becoming embodied into suitable supporting media. I introduce these notions to articulate a view of semiosis I deem best suited to the life sciences, and contend that sign tokens are vehicles of traveling dispositions. This account places the origin of purposive behavior at the interaction of physical and semiotic causation. To properly motivate the discussion I briefly review some recent developments in the philosophy of science concerning various forms of causation invoked by scientists across disciplines to frame explanations and make predictions. The ensuing discussion gives particular prominence to mechanistic (as distinct from mechanicist) explanatory accounts of biological phenomena. This review is followed by a brief characterization of a "nomological machine," a comprehensive schema introduced and developed by Nancy Cartwright with the goal of explaining causal mechanisms in a general setting. By capitalizing on this model's heuristic virtues I seek to formulate a compelling view of the interactions between physical and semiotic causation at play in semiotic

  9. bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Niwa, Yasuo; Goto, Shingo; Ogawa, Takeshi; Shimizu, Masanori; Suzuki, Akane; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    An activation-tagging methodology was applied to dedifferentiated calli of Arabidopsis to identify new genes involved in salt tolerance. This identified salt tolerant callus 8 (stc8) as a gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH106. bHLH106-knockout (KO) lines were more sensitive to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, ABA, and low temperatures than the wild-type. Back-transformation of the KO line rescued its phenotype, and over-expression (OX) of bHLH106 in differentiated plants exhibited tolerance to NaCl. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with bHLH106 revealed that it was localized to the nucleus. Prepared bHLH106 protein was subjected to electrophoresis mobility shift assays against E-box sequences (5'-CANNTG-3'). The G-box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' had the strongest interaction with bHLH106. bHLH106-OX lines were transcriptomically analyzed, and resultant up- and down-regulated genes selected on the criterion of presence of a G-box sequence. There were 198 genes positively regulated by bHLH106 and 36 genes negatively regulated; these genes possessed one or more G-box sequences in their promoter regions. Many of these genes are known to be involved in abiotic stress response. It is concluded that bHLH106 locates at a branching point in the abiotic stress response network by interacting directly to the G-box in genes conferring salt tolerance on plants.

  10. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  11. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  12. The mind as skills and dispositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the critique of Alfredo Gaete and Carlos Cornejo, this article explains and extends the hybrid theory of the mind that I recently presented in this journal. Taking inspiration from Rom Harré’s program for a hybrid psychology, the theory is supposed to be integrative and aims...... to broaden Harré’s hybrid psychology by including not just the brain, but also the body, social practices, and technological artifacts as mediators of the mind. The mind is understood not as a substance of any kind, but as a set of skills and dispositions to act, think, and feel. This implies a normative...... view of the mind, according to which psychological phenomena do not simply happen, but are done, and can consequently be done more or less well. I provide arguments in favor of grounding psychology in normativity rather than conscious experience, and I explain why the emphasis on mediators does...

  13. Free Energies by Thermodynamic Integration Relative to an Exact Solution, Used to Find the Handedness-Switching Salt Concentration for DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2013-01-08

    Sets of free energy differences are useful for finding the equilibria of chemical reactions, while absolute free energies have little physical meaning. However finding the relative free energy between two macrostates by subtraction of their absolute free energies is a valuable strategy in certain important cases. We present calculations of absolute free energies of biomolecules, using a combination of the well-known Einstein molecule method (for treating the solute) with a conceptually related method of recent genesis for computing free energies of liquids (to treat the solvent and counterions). The approach is based on thermodynamic integration from a detailed atomistic model to one which is simplified but analytically solvable, thereby giving the absolute free energy as that of the tractable model plus a correction term found numerically. An example calculation giving the free energy with respect to salt concentration for the B- and Z-isomers of all-atom duplex DNA in explicit solvent and counterions is presented. The coexistence salt concentration is found with unprecedented accuracy.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of uranium oxide in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt with the integrated cathode assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Park, Byung Heung; Kang, Dae Seoung; Kwon, Seon Gil; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide to uranium metal was studied in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt system. By means of a cyclic voltammetry and a chronopotentiometry, the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide has been studied to establish the reduction mechanisms and the effects of the thickness of the uranium oxide on the overpotential of the cathode and anode were investigated. From the voltamograms, the reduction potentials of the uranium oxide and Li 2 O were obtained and the two mechanisms of the electrolytic reduction were considered with regards to the applied cathode potential. In the chronopotentiograms, the exchange current, the transfer coefficient and the maximum allowable current based on the Tafel behavior were obtained according to the thickness of the uranium oxide which is loaded into the porous MgO membrane. (author)

  15. Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These open-quotes staticclose quotes properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions

  16. Study of the Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide in LiCl-Li2O Molten Salts with an Integrated Cathode Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Seo, Chung Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Kwon, Seon Gil; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    The electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt system has been studied in a 10 g U 3 O 3 /batch-scale experimental apparatus with an integrated cathode assembly at 650 .deg. C. The integrated cathode assembly consists of an electric conductor, the uranium oxide to be reduced and the membrane for loading the uranium oxide. From the cyclic voltammograms for the LiCl-3 wt% Li 3 O system and the U 3 O 3 -LiCl-3 wt% Li 2 O system according to the materials of the membrane in the cathode assembly, the mechanisms of the predominant reduction reactions in the electrolytic reactor cell were to be understood; direct and indirect electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide. Direct and indirect electrolytic reductions have been performed with the integrated cathode assembly. Using the 325-mesh stainless steel screen the uranium oxide failed to be reduced to uranium metal by a direct and indirect electrolytic reduction because of a low current efficiency and with the porous magnesia membrane the uranium oxide was reduced successfully to uranium metal by an indirect electrolytic reduction because of a high current efficiency.

  17. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  18. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  19. Plutonium Disposition Now exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000's. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries

  20. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  1. Measuring the Multicultural Dispositions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bryant; Whiting, Erin Feinauer; Chapman, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Claims abound in the research literature regarding multicultural teacher dispositions, including how to foster them in teacher preparation programs. However, measures of multicultural dispositions of teachers that (a) capture the range of conceptually rich constructs and (b) demonstrate strong psychometric properties are not represented in the…

  2. Linguistic variables, approximate reasoning and dispositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1983-07-01

    Test-score semantics is applied to the representation of meaning of dispositions, that is, propositions with suppressed fuzzy quantifiers, e.g. overeating causes obesity, icy roads are slippery, young men like young women, etc. The concept of a disposition plays an especially important role in the representation of commonsense knowledge. 45 references.

  3. Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward

  4. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  5. Dispositions, Emotions, Episodes and the Autonomous Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relationship between dispositions (i.e., continuities of inclinations and habits), episodic behavior, emotions, and desires; and the development of moral autonomy. Argues that autonomy requires a settled disposition toward the good. Contrasts theories of autonomy based on wants/desires and on ideals. (AYC)

  6. Dispositions in Education: Nonentities Worth Talking about

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of dispositions has commanded considerable attention in both philosophy and education. In this essay, Laurance Splitter draws on philosophy to take a fresh look at dispositions in education, specifically teacher education. Bypassing the pitfalls of both subjectivity and crude behaviorism, he proposes a conceptual framework in which…

  7. Joint U.S./Russian plutonium disposition study: Nonproliferation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Erkkila, B.; Fearey, B.; Ehinger, M.; McAllister, S.; Chitaykin, V.; Ptashny, V.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to establish joint activities in the disposition of fissile materials from nuclear materials, the US and Russia agreed to conduct joint work to develop consistent comparisons of various alternatives for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium. Joint working groups were established for the analysis of alternatives for plutonium management for water reactors, fast reactors, storage, geological formations, immobilization and stabilization of solutions and other forms. In addition cross-cutting working groups were established for economic analysis and nonproliferation (NP). This paper reviews the activities of the NP working group in support of these studies. The NP working group provided integrated support in the area of nuclear NP to the other US/Russian Study teams. It involved both domestic safeguards and security and international safeguards. The analysis of NP involved consideration of the resistance to theft or diversion and resistance to retrieval, extraction or reuse

  8. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  9. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen

  10. Fissile materials from nuclear arms reductions: A question of disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This Session, 35T-2, of the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) was held on February 18, 1991. The papers presented during this session covered a variety of issues and technologies concerning the disposition of the highly enriched uranium and plutonium salvaged from retired nuclear warheads. However, circumstances, including the amount of time available for the session, imposed limitations on the number and breadth of these papers. A comprehensive study of this topic should include a broader range of papers. This session included a paper on molten salt reactors designed to use highly enriched uranium or plutonium as fuel. Other options for the disposal of plutonium, such as transmutation using accelerators and underground vitrification using nuclear explosions, were not discussed during this session, but need to be considered. Individual papers are indexed separately

  11. An integrated modeling study on the effects of mineral dust and sea salt particles on clouds and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solomos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report addresses the effects of pollution on the development of precipitation in clean ("pristine" and polluted ("hazy" environments in the Eastern Mediterranean by using the Integrated Community Limited Area Modeling System (ICLAMS (an extended version of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS. The use of this model allows one to investigate the interactions of the aerosols with cloud development. The simulations show that the onset of precipitation in hazy clouds is delayed compared to pristine conditions. Adding small concentrations of GCCN to polluted clouds promotes early-stage rain. The addition of GCCN to pristine clouds has no effect on precipitation amounts. Topography was found to be more important for the distribution of precipitation than aerosol properties. Increasing by 15% the concentration of hygroscopic dust particles for a case study over the Eastern Mediterranean resulted in more vigorous convection and more intense updrafts. The clouds that were formed extended about three kilometers higher, delaying the initiation of precipitation by one hour. Prognostic treatment of the aerosol concentrations in the explicit cloud droplet nucleation scheme of the model, improved the model performance for the twenty-four hour accumulated precipitation. The spatial distribution and the amounts of precipitation were found to vary greatly between the different aerosol scenarios. These results indicate the large uncertainty that remains and the need for more accurate description of aerosol feedbacks in atmospheric models and climate change predictions.

  12. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  13. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  14. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Rutherford, D.A.; Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Mangan, D.L.; Moya, R.W.; Moore, L.R.; Strait, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study open-quotes Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutoniumclose quotes defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials

  15. Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tissue disposition of bifenthrin in the rat and oral and intravenous administration. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Hughes , M., D. Ross...

  16. The personal dispositions of violent extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydov D.G.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differences in the nature of extremism and radicalism, and the necessity of introducing the concept of "violent extremism." It is shown that the ideology is the explanation of extremist behavior, rather than its cause. The ideology of extremism often eclectic, contradictory and can easily be transformed by changing the object of hostility, depending on the situation. For the description of the psychological causes of extremism it is proposed to use the concept of personal disposition. Disposition is the preferred way to subjective interpretation of reality and reflects both the specific needs of a person as well the typical social situations where it realized and personal experience. Considered the following dispositions of violent extremism: the Cult of force and aggression, Intolerance, Out-group hostility Conventional coercion, Social pessimism and destructiveness, Mystical, Fighting and overcoming, Nihilism to law, Anti-subjectivism. It is proposed to use these dispositions as diagnostic criteria and for preventing and correcting.

  17. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  18. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance

  19. Final disposition of MTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonnson, Erik B.

    1996-01-01

    The final disposition of power reactor fuel has been investigated for a long time and some promising solutions to the problem have been shown. The research reactor fuels are normally not compatible with the zirkonium clad power reactor fuel and can thus not rely on the same disposal methods. The MTR fuels are typically Al-clad UAl x or U 3 Si 2 , HEU resp. LEU with essentially higher remaining enrichment than the corresponding power reactor fuel after full utilization of the uranium. The problems arising when evaluating the conditions at the final repository are the high corrosion rate of aluminum and uranium metal and the risk for secondary criticality due to the high content on fissionable material in the fully burnt MTR fuel. The newly adopted US policy to take back Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel of US origin for a period of ten years have given the research reactor society a reasonable time to evaluate different possibilities to solve the back end of the fuel cycle. The problem is, however, complicated and requires a solid engagement from the research reactor community. The task would be a suitable continuation of the RERTR program as it involves both the development of new fuel types and collecting data for the safe long-term disposal of the spent MTR fuel. (author)

  20. Processed foods as an integral part of universal salt iodization programs: a review of global experience and analyses of Bangladesh and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg S; Timmer, Arnold; Sankar, Rajan; Kar, Basanta; Rasool, Faiz; Locatelli-Rossi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Despite the reference to salt for food processing in the original definition of universal salt iodization (USI), national USI programs often do not explicitly address food industry salt. This may affect program impact and sustainability, given the increasing consumption of processed foods in developing countries. To review experience of the use of iodized salt in the food industry globally, and analyze the market context in Bangladesh and Pakistan to test whether this experience may be applicable to inform improved national USI programming in developing countries. A review of relevant international experience was undertaken. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, local rural market surveys were carried out. In Bangladesh, structured face-to-face interviews with bakers and indepth interviews with processed food wholesalers and retailers were conducted. In Pakistan, face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with food retailers and food labels were checked. Experience from industrialized countries reveals impact resulting from the use of iodized salt in the food industry. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, bread, biscuits, and snacks containing salt are increasingly available in rural areas. In Bangladesh, the majority of bakers surveyed claimed to use iodized salt. In Pakistan, 6 of 362 unique product labels listed iodized salt. Successful experience from developed countries needs to be adapted to the developing country context. The increasing availability of processed foods in rural Bangladesh and Pakistan provides an opportunity to increase iodine intake. However, the impact of this intervention remains to be quantified. To develop better national USI programs, further data are required on processed food consumption across population groups, iodine contents of food products, and the contribution of processed foods to iodine nutrition.

  1. Bile salts as semiochemicals in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Bile salts are potent olfactory stimuli in fishes; however the biological functions driving such sensitivity remain poorly understood. We provide an integrative review of bile salts as semiochemicals in fish. First, we present characteristics of bile salt structure, metabolism, and function that are particularly relevant to chemical communication. Bile salts display a systematic pattern of structural variation across taxa, are efficiently synthesized, and are stable in the environment. Bile salts are released into the water via the intestine, urinary tract, or gills, and are highly water soluble. Second, we consider the potential role of bile salts as semiochemicals in the contexts of detecting nearby fish, foraging, assessing risk, migrating, and spawning. Lastly, we suggest future studies on bile salts as semiochemicals further characterize release into the environment, behavioral responses by receivers, and directly test the biological contexts underlying olfactory sensitivity.

  2. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ''Management and Use of Information and Records,'' and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA's General Records Schedule (dated August 1995)

  3. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  4. Dispositional optimism and coping with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz, K; Krzyszkowska, A

    2009-12-07

    The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism) and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy). The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The results show that dispositional optimism correlates positively with: internal locus of pain control r=0.6, Pr=0.38, Pr = 0.93, Pr = 0.82, Pr = -0.28, P<0.05. We conclude that dispositional optimism plays a key role in forming the mechanisms of coping with chronic pain and thereby in improving the psychophysical comfort of patients.

  5. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  6. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  7. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  8. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  9. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  10. 31 CFR 501.727 - Motion for summary disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... party's arguments. Any party opposing a motion for summary disposition must file a statement setting... be supported by evidence of the same type as that submitted with the motion for summary disposition...

  11. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 50 CFR 30.2 - Disposition of surplus range animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of surplus range animals. 30.2... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Range Animals § 30.2 Disposition of surplus range animals. Disposition shall be made only during regularly scheduled disposal...

  13. 12 CFR 34.83 - Disposition of real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of real estate. 34.83 Section 34.83 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.83 Disposition of real estate. (a) Disposition. A national bank may...

  14. Mission Need Statement: Calcine Disposition Project Major Systems Acquisition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. T. Beck

    2007-01-01

    This document identifies the need to establish the Calcine Disposition Project to determine and implement the final disposition of calcine including characterization, retrieval, treatment (if necessary), packaging, loading, onsite interim storage pending shipment to a repository or interim storage facility, and disposition of related facilities

  15. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a

  16. Women Faculty, Professional Identity, and Generational Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Susan B.; Martínez Alemán, Ana M.

    2018-01-01

    In an exploratory qualitative study, the generational dispositions of tenured women faculty from the Boomer Generation were examined. As pioneers and now senior members in the academic profession in the Golden Era of American higher education, they exist in a common historical location characterized by cultural forces and events that helped to…

  17. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Edwin N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  18. 24 CFR 290.15 - Disposition plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY..., the sales price that is acceptable to HUD, and the assistance that HUD plans to make available to a... plan, the environmental reviews required by 24 CFR part 50. ...

  19. Disposition of surplus fissile materials via immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Danker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cold War aftermath, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, the USDOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One disposition alternative being considered is immobilization. Immobilization is a process in which surplus Pu would be embedded in a suitable material to produce an appropriate form for ultimate disposal. To arrive at an appropriate form, we first reviewed published information on HLW immobilization technologies to identify forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine promising technologies for Pu immobilization. We further evaluated the most promising immobilization families to identify and seek solutions for chemical, chemical engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems; these problems remain to be solved before we can make technical decisions about the viability of using the forms for long-term disposition of Pu. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in Summer of 1996

  20. Critical thinking dispositions in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Lee, Ja Hyung; Ha, Ju Young; Kim, Kon Hee

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the critical thinking disposition of students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing programme at a university in Korea. Critical thinking may be summarized as a skilled process that conceptualizes and applies information from observation, experience, reflection, inference and communication in a technical manner. It is more of a rational act used as an instrument rather than as a result. Critical thinking is a core competency in nursing and has been widely discussed in nursing education. However, the results of previous research on the effectiveness of nursing education in improving students' critical thinking have been inconsistent. A longitudinal design was used with a convenience sample of 60 nursing students; 32 students participated four times in completing a questionnaire each March from 1999 to 2002. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was administered to measure disposition to critical thinking. There was a statistically significant improvement in critical thinking disposition score by academic year (F = 7.54, P = 0.0001). Among the subscales, open-mindedness, self-confidence, and maturity also showed a statistically significant difference by academic year (P = 0.0194, 0.0041, 0.0044). Teaching strategies to enhance critical thinking should be developed, in addition to further research on the effect of the nursing curriculum on students' critical thinking. Moreover, survey instruments could be adjusted to incorporate characteristics of the Korean culture.

  1. Dispositional affectivity and work outcomes of expatriates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    affectivity appears to be a promising construct to explain and predict many attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in the workplace, few studies have empirically investigated dispositional affectivity and the work of expatriates. Hence, data from a net-based survey including 350 expatriates in Denmark were used...

  2. The Dispositions for Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Manya C.; Valtierra, Kristina Marie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the dispositions for culturally responsive pedagogy scale (DCRPS). Design/methodology/approach: Scale development consisted of a six-step process including item development, expert review, exploratory factor analysis, factor interpretation, confirmatory factor analysis and convergent…

  3. 16 CFR 5.56 - Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.56 Disposition. (a) Upon the conclusion... disciplinary committee of the bar(s) of which the attorney is a member. ...

  4. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: swkwon@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  5. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  6. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  7. Integrated HLW Conceptual Process Flowsheet(s) for the Crystalline Silicotitanate Process SRDF-98-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Strategic Research and Development Fund (SRDF) provided funds to develop integrated conceptual flowsheets and material balances for a CST process as a potential replacement for, or second generation to, the ITP process. This task directly supports another SRDF task: Glass Form for HLW Sludge with CST, SRDF-98-01, by M. K. Andrews which seeks to further develop sludge/CST glasses that could be used if the ITP process were replaced by CST ion exchange. The objective of the proposal was to provide flowsheet support for development and evaluation of a High Level Waste Division process to replace ITP. The flowsheets would provide a conceptual integrated material balance showing the impact on the HLW division. The evaluation would incorporate information to be developed by Andrews and Harbour on CST/DWPF glass formulations and provide the bases for evaluating the economic impact of the proposed replacement process. Coincident with this study, the Salt Disposition Team began its evaluation of alternatives for disposition of the HLW salts in the SRS waste tanks. During that time, the CST IX process was selected as one of four alternatives (of eighteen Phase II alternatives) for further evaluation during Phase III

  8. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  9. Overview of the United States department of energy's used fuel disposition research and development campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Swift, Peter; MacKinnon, Robert; McMahon, Kevin; Sorenson, Ken [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boyle, William; Gunter, Timothy; Larson, Ned [U.S. Department of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is conducting research and development (R and D) activities within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to support storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. R and D activities are ongoing at nine national laboratories, and are divided into two major topical areas: (1) storage and transportation research, and (2) disposal research. Storage R and D focuses on closing technical gaps related to extended storage of UNF. For example, uncertainties remain regarding high-burnup nuclear fuel cladding performance following possible hydride reorientation and creep deformation, and also regarding long-term canister integrity. Transportation R and D focuses on ensuring transportability of UNF following extended storage, addressing data gaps regarding nuclear fuel integrity, retrievability, and demonstration of subcriticality. Disposal R and D focuses on identifying multiple viable geologic disposal options and addressing technical challenges for generic disposal concepts in various host media (e.g., mined repositories in salt, clay/shale, and granitic rocks, and deep borehole disposal in crystalline rock). R and D will transition to site-specific challenges as national policy advances. R and D goals at this stage are to increase confidence in the robustness of generic disposal concepts, to reduce generic sources of uncertainty that may impact the viability of disposal concepts, and to develop science and engineering tools that will support the selection, characterization, and ultimately licensing of a repository. The US DOE has also initiated activities that can be conducted within the constraints of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to facilitate the development of an interim storage facility and supporting transportation infrastructure. (authors)

  10. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  12. The disposition effect and investor experience

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa Jr, Newton; Goulart, Marco; Cupertino, Cesar; Macedo Jr, Jurandir; Da Silva, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether investing experience can dampen the disposition effect, that is, the fact that investors seem to hold on to their losing stocks to a greater extent than they hold on to their winning stocks. To do so, we devise a computer program that simulates the stock market. We use the program in an experiment with two groups of subjects, namely experienced investors and undergraduate students (the inexperienced investors). As a control procedure, we consider random trade decisions made...

  13. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  14. In vitro disposition profiling of heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keemink, Janneke; Wuyts, Benjamin; Nicolaï, Johan; Jonghe, Steven De; Stella, Alessandro; Herdewijn, Piet; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Compound libraries that are screened for biological activity commonly contain heterocycles. Besides potency, drug-like properties need to be evaluated to ensure in vivo efficacy of test compounds. In this context, we determined hepatic and intestinal disposition profiles for 17 heterocyclic compounds. All studied compounds showed rapid uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes, whereas metabolism was poor and the rate-limiting step in hepatic elimination. In vitro assays demonstrated a relatively low solubility and high intestinal permeability. Based on these in vitro data, heterocycles were categorized in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) to predict disposition characteristics before clinical data are available. Our findings emphasized the importance to use hepatocytes in addition to microsomes to study metabolism, since the latter lack non-microsomal enzymes and cellular context. Moreover, intracellular exposure should be considered to gain insight in the relevant fraction of the compound available at the enzymatic site. Finally, the study reveals discrepancies associated with the classification of heterocycles in BCS versus BDDCS. These probably originate from the binary character of both systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  16. When dispositional and role power fit: implications for self-expression and self-other congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Serena; Langner, Carrie A; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2009-03-01

    Integrating and extending the literatures on social power and person-environment fit, 4 studies tested the hypothesis that when people's dispositional beliefs about their capacity to influence others fit their assigned role power, they are more likely to engage in self-expression-that is, behave in line with their states and traits-thereby increasing their likelihood of being perceived by others in a manner congruent with their own self-judgments (i.e., self-other congruence). In Studies 1-3, dispositionally high- and low-power participants were randomly assigned to play a high- or low-power role in an interaction with a confederate. When participants' dispositional and role power fit (vs. conflicted), they reported greater self-expression (Study 1). Furthermore, under dispositional-role power fit conditions, the confederate's ratings of participants' emotional experiences (Study 2) and personality traits (Study 3) were more congruent with participants' self-reported emotions and traits. Study 4's results replicated Study 3's results using an implicit manipulation of power and outside observers' (rather than a confederate's) ratings of participants. Implications for research on power and person perception are discussed.

  17. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  18. Electrochemical behavior for a reduction of uranium oxide in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt with an integrated cathode assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Park, Byung Heung; Seo, Chung Seok; Jung, Ki Jung; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide to uranium metal was studied in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt system. The reduction mechanism of the uranium oxide to a uranium metal has been studied by means of a cyclic voltammetry. Effects of the layer thickness of the uranium oxide and the thickness of the MgO on the overpotential of the cathode and the anode were investigated by means of a chronopotentiometry. From the cyclic voltamograms, the decomposition potentials of the metal oxides are the determining factors for the mechanism of the reduction of the uranium oxide in a Li Cl-3 wt% Li 2 O molten salt and the two mechanisms of the electrolytic reduction were considered with regards to the applied cathode potential. In the chronopotentiograms, the exchange current and the transfer coefficient based on the Tafel behavior were obtained with regard to the layer thickness of the uranium oxide which is loaded into the porous MgO membrane and the thickness of the porous MgO membrane. The maximum allowable currents for the changes of the layer thickness of the uranium oxide and the thickness of the MgO membrane were also obtained from the limiting potential which is the decomposition potential of LiCl

  19. Vitrification in the presence of salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included

  20. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  1. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  2. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kim, Kunhwi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cheshire, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Palaich, Sarah [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolery, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, William L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in clay/shale/argillaceous rock formations has received much consideration given its desirable attributes such as isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, slow diffusion, sorbtive mineralogy, and geologically widespread (Jové Colón et al., 2014). There is a wealth of gained scientific expertise on the behavior of clay/shale/ argillaceous rock given its focus in international nuclear waste repository programs that includes underground research laboratories (URLs) in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. Jové Colón et al. (2014) have described some of these investigative efforts in clay rock ranging from site characterization to research on the engineered barrier system (EBS). Evaluations of disposal options that include nuclear waste disposition in clay/shale/argillaceous rock have determined that this host media can accommodate a wide range of waste types. R&D work within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) assessing thermal effects and fluid-mineral interactions for the disposition of heat-generating waste have so far demonstrated the feasibility for the EBS and clay host rock to withstand high thermal loads. This report represents the continuation of disposal R&D efforts on the advancement and refinement of coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), hydrothermal experiments on clay interactions, used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development. The development and implementation of a clay/shale/argillite reference case described in Jové Colón et al. (2014) for FY15 will be documented in another report (Mariner et al. 2015) – only a brief description will be given here. This clay reference case implementation is the result of integration efforts between the GDSA PA and disposal in argillite work packages. The assessment of sacrificial zones in the EBS is being addressed through experimental work along with 1D reactive

  3. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  4. A study of integrated cathode assembly for electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Seo, Jung Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Kwon, Sun Kil; Park, Seong Won

    2004-01-01

    Interest of electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide is increasing in treatment of spent metal fuels. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has reported the experimental results of electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide fuel in bench-scale apparatus with cyclic voltammetry, and has designed high-capacity reduction (HCR) cells and conducted three kg-scale UO 2 reduction runs. From the cyclic voltammograms, the mechanism of electrolytic reduction of metal oxides is analyzed. The uranium oxide in LiCl-Li 2 O is converted to uranium metal according to the two mechanism; direct and indirect electrolytic reduction. In this study, cyclic voltammograms for LiCl-3wt% Li 2 O system and U 3 O 8 -LiCl-3wt% Li 2 O system using the 325-mesh stainless steel screen in cathode assembly have been obtained. Direct electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide in LiCl-3wt% Li 2 O molten salt has been conducted

  5. The Dual Effects of Critical Thinking Disposition on Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between disposition (people’s consistent motivation) toward critical thinking (CT) and worrying. In spite of its connection to psychopathology, worry is thought to represent an effort at problem-solving. Moreover, worry has been found to be underpinned by cognitive development, leading us to predict a positive relationship between worry and CT disposition. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy, which involves techniques similar to CT, has been shown to be effective in reducing worrying, suggesting that increasing CT disposition decreases worrying. This study attempted to reconcile these seemingly contrasting predictions about the relationship between CT disposition and worrying by using multiple mediator analysis. A model was proposed wherein the mediators, responsibility to continue thinking and detached awareness of negative thinking, were related to two opposing predictions. The former is thought to lead to enhanced worrying and the latter to reduced worrying, with both positively related to CT disposition. A questionnaire study with university students (N = 760) revealed that CT disposition enhanced worrying by obliging people to continue thinking about a problem, but that it also reduced worrying by enhancing the detached and objective awareness of their negative thoughts. This study thus demonstrated the dual effects of CT disposition on worrying through different mediators. Thus, when enhancing CT disposition, it is important for educators to be aware of possible disadvantages apart from its worry-reducing effect. Future studies should therefore examine the underlying mechanisms of these two effects of CT disposition. PMID:24278160

  6. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  7. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  8. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  9. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  10. Used fuel disposition in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buck, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eittman, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tinnacher, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tournassat, Christophe. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viswanathan, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) in fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to conduct the research and development (R&D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  11. KEWB facilities decontamination and disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureda, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The decontamination and disposition of the KEWB facilities, Buildings 073, 643, 123, and 793, are complete. All of the facility equipment, including reactor enclosure, reactor vessel, fuel handling systems, controls, radioactive waste systems, exhaust systems, electrical services, and protective systems were removed from the site. Buildings 643, 123, and 793 were completely removed, including foundations. The floor and portions of the walls of Building 073 were covered over by final grading. Results of the radiological monitoring and the final survey are presented. 9 tables, 19 figures

  12. Comparative miRomics of Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami Kavita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in soil salt causes osmotic and ionic stress to plants, which inhibits their growth and productivity. Rice production is also hampered by salinity and the effect of salt is most severe at the seedling and reproductive stages. Salainity tolerance is a quantitative property controlled by multiple genes coding for signaling molecules, ion transporters, metabolic enzymes and transcription regulators. MicroRNAs are key modulators of gene-expression that act at the post-transcriptional level by translation repression or transcript cleavage. They also play an important role in regulating plant’s response to salt-stress. In this work we adopted the approach of comparative and integrated data-mining to understand the miRNA-mediated regulation of salt-stress in rice. We profiled and compared the miRNA regulations using natural varieties and transgenic lines with contrasting behaviors in response to salt-stress. The information obtained from sRNAseq, RNAseq and degradome datasets was integrated to identify the salt-deregulated miRNAs, their targets and the associated metabolic pathways. The analysis revealed the modulation of many biological pathways, which are involved in salt-tolerance and play an important role in plant phenotype and physiology. The end modifications of the miRNAs were also studied in our analysis and isomiRs having a dynamic role in salt-tolerance mechanism were identified.

  13. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  14. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diliberto, J.J.; Usha, G.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14 CO 2 , and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  15. 30 CFR 879.15 - Disposition of reclaimed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of reclaimed land. 879.15 Section 879.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879...

  16. 50 CFR 30.12 - Disposition of feral animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of feral animals. 30.12... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM RANGE AND FERAL ANIMAL MANAGEMENT Feral Animals § 30.12 Disposition of feral animals. Feral animals taken on wildlife refuge areas may be disposed of by sale on the...

  17. Digital Reading Disposition Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Berker; Karasakaloglu, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    In this study, "a Digital Reading Disposition Scale" was developed to determine undergraduate pre-service teacher students' dispositions towards digital reading, opposed to a preference for printed reading material. Initially, a 20-items trial version of the scale was administered to a total sample of N = 301 undergraduate pre-service…

  18. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  19. 38 CFR 12.22 - Disposition of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... converted into cash, except that articles of personal adornment which are obviously of sentimental value... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of personal... DISPOSITION OF VETERAN'S PERSONAL FUNDS AND EFFECTS Under Pub. L. 382, 77th Congress, December 26, 1941...

  20. Building a Conceptual Framework for Online Educator Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Jeral R.; Roumell, Elizabeth Anne

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that online instruction is distinctive from the conventional classroom. If an effective online practice is to emerge, the roles, characteristics and dispositions of the educators themselves should be studied more closely. The aim of this paper was to present an online educator dispositions model that addresses the underlying…

  1. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation in the costs of replacement equipment shall be limited to the additional outlay. (4) If the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition. 95.707... PROGRAMS) Equipment Acquired Under Public Assistance Programs § 95.707 Equipment management and disposition...

  2. 7 CFR 3565.453 - Disposition of the property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of the property. 3565.453 Section 3565....453 Disposition of the property. (a) Submission of the liquidation plan. The lender will, within 30... the interest. (3) A full and complete list of all collateral including any personal and corporate...

  3. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section... develop a plan to fully protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without...

  4. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Selda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables. The study included 1106 participants and used the survey model and the Turkish version (CCTDI-T) of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The reliability of the scale for this study was found to be 0.82. The…

  5. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish taken...

  6. Identifying and Assessing Dispositions of Educational Leadership Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Teri; Mallory, Barbara J.; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify educational leadership programs' procedures for the identification and assessment of leadership dispositions. The findings of this cross sectional survey indicated that there is little consistency in practice in defining and assessing dispositions of leadership candidates. While findings indicated that the…

  7. Urban High School Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Essential Science Teaching Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the link between urban high school science teachers' beliefs about essential teaching dispositions and student learning outcomes. The findings suggest that in order to help students to do well in science in urban school settings, science teachers should possess essential teaching dispositions which include…

  8. 31 CFR 10.23 - Prompt disposition of pending matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prompt disposition of pending matters. 10.23 Section 10.23 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE... Revenue Service § 10.23 Prompt disposition of pending matters. A practitioner may not unreasonably delay...

  9. 31 CFR 8.32 - Prompt disposition of pending matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prompt disposition of pending matters. 8.32 Section 8.32 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE... Prompt disposition of pending matters. No attorney, certified public accountant, or enrolled practitioner...

  10. 5 CFR 2635.205 - Proper disposition of prohibited gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposition of prohibited gifts... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts From Outside Sources § 2635.205 Proper disposition of prohibited gifts. (a) An employee who has received a gift that cannot be accepted...

  11. Impact of Social Studies Curriculum on Empathy Dispositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of empathy. One research question and one ...

  12. Prediction of critical thinking disposition based on mentoring among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of study showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between Mentoring and Critical thinking disposition among faculty members. The findings showed that 67% of variance of critical thinking disposition was defined by predictive variables. The faculty members evaluated themselves in all mentoring ...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12... CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment, fuel, lube oil, supplies, stores, furniture, fixtures...

  14. 48 CFR 945.570-7 - Disposition of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of motor... Disposition of motor vehicles. (a) The contractor shall dispose of DOE-owned motor vehicles as directed by the contracting officer. (b) DOE-owned motor vehicles may be disposed of as exchange/sale items when directed by...

  15. 78 FR 57547 - Guidance Regarding Dispositions of Tangible Depreciable Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... definition of a qualifying disposition under Sec. 1.168(i)- 1T(e)(3)(iii). The purpose of a general asset...) Dispositions from a general asset account--(1) Scope and Definition--(i) In general. This paragraph (e... Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) property). The proposed regulations also amend the general asset...

  16. Contribution of Emotional Intelligence towards Graduate Students’ Critical Thinking Disposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Luan Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our sensitivity to and artful handling of our own and others’ emotions. Engaging students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking. Hence, a study involving 338 male and female graduate students from a public university was carried out. They rated the Emotional Intelligence Scale and Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Findings suggested that emotional intelligence and critical thinking disposition were positively correlated (r=.609. Differences in terms of age, gender, and course of study also formed part of the analysis. Keywords: emotional intelligence, critical thinking disposition, graduate students

  17. Design and development of a cross-cultural disposition inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Zaugg, Holt; Tateishi, Isaku

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology have increased the likelihood that engineers will have to work in a global, culturally diverse setting. Many schools of engineering are currently revising their curricula to help students to develop cultural competence. However, our ability to measure cultural dispositions can be a challenge. The purpose of this project was to develop and test an instrument that measures the various aspects of cultural disposition. The results of the validation process verified that the hypothesised model adequately represented the data. The refined instrument produced a four-factor model for the overall construct. The validation process for the instrument verified the existence of specific subcomponents that form the overall cultural disposition construct. There also seems to be a hierarchical relationship within the subcomponents of cultural disposition. Additional research is needed to explore which aspects of cultural disposition affect an individual's ability to work effectively in a culturally diverse engineering team.

  18. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENTS OF POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF HYDROCARBON AND SALT WATER INTRUSION ON THE GROUNDWATER OF IGANMU AREA OF LAGOSMETROPOLIS, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetayo F. Adetayo F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical electrical sounding (VES and Induced Polarisation (IP methods of geophysical survey were incorporated with  physiochemical analysis of well water samples to determine vertical extent of petroleum-product contamination in subsurface soils and groundwater from bulk-fuel storage and distribution terminals in Iganmu area of Lagos. Interpreted results of VES and IP revealed four geoelectric layers. Clay with resistivity and IP values ranging from 1.5 - 14 m and 50 - 400mV/V respectively was encountered at the last layer penetrated by the survey except in four VES stations where the clay horizon was delineated at the third layer. This implies that subsurface aquifer is sealed by impervious layer which possibly prevents it from being contaminated by hydrocarbon and other refuse materials from the surface. Borehole log and electrical resistivity survey from a control site within the area were also incorporated with the geophysical measurements and these confirm lithologic similarity and the presence of a sealant above the aquifer layer. In addition to this, the results of the physical and geochemical analyses carried out on groundwater samples from shallow wells within the pack show very negligible level of hydrocarbon contamination which has no serious environmental implications on subsurface water in the area. However, electrical conductivity, salinity and TDS values obtained show high level of dissolved minerals (salts making the water highly saline and unsuitable for drinking being far above recommended values for drinking water. We thus inferred that Lagos lagoon must haveinvaded the aquifer in some places leading to high salinity observed.

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  1. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-05-19

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  2. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lasfargues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  3. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  4. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  5. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  6. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  7. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition

  8. Neutron Assay System for Confinement Vessel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frame, Katherine C.; Bourne, Mark M.; Crooks, William J.; Evans, Louise; Mayo, Douglas R.; Miko, David K.; Salazar, William R.; Stange, Sy; Valdez, Jose I.; Vigil, Georgiana M.

    2012-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1-inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the CVs. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of (le)100-g 239 Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements.

  9. SOCIAL NETWORKS AS DISPOSITIVES OF NEOLIBERAL GOVERNMENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lemes de Castro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article of theoretical reflection investigates the social networks that emerge in the context of Web 2.0, such as Facebook, as dispositives of neoliberal governmentality in the sense proposed by Foucault. From the standpoint of government of self, the design of social networks establishes a competition for attention that tends to favor the neoliberal culture of performance. In terms of social organization, the way in which users intertwine their connections is paralleled by the neoliberal paradigm of spontaneous market order. Furthermore, the use of personal information on these users, encompassing all their activities within the networks, in order to set up databases to attract advertisers reflects the neoliberal tendency of colonization of the different realms of existence by economic forces. However, the tensions that accompany neoliberal governmentality in social networks reveal its limitations, opening the possibility for these networks to also act as instruments of resistance to neoliberalism.

  10. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). NIS Div.

    1996-05-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium.

  11. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium

  12. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  13. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  14. The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Qian; Yang, Junyi; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Dispositional optimism is an individual characteristic that plays an important role in human experience. Optimists are people who tend to hold positive expectations for their future. Previous studies have focused on the neural basis of optimism, such as task response neural activity and brain structure volume. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions of the dispositional optimists are poorly understood. Previous study suggested that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism, but it is unclear whether there are other brain regions that combine with the vmPFC to contribute to dispositional optimism. Thus, the present study used the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach and set the vmPFC as the seed region to examine if differences in functional brain connectivity between the vmPFC and other brain regions would be associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism. The results found that dispositional optimism was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the RSFC between vmPFC and middle temporal gyrus (mTG) and negativly correlated with RSFC between vmPFC and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). These findings may be suggested that mTG and IFG which associated with emotion processes and emotion regulation also play an important role in the dispositional optimism.

  15. The association between resting functional connectivity and dispositional optimism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ran

    Full Text Available Dispositional optimism is an individual characteristic that plays an important role in human experience. Optimists are people who tend to hold positive expectations for their future. Previous studies have focused on the neural basis of optimism, such as task response neural activity and brain structure volume. However, the functional connectivity between brain regions of the dispositional optimists are poorly understood. Previous study suggested that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC are associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism, but it is unclear whether there are other brain regions that combine with the vmPFC to contribute to dispositional optimism. Thus, the present study used the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC approach and set the vmPFC as the seed region to examine if differences in functional brain connectivity between the vmPFC and other brain regions would be associated with individual differences in dispositional optimism. The results found that dispositional optimism was significantly positively correlated with the strength of the RSFC between vmPFC and middle temporal gyrus (mTG and negativly correlated with RSFC between vmPFC and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. These findings may be suggested that mTG and IFG which associated with emotion processes and emotion regulation also play an important role in the dispositional optimism.

  16. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.

  17. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  18. Safeguards and security requirements for weapons plutonium disposition in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.L.; Strait, R.S.

    1994-10-01

    This paper explores the issues surrounding the safeguarding of the plutonium disposition process in support of the United States nuclear weapons dismantlement program. It focuses on the disposition of the plutonium by burning mixed oxide fuel in light water reactors (LWR) and addresses physical protection, material control and accountability, personnel security and international safeguards. The S and S system needs to meet the requirements of the DOE Orders, NRC Regulations and international safeguards agreements. Experience has shown that incorporating S and S measures into early facility designs and integrating them into operations provides S and S that is more effective, more economical, and less intrusive. The plutonium disposition safeguards requirements with which the US has the least experience are the implementation of international safeguards on plutonium metal; the large scale commercialization of the mixed oxide fuel fabrication; and the transportation to and loading in the LWRs of fresh mixed oxide fuel. It is in these areas where the effort needs to be concentrated if the US is to develop safeguards and security systems that are effective and efficient

  19. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Tolk, K.M.; Mangan, D.L.; Moore, L.

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 National Acdaemy of Sciences study ''Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium'' defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This paper proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options as well defining the ''Standards'' from the report. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials

  20. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  1. Direct Integration of Red-NIR Emissive Ceramic-like An M6 Xi8 Xa6 Metal Cluster Salts in Organic Copolymers Using Supramolecular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Malo; Dumait, Noée; Amela-Cortes, Maria; Roiland, Claire; Harnois, Maxime; Jacques, Emmanuel; Folliot, Hervé; Molard, Yann

    2018-04-03

    Hybrid nanomaterials made of inorganic nanocomponents dispersed in an organic host raise an increasing interest as low-cost solution-processable functional materials. However, preventing phase segregation while allowing a high inorganic doping content remains a major challenge, and usual methods require a functionalization step prior integration. Herein, we report a new approach to design such nanocomposite in which ceramic-like metallic nanocluster compounds are embedded at 10 wt % in organic copolymers, without any functionalization. Dispersion homogeneity and stability are ensured by weak interactions occurring between the copolymer lateral chains and the nanocluster compound. Hybrids could be ink-jet printed and casted on a blue LED. This proof-of-concept device emits in the red-NIR area and generates singlet oxygen, O 2 ( 1 Δg), of particular interest for lights, display, sensors or photodynamic based therapy applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  3. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  4. Determination of toxic metals in salt deposits in Bormanda, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lawal

    3,12,13,14,15,16 . Chromium and Arsenic were not detected in any salt sample. Generally, the results of this study revealed the occurrence of some toxic metals in association with the soil salt deposits. Therefore, it is important to undertake Hazard Analysis and Critical Control. Point (HACCP) studies to identify and integrate.

  5. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  6. Sensitivity Analyses of Alternative Methods for Disposition of High-Level Salt Waste: A Position Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This position paper provides the approach and detail pertaining to a sensitivity analysis for the Phase II definition of weighted evaluation criteria weights and utility function values on the total utility scores for each Initial List alternative due to uncertainty and bias in engineering judgment

  7. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  8. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) storage and disposition program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms, W.M.; Everitt, D.A.; O'Dell, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in international relations and other changes in national priorities have profoundly affected the management of weapons-usable fissile materials within the United States (US). The nuclear weapon stockpile reductions agreed to by the US and Russia have reduced the national security requirements for these fissile materials. National policies outlined by the US President seek to prevent the accumulation of nuclear weapon stockpiles of plutonium (Pu) and HEU, and to ensure that these materials are subjected to the highest standards of safety, security and international accountability. The purpose of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Storage and Disposition Program Plan is to define and establish a planned approach for storage of all HEU and disposition of surplus HEU in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Material Disposition Program. Elements Of this Plan, which are specific to HEU storage and disposition, include program requirements, roles and responsibilities, program activities (action plans), milestone schedules, and deliverables

  9. Hearing Office Dispositions Per ALJ Per Day Rate Ranking Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A ranking of ODAR hearing offices by the average number of hearings dispositions per ALJ per day. The average shown will be a combined average for all ALJs working...

  10. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions

  11. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  12. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  13. URGENSI STRATEGI DISPOSITION HABITS OF MIND MATEMATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Miliyawati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kebiasaan berpikir (habits of mind memiliki peranan penting dalam proses pembelajaran dan perkembangan individu dalam membantu memecahkan masalah. Habits Of Mind (HOM adalah kebiasaan berpikir secara fleksibel, mengelola secara empulsif, mendengarkan dengan empati, membiasakan mengajukan pertanyaan, kebiasaan menyelesaikan masalah secara efektif, membiasakan menggunakan pengetahuan masa lalu untuk situasi baru, membiasakan berkomunikasi, berpikir jernih dengan tepat, menggunakan semua indera ketika mengumpulkan informasi, mencoba cara berbeda dan menghasilkan ide-ide yang baru, kebiasaan untuk merespon, kebiasaan untuk mengambil resiko, biasa bertanggung jawab, memiliki rasa humor, membiasakan berpikir interaktif dengan orang lain, bersikap terbuka dan mencoba terus-menerus. Hal ini sejalan dengan tujuan Kurikulum 2013, yaitu mempersiapkan generasi bangsa agar memiliki kemampuan hidup sebagai pribadi dan warga negara yang produktif, kreatif, inovatif, dan afektif. Artikel ini dikaji didasarkan atas analisis terhadap: (1 karakteristik matematika, (2 habits of mind matematis, dan (3 disposition contoh strategi HOM dalam pembelajaran matematika yang dikembangkan pada siswa. Kata Kunci    : Pembelajaran, Karakteristik Matematika, Habits of Mind Matematis   ABSTRACT Habits of mind have an important role in the learning process and the development of individuals in helping to solve the problem. Habits Of Mind (HOM is the habit of thinking flexibly, manage empulsif, listening with empathy, get used to ask questions, solve problems effectively habit, the habit of using past knowledge to new situations, to get used to communicate, think clearly, precisely, using all the senses when gathering information, trying different ways and generate new ideas, habits to respond, the habit to take risks, the usual charge, have a sense of humor, familiarize interactive thinking with others, be open and try constantly. This is in line with the curriculum

  14. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  15. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  16. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  17. Guide for disposition of radioactive-material sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Selby, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist DOE Energy Technology Centers in disposing of radioactive-material sources. The guide describes the steps and requirements necessary to dispose of unwanted sources. The steps include obtaining approvals, source characterization, source disposition, packaging requirements, and shipment preparation. A flow chart is provided in the guide to assist the user in the necessary sequential steps of source disposition

  18. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  19. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  20. Accessing and assessing young learner’s mathematical dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mellony Graven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that there is an absence of literature relating to research on learner mathematical dispositions, particularly with young learners. Drawing on Kilpatrick, Swafford and Findell’s (2001 five interrelated strands of mathematical proficiency, which include: conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning and productive disposition, it is argued that there has been little engagement with productive disposition in the field of mathematics education and how we might access and assess this strand. Despite competence in all strands being essential for mathematical proficiency, literature and assessments that seek to establish learner levels of mathematical proficiency have tended to focus on the first four and have neglected the last; productive disposition. Finding ways in which to access student mathematical learning dispositions can be challenging, especially with young learners who struggle to articulate their views. An instrument is shared that the author has designed with doctoral fellow, Debbie Stott, in order to access and assess the productive disposition of learners participating in maths clubs run within the South African Numeracy Chair. The findings that emerge in one Grade 3 club with six learners is shared. These findings are related to the data collected through instruments that assess the other four strands of mathematical proficiency. This enables a holistic picture of learner’s mathematical proficiency as intended in the conceptualisation of the interrelated five strands of proficiency.

  1. Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries' military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities

  2. DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost

  3. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota; Julkowska, Magdalena; Montero Sommerfeld, Hector; Horst, Anneliek ter; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  4. Phosphate-dependent root system architecture responses to salt stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kawa, Dorota

    2016-05-20

    Nutrient availability and salinity of the soil affect growth and development of plant roots. Here, we describe how phosphate availability affects root system architecture (RSA) of Arabidopsis and how phosphate levels modulate responses of the root to salt stress. Phosphate (Pi) starvation reduced main root length and increased the number of lateral roots of Arabidopsis Col-0 seedlings. In combination with salt, low Pi dampened the inhibiting effect of mild salt stress (75mM) on all measured RSA components. At higher NaCl concentrations, the Pi deprivation response prevailed over the salt stress only for lateral root elongation. The Pi deprivation response of lateral roots appeared to be oppositely affected by abscisic acid (ABA) signaling compared to the salt stress response. Natural variation in the response to the combination treatment of salt and Pi starvation within 330 Arabidopsis accessions could be grouped into four response patterns. When exposed to double stress, in general lateral roots prioritized responses to salt, while the effect on main root traits was additive. Interestingly, these patterns were not identical for all accessions studied and multiple strategies to integrate the signals from Pi deprivation and salinity were identified. By Genome Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) 13 genomic loci were identified as putative factors integrating responses to salt stress and Pi starvation. From our experiments, we conclude that Pi starvation interferes with salt responses mainly at the level of lateral roots and that large natural variation exists in the available genetic repertoire of accessions to handle the combination of stresses.

  5. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  6. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  7. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  8. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  9. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  10. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  11. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  12. The disposition of weapon grade plutonium: costs and tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weida, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores some of the economic issues surrounding a major area of expenditures now facing the nuclear powers: the disposition of weapon-grade plutonium either through 'burning' in nuclear reactors for power generation or by other means. Under the current budgeting philosophy in the United States, programs managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) tend to compete with one another for the total funds assigned to that agency. For example, in the FY1995 DOE budget a tradeoff was made between increased funding for nuclear weapons and reduced funding for site cleanup. No matter which disposition alternative is chosen, if disposition funds are controlled by the DOE in the US or by a government agency in any other country, disposition is likely to compete directly or indirectly with other alternatives for energy funding. And if they are subsidized by any government, research into plutonium as reactor fuel or the operations associated with such use are likely to consume funds that might otherwise be available to support sustainable energy alternatives. When all costs are considered, final waste disposal costs will be incurred whatever disposal option is taken. These costs could potentially be offset by doing something profitable with the plutonium prior to final storage, but this paper has shown that finding a profitable use for plutonium is unlikely. Thus, the more probable case is one where the costs of basic waste storage are increased by whatever costs are associated with the disposition option chosen. The factors most likely to significantly increase costs appear to arise from four areas: (1) The level of subsidization in the 'profitable' parts of the disposition program. (2) Those items (such as reprocessing) that increase the volume of waste and thus, the cost of waste disposal. (3) The cost of security and its direct relationship to the number of times plutonium is handled or moved. (4) The cost of research and development of new and unproven methods of

  13. Unallocated Off-Specification Highly Enriched Uranium: Recommendations for Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, D. N.; Boeke, S. G.; Tousley, D. R.; Bickford, W.; Goergen, C.; Williams, W.; Hassler, M.; Nelson, T.; Keck, R.; Arbital, J.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress with regard to disposition planning for 174 metric tons (MTU) of surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Approximately 55 MTU of this 174 MTU are ''offspec'' HEU. (''Off-spec'' signifies that the isotopic or chemical content of the material does not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for commercial nuclear reactor fuel.) Approximately 33 of the 55 MTU have been allocated to off-spec commercial reactor fuel per an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the Tennessee Valley Authority (1). To determine disposition plans for the remaining {approx}22 MTU, the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) co-sponsored this technical study. This paper represents a synopsis of the formal technical report (NNSA/NN-0014). The {approx} 22 MTU of off-spec HEU inventory in this study were divided into two main groupings: one grouping with plutonium (Pu) contamination and one grouping without plutonium. This study identified and evaluated 26 potential paths for the disposition of this HEU using proven decision analysis tools. This selection process resulted in recommended and alternative disposition paths for each group of HEU. The evaluation and selection of these paths considered criteria such as technical maturity, programmatic issues, cost, schedule, and environment, safety and health compliance. The primary recommendations from the analysis are comprised of 7 different disposition paths. The study recommendations will serve as a technical basis for subsequent programmatic decisions as disposition of this HEU moves into the implementation phase.

  14. Dispositional contempt: A first look at the contemptuous person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A; Chung, Joanne M; Sorensen, Katherine S; Robins, Richard W

    2017-08-01

    Contempt is a powerful emotion. Marriages fail (Gottman, 1994), coworkers are shamed (Melwani & Barsade, 2011), terrorism is tended toward (Tausch et al., 2011). Despite its importance, contempt has not been investigated at the level of personality. The present research examines how our contemptuous reactions can be conceptualized and measured as a stable individual-difference variable with a range of theoretically predicted correlates. First, we introduce a measure of dispositional contempt , the tendency to look down on, distance, and derogate others who violate our standards. We then unpack the dynamics of dispositional contempt. Across 6 studies using self-report and emotion elicitation in student and MTurk samples (Ns = 165 to 1,368), we examined its (a) nomological network, (b) personality and behavioral correlates, and (c) implications for relationship functioning. Dispositional contempt was distinguished from tendencies toward related emotions and was most associated with dispositional envy, anger, and hubristic pride. Somewhat paradoxically, dispositional contempt was related to being cold and "superior," with associations found with narcissism, other-oriented perfectionism, and various antisocial tendencies (e.g., Disagreeableness, Machiavellianism, racism), but it was also related to being self-deprecating and emotionally fragile, with associations found with low self-esteem, insecure attachment, and feeling that others impose perfectionistic standards on oneself. Dispositional contempt predicted contemptuous reactions to eliciting film clips, particularly when targets showed low competence/power. Finally, perceiving one's romantic partner as dispositionally contemptuous was associated with lower commitment and satisfaction. Taken together, results give a first look at the contemptuous person and provide a new organizing framework for understanding contempt. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Little More than Personality: Dispositional Determinants of Test Anxiety (the Big Five, Core Self-Evaluations, and Self-Assessed Intelligence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Ahmetoglu, Gorkan; Furnham, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted a hierarchical integration of several dispositional determinants of test anxiety (TA) [Sarason, I.G. (1984). "Stress, anxiety and cognitive interference: Reactions to tests." "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," 46, 929-938.], namely the Big Five personality traits [Costa, P.T. Jr., & McCrae,…

  16. The Effect of Learning Styles, Critical Thinking Disposition, and Critical Thinking on Clinical Judgment in Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students during Human Patient Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kiyan

    2014-01-01

    Simulated learning experiences using high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) are increasingly being integrated into baccalaureate nursing programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships among learning style, critical thinking disposition, critical thinking, and clinical judgment during high-fidelity human patient…

  17. The Impact of a Novel Curriculum on Secondary Biology Teachers' Dispositions toward Using Authentic Data and Media in Their Human Impact and Ecology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Yael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how the implementation of a novel curriculum, that emphasizes the use of published scientific data and media to learn about human impact and ecological function, influenced ninth-grade biology teacher (N - 36) dispositions toward using data and media in their ecology and human impact lesson plans. It explores how integration of…

  18. Disposition of oxymetholone in F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.M.; Matthews, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of oxymetholone (OXM), a synthetic anabolic steroid structurally related to testosterone, has reportedly resulted in incidences of hepatic toxicity, including tumor formation. In order to characterize further the biological fate of this suspected carcinogen, the present study has investigated the disposition of OXM in F344 rats. Concentrations of OXM-derived radioactivity peaked in blood within 4 hr following oral administration of 5 mg 14 C OXM/kg to male rats, indicating rapid absorption from the GI tract. Liver contained 2-4 times the concentration of OXM-derived radioactivity in blood 4-8 hr after gavage. Within 24 hr, 15 ± 1% of total dose was excreted in urine and 61 ± 6% was excreted in feces. By 72 hr, 17 ± 1% and 80% ± 1% of the total dose had been excreted in urine and feces, respectively. Increasing the dose to 50 mg/kg did not alter the rate or route of 14 C excretion. Fecal elimination of 14 C appeared to be the result of biliary excretion of 14 C appeared to be the result of biliary excretion of OXM-derived radioactivity since approximately 35% of an iv dose of 5 mg/kg was excreted in bile over 7 hr. IV administration resulted in a 6-8 fold increase in blood concentrations of OXM-derived radioactivity 24 hr post-dosing, versus rats gavaged with a similar dose. The major portion of 14 C present in blood appeared to be bound to constituents of plasma. Consecutive daily doses of 50 mg/kg administered by gavage resulted in a 5 fold increase in blood concentrations of OXM equivalents/ml within 7 days, with no increase thereafter. Data developed in this study indicate that upon absorption of OXM from the gut, OXM-derived radioactivity, with an estimated biological half-life of 12-24 hr., sequesters in blood and is eliminated primarily in feces

  19. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  20. Validation of Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Hyojin

    2015-12-01

    The lack of reliable and valid evaluation tools targeting Korean nursing students' critical thinking (CT) abilities has been reported as one of the barriers to instructing and evaluating students in undergraduate programs. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition (YCTD) instrument was developed for Korean nursing students, but few studies have assessed its validity. This study aimed to validate the YCTD. Specifically, the YCTD was assessed to identify its cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement invariance. This was a validation study in which a cross-sectional and longitudinal (prenursing and postnursing practicum) survey was used to validate the YCTD using 345 nursing students at three universities in Seoul, Korea. The participants' CT abilities were assessed using the YCTD before and after completing an established pediatric nursing practicum. The validity of the YCTD was estimated and then group invariance test using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to confirm the measurement compatibility of multigroups. A test of the seven-factor model showed that the YCTD demonstrated good construct validity. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis findings for the measurement invariance suggested that this model structure demonstrated strong invariance between groups (i.e., configural, factor loading, and intercept combined) but weak invariance within a group (i.e., configural and factor loading combined). In general, traditional methods for assessing instrument validity have been less than thorough. In this study, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis using cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement data allowed validation of the YCTD. This study concluded that the YCTD can be used for evaluating Korean nursing students' CT abilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Tryptophan metabolism, disposition and utilization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B

    2015-09-17

    Tryptophan (Trp) requirements in pregnancy are several-fold: (1) the need for increased protein synthesis by mother and for fetal growth and development; (2) serotonin (5-HT) for signalling pathways; (3) kynurenic acid (KA) for neuronal protection; (4) quinolinic acid (QA) for NAD(+) synthesis (5) other kynurenines (Ks) for suppressing fetal rejection. These goals could not be achieved if maternal plasma [Trp] is depleted. Although plasma total (free + albumin-bound) Trp is decreased in pregnancy, free Trp is elevated. The above requirements are best expressed in terms of a Trp utilization concept. Briefly, Trp is utilized as follows: (1) In early and mid-pregnancy, emphasis is on increased maternal Trp availability to meet the demand for protein synthesis and fetal development, most probably mediated by maternal liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition by progesterone and oestrogens. (2) In mid- and late pregnancy, Trp availability is maintained and enhanced by the release of albumin-bound Trp by albumin depletion and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) elevation, leading to increased flux of Trp down the K pathway to elevate immunosuppressive Ks. An excessive release of free Trp could undermine pregnancy by abolishing T-cell suppression by Ks. Detailed assessment of parameters of Trp metabolism and disposition and related measures (free and total Trp, albumin, NEFA, K and its metabolites and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in maternal blood and, where appropriate, placental and fetal material) in normal and abnormal pregnancies may establish missing gaps in our knowledge of the Trp status in pregnancy and help identify appropriate intervention strategies. © 2015 Authors.

  2. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  3. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  4. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  5. Dispositional characteristics, relational well-being and perceived life satisfaction and empowerment of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Pezzuti, Lina; Mebane, Minou; Tomai, Manuela; Benedetti, Maura; Moro, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    The broad purpose of this research is to identify the key modifiable variables most related to elders' life satisfaction and empowerment in order to improve the efficacy of interventions projects. Our study aims to integrate the theoretical perspectives of personality and community psychology focusing both on dispositional characteristics and relational well-being of elders, investigating triads, composed by an elder, a paid caregiver and the most involved relative. This study explores the impact of (1) some socio-demographic characteristics of elders, (2) some modifiable dispositional variables of elders and (3) elders' relational well-being on elders' empowerment and life satisfaction. The study involved 429 people in 143 triads. Semi-structured interviews with elders, paid caregiver and close relatives were used to construct a new pilot measure of elders' relational well-being. Life Satisfaction, Empowerment, Loneliness, Positivity, Humor and Emotions self-efficacy scales were also administered. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed. Elders' positivity, relational well-being of elders and living alone were significantly related to empowerment. Elders' relational well-being and positivity significantly contributed to life satisfaction. Interventions to increase empowerment and life satisfaction should focus primarily on augmenting positivity and relational well-being integrating the theoretical premises of both personality and community psychology.

  6. Linkage of Operational Needs for Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition to Technology Development Maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for interim storage at the major SNF sites. At the same time, work is proceeding to analyze the requirements for disposal of the SNF in a geologic repository, currently proposed to be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. To assist with the placement of SNF in either interim storage or the repository, certain technologies must be developed and implemented to assure that the storage can be safely and efficiently achieved. Technology development funding is diffused through a variety of resources within the DOE complex. A tool is required to show the integration of technology development activities with each of the funding sources, show the entities performing the development work, and demonstrate how the technology development assists with the interim storage and final disposition of SNF. A series of requirements for this tool were defined and a tool developed to assist with showing the required information. The tool has taken the form of Technology Development Maps that link development information, funding sources, entities performing development activities, and the material disposition path for each SNF type. These maps will be maintained as living documents to assist with integrating development activities for the SNF program

  7. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  9. Options For The Disposition Of UK Civil Plutonium Stocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.G.; Zimmerman, C.H.; Scales, C.; Worrall, A.; Sims, H.E.; Fowler, L. [Nexia Solutions Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The UK Civil Pu Disposition project will identify and assess the viability of several technical options for dealing with the UK's civil separated Pu stockpile and the discriminators that will support technology option down-selection decisions. The overall aim will be to deliver feasible technical options and comprehensive information on political, economic, sociological, environmental and technical factors for each strategic option. This paper briefly describes the work completed to date to assess immobilisation and re-use technologies as disposition strategies and on the work that will identify discriminators to support technology down-selection. The Pu disposition project is anticipated to continue for several years while the necessary investigations are made to fully understand the various options. The work planned over this period is discussed. (authors)

  10. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.

  11. Options For The Disposition Of UK Civil Plutonium Stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.G.; Zimmerman, C.H.; Scales, C.; Worrall, A.; Sims, H.E.; Fowler, L.

    2008-01-01

    The UK Civil Pu Disposition project will identify and assess the viability of several technical options for dealing with the UK's civil separated Pu stockpile and the discriminators that will support technology option down-selection decisions. The overall aim will be to deliver feasible technical options and comprehensive information on political, economic, sociological, environmental and technical factors for each strategic option. This paper briefly describes the work completed to date to assess immobilisation and re-use technologies as disposition strategies and on the work that will identify discriminators to support technology down-selection. The Pu disposition project is anticipated to continue for several years while the necessary investigations are made to fully understand the various options. The work planned over this period is discussed. (authors)

  12. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  13. Systems analysis and simulation of fissile materials disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farish, T.J.; Farmen, R.F.; Boerigter, S.T.; DeMuth, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed process flow model has been developed for use in the Fissile Materials Disposition program. The model calculates fissile material flows and inventories among the various processing and storage facilities over the life of the disposition program. Given existing inventories and schedules for processing, we can estimate the required size of processing and storage facilities, including equipment requirements, plant floorspace, approximate costs, and surge capacities. The model was designed to allow rapid prototyping, parallel and team development of facility and sub-facility models, consistent levels of detail and the use of a library of generic objects representing unit process operations

  14. Rethinking Students’ Dispositions towards Civic Duties in Urban Learning Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Adedayo Ige

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the causative influence of thinking dispositions on secondary school students’ civic attitudes in school ecologies. 167 students from eight selected secondary schools in northern and southern Nigeria responded to the Senior Students’ Thinking Dispositions Questionnaire (SSTDQ, and Students’ Attitude to Civic Education Scale (SACES. Results of the stepwise linear regression model declared that absolutism, superstition, and dogmatism were the potent predictors that are strongly connected to students’ civic attitudes. The study has inferences for teachers’ development viz a viz teaching students’ civic attitudes from inside out (critical teaching that uses social tools as yardstick in school ecologies.

  15. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another

  16. Fissile material disposition program final immobilization form assessment and recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, S.G.; Dunlop, W.H.; Edmunds, T.A.; MacLean, L.M.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in its role as the lead laboratory for the development of plutonium immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), has been requested by MD to recommend an immobilization technology for the disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The recommendation and supporting documentation was requested to be provided by September 1, 1997. This report addresses the choice between glass and ceramic technologies for immobilizing plutonium using the can-in-canister approach. Its purpose is to provide a comparative evaluation of the two candidate technologies and to recommend a form based on technical considerations

  17. Fluid migration studies in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefelbine, H.C.; Raines, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    This discussion will be limited to the migration of water trapped in the rock salt under the influence of the heat field produced by nuclear waste. This is of concern because hypotheticl scenarios have been advanced in which this fluid movement allows radionuclides to escape to the biosphere. While portions of these scenarios are supported by observation, none of the complete scenarios has been demonstrated. The objectives of the present fluid migration studies are two-fold: 1. determine the character of the trapped fluid in terms of quantity, habitat and chemical constituents; and 2. define the mechanisms that cause the fluid to migrate toward heat sources. Based on the observations to date, fluid migration will not have a major impact on repository integrity. However, the above objectives will be pursued until the impacts, if any, can be quantified

  18. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  19. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  20. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  1. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  2. History of the US weapons-usable plutonium disposition program leading to DOE's record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, D.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Bugos, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report highlights important events and studies concerning surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition in the United States. Included are major events that led to the creation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition in 1994 and to that DOE office issuing the January 1997 Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Useable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Emphasis has been given to reactor-based plutonium disposition alternatives

  3. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  4. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  5. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  6. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  7. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  8. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  9. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  10. 24 CFR 970.19 - Disposition of property; use of proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... advertised for bid, HUD may accept a reasonable valuation of the property. (e) A PHA shall use net proceeds... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of property; use of... Disposition of property; use of proceeds. (a) Where HUD approves the disposition of real property of a...

  11. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Undergraduate Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, Foluso O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…

  12. Contributions of Teachers' Thinking Styles to Critical Thinking Dispositions (Istanbul-Fatih Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir, Serap

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…

  13. Measuring Teacher Dispositions: Identifying Workplace Personality Traits Most Relevant to Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun; Pagnani, Alexander; Thomas, Matt; Abellan-Pagnani, Luisa; Brown, Terrell; Buchanan, Dawna Lisa

    2017-01-01

    What personality traits represent dispositions most relevant to teaching professionals? Could an instrument reflecting work personality traits for a wide variety of professions provide a valid assessment of dispositions for teacher candidates? This study analyzed the internal structure of a state mandated dispositions assessment that was adapted…

  14. 17 CFR 200.43 - Disposition of business by exercise of authority delegated to individual Commissioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of business by... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.43 Disposition of business by exercise of authority delegated to...

  15. 17 CFR 200.42 - Disposition of business by seriatim Commission consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of business by... EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.42 Disposition of business by seriatim Commission consideration. (a) Whenever the...

  16. 17 CFR 200.40 - Joint disposition of business by Commission meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint disposition of business... EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.40 Joint disposition of business by Commission meeting. Any meeting of the...

  17. 19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain countries... the United States shall be detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition...

  18. Contribution of Emotional Intelligence towards Graduate Students' Critical Thinking Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fong-Luan

    2015-01-01

    Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our…

  19. Oppressors or Emancipators: Critical Dispositions for Preparing Inclusive School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharis, George; Causton-Theoharis, Julie N.

    2008-01-01

    Leadership from school administrators is essential in creating inclusive schools. The purpose of this article is to outline the dispositions necessary for school leaders in order to develop and maintain inclusive educational services for all students. This work comes from a qualitative study of university-based experts who teach courses in…

  20. Comparing Teacher Dispositions in China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kun; Tamashiro, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In studies conducted in the USA, teacher dispositional factors such as enthusiasm, professional esteem and learning motivation often emerge as the most significant variables affecting student learning and achievement from the primary grades through higher education. Do these factors play as significant a role in student learning and achievement in…

  1. Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university workers to resolving conflict through mediation. ... df =253, P>0.05). It is therefore recommended that university workers should be adequately trained in the procedures of using mediation so as to build their capacity in resolving conflict at home and workplace.

  2. The interaction between motivational disposition and participative budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to report the findings of a study of how dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality interact with participative budgeting to affect budget goal commitment. The results indicate that the effect of increased budgetary participation on budget goal commitment...

  3. 15 CFR 301.7 - Final disposition of an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final disposition of an application. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS INSTRUMENTS...

  4. Writing Pedagogies of Empathy: As Rhetoric and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…

  5. Sweet vs. Snap! Effective Dispositions in the Media Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard, April

    2011-01-01

    In "What Defines an Exemplary School Librarian," Jami Jones and Gail Bush make a strong argument that professional disposition is the key to a successful library media program. The authors emphasize the relevance of INTASC standards which specify that teachers must promote "positive social interaction and (develop) healthy and helping…

  6. 7 CFR 3575.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final loss claim is not... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 3575.90 Section... protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without delay. (b) Re-title...

  7. 19 CFR 210.48 - Disposition of petitions for reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of petitions for reconsideration. 210.48 Section 210.48 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Determinations and Actions Taken § 210.48...

  8. 24 CFR 27.40 - Disposition of sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Multifamily Mortgages § 27.40 Disposition of sale proceeds. (a) The priority of the Secretary's lien shall be determined by the Federal first-in-time first-in-right rule. State laws affording priority to liens recorded after the mortgage are preempted. (b) If there is more than one party holding a lien or assessment...

  9. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

  10. The selection of disposition of precast concrete industrial building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goleš Danica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of precast concrete industrial building is a complex iterative procedure by which, from a set of known possible solutions, is found the one, that in optimal way meets the set requirements and limitations. By proper selection of the disposition of the building, number of possible solutions is reduced at an early stage of design. This paper presents the main requirements and limitations faced by the structure of precast concrete industrial building, as well as parameters that can be defined in dispositional solution: dimensions, orientation and position of the object, materials, structural system, geometric characteristics, foundation system, the way of decomposition of the structure to prefabricated elements, their bearings and connections, and others. Special emphasis is given to the proper selection of the parameters of disposition in function of set requirements and constraints. The work is intended for graduates and young engineers, to help them to properly systematize and apply the knowledge gained during education, and select the optimal dispositional solution the exact way.

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.406 - Disposition of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of stock. 101-27.406 Section 101-27.406 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.4...

  12. 7 CFR 51.44 - Disposition of fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Schedule of Fees and Charges at Destination Markets § 51.44 Disposition of fees. (a) The fees collected for...

  13. 7 CFR 984.56 - Disposition of reserve walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Board may export or authorize the disposition in export to the destinations outside the United States... marketing year a handler may deliver reserve walnuts and any substandard walnuts meeting the minimum kernel...

  14. Comprehensions on the dispositive: from information towards profanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson da Silva Medeiros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The knowledge communication can be seen in epistemological and institutional conditions of informational cycle mediation, acting as an intervener in the social construction of knowledge, controlled by explicit or implicit rules that awaken or bar the flow of knowledge. Objective: Explore and reflect on dispositive based on the idea that truth is based on actions and practices contextually specific, aiming to discuss and contribute to a systematization of “document” and “information”, understanding and strategizing about power relations. Methodology: Readings and interpretations on dispositive, as presented by Michel Foucault and later interpreted and worked by other authors, undertaking its construction in the conceptual body of information and of document for scientific knowledge access. Results and Conclusions: Still partial, the results point in the direction that dispositives that use the information and the document operate in the control and in the strategies of regulation of the power in the communication of the scientific information. Knowing that scientific knowledge is a construction of a truth, being validated within a community, needing the look on dispositives that desecration the sacred.

  15. 77 FR 37837 - Overall Foreign Loss Recapture on Property Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... detailed rules for determining whether income is high-taxed, including rules for testing income based on... business, gain is recognized on that disposition and treated as foreign source income, regardless of... separate category of foreign source taxable income generated by the property. Section 1.904(f)-2(d...

  16. Dispositional Optimism and Terminal Decline in Global Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Palgi, Yuval; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Schnall, Eliezer; Woods, Nancy F.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Garcia, Lorena; Hingle, Melanie; Post, Stephen; Seguin, Rebecca; Tindle, Hilary; Shrira, Amit

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether dispositional optimism relates to change in global quality of life (QOL) as a function of either chronological age or years to impending death. We used a sample of 2,096 deceased postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials who were enrolled in the 2005-2010 Extension Study and for whom at least 1…

  17. 25 CFR 11.1013 - Modification of dispositional order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minor or the minor's parents, guardian or custodian. (c) If the modification involves a change of... hearing to review a dispositional order shall be conducted as follows: (1) All the rights listed in § 11...'s court shall review the performance of the minor, the minor's parents, guardian or custodian, and...

  18. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  19. Intelligent Dispositions: Dewey, Habits and Inquiry in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much debate in the literature, accrediting agencies continue to require that teacher education programs demonstrate that candidates possess requisite sets of dispositions deemed necessary for licensure. At least three unresolved and important questions remain unanswered that directly affect programs' abilities to do so: Are…

  20. The Effect of Information Literacy on Teachers' Critical Thinking Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Aycan Çiçek; Çankaya, Ibrahim; Üçer, Hakan; Çetin, Muhammet

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of information literacy and critical thinking are two important concepts of today's information and technology age closely related to each other and sometimes used interchangeably. The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between the secondary school teachers' critical thinking disposition and information…

  1. 27 CFR 28.125 - Disposition of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.125 Disposition of forms. On removal of the wines from the premises of the bonded wine cellar, the proprietor shall forward one copy of TTB...

  2. 27 CFR 28.133 - Disposition of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse Return of Wines to Bonded Wine Cellar § 28.133 Disposition of forms. On receipt of the wines at the bonded wine cellar, the proprietor shall endorse, on each..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for...

  3. Assessing personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irbha Magotra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study has attempted to explore personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption through the development of an index named as Technology Adoption Index. For developing the index, exploratory factor analysis approach has been employed on the sample of 1201 responses collected from the residents of 12 different cities in India. Accordingly, the results of the index have indicated significant role of seven personal traits, namely, optimism, innovativeness, self-efficacy, risk taking propensity, habit, social influence and psychological resilience while manifesting personal disposition of individuals towards technology adoption, i.e., the technology adoption propensity of the individuals. Further, an attempt has also been made to explore the socio-economic characteristics of the individuals possessing distinct level of personal disposition towards technology adoption. Accordingly, the results have unveiled that the personal disposition of the individuals towards technology adoption increases with enhancement in their income and qualification but decreases with enhancement in their age. As a measurement tool, Technology Adoption Index can be used as ready-recknor by practitioners for the identification of technology adoption propensity of the individuals. This will facilitate organizations in developing and designing new products and services which can be readily accepted by the individuals.

  4. Helping behavior, dispositional empathic concern, and the principle of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, M.O.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the relative strength of two correlates of helping behavior: dispositional empathic concern and a moral principle to care about others. The empathy–helping and care–helping relationships are investigated using data from the General Social Survey, a nationally

  5. Dispositional optimism, self-framing and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Huang, Chunlei; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Xin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-03-01

    Self-framing is an important but underinvestigated area in risk communication and behavioural decision-making, especially in medical settings. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship among dispositional optimism, self-frame and decision-making. Participants (N = 500) responded to the Life Orientation Test-Revised and self-framing test of medical decision-making problem. The participants whose scores were higher than the middle value were regarded as highly optimistic individuals. The rest were regarded as low optimistic individuals. The results showed that compared to the high dispositional optimism group, participants from the low dispositional optimism group showed a greater tendency to use negative vocabulary to construct their self-frame, and tended to choose the radiation therapy with high treatment survival rate, but low 5-year survival rate. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that self-framing effect still exists in medical situation and individual differences in dispositional optimism can influence the processing of information in a framed decision task, as well as risky decision-making. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Variables Impacting Dispositional Empathy in Doctoral Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Amelia C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…

  7. Disposition of excess fissile materials in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.; Danker, W.; Morley, R.

    1995-09-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. Plutonium utilization options have in common the generation of high-level radioactive waste which will be disposed of in a mined geologic disposal system to be developed for spent reactor fuel and defense high level waste. Other final disposition forms, such as plutonium metal, plutonium oxide and plutonium immobilized without high-level radiation sources may be better suited to placement in a custom facility. This paper discusses a leading candidate for such a facility; deep (several kilometer) borehole disposition. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. The safety argument centers around ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration, and thus no expected communication with the accessible environment until the plutonium has decayed

  8. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  9. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed

  10. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  11. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C.; Edmunds, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs

  12. Towards Sustainable Clothing Disposition: Exploring the Consumer Choice to Use Trash as a Disposal Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Norum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The textile and apparel supply chain plays an integral role in providing consumers with a continuous supply of apparel that must ultimately be discarded. Viewing the consumer as a player in the process between the supply chain and the post-consumer textile waste stream, this study was designed to explore the consumer apparel disposition process with an eye towards understanding how both supply chain members and post-consumer waste entities can interact with consumers to reduce the amount of apparel discarded in landfills. Hanson’s Consumer Product Disposition Process framework was used to help guide the research. Using a qualitative research approach, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-four female consumers in the United States to address three main research questions. The findings revealed several themes: use of both “compensatory” and “non-compensatory” choice heuristics in decision making; a “usable life” and the “personal nature” of garments as barriers to non-trash disposal options; and the need to “create awareness” and “provide assurance” to encourage alternative disposal modes. Implications for apparel producers and retailers, secondhand stores and textile recyclers are discussed.

  13. Correlates of gratitude disposition in middle school students: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-hyun; Yu, Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude disposition is positively associated with happiness. The purpose of this study was to identify influencing factors on gratitude disposition by gender differences in middle school students. Cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires were administered to participants (n=372) aged between 13 ∼ 15 years in Seoul and Chungnam Province in Korea. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18.0 statistical program, and frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis were used in the research. The mean score of family abuse of boys was significantly higher than girls' score (t=3.016, p=0.003). In subscales of development assets, empowerment (t=2.264, p=0.024), boundaries and expectation (t=2.476, p=0.014), and commitment to learning (t=1.971, p=0.049) were significantly higher in boys. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR 0.334, CI 0.130∼0.862), peer relationship (OR 2.280, CI 1.124∼4.623), social support (OR 2.584, CI 1.176∼5.676), positive identity (OR 3.138, CI 1.256∼7.840) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for boys, while school violence (OR 0.050, CI 0.003∼0.907) and positive identity (OR 2.937, CI 1.313∼6.567) were significantly associated with gratitude disposition for girls. This study suggests that it is important to protect adolescents from family abuse and school violence, furthermore, developmental assets should be developed to increase to gratitude disposition.

  14. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  15. Measuring Dispositional Flow: Validity and reliability of the Dispositional Flow State Scale 2, Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eleonora F M; Riva, Giuseppe; Talò, Cosimo; Boffi, Marco; Rainisio, Nicola; Pola, Linda; Diana, Barbara; Villani, Daniela; Argenton, Luca; Inghilleri, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2), for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. In accordance with the guidelines for test adaptation, the scale has been translated with the method of back translation. The understanding of the item has been checked according to the latest standards on the culturally sensitive translation. The scale thus produced was administered to 843 individuals (of which 60.69% female), between the ages of 15 and 74. The sample is balanced between workers and students. The main activities defined by the subjects allow the sample to be divided into three categories: students, workers, athletes (professionals and semi-professionals). The confirmatory factor analysis, conducted using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLM), showed acceptable fit indexes. Reliability and validity have been verified, and structural invariance has been verified on 6 categories of Flow experience and for 3 subsamples with different with different fields of action. Correlational analysis shows significant high values between the nine dimensions. Our data confirmed the validity and reliability of the Italian DFS-2 in measuring Flow experiences. The scale is reliable for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. The Italian version of the scale is suitable for the evaluation of the subjective tendency to experience Flow trait characteristic in different contest, as sport, study and work.

  16. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru

    2002-01-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  17. Dispositions and changing teacher practice in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaney, Tamsin; Lange, Troels; Valero, Paola

    2009-01-01

    We explore how different interpretations of learning can be integrated to form a theoretical framework for exploring teachers' perceptions of professional learning about mathematics teaching. Although it is possible to identify the separate, contributing factors that operate in mathematics...... experiences of limited value to them. Work done in mathematics education by Skovsmose and Valero combined with Kemmis and Grootenboer's work on academic architectures provide a theoretical framework that enables this complexity to be unpacked. Skovsmose considered learning to involve ascribing meaning...

  18. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  19. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the elemental analysis of plutonium-bearing materials for the materials disposition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.; Rising, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The US Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) program will disposition about 50 MT of plutonium in the next century. Both of the alternative technologies for disposition, MOX Fuel and Immobilization require knowledge of the incoming composition to 1--5 wt%. Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) systems, a common elemental analysis technology with a variety of industrial applications and commercial vendors, can readily achieve this level of characterization. Since much of the excess plutonium will be packaged in a long-term storage container as part of the DOE Environmental Management (DOE-EM) program to stabilize plutonium-bearing materials, the characterization system must be implemented during the packaging process. The authors describe a preliminary design for the integration of the WDXRF system into the packaging system to be used at the Rocky Flats site. The Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS), coupled with the WDXRF characterization system will provide MD with stabilized plutonium-bearing excess material that can be more readily fed to an immobilization facility. The overall added expense to the MD program of obtaining analytical information after materials have been packaged in long-term storage containers could far exceed the expense of implementing XRF analysis during the packaging process

  20. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  1. Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellony Graven

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sensemaking maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3–6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low levels of numeracy learning across the majority of schools in the province. Two sources of data, learner interviews and teacher questionnaires, from one case study club, are shared in this article to illuminate the potential such clubs hold in developing increasingly participatory mathematics learning dispositions.

  2. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE's System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE's Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0 2 plant design is discussed here

  3. Dispositional study of opioids in mice pretreated with sympathomimetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambisya, Y M; Chan, K; Wong, C L

    1992-08-01

    Brain and plasma levels of morphine and codeine were determined by an assay method involving solid-phase extraction and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. Detection was by a variable wavelength UV-detector (for codeine) and an amperometric electro-chemical detector (for morphine) coupled in series. Ephedrine or phenylpropanolamine pretreatment did not interfere with the plasma disposition of morphine, evidenced by overlapping plasma concentration-time profiles. Brain opioid levels were equally unaffected by sympathomimetic pretreatment. The relative ratios of brain to plasma concentrations at the time corresponding to the respective peak anti-nociceptive activity for morphine and codeine revealed no significant differences. It is concluded that single doses of ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine do not affect the disposition of morphine and codeine in mice.

  4. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try to do, then, is to illustrate Matravers theory and claim that it is a good solution to many problems concerning music and its capacity to affect our inner states.

  5. Positive Disposition in the Prediction of Strategic Independence among Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Konopaske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the dispositional traits of Millennials (born in 1980–2000 finds that this generation, compared to earlier generations, tends to be more narcissistic, hold themselves in higher regard and feel more entitled to rewards. The purpose of this intragenerational study is to counter balance extant research by exploring how the positive dispositional traits of proactive personality, core self-evaluation, grit and self-control predict strategic independence in a sample of 311 young adults. Strategic independence is a composite variable measuring a person’s tendency to make plans and achieve long-term goals. A confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression found evidence of discriminant validity across the scales and that three of the four independent variables were statistically significant and positive predictors of strategic independence in the study. The paper discusses research and practical implications, strengths and limitations and areas for future research.

  6. Fundamental(ist) attribution error: Protestants are dispositionally focused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yexin Jessica; Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B; Williams, Melissa J; Knowles, Eric D; Chen, Zhansheng

    2012-02-01

    Attribution theory has long enjoyed a prominent role in social psychological research, yet religious influences on attribution have not been well studied. We theorized and tested the hypothesis that Protestants would endorse internal attributions to a greater extent than would Catholics, because Protestantism focuses on the inward condition of the soul. In Study 1, Protestants made more internal, but not external, attributions than did Catholics. This effect survived controlling for Protestant work ethic, need for structure, and intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. Study 2 showed that the Protestant-Catholic difference in internal attributions was significantly mediated by Protestants' greater belief in a soul. In Study 3, priming religion increased belief in a soul for Protestants but not for Catholics. Finally, Study 4 found that experimentally strengthening belief in a soul increased dispositional attributions among Protestants but did not change situational attributions. These studies expand the understanding of cultural differences in attributions by demonstrating a distinct effect of religion on dispositional attributions.

  7. IAEA safeguards for the Fissile Materials Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document is an overview of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and the basic requirements or elements of an IAEA safeguards regime. The primary objective of IAEA safeguards is the timely detection of the diversion of a significant quantity of material and the timely detection of undeclared activities. The two important components of IAEA safeguards to accomplish their primary objective are nuclear material accountancy and containment and surveillance. This overview provides guidance to the Fissile Materials Disposition Project for IAEA inspection requirements. IAEA requirements, DOE Orders, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations will be used as the basis for designing a safeguards and security system for the facilities recommended by the Fissile Materials Disposition Project

  8. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  9. Alternatives for the disposition of PUREX organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This Supporting Document submits options and recommendations for final management of Tank 40 Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant organic solution per Tri-Party Agreement Milestorm Number M-80-00-T03. Hanford is deactivating the PUREX Plant for the US DOE. One the key element of this Deactivation is disposition of approximately 81,300 liters (21,500 gallons) of slightly radioactively contaminated organic solution to reduce risk to the environment, reduce cost of long-term storage, and assure regulatory compliance. An announcement in the Commerce Business Daily (CBD) on October 14, 1994 has resulted in the submission of proposals from two facilities capabLe of receiving and thermally destroying the solution. Total decomposition by thermal destruction is the recommended option for the disposition of the PUREX organic solution and WHC is evaluating the proposals from the two facilities

  10. Effect of Dispositional Traits on Pharmacy Students’ Attitude Toward Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D.; Brown,, Ulysses J.; Heyliger, Simone O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between dispositional traits and pharmacy students’ attitudes toward cheating in a university setting. Methods A questionnaire was administered primarily to pharmacy students at a comprehensive university in the southeastern United States to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, idealism, relativism, student attitudes toward cheating, tolerance for peer cheating, detachment from the university, Machiavellian behavior, and demographic information. Results Gender, degree of idealism, relativism, and Machiavellian traits were found to influence student attitudes toward cheating, while age, grade-point average (GPA), race, income, and marital status did not. Conclusions Considered collectively, these data support the study model prediction that the major determinants of student attitudes toward cheating are based on the degree of idealism and relativism evident in the students’ dispositional trait. Idealism was found to be inversely related to the likelihood of a student engaging in cheating or tolerating peer cheating. PMID:21769145

  11. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    are available to develop salt tolerance in crop plants and to understand the physiological mechanisms. Thus, better integrated information about the processes operating at the cellular and molecular levels in plants is still needed. The present review highlights the relationships between different physiological/biochemical variables being recommended as selection criteria, and recent-advances in elucidating the mechanism of salinity tolerance in wheat have been discussed. (author)

  12. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  13. Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’

    OpenAIRE

    Mellony Graven

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sense-making maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3-6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low l...

  14. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Olivares, Silvia Lizett; López-Cabrera, Mildred Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 ...

  15. Quasi-Banach spaces of almost universal disposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sánchez, C. F.; Garbulińska, J.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 267, č. 3 (2014), s. 744-771 ISSN 0022-1236 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : p-Gurarii space * space of universal disposition * isometry Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022123614002043

  16. Age related differences in the disposition of acetanilide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfer, J R; Baty, J D; Lamb, J; Powell, C; Price-Evans, D A

    1978-01-01

    1 The metabolism of fifteen elderly hospital in-patients and fifteen young people was studied, using a gas chromatography mass spectrometer method. 2 The results suggest that there is no significant change in hepatic oxidation of acetanilide with age. 3 The concentrations of metabolites were however, significantly elevated in the older group. 4 These results illustrate the importance of the decline in renal function with age in the disposition of drugs. PMID:728323

  17. Discharge Disposition After Stroke in Patients With Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neal S; Merkler, Alexander E; Schneider, Yecheskel; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2017-02-01

    Liver disease is associated with both hemorrhagic and thrombotic processes, including an elevated risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We sought to assess the relationship between liver disease and outcomes after stroke, as measured by discharge disposition. Using administrative claims data, we identified a cohort of patients hospitalized with stroke in California, Florida, and New York from 2005 to 2013. The predictor variable was liver disease. All diagnoses were defined using validated diagnosis codes. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the association between liver disease and worsening discharge disposition: home, nursing/rehabilitation facility, or death. Secondarily, multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the association between liver disease and in-hospital mortality. Models were adjusted for demographics, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities. We identified 121 428 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 703 918 with ischemic stroke. Liver disease was documented in 13 584 patients (1.7%). Liver disease was associated with worse discharge disposition after both intracerebral hemorrhage (global odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.38) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.29). Similarly, liver disease was associated with in-hospital death after both intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.44) and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.71). Liver disease was associated with worse hospital discharge disposition and in-hospital mortality after stroke, suggesting worse functional outcomes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  19. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  20. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90 degrees C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials

  1. Dispositional optimism fosters opportunity-congruent coping with occupational uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between dispositional optimism and coping with growing occupational uncertainty, drawing on the life span theory of control to assess coping. Participants were 606 German adults with various sociodemographic backgrounds, aged 16-43. They were interviewed at the end of 2005 (Time 1) and at the beginning of 2007 (Time 2). We regressed each control strategy at Time 2 on its scores at Time 1, optimism at Time 1, three moderating variables, and their interactions with optimism. Dispositional optimism predicted an increase in both goal engagement strategies (selective primary and compensatory primary control) only under favorable conditions (low regional unemployment rate, low perceived growth in occupational uncertainty, and high perceived controllability of this stressor). Specific conditions moderating the effects of optimism differed between the two engagement strategies. In addition, an unfavorable labor market situation as such prompted an increase in goal engagement. No effects of optimism on goal disengagement (compensatory secondary control) at Time 2 were found. The effects of dispositional optimism on the change in control strategies were contingent on the labor market situation, which supports the view that optimists are better able to tailor their coping responses to available opportunities. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Safeguards and security issues for the disposition of fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Moya, R.W.; Duggan, R.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Tolk, K.M.; Rutherford, D.; Fearey, B.; Moore, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Material Disposition (FMD) is analyzing long-term storage and disposition options for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials, preparing a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS), preparing for a record of decision (ROD) regarding this material and conducting other activities. The primary security objectives of this program are to reduce major security risks and strengthen arms reduction and nonproliferation (NP). To help achieve these objectives, a safeguards and security (S ampersand S) team consisting of participants from Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories was established. The S ampersand S activity for this program is a cross-cutting task which addresses all of the FMD program options. It includes both domestic and international safeguards and includes areas such as physical protection, nuclear materials accountability and material containment and surveillance. This paper will discuss the activities of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) S ampersand S team as well as some specific S ampersand S issues associated with various FMDP options/facilities. Some of the items to be discussed include the threat, S ampersand S requirements, S ampersand S criteria for assessing risk, S ampersand S issues concerning fissile material processing/facilities, and international and domestic safeguards

  3. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, D.L.; Sauerbrun, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate dispositioning options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) assisted NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the dispositioning options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. Additionally, the INEL investigated the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing light water reactors and provided a preconceptual analysis for a reactor specifically designed for destruction of weapons-grade plutonium. This four-volume report was prepared for NAS to document the findings of these studies. Volume 2 evaluates 12 plutonium dispositioning options. Volume 3 considers a concept for a low-temperature, low-pressure, low-power-density, low-coolant-flow-rate light water reactor that quickly destroys plutonium without using uranium or thorium. This reactor concept does not produce electricity and has no other mission than the destruction of plutonium. Volume 4 addresses neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and fuel performance and compatibility issues for zirconium-plutonium oxide fuels and aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels. This volumes gives summaries of Volumes 2--4

  4. Three contextual frameworks for siblingships: nonlinear thinking, disposition, and phallocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lament, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This discussion of Juliet Mitchell's paper "Siblings: Thinking Theory" places her work within the context of three frameworks: nonlinear thinking, disposition, and phallocentrism. The nonlinear dimension of the developmental process demonstrates how the sibling experience is not static, but rather is subject to a natural transmogrification toward new adaptive forms and meanings that occur over the sequential progress of organizational growth. Secondly, dispositional variables tend to be overlooked in their role in how brothers and sisters engage one another, titrate closeness and separateness, and creatively live out their love, admiration, hate, envy, and rivalry with each other. Sensitivities in dispositional leanings, such as special empathic qualities, may even serve to mitigate sibling turbulence. Lastly, the phallocentricity in Western societies privileges an implicitly male perspective that envisions sibling relationships in terms of threatening competitors, as the common linguistic phrase sibling rivalry suggests. This inflection in culture disregards more-expanding qualities in object relationships and aim-giving strategies that are exchanged in sibling play. These variables are not the sole contributors to the sibling experience, but a sampling of influences both from within and outside the child that affect that experience.

  5. Immobilization as a route to surplus fissile materials disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, DOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of plutonium (Pu) in keeping with the national policy that Pu must be subjected to the highest standards of safety, security, and accountability. One alternative being considered is immobilization. To arrive at a suitable immobilization form, the authors first reviewed published information on high-level waste (HLW) immobilization technologies in order to identify 72 possible Pu immobilization forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multiattribute analysis to determine the most promising technologies. Promising immobilization families were further evaluated to identify chemical, engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems that remain to be solved prior to making technical decisions as to the viability of using the form for long-term disposition of plutonium. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Project Office to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in the fourth quarter of FY96

  6. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  7. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  8. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  9. Coupled modelling of convergence, steel corrosion, gas production and brine flow in a rock salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Hirsekorn, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster presents the global simulation of the behaviour of thick-walled steel containers piled up in a borehole in a rock salt repository. The simulation takes into account: the convergence by the creeping of rock salt, the backfill and waste compaction, the porosity dependent flow resistance, the anaerobic corrosion (iron to magnetite transformation, gas production, brine consumption, water consumption and salt precipitation) and pressure development. Mechanical influence of corrosion has not yet been taken into account in the integrated code LOPOS

  10. Process for the recovery of alkali metal salts from aqueous solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitner, J.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the recovery of alkakli metal phenates and carboxylates from aqueous solutions thereof, the aqueous solution is spray dried and the drying gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alkali metal salt solution which dissolves the particles of the alkali metal salt that were entrained in the drying gas stream. The salt-free inert gas stream is then dried, heated, and returned to the spray dryer

  11. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  12. Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

    2009-10-01

    As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 μm) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple

  13. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  14. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  15. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Tracy L.; Perry, Cassandra H.; St Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR ® technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na + -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA concentrations

  16. Endogenous bile acid disposition in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Tracy L., E-mail: tracylmarion@qualyst.com [Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7270 (United States); Perry, Cassandra H., E-mail: cassandraperry@qualyst.com [Qualyst, Inc., Durham, NC 27713 (United States); St Claire, Robert L., E-mail: bobstclaire@qualyst.com [Qualyst, Inc., Durham, NC 27713 (United States); Brouwer, Kim L.R., E-mail: kbrouwer@unc.edu [Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experimental Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB 7569 Kerr Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7569 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) are used commonly to investigate hepatic transport protein-mediated uptake and biliary excretion of substrates. However, little is known about the disposition of endogenous bile acids (BAs) in SCH. In this study, four endogenous conjugated BAs common to rats and humans [taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)], as well as two BA species specific to rodents (α- and β-tauromuricholic acid; α/β TMCA), were profiled in primary rat and human SCH. Using B-CLEAR{sup ®} technology, BAs were measured in cells + bile canaliculi, cells, and medium of SCH by LC-MS/MS. Results indicated that, just as in vivo, taurine-conjugated BA species were predominant in rat SCH, while glycine-conjugated BAs were predominant in human SCH. Total intracellular BAs remained relatively constant over days in culture in rat SCH. Total BAs in control (CTL) cells + bile, cells, and medium were approximately 3.4, 2.9, and 8.3-fold greater in human than in rat. The estimated intracellular concentrations of the measured total BAs were 64.3 ± 5.9 μM in CTL rat and 183 ± 56 μM in CTL human SCH, while medium concentrations of the total BAs measured were 1.16 ± 0.21 μM in CTL rat SCH and 9.61 ± 6.36 μM in CTL human SCH. Treatment of cells for 24 h with 10 μM troglitazone (TRO), an inhibitor of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) and the Na{sup +}-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), had no significant effect on endogenous BAs measured at the end of the 24-h culture period, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms that maintain BA homeostasis. These data demonstrate that BAs in SCH are similar to in vivo, and that SCH may be a useful in vitro model to study alterations in BA disposition if species differences are taken into account. -- Highlights: ► Bile acids (BAs) were measured in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). ► Cell and medium BA

  17. The benefits of dispositional mindfulness in physical health: a longitudinal study of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Megan J; Mermelstein, Liza C; Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (eg, sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants included 441 college women. Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5 academic quarters from fall 2008 to fall 2010. Findings indicated that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were related to healthier eating practices, better quality of sleep, and better physical health. Dispositional mindfulness contributed to better physical health even after controlling for traditional health habits. Finally, bidirectional mediational relationships were found between healthy eating and dispositional mindfulness as well as between sleep quality and dispositional mindfulness when physical health was the outcome variable. Findings suggest that incorporating mindfulness training into programming on college campuses may be beneficial, as results indicate that dispositional mindfulness is related to positive physical health among college students.

  18. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  19. Used fuel disposition research and development roadmap - FY10 status.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W. M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2010-10-01

    Since 1987 the U.S. has focused research and development activities relevant to the disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel and high level waste on the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. At the same time, the U.S. successfully deployed a deep geologic disposal facility for defense-related transuranic waste in bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In 2009 the DOE established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Office of Nuclear Energy. The Mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The U.S. national laboratories have participated on these programs and has conducted research and development related to these issues to a limited extent. However, a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program investigating a variety of geologic media has not been a part of the U.S. waste management program since the mid 1980s. Such a comprehensive R&D program is being developed in the UFDC with a goal of meeting the UFDC Grand Challenge to provide a sound technical basis for absolute confidence in the safety and security of long-term storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and wastes from the nuclear energy enterprise. The DOE has decided to no longer pursue the development of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since a repository site will ultimately have to be selected, sited, characterized, designed, and licensed, other disposal options must now be considered. In addition to the unsaturated volcanic tuff evaluated at Yucca Mountain, several different geologic media are under investigation internationally and preliminary assessments indicate that disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level waste in these media is feasible. Considerable progress has been made in

  20. Used fuel disposition research and development roadmap - FY10 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1987 the U.S. has focused research and development activities relevant to the disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel and high level waste on the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. At the same time, the U.S. successfully deployed a deep geologic disposal facility for defense-related transuranic waste in bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In 2009 the DOE established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Office of Nuclear Energy. The Mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The U.S. national laboratories have participated on these programs and has conducted research and development related to these issues to a limited extent. However, a comprehensive research and development (R and D) program investigating a variety of geologic media has not been a part of the U.S. waste management program since the mid 1980s. Such a comprehensive R and D program is being developed in the UFDC with a goal of meeting the UFDC Grand Challenge to provide a sound technical basis for absolute confidence in the safety and security of long-term storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and wastes from the nuclear energy enterprise. The DOE has decided to no longer pursue the development of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Since a repository site will ultimately have to be selected, sited, characterized, designed, and licensed, other disposal options must now be considered. In addition to the unsaturated volcanic tuff evaluated at Yucca Mountain, several different geologic media are under investigation internationally and preliminary assessments indicate that disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level waste in these media is feasible. Considerable progress has been

  1. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Didlake

    1999-01-01

    This report is an update to ''Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  2. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  4. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  5. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  6. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  8. The role of the habitual dispositions (????? in the constitution of practical identity under the Aristotelian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana ROMERO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aristotelian ethics, being based on virtue, centers its attention on the dispositional aspect that motivates moral action, in other words, it explains the moral action from the habitual dispositions of agent. The reference to this dispositional component provides insights for the understanding of various philosophical topics, including the problem of practical identity. The aim of this paper is to describe the Aristotelian concept of e/(cij (habitual dispositions in order to highlight its role in the constitution of practical identity 

  9. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  10. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  11. [The relationship study on the relationship between procrastination behaviors and bad personality disposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan

    2006-01-01

    To explore the relationship between procrastinate behavior of college students and bad personality disposition. 566 college students were selected and followed through adopting the measurement on the procrastination scale of college students and Personality Disorders Questionnaire (PDQ-4). Results showed that male and female college students did not have remarkable difference in terms of procrastination. High level procrastinators had a higher level of scores on bad personality disposition. In addition, College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition (r = 0.341, P College students' procrastination had close relationship with bad personality disposition which did not match the findings from McCown's results on american college students.

  12. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Nursing Students in Asian and Non-Asian Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885

  13. Aerial population estimates of wild horses (Equus caballus) in the adobe town and salt wells creek herd management areas using an integrated simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2007-01-01

    An aerial survey technique combining simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction methodologies was used to estimate the population of wild horses inhabiting Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas, Wyoming. Based on 5 surveys over 4 years, we conclude that the technique produced estimates consistent with the known number of horses removed between surveys and an annual population growth rate of 16.2 percent per year. Therefore, evidence from this series of surveys supports the validity of this survey method. Our results also indicate that the ability of aerial observers to see horse groups is very strongly dependent on skill of the individual observer, size of the horse group, and vegetation cover. It is also more modestly dependent on the ruggedness of the terrain and the position of the sun relative to the observer. We further conclude that censuses, or uncorrected raw counts, are inadequate estimates of population size for this herd. Such uncorrected counts were all undercounts in our trials, and varied in magnitude from year to year and observer to observer. As of April 2007, we estimate that the population of the Adobe Town /Salt Wells Creek complex is 906 horses with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from 857 to 981 horses.

  14. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  17. Disposition of inorganic mercury in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Pereira, Maria E.; Bridges, Christy C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as methylmercury have been shown to negatively impact fetal health. Despite the prevalence of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in the environment and the ability of methylmercury to biotransform into Hg2+, little is known about the ability of Hg2+ to cross the placenta into fetal tissues. Therefore, it is important to understand the handing and disposition of Hg2+ in the reproductive system. The purpose of the current study was to assess the disposition and transport of Hg2+ in placental and fetal tissues, and to test the hypothesis that acute renal injury in dams can alter the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal tissues. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intravenously with 0.5 or 2.5 μmol kg−1 HgCl2 for 6 or 48 h and the disposition of Hg2+ was measured. Accumulation of Hg2+ in the placenta was rapid and dose-dependent. Very little Hg2+ was eliminated during the initial 48 h after exposure. When dams were exposed to the low dose of HgCl2, fetal accumulation of Hg2+ increased between 6 h and 48 h, while at the higher dose, accumulation was similar at each time point. Within fetal organs, the greatest concentration of Hg2+ (nmol/g) was localized in the kidneys, followed by the liver and brain. A dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal organs was observed, suggesting that continued maternal exposure may lead to increased fetal exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that Hg2+ is capable of crossing the placenta and gaining access to fetal organs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26196528

  18. Institutional disposition and management of end-of-life electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2011-06-15

    Institutions both public and private face a challenge to develop policies to manage purchase, use, and disposal of electronics. Environmental considerations play an increasing role in addition to traditional factors of cost, performance and security. Characterizing current disposition practices for end-of-life electronics is a key step in developing policies that prevent negative environmental and health impacts while maximizing potential for positive social and economic benefits though reuse. To provide a baseline, we develop the first characterization of quantity, value, disposition, and flows of end-of-life electronics at a major U.S. educational institution. Results of the empirical study indicate that most end-of-first-life electronics were resold through public auction to individuals and small companies who refurbish working equipment for resale or sell unusable products for reclamation of scrap metal. Desktop and laptop computers sold for refurbishing and resale averaged U.S. $20-100 per unit, with computers sold directly to individuals for reuse reaching $250-350 per unit. This detailed assessment was coupled with a benchmarking survey of end-of-life electronics management practices at other U.S. universities. Survey results indicate that while auctions are still commonplace, an increasing number of institutions are responding to environmental concerns by creating partnerships with local recycling and resale entities and mandating domestic recycling. We use the analyses of current disposition practices as input to discuss institutional strategies for managing electronics. One key issue is the tension between benefits of used equipment sales, in terms of income for the institution and increased reuse for society, and the environmental risks because of unknown downstream practices.

  19. Rehabilitation of saline ecosystems through cultivation of salt tolerant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, R.; Mahmood, K.

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan, salt-affected regions have been drastically disturbed by unchecked activities of local populations. Removal of deep-rooted perennials and overgrazing destroy the native vegetation leading to rapid desertification. Shallow-rooted agricultural crops are grown on marginal soils on limited area that is not enough with respect to the spread of salinity problem. Sustainable restoration of these ecosystems requires a large scale integration of perennial plants (trees, shrubs and herbs) back in to farming systems. However, selenization processes continue because the available options for cultivation of perennial plants prove less profitable than agricultural crops. This study relates to resort the salt-affected lands for plant production and develop a technology for sustainable saline ecosystem. Plants, having salt tolerance potential, have been identified and introduced on salt-affected wastelands to develop a sustainable ecosystem with increased productivity. The biomass so produced can be used directly as forage, fuel, and even as food or feed. In addition, fish aquaculture, and some value-added products make this ecosystem more sustainable. This technology is practically demonstrated at Biosaline Research Station of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Pakka Anna, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The marginally saline soils and wastelands ameliorated as a result of growing salt tolerant perennials can also be used for growing salt tolerant cultivars of conventional crops like wheat, barley and mustard. So, through proper management the saline ecosystem can become economical and profitable. (author)

  20. Disposition of plutonium-239 via production of fission molybdenum-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A., E-mail: muahtaq_a1953@hotmail.co [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15

    A heritage of physical consequences of the U.S.-Soviet arms race has accumulated, the weapons-grade plutonium (WPu), which will become excess as a result of the dismantlement of the nuclear weapons under the arms reduction agreements. Disposition of Pu has been proposed by mixing WPu with high-level radioactive waste with subsequent vitrification into large, highly radioactive glass logs or fabrication into mixed oxide fuel with subsequent irradiation in existing light water reactors. A potential option may be the production of medical isotope molybdenum-99 by using Pu-239 targets.

  1. PEMBUDAYAAN DEMOKRASI DI PESANTREN DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN CIVIC DISPOSITION SANTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supangat Supangat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is motivated by issues attitude and character of citizenship among the younger generation which is very alarming. The understanding of democracy that one result of excessive democratic freedoms. Disorientation attitude and character citizenship (civic disposition experienced by almost all elements of the nation thus eliminating the identity of the nation and much of the value-milai democracy. Pesantren Daarut Tauhid as modern schools also provide planting of democratic values among his students. The data were taken with the study documentation, observations, interviews, and the active participation of researchers in the field. The results of this study found: democracy education should be introduced in educational institutions schools, for boarding institutions are educational institutions which make the process of developing the potential of learners (students. Through the process of democratic education will produce a democratic man.For students develop civic disposition, pendidikkan process conducted in schools in various ways; 1 exemplary; 2 exercise and habituation; 3 educate through ibrah (taking lessons; 4 educate through mauidzah (advice; 5 educate through discipline; and 6 educate targib wa tahzid (inducements and threats   Abstrak: Artikel ini dilatarbelakangi oleh persoalan sikap dan watak kewarganegaran di kalangan generasi muda yang sangat memprihatinkan. Pemahaman terhadap demokrasi yang salah mengakibatkan kebebasan berdemokrasi yang kebablasan. Disorientasi sikap dan watak kewarganegaraan (civic disposition hampir dialami oleh seluruh elemen bangsa sehingga menghilangkan jati diri anak bangsa dan jauh dari nilai-milai demokrasi. Pesantren Daarut Tauhid sebagai pesantren modern juga memberikan penanaman nilai-nilai demokrasi dikalangan para santrinya. Data dalam penelitian ini diambil dengan studi dokumentasi, observasi, wawancara, dan partisipasi aktif peneliti dilapangan. Hasil dari penelitian ini

  2. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering and Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone and Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested services. The procurement process

  3. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  4. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE's System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE's Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy

  5. CANDU - a versatile reactor for plutonium disposition or actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.S.W.; Gagnon, M.J.N.; Boczar, P.G.; Ellis, R.J.; Verrall, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    High neutron economy, on-line refuelling, and a simple fuel-bundle design result in a high degree of versatility in the use of the CANDU reactor for the disposition of weapons-derived plutonium and for the annihilation of long-lived radioactive actinides, such as plutonium, neptunium, and americium isotopes, created in civilian nuclear power reactors. Inherent safety features are incorporated into the design of the bundles carrying the plutonium and actinide fuels. This approach enables existing CANDU reactors to operate with various plutonium-based fuel cycles without requiring major changes to the current reactor design. (author)

  6. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  7. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  8. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor - Defining a priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, B; Litskevich, D; Gregg, R; Mount, A R

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified.

  9. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  10. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yajuan, E-mail: yajuan.zhong@gmail.com [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Junpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lin, Jun, E-mail: linjun@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, Liujun [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Guo, Quangui [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ∥}) and 6.15 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ⊥}) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  11. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yajuan; Zhang, Junpeng; Lin, Jun; Xu, Liujun; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Guo, Quangui

    2017-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ∥ ) and 6.15 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ⊥ ) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  12. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  13. Therapeutic product disposition in at-risk populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    In an emergency situation, such as a chemical, biological, radionuclide, nuclear or explosion (CBRNE) event, all patient populations are at increased risk of serious adverse events. Therapeutic product (TP) safety and efficacy depend on the disposition of the product through absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The ability of a patient to benefit from or merely tolerate a TP can be modified by many factors, including but not limited to culture, diet, disease, environmental contaminants, genetic predisposition, stress and socioeconomic status and recent life experiences. Metabolism is considered to have the greatest effect on safety and efficacy, as chemicals not metabolised can accumulate to toxic levels. Inter-individual variances in most drug metabolism enzymes may range up to greater than 1000-fold. The fetus, neonates, infants, individuals with hormonal change, infection or prior exposure to licit or illicit products and the elderly are more susceptible to increased risk of serious adverse health effects. The critically ill are the most at risk. The at-risk populations for a serious adverse event are dependent then on the CBRNE event, their physical and cognitive states and the inter-individual intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect TP disposition. (authors)

  14. A vitrification strategy for weapons-grade plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, K.B.; Simonson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Excess weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) presents a complex but welcome challenge to decision makers. High security is a clear priority but a host of concerns will impact US actions. Making disposition decisions based on a rigid set of criteria designed to identify an 'optimum' technology given immediate objectives and available technologies may delay Russian processing and unnecessarily limit US options. Attention should be given to near-term, verifiable options that may not provide an acceptable level of security in the long-term but nonetheless provide a material barrier to direct theft and immediate use, buying time to evaluate potential disposition technologies. Vitrification of WGPu in borosilicate glass was examined as one such alternative. Rare earth diluents were examined (using MCNP) for their ability to increase the compressed critical mass of the mixture. Increased critical mass complicates weapon design and increases the quantity of material necessarily diverted. Europium was effective in this regard. As Pu-239 has a 24,000 yr half-life, reactivity control in the long-term could be an environmental safety issue should the glass be placed in a repository. Rare earths were investigated as criticality controllers due to their neutron absorption capabilities and insolubility in aqueous environments. Thorium (assumed as a Pu surrogate) and the rare earths Eu, Gd, and Sm were added to a standard frit (SRL-165) and formed into glass. Aqueous leach tests were performed (using MCC-1P guidelines) to measure rare earth leaching and determine the added element's effects on glass durability

  15. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lizett Olivares-Olivares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 experts in medical education and applied to 135 registered students on the sixth year of the M.D. Physician Surgeon program at a private medical school. Cronbach’s alpha indicated an internal consistency of 0.751. The findings suggest that selected items have both homogeneity and validity. The factor analysis resulted in components that were associated with three problem-solving subcategories. The students’ perceptions are higher in the pattern recognition and application of general strategies for problem solving subcategories of the Problem solving disposition model.

  16. Canister disposition plan for the DWPF Startup Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Payne, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the disposition of canisters and the canistered waste forms produced during the DWPF Startup Test Program. The six melter campaigns (DWPF Startup Tests FA-13, WP-14, WP-15, WP-16, WP-17, and FA-18) will produce 126 canistered waste forms. In addition, up to 20 additional canistered waste forms may be produced from glass poured during the transition between campaigns. In particular, this canister disposition plan (1) assigns (by alpha-numeric code) a specific canister to each location in the six campaign sequences, (2) describes the method of access for glass sampling on each canistered waste form, (3) describes the nature of the specific tests which will be carried out, (4) details which tests will be carried out on each canistered waste form, (5) provides the sequence of these tests for each canistered waste form, and (6) assigns a storage location for each canistered waste form. The tests are designed to provide evidence, as detailed in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP 1 ), that the DWPF product will comply with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS 2 ). The WAPS must be met before the canistered waste form is accepted by DOE for ultimate disposal at the Federal Repository. The results of these tests will be included in the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR)

  17. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  18. The role of dispositional factors in moderating message framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Health messages can be framed in terms of the benefits of adopting a recommendation (gain frame) or the costs of not adopting a recommendation (loss frame). In recent years, research has demonstrated that the relative persuasiveness of gain and loss frames can depend on a variety of dispositional factors. This article synthesizes this growing literature to develop our understanding of the moderators of framing. A systematic review of published literature on gain and loss framing was conducted. Articles were retrieved that tested the interaction between framing and moderators representing individual differences in how people are predisposed to think, feel, and behave. The significance and direction of framing main effects and interactions were noted and effect size data extracted where available. Forty-seven reports published between January 1990 and January 2012 were retrieved that reported on 50 unique experiments testing 23 different moderators. Significant interactions with typically small to medium simple main effect sizes were found in 37 of the 50 studies. Consistent interactions were found for factors such as ambivalence, approach-avoidance motivation, regulatory focus, need for cognition, and self-efficacy beliefs. Less consistent effects were found for perceived riskiness of activity, issue involvement, and perceived susceptibility/severity. The relative effectiveness of gain- or loss-framed messages can depend on the disposition of the message recipient. Tailoring the frame to the individual therefore has the potential to maximize message persuasiveness. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Analysis by simulation of the disposition of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A descriptive simulation model is developed which includes all aspects of nuclear waste disposition. The model is comprised of two systems, the second system orchestrated by GASP IV. A spent fuel generation prediction module is interfaced with the AFR Program Management Information System and a repository scheduling information module. The user is permitted a wide range of options with which to tailor the simulation to any desired storage scenario. The model projects storage requirements through the year 2020. The outputs are evaluations of the impact that alternative decision policies and milestone date changes have on the demand for, the availability of, and the utilization of spent fuel storage capacities. Both graphs and detailed listings are available. These outputs give a comprehensive view of the particular scenario under observation, including the tracking, by year, of each discharge from every reactor. Included within the work is a review of the status of spent fuel disposition based on input data accurate as of August 1980. The results indicate that some temporary storage techniques (e.g., transshipment of fuel and/or additional at-reactor storage pools) must be utilized to prevent reactor shutdowns. These techniques will be required until the 1990's when several AFR facilities, and possibly one repository, can become operational

  20. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m 3 of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% (∼8,000 m 3 ) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  1. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  2. Rethinking Students' Dispositions towards Civic Duties in Urban Learning Ecologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Olugbenga Adedayo

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the causative influence of thinking dispositions on secondary school students' civic attitudes in school ecologies. 167 students from eight selected secondary schools in northern and southern Nigeria responded to the Senior Students' Thinking Dispositions Questionnaire (SSTDQ), and Students' Attitude to Civic Education Scale…

  3. Cross-Cultural Equivalency of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskifoglu, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…

  4. 8 CFR 287.3 - Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant. 287.3 Section 287.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.3 Disposition of cases of aliens arrested without warrant...

  5. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ramazan Berk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students’ writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictor of writing anxiety and dispositions or not. The research was designed according to survey model. The study group, selected through simple sampling method, is made up of 860 students studying at 6th, 7th and 8th grades in elementary schools of Şarkışla District, Sivas. While “Writing Anxiety Scale”, adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Zorbay (2011, was administered to determine the study group’s writing anxiety level, “Writing Disposition Scale”, adapted into Turkish by İşeri and Ünal (2010, was used to determine the writing disposition level. At the end of the study, it was found that writing disposition is a significant predictor of writing anxiety and students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictors of writing anxiety and dispositions. An education environment to create a strong writing disposition for students is recommended. Also, similar studies on different dimensions of the issue can be conducted.

  6. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Rifat Ramazan; Ünal, Emre

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students' grade levels and genders are…

  7. Music Teacher Dispositions: Self-Appraisals and Values of University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.; Gilbert, Danni; Laird, Lynda A.

    2018-01-01

    For music teachers to be most effective, they must possess the dispositions that best facilitate their students' learning. In this article, we present and discuss the findings of a study in which we sought to explore music majors' self-appraisals in and the extent to which they value the disposition areas of reflectivity, empathic caring, musical…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Web 2.0 Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendag, Serkan; Erol, Osman; Sezgin, Sezan; Dulkadir, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between preservice teachers' Web 2.0 competencies and their critical thinking disposition (CTD). The study employed an associational research design using California Critical Thinking Disposition-Inventory (CCTD-I) and a Web 2.0 competency questionnaire including items related to Web 2.0…

  9. Situational and Dispositional Factors as Antecedents of Ingratiatory Behaviors in Organizational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmar, K. Michele; Carlson, Dawn S.; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both situational and dispositional antecedents of four ingratiatory behaviors: other-enhancing, opinion conformity, favor rendering, and self-promotion. The two situational variables (i.e., role ambiguity and leader-member exchange) and the four dispositional variables (i.e., self-esteem, need for power, job involvement, and…

  10. Effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program on depression and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miran; Han, Kuemsun

    2017-01-01

    Gratitude intervention is expectedly an effective intervention to reduce depression and improve the quality of life in schizophrenic patients, but there is a lack of literature on it. We attempted to develop and test the effectiveness of the gratitude disposition promotion program for chronic schizophrenic patients in Korea. Nonequivalent control group pre- and post-test design was used in two mental health centers located at Gyeonggi-do in South Korea. This paper was a quasi-experimental study and the participants who took part in the gratitude disposition promotion program were 17 of experimental group and 15 of control group. Gratitude disposition (the short gratitude, resentment, and appreciation test), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (developed by Kook) of chronic schizophrenic patients were measured before and after an intervention, as compared to the control. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test were performed for prehomogeneity testing for variables related to the general characteristics. Testing for the effectiveness of gratitude disposition promotion program and hypothesis testing for its effect on depression and quality of life were by ANCOVA and t -test, as verified to significance level of P gratitude disposition promotion program showed significant improvements in gratitude disposition ( F = 18.740, P gratitude disposition promotion program was an effective clinical intervention program for enhancing gratitude disposition and quality of life of chronic schizophrenic patients in community.

  11. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition procedures for product... § 327.25 Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection. (a... coloring, 40 parts water, 40 parts liquid detergent, and 40 parts oil of citronella, or other proprietary...

  12. 7 CFR 981.65 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of reserve almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... almonds. 981.65 Section 981.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Disposition of Reserve § 981.65 Prohibition on the use or disposition of reserve almonds. Except as provided in §§ 981.66 and 981.67, almonds...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing and...

  14. 26 CFR 1.453-9 - Gain or loss on disposition of installment obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gain or loss on disposition of installment...-9 Gain or loss on disposition of installment obligations. (a) In general. Subject to the exceptions contained in section 453(d)(4) and paragraph (c) of this section, the entire amount of gain or loss...

  15. 19 CFR 12.40 - Seizure; disposition of seized articles; reports to United States attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure; disposition of seized articles; reports... § 12.40 Seizure; disposition of seized articles; reports to United States attorney. (a) Any book... United States attorney for his consideration and action. (b) Upon the seizure of articles or matter...

  16. 39 CFR 946.5 - Disposition of property having a value of less than $200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that fair market value of such property is $200 or less, title to the property vests in the United... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property having a value of less... SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.5 Disposition of property having a value of less than $200. Where the...

  17. The Role of Apprenticeship in the Cultivation of Soft Skills and Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    As a learning model, apprenticeship is well known for its capacity to develop skills and vocational identities. It is also increasingly appealing for its potential to develop soft skills and enhance dispositions. This article focuses on the nature and role of apprenticeship and employers in developing dispositions and soft skills. It draws on a…

  18. Likely-clean concrete disposition at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The vast majority of wastes produced at nuclear licensed sites are no different from wastes produced from other traditional industrial activities. Radiation and contamination control practices ensure that the small amounts of waste materials that contain a radiation and or contamination hazard are segregated and managed appropriately according to the level of hazard. Part of the segregation process involves additional clearance checks of wastes generated in areas where the potential to become radioactively contaminated exists, but is very small and contamination control practices are such that the wastes are believed to be 'likely-clean'. This important clearance step helps to ensure that radioactive contamination is not inadvertently released during disposition of inactive waste materials. Clearance methods for bagged likely-clean wastes (i.e. small volumes of low density wastes) or discreet non-bagged items are well advanced. Clearance of bagged likely-clean wastes involves measuring small volumes of bagged material within purpose built highly sensitive bag monitors. For non-bagged items the outer surfaces are scanned to check for surface contamination using traditional hand-held contamination instrumentation. For certain very bulky and porous materials (such as waste concrete), these traditional clearance methods are impractical or not fully effective. As a somewhat porous (and dense) material, surface scanning cannot always be demonstrated to be conclusive. In order to effectively disposition likely-clean concrete, both the method of clearance (i.e. conversion from likely-clean to clean) and method of disposition have to be considered. Likely-clean concrete wastes have been produced at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) from demolitions of buildings and structures, as well as small amounts from site maintenance activities. A final disposition method for this material that includes the secondary clearance check that changes the classification of this

  19. Likely-clean concrete disposition at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of wastes produced at nuclear licensed sites are no different from wastes produced from other traditional industrial activities. Radiation and contamination control practices ensure that the small amounts of waste materials that contain a radiation and or contamination hazard are segregated and managed appropriately according to the level of hazard. Part of the segregation process involves additional clearance checks of wastes generated in areas where the potential to become radioactively contaminated exists, but is very small and contamination control practices are such that the wastes are believed to be 'likely-clean'. This important clearance step helps to ensure that radioactive contamination is not inadvertently released during disposition of inactive waste materials. Clearance methods for bagged likely-clean wastes (i.e. small volumes of low density wastes) or discreet non-bagged items are well advanced. Clearance of bagged likely-clean wastes involves measuring small volumes of bagged material within purpose built highly sensitive bag monitors. For non-bagged items the outer surfaces are scanned to check for surface contamination using traditional hand-held contamination instrumentation. For certain very bulky and porous materials (such as waste concrete), these traditional clearance methods are impractical or not fully effective. As a somewhat porous (and dense) material, surface scanning cannot always be demonstrated to be conclusive. In order to effectively disposition likely-clean concrete, both the method of clearance (i.e. conversion from likely-clean to clean) and method of disposition have to be considered. Likely-clean concrete wastes have been produced at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) from demolitions of buildings and structures, as well as small amounts from site maintenance activities. A final disposition method for this material that includes the secondary clearance check that changes the classification of this

  20. 3D Gravity Modeling of Complex Salt Features in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nava-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional (3D gravity modeling and inversion approach and its application to complex geological settings characterized by several allochthonous salt bodies embedded in terrigenous sediments. Synthetic gravity data were computed for 3D forward modeling of salt bodies interpreted from Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM seismic images. Density contrasts for the salt bodies surrounded by sedimentary units are derived from density-compaction curves for the northern Gulf of Mexico’s oil exploration surveys. By integrating results from different shape- and depth-source estimation algorithms, we built an initial model for the gravity anomaly inversion. We then applied a numerically optimized 3D simulated annealing gravity inversion method. The inverted 3D density model successfully retrieves the synthetic salt body ensemble. Results highlight the significance of integrating high-resolution potential field data for salt and subsalt imaging in oil exploration.

  1. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  2. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  3. Participation of civil engineers in designing facilities in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddeck, H.; Westhaus, T.

    1990-01-01

    For the design of underground facilities in rock salt layers or domes, as caverns for repositories, the civil engineering approach may be useful. The underground openings are analysed by determining the displacements and the stresses for actual states and hypothetical situations. The paper reports on the state of art in the development of suited time dependent material laws for rock salt, on time integration methods for the analysis, and on a possible procedure for a consistent safety analysis. The examples given include caverns filled by oil, analysis of a mine with vertical excavation chambers, and dams closing mine galleries. (orig.) [de

  4. Potential role of ABC-assisted repositories in U.S. plutonium and high-level waste disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.; Favale, A.; Myers, T. [Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper characterizes the issues involving deep geologic disposal of LWR spent fuel rods, then presents results of an investigation to quantify the potential role of Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) in an integrated national nuclear materials and high level waste disposition strategy. The investigation used the deep geological repository envisioned for Yucca Mt., Nevada as a baseline and considered complementary roles for integrated ABC transmutation systems. The results indicate that although a U.S. geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of plutonium, the minor actinides, and selected long-lived fission products can result in the following substantial benefits: plutonium burndown to near zero levels, a dramatic reduction of the long term hazard associated with geologic repositories, an ability to place several-fold more high level nuclear waste in a single repository, electricity sales to compensate for capital and operating costs.

  5. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Oaces, L.E.; Baxter, J.; Brown, T.M.; Enoke, D.E.; Carlson, D.; Rugg, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    The 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process identifies the sampling and analytical requirements necessary to support future detailed evaluation of alternatives via the CERCLA process, for final disposition of the 221-U Canyon Facility. Viable alternatives for the disposition of the 221-U Facility have been identified in a CERCLA Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) (DOE-RL 1997) for the Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI). The scope of this DQO Process is limited to the 221-U Process Canyon Building and equipment contained within the facility. Associated stacks, filters, solvent handling, vaults, and storage facilities external to the 221-U Building are not addressed in this DQO. This DQO focuses on the 221-U Building because it provides the greatest potential source of contaminant volumes and concentrations and the physical structure poses the greatest challenge for disposition decisions

  6. Coping with employee, family, and student roles: evidence of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Tracy D; McCarthy, Julie M

    2010-07-01

    Balancing multiple roles is a challenge for individuals in many sectors of the population. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals have dispositional tendencies to experience interrole conflict and facilitation. We also aimed to show that coping styles and life satisfaction are correlates of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies. Two survey studies were conducted with individuals involved in 3 life roles (i.e., employee, student, and family member; Study 1: N = 193; Study 2: N = 284). The hierarchical structure of conflict and facilitation was examined in both studies. Support for the dispositional model was found in both cases through the use of hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2, a longitudinal assessment of the nomological network surrounding conflict and facilitation tendencies was conducted with structural equation modeling analyses; we found that coping styles had synchronous relations with dispositional conflict and facilitation; dispositional conflict had a lagged and negative relation with life satisfaction.

  7. Critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie

    2008-09-01

    Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.

  8. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  9. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A contractor report to the Department of Energy on environmental management baseline programs and integration opportunities (discussion draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) chartered a government contractor led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which meet the EM mission. The contractor team was challenged to ''think outside-the-box'' for solutions that cross traditional site boundaries and enable the programs to get the job done at an earlier date and at a lower cost. This report documents baseline programs current plans for material disposition and presents the opportunities for additional acceleration of cleanup and cost savings. A graphical depiction of the disposition of EM-owned waste and material from current state to final disposition is shown as disposition maps in Attachments 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These disposition maps detail the material disposition at eleven major DOE sites as planned in the current discussion draft plan, Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Maps reflecting material disposition at additional sites will be added in the future. Opportunities to further accelerate the cleanup of DOE-EM sites and reduce the overall cost of cleanup are depicted in the alternative disposition maps shown in Attachments 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. These integration opportunities bring nation-wide resources to bear on common problems facing the DOE sites

  11. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  12. Results from bonding of the SALT primary mirror edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Ockert J.; Love, Jonathan; Gajjar, Hitesh

    2016-07-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope has till recently operated without active closed loop control of its Primary Mirror. The reason for this was that there were no suitable edge sensor system available on the market. Recently a system became available and SALT form Fogale Nanotech. The system consist of a sensor, cables and control electronics. The system was still under development and SALT was responsible for the integration of the sensors before deployment on the Telescope. Several issues still had to be addressed. One of these issues was the integration of the sensors at an appropriate production rate. The sensors was supplied as flexible pc boards with different types making up the transmitters and receivers. These flexible boards were bonded to ClearCeram Z L-Brackets before the appropriate connectors were installed. This paper describes the process used to integrate and test the sensors.

  13. Preventive arms control. Case study: plutonium disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium stored in separated form poses a severe threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. While options for the disposition of military plutonium stockpiles have been studied for several years, similar work has hardly been undertaken for plutonium stockpiles in the civilian sector. In the framework of this project, the various options to dispose of stockpiles of separated plutonium in the civilian sector were to be investigated. The project was embedded in the FONAS-project network on Preventive Arms Control, and the findings of this study were to be considered for the development of a concept of Preventive Arms Control. As a first step, the internationally available information on different options for plutonium disposition (MOX-use, immobilization together with radioactive wastes, elimination) were collected and compiled to allow further assessment of the different options. For some of the options, technical questions were examined in more detail. For this purpose, neutron transport and fuel burnup calculations were performed. In particular, the analysis focused on concepts for the elimination of plutonium by the use of uranium-free fuel in existing light-water reactors, since they are particularly attractive from the point of view of non-proliferation. The calculations were performed for a reference fuel based on yttrium-stabilized zirconia, with parameters like the initial plutonium content or the use of burnable neutron poisons varying. A systematic and complete analysis of the performed calculations, however, could not be undertaken due to project time restrictions. On the basis of assessment criteria for Preventive Arms Control developed by the project network, a specific set of criteria for the assessment of the pros and cons of different plutonium disposition methods has been defined. These criteria may then be used as part of a concept of prospective technology assessment. The project findings present a starting base for a comprehensive assessment of the

  14. Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R.; Ogata, T.

    1993-01-01

    One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500 degree C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel

  15. Adaptation and validation of the dispositional hope scale for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cerentini Pacico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the psychometric features and the validation process of the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS for adolescents in the south of Brazil. This scale measures the Hope construct in terms of pathways and agency. The ADHS was translated to Portuguese and underwent a reverse translation. A sample of 450 students, from 14 to 18 years old (M=16.8 years, SD=3.4, 56% female, answered the ADHS, the Hope Index, the LOT-R and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. A factorial analysis with varimax rotation showed that the scale is unidimensional and that its internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = .80. No significant gender differences were found. Correlations of ADHS with the other constructs presented evidence of convergent validity in the present study.

  16. The contribution of civilian industry to military Pu disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalembert, J.A. de

    2000-01-01

    Weapon-grade plutonium must be disposed of in a safe and secure manner. Disposition programs should start as soon as possible and be properly monitored to achieve disarmament and non-proliferation objectives. Finally, for obvious economic and environmental reasons, such programs should make use, as much as possible, of proven processes and technology as well as of available equipment and existing sites. The more advanced - and readily available - solution is the fabrication of plutonium into MOX fuel and its irradiation existing Light Water Reactors. This solution also has the obvious advantage of burning some of the plutonium (30 to 40 %) and degrading the remaining portion of it, while generating electricity. In the longer term, the burning of plutonium new types of dedicated reactors, like High Temperature Reactor or Fast Neutron Reactor, can be envisaged, but the time and costs associated with deploying such reactors and their fuel cycle must be taken to account. (authors)

  17. Weapons grade plutonium disposition in PWR, CANDU and FR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deplech, M.; Tommasi, J.; Zaetta, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame work of the AIDA/MOX phase I/I/ program (1994-1997) between France and Russia, the disposition of plutonium in reactors was studied. The LWR (Light Water Reactor), FR (Fast reactors), CANDU (Heavy Water Reactors), HTR (High Temperature Reactors) options for using excess dismantled weapons plutonium for peaceful commercial nuclear power generating purposes offer some advantages over the remaining options (storage). The AIDA/MOX phase 1 program covers different topics, among which are the neutronic aspects of loading reactors with weapons-grade plutonium. The conclusions are that the weapon plutonium consumption is similar in the different type of reactors. However, the use of inert matrices allows to increase the mass balance for a same denaturing level. The use of Thorium as a matrix or special isotopes to increase the proliferation resistance prove to be insufficient. (author)

  18. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU....... Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170) than non-PBL students (n=83) (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p ...). There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11). There was no significant correlation between CCS...

  19. Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N; Cribbet, Matthew; de Grey, Robert G Kent; Cronan, Sierra; Trettevik, Ryan; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-04-01

    Dispositional optimism has been related to beneficial influences on physical health outcomes. However, its links to global sleep quality and the psychological mediators responsible for such associations are less studied. This study thus examined if trait optimism predicted global sleep quality, and if measures of subjective well-being were statistical mediators of such links. A community sample of 175 participants (93 men, 82 women) completed measures of trait optimism, depression, and life satisfaction. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results indicated that trait optimism was a strong predictor of better PSQI global sleep quality. Moreover, this association was mediated by depression and life satisfaction in both single and multiple mediator models. These results highlight the importance of optimism for the restorative process of sleep, as well as the utility of multiple mediator models in testing distinct psychological pathways.

  20. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative