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Sample records for integrated physical chemistry

  1. Pre-Service Physics and Chemistry Teachers' Conceptual Integration of Physics and Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, Mustafa; Bektas, Oktay; Geban, Omer; Ozturk, Gokhan; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the pre-service teachers' opinions about conceptual integration (CI) and their understanding of it. A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews comprising ten guiding questions. Three pre-service physics and three pre-service chemistry teachers…

  2. Feasibility of Integration of Selected Aspects of (CBA) Chemistry, (CHEMS) Chemistry and (PSSC) Physics into a Two Year Physical Science Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasca, Michael Aldo

    Compared, for selected outcomes, were integrated chemistry-physics courses with chemistry and physics courses taught separately. Three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC)-Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), and three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee-Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS)…

  3. The integration of the contents of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I in Biology-Chemistry specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Luis AZCUY LORENZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research task developed in the Natural Sciences Education Department during 2013-2014 academic year, and it emerged from the necessity of solving some insufficiencies in the use of the real potentialities offered by the content of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I, that is part of the curriculum of the Biology-Chemistry career. Its main objective is to offer a set of exercises to contribute to achieve the integration of contents from the subject Physics-chemistry (I in the mentioned career at «Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz» University of Camaguey. The exercises proposed are characterized for being related to the real practice and to other subjects of the career. Their implementation through review lessons, partial tests and final evaluations during the formative experiment made possible a better academic result in the learners overall performance.

  4. Retention of Differential and Integral Calculus: A Case Study of a University Student in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic Matic, Ljerka; Dahl, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on retention of differential and integral calculus concepts of a second-year student of physical chemistry at a Danish university. The focus was on what knowledge the student retained 14 months after the course and on what effect beliefs about mathematics had on the retention. We argue that if a student can quickly…

  5. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Evaluation of an Integrated Curriculum in Physics, Mathematics, Engineering, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert

    1997-04-01

    An experimental, student centered, introductory curriculum called IMPEC (for Integrated Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, and Chemistry curriculum) is in its third year of pilot-testing at NCSU. The curriculum is taught by a multidisciplinary team of professors using a combination of traditional lecturing and alternative instructional methods including cooperative learning, activity-based class sessions, and extensive use of computer modeling, simulations, and the world wide web. This talk will discuss the research basis for our design and implementation of the curriculum, the qualitative and quantitative methods we have been using to assess its effectiveness, and the educational outcomes we have noted so far.

  7. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  8. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  9. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  10. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  11. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  12. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  13. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  14. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  15. Textbook of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook presents an introduction to physical-chemical fundamentals and working methods, deals with the chemical thermodynamics, structure of matter, the statistical theory of matter, and transport phenomena. The kinetics are presented by means of experimental methods and the evaluation of kinetic measurements; furtheron formal kinetic of more complicated reactions, reaction mechanisms, the theory of kinetics, the kinetics of reactions in solution, of heterogeneous reactions of electrode processes, and the catalysis are described. A mathematical appendix (determinants, vectors, operators, series, integrals, differential equations, Schroedinger equation, wave functions) and the solutions of the numerical calculation examples complete this book. (HK) [de

  16. Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder…

  17. Thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the 1994 handbook of chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    A re-evaluation of all thermal neutron cross sections and neutron resonance integrals has been performed, utilizing the previous database of the ''Barn Book'' and all of the more recently published experiments. Only significant changes or previously undetermined values are recorded in this report. The source for each value is also recorded in the accompanying table

  18. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  19. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  20. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  1. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  2. Integrating Computational Chemistry into a Course in Classical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Sheridan R.; Hartzell, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Computational chemistry is commonly addressed in the quantum mechanics course of undergraduate physical chemistry curricula. Since quantum mechanics traditionally follows the thermodynamics course, there is a lack of curricula relating computational chemistry to thermodynamics. A method integrating molecular modeling software into a semester long…

  3. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In our country, the development in this field is associated with the name N.N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems.Energy development during the last decades created or sharpened new problems. Our new Institute, the Institute of Energy problems of Chemical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, is dealing with some of them. The present article is an overview of our work on radiation applications. Examples of the use of radiation in power industry (such as coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for vast utilization is demonstrated. (authors)

  4. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, J.

    1994-01-01

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic. Recently, the main interest was in 111 In which is a promising tracer for cancer diagnostic. To increase the effectiveness of production of indium 111 In the reaction with deuterons on the enriched cadmium target was carried out instead of the previously used one with alpha particles on natural silver. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory -Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory - conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out

  5. Physical Chemistry Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Trimm, Harold H

    2011-01-01

    Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This

  6. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  7. Contributing Chemistry and Compelling Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry as an integral part of biology has been studied and utilised to yield numerous solutions in healthcare. Both the in vivo and in vitro applications of chemically synthesized compounds as drugs and the culture media used for cell culture respectively have been an indispensable tool in therapeutic and research arena in healthcare. The evolving specialty of regenerative medicine has been exploring the physical characteristics of the cell culture environment to see its effect on the behaviour of cells in vitro. For instance, mere change of matrix stiffness gives rise to a cascade of chemical events leading to different biological outputs as reported (1 in which softer matrices induced the mesenchymal stem cells to give rise to neuronal cells and increasing the matrix stiffness made the same stem cells to differentiate into chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. The regulated movement of ions across membranes have been found to influence cell morphogenesis and stem cell regeneration (2. The influence of variety of media, reagents, growth factors, scaffolds etc. on the different types of cells and the varying needs of each type of cell are being continuously studied with an aim of advancing regenerative medicine based solutions. In this issue, the article by Kazemnejad et al is reporting the role of wnt signalling on menstrual blood derived stem cells (MenSCs by studying the influence of Lithium chloride on the proliferation of these cells. They have come out results that prove that the MenSCs have unique immunophenotyping properties and that Wnt signaling pathway regulates MenSCs proliferation via the trans-localization of activated-ß-catenin protein. Another article by Sharma et al has focussed on the gene expression pathways and on the specific modification or modulation of a key molecular player of homing and engraftment of the hematopoietic progenitor cells which will help in enhancing the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell

  8. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  9. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Academic excellence workshops in chemistry and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan Rose

    In the mid-1970's, Uri Treisman, at the University of California, Berkeley, developed an academic excellence workshop program that had important successes in increasing minority student achievement and persistence in calculus. The present dissertation research is an in-depth study of chemistry and physics workshops at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Data for the first, longitudinal component of this study were obtained by tracking to Spring 1998 all workshop minority students, i.e., Latino, African American, and Native American workshop students, a random sample of non-workshop minority students, and a random sample of non-targeted students, i.e., Anglo and Asian students, enrolled in first-quarter General Chemistry or Physics during specific quarters of 1992 or 1993. Data for the second component were obtained by administering questionnaires, conducting interviews, and observing science students during Fall, 1996. Workshop participation was a significant predictor of first-quarter course grade for minority students in both chemistry and physics, while verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were not significant predictors of beginning course grade for minority science students. The lack of predictive ability of the SAT and the importance of workshop participation in minority students' beginning science course performance are results with important implications for educators and students. In comparing pre-college achievement measures for workshop and non-targeted students, non-targeted students' mathematics SAT scores were significantly higher than chemistry and physics workshop students' scores. Nonetheless, workshop participation "leveled the field" as workshop and non-targeted students performed similarly in beginning science courses. Positive impacts of workshop participation on achievement, persistence, efficiency, social integration, and self-confidence support the continued and expanded funding of workshop programs

  11. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  12. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    This book is an introduction into physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of colid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, anorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Futhermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (HSI) [de

  13. Physical organic chemistry in the making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    The discipline of physical organic chemistry will continue to occupy a central position in chemistry. The rapid increase in instrumentation and important theoretical developments allow the investigation of many problems of great complexity and challenge. In the next century the leading theme will

  14. The 2016 Nobel Prize: Chemistry and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Filardo Bassalo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will deal with the 2016 Nobel Prizes: Chemistry and Physics, since they are related to the same theme: nanostructures / molecular machines (conception, fabrication and topological theoretical explanation.

  15. Physics and chemistry of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: In the pleasant and hospitable atmosphere of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich in the Federal Republic of Germany, the IAEA symposium on the Physics and Chemistry of Fission took place. Almost 200 scientists attended, 154 abstracts were submitted, and 57 papers presented, but more important than the numbers was the quality of the contributions and the progress reported at the symposium. The neutron was discovered almost 50 years ago; 40 years ago the idea of nuclear fission was born. Since then, a number of laboratories have worked hard to explain the phenomenon of fission One would expect that by now scientists would know exactly what happens in a nucleus before and during the process of fission, particularly as there are hundreds of power and research reactors in operation, and fission of uranium isotopes is the basis of their functioning. At first glance, fission seems a simple process: a neutron hits and penetrates the uranium nucleus which becomes excited, i.e. has a surplus of energy. One way to get rid of this energy is for the nucleus to split into two parts; additional products of this process are energy and more neutrons. Nature, however, seems to dislike such straightforward explanations. In the case of fission, scientists have observed a number of phenomena which disagree with a simple model. Sometimes, a nucleus will split into two parts without being 'attacked' by a neutron; this spontaneous fission opens up a new line of fission research and several contributions at the symposium reported on sophisticated experiments designed to unravel some of its specific details. Sometimes, a fissioning nucleus will emit another particle: ternary fission has become a powerful tool for studying the properties of nuclei during the fission process. For the scientist, it is fascinating to observe how the nucleus behaves during fission. They invent models which are supposed to reproduce the most probable course of events leading to fission. In one of these

  16. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  17. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  18. Integrating Chemistry: Crossing the Millennium Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housecroft, Catherine E

    2018-02-01

    A personal account of the development of two University level chemistry books is presented. The account focuses on ways to integrate the traditional branches of chemistry into a textbook that captures the imagination of students and relates chemical principles and fundamental topics to environmental, medicinal, biological and industrial applications. The ways in which teaching methods have changed over two decades and how web-based resources can be used to improve the communication of chemical (in particular structural) concepts are highlighted.

  19. Physics, radiology and chemistry. 6. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The scientific basic disciplines of physics and chemistry are the beginning of all medical teaching. They are suitable to clarify medical and biochemical problems in their causality by means of their own thinking methodics as well as by the information provided. This book attempts to point out the relationships of physics, radiology and chemistry to neighbouring disciplines, especially to practical medicine. Greater importance must naturally be given here to the examples of individual fundamental facts than to the conveying of pure theory from books. The statements and questions on self control ordered according to chapter represent a minimum learning for the students which can be extended as required. (orig./ORU) [de

  20. Collection of problems in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bareš, Jirí; Fried, Vojtech

    1961-01-01

    Collection of Problems in Physical Chemistry provides illustrations and problems covering the field of physical chemistry. The material has been arranged into illustrations that are solved and supplemented by problems, thus enabling readers to determine the extent to which they have mastered each subject. Most of the illustrations and problems were taken from original papers, to which reference is made. The English edition of this book has been translated from the manuscript of the 2nd Czech edition. It has been changed slightly in some places and enlarged on in others on the basis of further

  1. Basic radiation physics and chemistry of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybytniak, G.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    Composites are increasingly more important in the applied and fundamental polymer science, and the participation of radiation processing of these systems increase. In presented paper the newest achievements of radiation physics and chemistry of composites are reviewed. It is stressed, that although main experimental effort is directed towards the development of composites as such, and investigation of their specific properties, mechanical, physicochemical and physical, the radiation processing will enter the field on the wider scale, especially as concerns specialized plastics

  2. Cuby: An Integrative Framework for Computational Chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 13 (2016), s. 1230-1237 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-01214P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : software framework * workflow automation * QM/MM * datasets * Ruby Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.229, year: 2016

  3. Reactions at surfaces in the atmosphere: integration of experiments and theory as necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for predicting the physical chemistry of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2009-09-28

    While particles have significant deleterious impacts on human health, visibility and climate, quantitative understanding of their formation, composition and fates remains problematic. Indeed, in many cases, even qualitative understanding is lacking. One area of particular uncertainty is the nature of particle surfaces and how this determines interactions with gases in the atmosphere, including water, which is important for cloud formation and properties. The focus in this Perspective article is on some chemistry relevant to airborne particles and especially to reactions occurring on their surfaces. The intent is not to provide a comprehensive review, but rather to highlight a few selected examples of interface chemistry involving inorganic and organic species that may be important in the lower atmosphere. This includes sea salt chemistry, nitrate and nitrite ion photochemistry, organics on surfaces and heterogeneous reactions of oxides of nitrogen on proxies for airborne mineral dust and boundary layer surfaces. Emphasis is on the molecular level understanding that can only be gained by fully integrating experiment and theory to elucidate these complex systems.

  4. Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-11-01

    Stressing the fundamental solid state behavior of minerals, and emphasizing both theory and experiment, this text surveys the physics and chemistry of earth materials. The author begins with a systematic tour of crystal chemistry of both simple and complex structures (with completely new structural drawings) and discusses how to obtain structural and thermodynamic information experimentally. Dr. Navrotsky also reviews the quantitative concepts of chemical bonding--band theory, molecular orbit and ionic models. She then covers physical properties and relates microscopic features to macroscopic thermodynamic behavior and treats high pressure phase transitions, amorphous materials and solid state reactions. The author concludes with a look at the interface between mineral physics and materials science. Highly illustrated throughout, this book fills the gap between undergraduate texts and specialized review volumes and is appropriate for students and researchers in earth science and materials science.

  5. Physics and chemistry of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, John S

    2004-01-01

    Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, 2nd Edition, is a comprehensive survey of the planetary physics and physical chemistry of our own solar system. It covers current research in these areas and the planetary sciences that have benefited from both earth-based and spacecraft-based experimentation. These experiments form the basis of this encyclopedic reference, which skillfully fuses synthesis and explanation. Detailed chapters review each of the major planetary bodies as well as asteroids, comets, and other small orbitals. Astronomers, physicists, and planetary scientists can use this state-of-the-art book for both research and teaching. This Second Edition features extensive new material, including expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, spacecraft findings from Mars Pathfinder through Mars Odyssey 2001, recent reflections on brown dwarfs, and descriptions of planned NASA, ESA, and Japanese planetary missions.* New edition features expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, the latest spacecraft...

  6. Life is physics and chemistry and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2015-04-01

    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Representations in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Wood, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    That different levels of representation are important for complete understanding of chemistry is an accepted fact in the chemistry education community. This study sought to uncover types of representations used in given physical chemistry textbooks. Textbooks play a central role in the teaching and learning of science (chemistry), and in some…

  8. Laser experiments for chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Compton, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are employed throughout science and technology, in fundamental research, the remote sensing of atmospheric gases or pollutants, communications, medical diagnostics and therapies, and the manufacturing of microelectronic devices. Understanding the principles of their operation, which underlie all of these areas, is essential for a modern scientific education. This text introduces the characteristics and operation of lasers through laboratory experiments designed for the undergraduate curricula in chemistry and physics. Introductory chapters describe the properties of light, the history of laser invention, the atomic, molecular, and optical principles behind how lasers work, and the kinds of lasers available today. Other chapters include the basic theory of spectroscopy and computational chemistry used to interpret laser experiments. Experiments range from simple in-class demonstrations to more elaborate configurations for advanced students. Each chapter has historical and theoretical background, as well...

  9. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  10. Study of a multitrophical integrated aquatic system for the teaching-learning of the subjects physics, chemistry and biology in the bachelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Eva; Espinosa, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    In Mexico exist due to the lack of water in the City, which is where the College of Sciences and Humanities Orient (at UNAM) is located. This is because a point of view from the Chemical, Physics and Biology subjects is important to find learning strategies that motivate students to seek solutions to problems such as these. As Science Mentors, students were asked to propose water treatment from the homes they live in. From these investigations the students concluded that it was necessary to study in depth the wetlands like Multi-trophic Aquatic System that allow the treatment of gray water, so that a prototype of Micro-scale Multitrophic Aquatic System was set up in the laboratory, where the pH was measured , The concentration of oxygen, phosphates, from a Chemical perspective. As for the subject of Biology, we worked on the search for mycorrhizal fungi associated with the growth of plants for the purification of water. In physics we worked the sedimentation system. Artificial wetlands are man-made zones in which, in a controlled manner, mechanisms for the removal of contaminants present in wastewater, occurring in natural wetlands through physical, biological and chemical processes, are constructed mechanically and Is waterproofed to prevent losses of water to the subsoil, the use of substrates different from the original land for rooting the plants and their selection that will colonize the wetland benefit the recovery of water. The present project aims to structure an Artificial Wetland to carry out didactic strategies, activities with students, as well as work on research projects in the sciences of Chemistry, Physics and Biology. Through the application of chemical, biological and physical concepts and processes, so that students of the different semesters of the College of Sciences and Humanities Plantel Oriente, appropriate the relevant knowledge in the area of experimental sciences, developing thinking skills and achieve Significant learning, which are

  11. The Contributions of James Moir to Physical Chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Physical chemistry, spectroscopy, ruby, solar spectrum, history of chemistry. 1. Introduction ... band in the green, which appears and disappears as the gem is rotated. ..... (5) He also used various screens, such as a methylviolet screen to.

  12. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  13. Cobalt oxides from crystal chemistry to physics

    CERN Document Server

    Raveau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Unparalleled in the breadth and depth of its coverage of all important aspects, this book systematically treats the electronic and magnetic properties of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric cobaltites in both ordered and disordered phases. Authored by a pioneer and a rising star in the field, the monograph summarizes, organizes and streamlines the otherwise difficult-to-obtain information on this topic. An introductory chapter sets forth the crystal chemistry of cobalt oxides to lay the groundwork for an understanding of the complex phenomena observed in this materials class. Special emphasis is placed on a comprehensive discussion of cobaltite physical properties in different structural families. Providing a thorough introduction to cobalt oxides from a chemical and physical viewpoint as a basis for understanding their intricacies, this is a must-have for both experienced researchers as well as entrants to the field.

  14. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  15. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  16. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelenz, B.

    1999-01-01

    , UJ) and use of Pu and Cs contaminations as tracers to follow-up natural processes in peat bog (University of Agriculture, Cracow); d) preparation of α-spectrometric sources by electrodeposition (other groups of the Department) and determination of 241 Pu in α-spectrometric Pu sources (Silesian University, Katowice, Poland); e) comparative measurements of γ-background dose rate, using the PMS station, TL detectors and Gamma-Tracer probe (Health Physics Section of the Institute). In recognition of his expertise in radioecology, Dr Mietelski has been admitted as a Regular Member of the U.I.R. (Union Internationale de Radioecologie). Mrs Jasinska, Mr Kozak and Dr Mietelski received the Prize of the President of the City of Cracow for ''Organising and conducting continuous radiological monitoring of the air in Cracow and for the researches at the radioactive contamination of the environment''. The project on construction of the internal target assembly for isotope production was continued in the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, in cooperation with the Cyclotron Section and Division of Mechanical Constructions of the Institute, and with the JINR, Dubna. In the meantime, in pilot experiments on the internal beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron, small activities of 11 C PET tracer were obtained from proton irradiated B 2 0 3 targets. A joint project with the Silesian Medical Academy, on applications of 32 P sources pure (β - emitter) in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT), was started. Chemical and ionic methods of preparation of 32 P sources and their TL dosimetry were tested in cooperation with the Laboratory of the Ion Implanter and with the Health Physics Section of the Institute. Measurements of the activity of selenoenzymes in the context of human thyroid health or disease were continued in cooperation with the Medical College of the Jagiellonian University, and with the Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland

  17. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglewski, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Research in the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry concentrates on three main topics: 1. Radiochemistry of transactinide elements; 2. Environmental radioactivity and related problems; 3. Preparation and applications of radioactive isotopes. The investigations on radiochemistry of transactinide elements are carried out in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry. Practical difficulties due to short half-lives and very low cross sections of formation of the superheavy nuclei are being overcome by developing fast and efficient methods of chemical separation, basing mostly on ion-exchange processes which are thoroughly studied via model experiments on lighter homologues of the elements of interest. During the year 2001, work with composite ferrocyanide sorbents was continued, and the efforts resulted in a patent application. The developed ion-exchangers (whose characteristics are constantly checked and improved in the laboratory) can find practical applications in environmental protection as well as in fundamental studies on the most exotic elements: 104 Rf, 105 Db, 106 Sg, 107 Bh, 108 Hs, and more. As to the latter, the discovery in Dubna of the relatively long-lived element 114 (t 1/2 =30s) gives hope that studies on aqueous chemistry of the elements Z =107 would be feasible. In this context, chemical methods of separation and identification of the heaviest elements are necessary to know the behaviour of the whole decay chains, for example: 114 -α-112 -α-110 -α-108 -α-106. The group is contributing its expertise to the top specialist international co-operation, involving the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, and three German institutions: the Technical University of Dresden, the University of Mainz, and the GSI Darmstadt. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory is following up traces of α, β, and γ radioactive

  18. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  19. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    taking part in the proficiency test on the determination of 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am in mineral matrix, organised by the IAEA. Ten dust samples, delivered by the University of Bremen (Germany) were analysed for the presence of 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm. In 1999, the equipment of the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory was enriched with a low- background liquid scintillator spectrometer (Wallac 1414-003 Guardian), which opened a whole new branch of possible work connected with determination of pure beta-emitters. First isotopes of interest were 90 Sr and 241 Pu accumulated in animal bones. For 90 Sr measurements, an extensive library of scintillation quenching corrections was prepared. The spectrometer was also applied for tests of the purity of 32 P for the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry. A new project on transfer of plutonium from forest soil and litter to fungi and plants has been started. It is a pilot study for a planned in-Lab experiment to be performed during the incoming year at the University of Extremadura, Caceres, Spain. Other projects conducted during 1999 in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory are described in short abstracts below. In the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, the project on construction of the internal target assembly for isotope production was continued, in cooperation with the Institute's Division of Mechanical Construction and with the Cyclotron Section. At the same time, much investment was made into necessary renovations in the radiochemical laboratory. Research in the Laboratory was concentrated on preparation and evaluation of 32 P sources for intravascular brachytherapy. With the help of the Institute's Health Physics Laboratory, liquid Na 2 H 32 PO 4 sources were calibrated by TL dosimetry, and in cooperation with the Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, some solid state sources containing 32 P were prepared. Liquid 32 P sources calibrated in the Institute were first applied in pre-clinical intravascular

  20. Education-oriented Physics-Chemistry for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Spoelstra

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of well-qualified Science teachers is discussed, and possible contributing factors are mentioned. The need for an education-oriented university education in Physics and Chemistry, parallel to the existing courses in Physics and Chemistry, is justified. At the University of Zululand a subject called “Physical Science” (“Natuurwetenskap” was established, bearing in mind the specific requirements of a teaching career in Physical Science at secondary level. “Physical Science” is offered at second and third year level and the syllabus covers equal amounts of Chemistry and Physics. A less formal-mathematical and more descriptive approach is followed, and as wide a field as possible is covered which includes new developments in the physical sciences. We believe that this new course will enhance the training of well-prepared teachers of Physical Science for secondary schools, where a severe shortage prevails. Special reference is made here to the situation in Black schools.

  1. Terminology dictionary for physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    1988-03-01

    This book introduces as many as terms covering from basic chemistry and applied chemistry to general industry and tries to explain them correctly. If it is not needed to explain the terms or they are not general, it omits explanation. However, it accurately and precisely, without omitting, describes elementary reaction and operation, representative materials, naming, idiom, and method of measurement. It also adds to supplement all the materials which are helpful in daily lives and are convenient to studying and understanding.

  2. Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulden, Warren

    1996-01-01

    Presents three examples that show how students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better. Examples include Coulomb's Law and melting points, the Faraday Constant, and the Rydberg Constant. Presents a list of some other traditional topics in a chemistry course that could be enhanced by the…

  3. Physics and chemistry of plasma pollution control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J S

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NO x , SO x , etc), volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substances, etc have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges are becoming significant due to advantages such as lower costs, higher removal efficiency and smaller space volume. In order to commercialize this new technology, the pollution gas removal rate, energy efficiency of removal, pressure drop of reactors and useable by-product production rates must be improved and identification of major fundamental processes and optimizations of reactor and power supply for an integrated system must be investigated. In this work, the chemistry and physics of plasma pollution control are discussed and the limitation of this type of plasma is outlined based on the plasma parameters.

  4. Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology Nobel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Gräslund, Astrid; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Written by the leading experts in the field, this book describes the development and current state-of-the-art in single molecule spectroscopy. The application of this technique, which started 1989, in physics, chemistry and biosciences is displayed.

  5. Physics and chemistry of irradiated protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan

    not resemble so-called hot corinos or warm carbon-chain chemistry sources (the previously known types of low-mass Class 0 objects as defined by their chemistry). The absence of complex organic molecules in combination with high abundances of radicals such as cyanide (CN) and hydroxyl (OH) suggest...... that the chemistry is dominated by radiation from R CrA. In the high-resolution interferometry data we also detect signs of a 100 AU Keplerian disc around the Class 0/I object IRS7B. The disc may be responsible for the lack of detections of complex organic molecules on the smaller scales as it may have flattened......) and chemistry (such as molecular abundances) in low-mass protostellar envelopes is studied. The work studies the nearby low-mass star-forming region Corona Australis, in which a large proportion of the youngest low-mass protostars (so-called Class 0 and Class I objects) are located in a dense cloud situated...

  6. Annual progress report of the physical chemistry department. Basic research 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic research for 1987 in physical chemistry of the French Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed. Topics include molecular chemistry, isotopic geochemistry, molecular photophysics, laser photochemistry, solid and surface physical chemistry. A list of publications and thesis is given [fr

  7. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Eyring, L.

    1982-01-01

    This handbook is a six-volume work which covers the entire rare earth field in an integrated manner. Each chapter is a comprehensive, up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field. The first volume is devoted to the rare earth metals, the second to rare earth alloys and intermetallics, and the third and fourth volumes to the non-metallic rare earth materials, including solutions, complexes and bioinorganic substances, in addition to solid inorganic compounds. The electronic structure of these unique elements is the primary basis of understanding their physical, metallurgical and chemical natures. The interrelationship of the 4f and valence electrons and the observed optical, electrical, magnetic, crystallographic, elastic, thermal, mechanical, chemical, geochemical and biological behaviors is brought forth time and again throughout the chapters. Also discussed are the preparative, separation and solution chemistry of the elements and their compounds and the various chemical and physical analytical methods for determining the rare earths in various materials and impurities in a rare earth matrix. Vol. 5 is a update complement of the previous volumes. Volume 6 is concerned with ternary and higher order materials. (Auth.)

  8. The link between physics and chemistry in track modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.J.B.; Bolton, C.E.; Spencer-Smith, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The physical structure of a radiation track provides the initial conditions for the modelling of radiation chemistry. These initial conditions are not perfectly understood, because there are important gaps between what is provided by a typical track structure model and what is required to start the chemical model. This paper addresses the links between the physics and chemistry of tracks, with the intention of identifying those problems that need to be solved in order to obtain an accurate picture of the initial conditions for the purposes of modelling chemistry. These problems include the reasons for the increased yield of ionisation relative to homolytic bond breaking in comparison with the gas phase. A second area of great importance is the physical behaviour of low-energy electrons in condensed matter (including thermolisation and solvation). Many of these processes are not well understood, but they can have profound effects on the transient chemistry in the track. Several phenomena are discussed, including the short distance between adjacent energy loss events, the molecular nature of the underlying medium, dissociative attachment resonances and the ability of low-energy electrons to excite optically forbidden molecular states. Each of these phenomena has the potential to modify the transient chemistry substantially and must therefore be properly characterised before the physical model of the track can be considered to be complete. (orig.)

  9. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  10. Physics and chemistry of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J I

    1997-06-01

    The solar system is thought to have begun in a flattened disk of gas and dust referred to traditionally as the solar nebula. Such a construct seems to be a natural product of the collapse of dense parts of giant molecular clouds, the vast star-forming regions that pepper the Milky Way and other galaxies. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal forces within the solar nebula forced a gradual evolution of mass toward the center (where the sun formed) and angular momentum (borne by a small fraction of the mass) toward the outer more distant regions of the disk. This evolution was accompanied by heating and a strong temperature contrast from the hot, inner regions to the cold, more remote parts of the disk. The resulting chemistry in the disk determined the initial distribution of organic matter in the planets; most of the reduced carbon species, in condensed form, were located beyond the asteroid belt (the 'outer' solar system). The Earth could have received much of its inventory of pre-biological material from comets and other icy fragments of the process of planetary formation in the outer solar system.

  11. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  12. Integrating UNESCO ICT-Based Instructional Materials in Chemistry Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLIE P. NACARIO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effectiveness of the lessons in Chemistry integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional material on the achievement of Chemistry students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. It aimed to identify lessons that may be developed integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials, determine the effect of the developed lessons using the material on: conceptual understanding; science process skills; and attitude towards chemistry and gather insights from the experiences of the students and teacher. The study used the single group pretest and posttest experimental design. Descriptive, quantitative and qualitative techniques were also utilized. Quantitative data were taken from the pretest-posttest results on the Test on Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills and Chemistry Attitudinaire. Qualitative data were drawn from the experts’ assessment of the developed lessons and research instruments, and the insights of students and teacher. The developed lessons integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials were Atomic Model and Structure, Periodic Table of Elements, Chemical Bonding, and Balancing Chemical Equation. These lessons increased the conceptual understanding of the students by topic and skill from very low mastery to average mastery level. The students have slightly improved along the different science process skills. After teaching the lessons, the students’ attitude also improved. The students became more motivated and interested in Chemistry and the lessons were student centered and entailed teacher’s competence and flexibility in computer use.

  13. Physics and chemistry of aging - early developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aging phenomena are very complex physical and chemical processes. The author attempts to qualitatively discuss various physical processes contributing to aging. A satisfactory quantitative explanation is not presently available. In this sense, little progress has been made since the 1986 LBL Aging Workshop. However, what was accomplished during the past decade is a heightened awareness from the research and management sides to pay more attention to this problem, and as a result a number of aging tests have increased in quantity and quality. These efforts will undoubtedly yield some new results in the future. Examples in this paper are mainly from a 'pre-LHC and pre-HERA-B era of aging', where the total charge doses are limited to much less than 1 C/cm

  14. Teaching a Chemistry MOOC with a Virtual Laboratory: Lessons Learned from an Introductory Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick J.; Agger, Jonathan R.; Anderson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the experience and lessons learned of running a MOOC in introductory physical chemistry. The course was unique in allowing students to conduct experimental measurements using a virtual laboratory constructed using video and simulations. A breakdown of the student background and motivation for taking the course is…

  15. Progress in organic and physical chemistry structures and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaikov, Gennady E; Lobanov, Anton V

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Organic and Physical Chemistry: Structures and Mechanisms provides a collection of new research in the field of organic and physical properties, including new research on: The physical principles of the conductivity of electrical conducting polymer compounds The dependence on constants of electromagnetic interactions upon electron spacial-energy characteristics Effects of chitosan molecultural weight on rehological behavior of chitosan modified nanoclay at hight hydrated state Bio-structural energy criteria of functional states in normal and pathological conditions Potentiometric study on the international between devalent cations and sodium carboxylates in aqueous solutions Structural characteristic changes in erythrocyte membranes of mice bearing Alzheimer's-like disease caused by the olfactory bulbetomy This volume is intended to provide an overview of new studies and research for engineers, faculty, researchers, and upper-level students in the field of organic and physical chemistry.

  16. Charge Migration in DNA Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Tapash

    2007-01-01

    Charge migration through DNA has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. A deeper understanding of the nature of charge transfer and transport along the double helix is important in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. It has also important implications in biology, in particular in DNA damage and repair. This book presents contributions from an international team of researchers active in this field. It contains a wide range of topics that includes the mathematical background of the quantum processes involved, the role of charge transfer in DNA radiation damage, a new approach to DNA sequencing, DNA photonics, and many others. This book should be of value to researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, physical chemistry, and nanoscale sciences.

  17. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  18. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  19. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  20. Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Integrating Air Chemistry and Land Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Stratum, van B.J.H.; Dries, van den C.L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to the interactions between the atmosphere and the land for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and a reference text for researchers in atmospheric physics and chemistry, hydrology, and plant physiology. The combination of the book, which provides the

  1. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to -36 degrees centigrade but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 - 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of -36 to - 54 degrees centigrade. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point -5 to -39 degrees centigrade) and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadow foam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties. (Author).

  2. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...

  3. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  4. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  5. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  6. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbell, Terry A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to –36ºC but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 – 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of –36 to –54ºC. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point –5 to – 39ºC and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadowfoam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties.

    Los estólidos son una familia de compuestos sintetizados a partir de aceites hidroxilados como los de ricino o lesquerella o mediante la condensación de ácidos grasos sobre el doble enlace de un segundo ácido graso insaturado. Los estólidos de ricino y lesquerela se derivan tanto de sus triglicéridos como de sus ácidos grasos libres empleándose el residuo hidroxilo para formar los ésteres estólidos de los mismos. Los triglicéridos estólidos tienen puntos de fluidez crítica de entre 9 y -36ºC y baja estabilidad, con tiempos de oxidación en recipiente vacío a presión (RPVOT de entre 29 y 52 minutos incluso con la adición de un 1% de una mezcla antioxidante a las

  7. MADNESS applied to density functional theory in chemistry and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fann, G I; Harrison, R J; Beylkin, G; Jia, J; Hartman-Baker, R; Shelton, W A; Sugiki, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe some recent mathematical results in constructing computational methods that lead to the development of fast and accurate multiresolution numerical methods for solving quantum chemistry and nuclear physics problems based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Using low separation rank representations of functions and operators in conjunction with representations in multiwavelet bases, we developed a multiscale solution method for integral and differential equations and integral transforms. The Poisson equation, the Schrodinger equation, and the projector on the divergence free functions provide important examples with a wide range of applications in computational chemistry, nuclear physics, computational electromagnetic and fluid dynamics. We have implemented this approach along with adaptive representations of operators and functions in the multiwavelet basis and low separation rank (LSR) approximation of operators and functions. These methods have been realized and implemented in a software package called Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Evaluation for Scientific Simulation (MADNESS)

  8. Ultrafast phenomena in molecular sciences femtosecond physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bañares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in Femtosecond Chemistry and Physics for the study of ultrafast photo-induced molecular processes. Molecular systems, from the simplest H2 molecule to polymers or biological macromolecules, constitute central objects of interest for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and despite the broad range of phenomena that they exhibit, they share some common behaviors. One of the most significant of those is that many of the processes involving chemical transformation (nuclear reorganization, bond breaking, bond making) take place in an extraordinarily short time, in or around the femtosecond temporal scale (1 fs = 10-15 s). A number of experimental approaches - very particularly the developments in the generation and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses - coupled with theoretical progress, provide the ultrafast scientist with powerful tools to understand matter and its interaction with light, at this spatial and temporal scale. This book is an attempt to reunite some of the ...

  9. The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface

  10. Preparing Physics and Chemistry Teachers at the University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novodvorsky, Ingrid

    2006-04-01

    Beginning in 2000, science majors at the University of Arizona who wish to teach in middle or high schools have enrolled in the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program (CoS TPP). Students in the program take General Education courses, content courses, and science pedagogy courses that make them eligible for teacher certification. Students can remain in their science degree programs, and take the required science pedagogy courses, or they can enroll in a BS in Science Education degree that includes the pedagogy courses, with concentrations available in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics. Science educators from six different departments, two permanent Adjunct Instructors, and two Teachers in Residence teach the program's courses. (One of the Teachers in Residence is supported by the PhysTEC project.) Most of the pedagogy courses include field experiences in area science classrooms; the program works with some 115 mentor teachers from throughout the Tucson area, who host preservice teachers in their field experiences. In the first six years of the program, 14 program graduates have been chemistry and physics teachers. This compares to a total of six chemistry and physics teachers produced by the College of Education program in the four years preceding the creation of the CoS TPP. In this presentation, I will describe the unique features of the courses that prospective chemistry and physics teachers take and the field experiences in which they participate. In addition, I will describe how PhysTEC-supplied resources have been used to improve the program, and the ways in which we are assessing the program's success.

  11. Expression of results in quantum chemistry physical chemistry division commission on physicochemical symbols, terminology and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte

  12. NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry |

    Science.gov (United States)

    News | NREL 7 » NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry News Release: NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry January 10, 2007 The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. The Dec. 21 issue was titled The Arthur J. Nozik Festschrift (Volume 110

  13. Integrating physical and mental health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Jessica Anne

    2010-01-01

    While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...

  14. Integration of Millennium Development Goals into Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integration of Millennium Development Goals into Physical Education programme: ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... the UN in terms of sustainable human development and how graduates of physical education and ...

  15. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  16. Gamification and Physics and Chemistry of Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe QUINTANAL PEREZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposal was made during the 2014–2015 school year with 4th year’s students of Secondary Education who have chosen as optional the subject of Physics and Chemistry. This project is based on the use of various gamebased strategies applied to the subject of Physics and Chemistry. We have chosen this theme by the pedagogical benefits that games have on the attraction of students and the development of their motivation. Students have participated individually, in pairs and in teams. Games used have been “chemical formulas on the run”, “chemical formulas championship”, “wheel of Physics and Chemistry”, “the sunken treasure” and “challenge problems”. The students have also developed a game based on the theme of waves and several teams did using Scratch. Finally there has been an increase in the academic performance of the subject. This experience was a success according to the results of the evaluation by the students. They have highlighted chemical formulas championship, the sunken treasure and the development of the game based on waves. As conclusions are that gamifying is not limited to only use video games, it can be gamify with little technology, personal, social and intellectual skills are developed and the method employed can be extrapolated to other subjects and courses.

  17. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  18. Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion Explosion, Flame, Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Most of the material covered in this book deals with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics of key processes and fundamental mechanisms for various combustion and combustion related phenomena in gaseous combustible mixture. It provides the reader with basic knowledge of burning processes and mechanisms of reaction wave propagation. The combustion of a gas mixture (flame, explosion, detonation) is necessarily accompanied by motion of the gas. The process of combustion is therefore not only a chemical phenomenon but also one of gas dynamics. The material selection focuses on the gas phase and

  19. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  20. Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry Advanced – WPPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “2nd Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry advanced (WPPCA)”, that was held from, April 4-8, 2016, at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia. The proceedings consist of 17 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the event. The abstracts of all participants contributions were published in the Abstract Book with ISSN 2500-8420. The scientific program of the 2nd WPPCA consisted of 12 Magisterial Conferences, 28 Poster Presentations and 2 Courses with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Spain, Unite States of America, Mexico and Chile. Moreover, the 2nd WPPCA allowed to establish a shared culture of the research and innovation that enriches the area of the processing physical-chemistry of the materials and the industrial applications. All papers in these Proceedings refer to one from the following topics: Semiconductors, Superconductivity, Nanostructure Materials and Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics. The editor hopes that those interested in the area of the science of materials can to enjoy this reading, that reflects a wide variety of current issues. On behalf of the organizing committee of the 2nd WPPCA, we are extremely thankful to all authors for providing their valuable contributions for these Proceedings as well as the reviewers for their constructive recommendations and criticism aiding to improve the presented articles. Besides, especially we appreciate the great support provided by the Sponsors and Partners. (paper)

  1. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).

  2. How Integration Can Benefit Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Parish, Nichelle; Parish, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    One method for physical educators to increase their contact hours with their students is curricular integration, which consists of combining two or more subject areas with the goal of fostering enhanced learning in each subject area. This article provides an example of a possible integrated lesson plan involving physical education and art.

  3. Connecting Symbolic Integrals to Physical Meaning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel R.

    This dissertation presents a series of studies pertaining to introductory physics students' abilities to derive physical meaning from symbolic integrals (e.g., the integral of vdt) and their components, namely differentials and differential products (e.g., dt and vdt, respectively). Our studies focus on physical meaning in the form of interpretations (e.g., "the total displacement of an object") and units (e.g., "meters"). Our first pair of studies independently attempted to identify introductory-level mechanics students' common conceptual difficulties with and unproductive interpretations of physics integrals and their components, as well as to estimate the frequencies of these difficulties. Our results confirmed some previously-observed incorrect interpretations, such as the notion that differentials are physically meaningless; however, we also uncovered two new conceptualizations of differentials, the "rate" (differentials are "rates" or "derivatives") and "instantaneous value" (differentials are values of physical variables "at an instant") interpretations, which were exhibited by more than half of our participants at least once. Our next study used linear regression analysis to estimate the strengths of the inter-connections between the abilities to derive physical meaning from each of differentials, differential products, and integrals in both first- and second-semester, calculus-based introductory physics. As part of this study, we also developed a highly reliable, multiple choice assessment designed to measure students' abilities to connect symbolic differentials, differential products, and integrals with their physical interpretations and units. Findings from this study were consistent with statistical mediation via differential products. In particular, students' abilities to extract physical meaning from differentials were seen to be strongly related to their abilities to derive physical meaning from differential products, and similarly differential

  4. Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pezzotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip joint bearing materials? An answer to this crucial question is searched for in this paper, which identifies ceramic bearings as the most innovative biomaterials in hip arthroplasty. It is shown that, if in vivo exposures comparable to human lifetimes are actually searched for, then fundamental issues should lie in the physical chemistry aspects of biomaterial surfaces. Besides searching for improvements in the phenomenological response of biomaterials to engineering protocols, hip joint components should also be designed to satisfy precise stability requirements in the stoichiometric behavior of their surfaces when exposed to extreme chemical and micromechanical conditions. New spectroscopic protocols have enabled us to visualize surface stoichiometry at the molecular scale, which is shown to be the key for assessing bioceramics with elongated lifetimes with respect to the primitive alumina biomaterials used in the past.

  5. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  6. Introduction: the changing face of accelerator target physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The explosive growth of the small accelerator industry, an offshoot of the expansion of both clinical and research PET imaging, is driving a changing perspective in the field of accelerator targetry. To meet the new demands placed on targetry by the increasingly active and demanding PET institutions it has become necessary to design targets capable of producing large amounts of the four common positron-emitting radionuclides ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C, 18 F) with unfailing reliability and simplicity. The economic clinical and research survival of PET absolutely relies upon these capabilities. In response to this perceived need, the lion's share of the effort in the field of target physics and chemistry is being directed toward the profuse production of these four common radioisotopes. (author)

  7. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  8. Physical Chemistry of Bile: Detailed Pathogenesis of Cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Malak; Dubinsky, Theodore J

    2017-09-01

    Despite the overwhelming prevalence of cholelithiasis, many health care professionals are not familiar with the basic pathophysiology of gallstone formation. This article provides an overview of the biochemical pathways related to bile, with a focus on the physical chemistry of bile. We describe the important factors in bile synthesis and secretion that affect the composition of bile and consequently its liquid state. Within this biochemical background lies the foundation for understanding the clinical and sonographic manifestation of cholelithiasis, including the pathophysiology of cholesterol crystallization, gallbladder sludge, and gallstones. There is a brief discussion of the clinical manifestations of inflammatory and obstructive cholestasis and the impact on bile metabolism and subsequently on liver function tests. Despite being the key modality in diagnosing cholelithiasis, ultrasound has a limited role in the characterization of stone composition.

  9. Integrated modeling and characterization of local crack chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchik, J.A.; Burke, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The MULTEQ computer program has become an industry wide tool which can be used to calculate the chemical composition in a flow occluded region as the solution within concentrates due to a local boiling process. These results can be used to assess corrosion concerns in plant equipment such as steam generators. Corrosion modeling attempts to quantify corrosion assessments by accounting for the mass transport processes involved in the corrosion mechanism. MULTEQ has played an ever increasing role in defining the local chemistry for such corrosion models. This paper will outline how the integration of corrosion modeling with the analysis of corrosion films and deposits can lead to the development of a useful modeling tool, wherein MULTEQ is interactively linked to a diffusion and migration transport process. This would provide a capability to make detailed inferences of the local crack chemistry based on the analyses of the local corrosion films and deposits inside a crack and thus provide guidance for chemical fixes to avoid cracking. This methodology is demonstrated for a simple example of a cracked tube. This application points out the utility of coupling MULTEQ with a mass transport process and the feasibility of an option in a future version of MULTEQ that would permit relating film and deposit analyses to the local chemical environment. This would increase the amount of information obtained from removed tube analyses and laboratory testing that can contribute to an overall program for mitigating tubing and crevice corrosion

  10. Integrated modeling and characterization of local crack chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchik, J.A.; Burke, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The MULTEQ computer program has become an industry wide tool which can be used to calculate the chemical composition in a flow occluded region as the solution within concentrates due to a local boiling process. These results can be used to assess corrosion concerns in plant equipment such as steam generators. Corrosion modeling attempts to quantify corrosion assessments by accounting for the mass transport processes involved in the corrosion mechanism. MULTEQ has played an ever increasing role in defining the local chemistry for such corrosion models. This paper will outline how the integration of corrosion modeling with the analysis of corrosion films and deposits can lead to the development of a useful modeling tool, wherein MULTEQ is interactively linked to a diffusion and migration transport process. This would provide a capability to make detailed inferences of the local crack chemistry based on the analyses of the local corrosion films and deposits inside a crack and thus provide guidance for chemical fixes to avoid cracking. This methodology is demonstrated for a simple example of a cracked tube. This application points out the utility of coupling MULTEQ with a mass transport process and the feasibility of an option in a future version of MULTEQ that would permit relating film and deposit analyses to the local chemical environment. This would increase the amount of information obtained from removed tube analyses and laboratory testing that can contribute to an overall program for mitigating tubing and crevice corrosion

  11. The Logical and Psychological Structure of Physical Chemistry and Its Relevance to the Organization/Sequencing of the Major Areas Covered in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Jensen's scheme for the logical structure of chemistry is taken as reference to study the logical structure of physical chemistry. The scheme distinguishes three dimensions (composition and structure, energy, and time), with each dimension treated at one of the three levels (molar, molecular, and electrical). Such a structure places the outer…

  12. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  13. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  14. Intracellular Chemistry: Integrating Molecular Inorganic Catalysts with Living Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh H; Bose, Sohini; Do, Loi H

    2018-03-23

    This concept article focuses on the rapid growth of intracellular chemistry dedicated to the integration of small-molecule metal catalysts with living cells and organisms. Although biological systems contain a plethora of biomolecules that can deactivate inorganic species, researchers have shown that small-molecule metal catalysts could be engineered to operate in heterogeneous aqueous environments. Synthetic intracellular reactions have recently been reported for olefin hydrogenation, hydrolysis/oxidative cleavage, azide-alkyne cycloaddition, allylcarbamate cleavage, C-C bond cross coupling, and transfer hydrogenation. Other promising targets for new biocompatible reaction discovery will also be discussed, with a special emphasis on how such innovations could lead to the development of novel technologies and chemical tools. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Integration of gastronomy and physics for innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Linden Erik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integration of physics with gastronomy can yield innovations in an efficient manner. An important element of this integration is the structure of food. The creation of food recipes often deals with designing new structures and a clear understanding of how food structure influences food properties is necessary. The physics that is required for this understanding can be demonstrated by considering the case of gelatin. A Master of Science (MSc specialization is described, which addresses the integration of physics with gastronomy in an educational setting at Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

  16. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  18. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics

  19. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics.

  20. Ontology modeling in physical asset integrity management

    CERN Document Server

    Yacout, Soumaya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge applications of, and up-to-date research on, ontology engineering techniques in the physical asset integrity domain. Though a survey of state-of-the-art theory and methods on ontology engineering, the authors emphasize essential topics including data integration modeling, knowledge representation, and semantic interpretation. The book also reflects novel topics dealing with the advanced problems of physical asset integrity applications such as heterogeneity, data inconsistency, and interoperability existing in design and utilization. With a distinctive focus on applications relevant in heavy industry, Ontology Modeling in Physical Asset Integrity Management is ideal for practicing industrial and mechanical engineers working in the field, as well as researchers and graduate concerned with ontology engineering in physical systems life cycles. This book also: Introduces practicing engineers, research scientists, and graduate students to ontology engineering as a modeling techniqu...

  1. Integrated modelling of physical, chemical and biological weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurganskiy, Alexander

    . This is an online-coupled meteorology-chemistry model where chemical constituents and different types of aerosols are an integrated part of the dynamical model, i.e., these constituents are transported in the same way as, e.g., water vapor and cloud water, and, at the same time, the aerosols can interactively...... impact radiation and cloud micro-physics. The birch pollen modelling study has been performed for domains covering Europe and western Russia. Verification of the simulated birch pollen concentrations against in-situ observations showed good agreement obtaining the best score for two Danish sites...

  2. Integration of gastronomy and physics for innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Integration of physics with gastronomy can yield innovations in an efficient manner. An important element of this integration is the structure of food. The creation of food recipes often deals with designing new structures and a clear understanding of how food structure influences food properties is

  3. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  4. Physical chemistry of Nanogap-Enhanced Raman Scattering (NERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yung Doug; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonically coupled electromagnetic field localization has generated a variety of new concepts and applications, and this has been one of the hottest topics in nanoscience, materials science, chemistry, physics and engineering and increasingly more important over the last decade. In particular, plasmonically coupled nanostructures with ultra-small gap ( 1-nm or smaller) gap have been of special interest due to their ultra-strong optical properties that can be useful for a variety of signal enhancements such surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and nanoantenna. These promising nanostructures with extraordinarily strong optical signal, however, have rendered a limited success in widespread use and commercialization largely due to the lack of designing principles, high-yield synthetic strategies with nm-level structural controllability and reproducibility and lack of systematic single-molecule and single-particle level studies. All these are extremely important challenges because even small changes ( 1 nm) of the coupled nanogap structures can significant affect plasmon mode and signal intensity and therefore structural and signal reproducibility and controllability can be in question. The plasmonic nanogap-enhanced Raman scattering (NERS) is defined as the plasmonic nanogap-based Raman signal enhancement within plasmonic nanogap particles with 1 nm gap and a Raman dye positioned inside the gap.

  5. Physics Research Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.; Cormell, L.

    1993-12-01

    Past efforts to implement a Software Engineering approach to High Energy Physics computing have been met with significant resistance and have been, in many cases, only marginally successful. At least a portion of the problem has been the Lick of an integrated development environment, tailored to High Energy Physics and incorporating a suite of Computer Aided Software Engineering tools. The Superconducting Super Collider Physics Research Division Computing Department is implementing pilot projects to develop just such an environment

  6. Islam - Science Integration Approach in Developing Chemistry Individualized Education Program (IEP for Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Suprihatiningrum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research which tries to explore, explain and describe Islam - science integration approach to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP for students with disabilities in chemistry lesson. As a qualitative case study, this paper is aimed at investigating how Islam - science integration approach can be underpinned for developing the IEP for Chemistry. Participants were recruited purposively and data were collected by interviews; documents’ analysis; and experts’ assessment (i.e. material experts, inclusive education experts, media experts, chemistry teachers and support teachers, then analyzed using content-analysis. The result shows Islam - science integration approach can be a foundation to develop the chemistry IEP by seeking support for the verses of the Qur'an and corresponding hadiths. Even although almost all the subject matter in chemistry can be integrated with Islamic values, this study only developed two contents, namely Periodic System of Elements and Reaction Rate.

  7. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  8. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. An introduction to natural science. 8. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (orig./HP) With 104 figs., 51 tabs [de

  9. Fusing a Reversed and Informal Learning Scheme and Space: Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2018-01-01

    Physical chemistry students often have negative perceptions and low expectations for success in physical chemistry, attitudes that likely affect their performance in the course. Despite the results of several studies indicating increased positive perception of physical chemistry when active learning strategies are used, a recent survey of faculty…

  10. Chemistry and physics of fogwater collection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Enderle, K.H. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Increasing interest in the problems of air pollution and source receptor relationships has led to a significant expansion of knowledge in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In recent years the multiphase atmospheric chemistry was given great scholarly attention, and slogans like acid precipitation, dirty cloud or killer fog indicated these phenomena. The report describes results of collection and chemical analysis of fog water with emphasis or fog microphysics, of the heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry project in the Po-valley, of the development of the Great Dun Fell project, of the mountain cloud chemistry project in eastern U.S., of the design of fog water collectors and of the numerical study of the radiation fog event on October 10/11, 1982 in Albany, N.Y.

  11. Pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic integration as a guide to medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Fjellström, Ola; Ulander, Johan; Rowley, Michael; Van Der Graaf, Piet H

    2011-01-01

    A primary objective of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) reasoning is to identify key in vivo drug and system proper¬ties, enabling prediction of the magnitude and time course of drug responses under physiological and pathological conditions in animals and man. Since the pharmacological response generated by a drug is highly dependent on the actual system used to study its action, knowledge about its potency and efficacy at a given concentration or dose is insufficient to obtain a proper understanding of its pharmacodynamic profile. Hence, the output of PKPD activities extends beyond the provision of quantitative measures (models) of results, to the design of future protocols. Furthermore, because PKPD integrates DMPK (e.g. clearance) and pharmacology (e.g. potency),it provides an anchor point for compound selection, and, as such, should be viewed as an important weapon in medicinal chemistry. Here we outline key PK concepts relevant to PD, and then consider real-life experiments to illustrate the importance to the medicinal chemist of data obtained by PKPD. Useful assumptions and potential pitfalls are described, providing a holistic view of the plethora of determinants behind in vitro-in vivo correlations. By condensing complexity to simplicity, there are not only consequences for experimental design, and for the ranking and design of compounds, but it is also possible to make important predictions such as the impact of changes in drug potency and kinetics. In short, by using quantitative methods to tease apart pharmacodynamic complexities such as temporal differences and changes in plasma protein binding, it is possible to target the changes necessary for improving a compound's profile.

  12. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  13. Integrating Condensed Matter Physics into a Liberal Arts Physics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The emergence of nanoscale science into the popular consciousness presents an opportunity to attract and retain future condensed matter scientists. We inject nanoscale physics into recruiting activities and into the introductory and the core portions of the curriculum. Laboratory involvement and research opportunity play important roles in maintaining student engagement. We use inexpensive scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes to introduce students to nanoscale structure early in their college careers. Although the physics of tip-surface interactions is sophisticated, the resulting images can be interpreted intuitively. We use the STM in introductory modern physics to explore quantum tunneling and the properties of electrons at surfaces. An interdisciplinary course in nanoscience and nanotechnology course team-taught with chemists looks at nanoscale phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. Core quantum and statistical physics courses look at effects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics in degenerate systems. An upper level solid-state physics course takes up traditional condensed matter topics from a structural perspective by beginning with a study of both elastic and inelastic scattering of x-rays from crystalline solids and liquid crystals. Students encounter reciprocal space concepts through the analysis of laboratory scattering data and by the development of the scattering theory. The course then examines the importance of scattering processes in band structure and in electrical and thermal conduction. A segment of the course is devoted to surface physics and nanostructures where we explore the effects of restricting particles to two-dimensional surfaces, one-dimensional wires, and zero-dimensional quantum dots.

  14. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  15. An integrated system for physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ranajit

    2001-01-01

    An Integrated Physical Protection System (IPPS) was developed for the consolidation of all sub systems, sensors and elements related to physical protection for an efficient and effective security environment of a facility. An effective physical protection system discharges the functions of detection, delay, communication, response, access control etc. IPPS performs, controls and monitors all the above functionality and helps in taking quick action on occurrence of unusual incidents by instantly reporting the incident in easily understandable audio, video, graphical and textual format and also by initiating automatic interactions among sub-systems

  16. Should we learn culture in chemistry classroom? Integration ethnochemistry in culturally responsive teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Yuli; Ridwan, Achmad; Nurbaity

    2017-08-01

    The papers report the first year of two-year longitudinal study of ethnochemistry integration in culturally responsive teaching in chemistry classrooms. The teaching approach is focusing on exploring the culture and indigenous knowledge in Indonesia from chemistry perspectives. Ethnochemistry looks at the culture from chemistry perspectives integrated into culturally responsive teaching has developed students' cultural identity and students' engagement in chemistry learning. There are limited research and data in exploring Indonesia culture, which has around 300 ethics, from chemistry perspectives. Students come to the chemistry classrooms from a different background; however, their chemistry learning disconnected with their background which leads to students' disengagement in chemistry learning. Therefore this approach focused on students' engagement within their differences. This research was conducted with year 10 and 11 from four classrooms in two secondary schools through qualitative methodology with observation, interviews, and reflective journals as data collection. The results showed that the integration of ethnochemistry in culturally responsive teaching approach can be implemented by involving 5 principles which are content integration, facilitating knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, social justice, and academic development. The culturally responsive teaching has engaged students in their chemistry learning and developed their cultural identity and soft skills. Students found that the learning experiences has helped to develop their chemistry knowledge and understand the culture from chemistry perspectives. The students developed the ability to work together, responsibility, curiosity, social awareness, creativity, empathy communication, and self-confidence which categorized into collaboration skills, student engagement, social and cultural awareness, and high order thinking skills. The ethnochemistry has helped them to develop the critical self

  17. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base

  18. The EPA Comptox Chemistry Dashboard: A Web-Based Data Integration Hub for Toxicology Data (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrates advances in biology, chemistry, and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and data drive...

  19. Quantum Chemistry; A concise introduction for students of physics, chemistry, biochemistry and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2017-09-01

    This book provides non-specialists with a basic understanding of the underlying concepts of quantum chemistry. It is both a text for second- or third-year undergraduates and a reference for researchers who need a quick introduction or refresher. All chemists and many biochemists, materials scientists, engineers, and physicists routinely use spectroscopic measurements and electronic structure computations in their work. The emphasis of Quantum Chemistry on explaining ideas rather than enumerating facts or presenting procedural details makes this an excellent foundation text/reference.

  20. Towards an integrated management of health physics and medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommaert, Chantal; Rogge, Frank; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    AVN is a licensed body that performs health physics control in different types of installations, from large nuclear facilities to small dentist cabinets. AVN can also provide medical physics services for the quality control of, for instance, medical devices used in a radiology or nuclear medicine department. Radiation protection for personnel and environment (health physics) and radiation protection for the patient (medical physics) are usually treated separately, using different referential documents, such as the European Directives 96/29/Euratom for health physics and 97/43/Euratom for medical physics. This difference is also clearly reflected in the Belgium legislation (two types of accreditation/licence for inspectors, different chapters in the law,..) From a practical point of view it is sometimes rather difficult to split the task 'on site' during an inspection. An RX system not complying with radiation protection criteria can definitively affect the patient as well as the workers. On the other hand, the hospitals, cannot easily differentiate these two tasks because they are not fully aware of the legislation and they are mixing both. Taking into account the health physics guidelines as well as medical physics guidelines, we have decided to move to an integrated approach of these two concepts. (orig.)

  1. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  2. Integration of Computational Chemistry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Hill, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in software and hardware have promoted the use of computational chemistry in all branches of chemical research to probe important chemical concepts and to support experimentation. Consequently, it has become imperative that students in the modern undergraduate curriculum become adept at performing simple calculations using computational…

  3. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  4. Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (by Raymond Chang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    This book does offer an alternative approach to physical chemistry that is particularly well suited for those who want to pursue a course of study more focused on the biological sciences. It could also be an excellent choice for schools that mainly serve preprofessional programs or for schools that have split physical chemistry tracks to independently serve the B.S. and B.A. degrees. Since the book focuses on single-variable mathematics, schools that require only one year of calculus for their chemistry degree could also think about adopting it. However, in general, the use of the text as a drop-in replacement for physical chemistry for the B.S. degree is questionable owing to its lack of focus on quantum mechanics and its implications for spectroscopy.

  5. Integrating medicinal chemistry, organic/combinatorial chemistry, and computational chemistry for the discovery of selective estrogen receptor modulators with Forecaster, a novel platform for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Eric; Englebienne, Pablo; Arrowsmith, Andrew G; Mendoza-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Corbeil, Christopher R; Weill, Nathanael; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Moitessier, Nicolas

    2012-01-23

    As part of a large medicinal chemistry program, we wish to develop novel selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) as potential breast cancer treatments using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. However, one of the remaining difficulties nowadays is to fully integrate computational (i.e., virtual, theoretical) and medicinal (i.e., experimental, intuitive) chemistry to take advantage of the full potential of both. For this purpose, we have developed a Web-based platform, Forecaster, and a number of programs (e.g., Prepare, React, Select) with the aim of combining computational chemistry and medicinal chemistry expertise to facilitate drug discovery and development and more specifically to integrate synthesis into computer-aided drug design. In our quest for potent SERMs, this platform was used to build virtual combinatorial libraries, filter and extract a highly diverse library from the NCI database, and dock them to the estrogen receptor (ER), with all of these steps being fully automated by computational chemists for use by medicinal chemists. As a result, virtual screening of a diverse library seeded with active compounds followed by a search for analogs yielded an enrichment factor of 129, with 98% of the seeded active compounds recovered, while the screening of a designed virtual combinatorial library including known actives yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) of 0.78. The lead optimization proved less successful, further demonstrating the challenge to simulate structure activity relationship studies.

  6. Integrating Symmetry in Stereochemical Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taagepera, Mare; Arasasingham, Ramesh D.; King, Susan; Potter, Frank; Martorell, Ingrid; Ford, David; Wu, Jason; Kearney, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a comparative study using "knowledge space theory" (KAT) to assess the impact of a hands-on laboratory exercise that used molecular model kits to emphasize the connections between a plane of symmetry, Charity, and isomerism in an introductory organic chemistry course. The experimental design compared three groups of…

  7. Physical chemistry of the interface between oxide and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior and properties of small oxide particles in aqueous suspension are dominated by the physico-chemistry of their surface. It is electrostatically charged and strongly solvated. The origin of the surface charge is discussed through the MUSIC model [Hiemstra 1996], allowing to estimate the acid-base behavior of surface oxygen atoms. The stability of aqueous dispersions of particles is analysed following the DLVO model, with a special attention on the hydration layers allowing the peptization of flocs. Different adsorption mechanisms of metal cations are presented in terms of coordination chemistry (outer- and inner-sphere complexes) emphasizing the coordinating ability of the surface towards metal complexes in solution. The anion adsorption is also studied in relation with some interesting consequences on spinel iron oxide nano-particles. (author)

  8. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Science)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) is engaged by the DOE to conduct studies of the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (TRU; primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium; Np, Pu, Am) and technetium T c in alkaline media. This work is being supported by the DOE because the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRU and T c , are alkaline, and the chemistries of TRU and T c are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry and on coprecipitation. Work continuing in FY 1996 will focus more on the applied chemistry of the TRU and T c in alkaline media and continue effort on the coprecipitation task

  9. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel

  10. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  11. A Python Program for Solving Schro¨dinger's Equation in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, Matthew N.; Upadhyay, Shiv; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2017-01-01

    In undergraduate physical chemistry, Schrödinger's equation is solved for a variety of cases. In doing so, the energies and wave functions of the system can be interpreted to provide connections with the physical system being studied. Solving this equation by hand for a one-dimensional system is a manageable task, but it becomes time-consuming…

  12. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  13. Radiation Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Chitosan and Other Polysaccharides. Fundamental Studies and Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Czechowska-Biskup, Renata; Rokita, Bożena; Olejnik, Alicja K.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of activities performed at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry (IARC) within the framework of the CRP project. It consists of two parts. Part I is a brief account of the activities related to design, tests, sample procurement and characterization and formulation of “Protocol for determination of intrinsic viscosity of chitosan” designed to be the basis of the interlaboratory study on viscometric determination of chitosan molecular weight as well as on radiation degradation of chitosan in controlled conditions. Part II contains the text of the Protocol, and is given in the Annex. (author)

  14. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences: FY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences is conducting a program of fundamental and applied research into the chemistry of the actinides and technetium in alkaline media such as are present in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. This work is being coordinated and the results disseminated through a technical liaison maintained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technical liaison is performing laboratory studies on plutonium chemistry in alkaline media. The activities at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and through the liaison are pursued to improve understanding of the chemical behavior of key long-lived radioactive elements under current operating and proposed tank waste processing conditions. Both activities are supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program under the Office of Science and Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy

  15. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-01-01

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R and D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  16. Radiation chemistry - extravaganza or an integral component of radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, M.G.; DeGraff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The role of radiation chemistry in radiation processing of foods is discussed in detail. A few examples demonstrating the relevance of the radiation chemistry of model systems to food-irradiation technology are given. The importance of irradiation parameters such as dose, dose rate, temperature, atmosphere, physical state and additives in achieving acceptable and high quality of irradiated foods are emphasized. A few examples of radiation-induced free radical reactions in model compounds relevant to foods are also discussed. (author)

  17. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  18. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  19. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  20. Scandium: its occurrence, chemistry, physics, metallurgy, biology, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    This book describes the following aspects of scandium: discovery and history, occurrence in nature, geochemistry and mineralogy, chemical, physical and technological properties, fabrication and metallurgy, its biological significance and toxicology, and its uses. (Extensive references for each chapter)

  1. Linking Physical Activity with Academics: Strategies for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for physical activity-integrated lessons for classroom teachers, provide strategies for effective integration, and encourage physical education teachers to be an additional

  2. Saclay Center of Nuclear Studies, Direction of Materials and Nuclear Fuels, Department of Physico-Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry. 1968 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Clerc, M.; Le Calve, J.; Bourene, M.; Lesigne, B.; Gillois, M.; Devillers, C.; Arvis, M.; Gilles, L.; Moreau, M.; Sutton, J.; Faraggi, M.; Desalos, J.; Tran Dinh Son; Barat, F.; Hickel, B.; Chachaty, C.; Forchioni, A.; Shiotani, M.; Larher, Y.; Maurice, P.; Le Bail, H.; Nenner, T.

    1969-03-01

    This document is the 1968 annual report of research activities at the Physico-Chemistry Department (Physical Chemistry Division), part of the Directorate of Materials and Nuclear Fuels of the CEA Saclay center of nuclear studies. The report is divided into two main parts: radiolysis and photolysis studies (gaseous phase, condensed phase), and general physico-chemical studies (sorption, molecular jets)

  3. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASHENFELDER DJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  4. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2013-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly), which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student's ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. Detailed Illustrations and links to reference material online help further comprehension. The

  5. Radiation physics and chemistry of biomolecules. Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    A chapter of the book ;Radiation chemistry. From basics to application in materials and life sciences (EDP Science, Paris, France, 2008); was devoted to the state-of-the-art in the research on ionizing radiation (IR) effects on biomolecules. An update, eight years later, seemed pertinent enough to the editors of this journal who accepted to dedicate a Special Issue to the latest developments in this area of high interest for cancer radiotherapy, nuclear workers' radioprotection and food radiosterilisation. We sincerely thank them and the authors who accepted to present reviews of their most recent work. Obviously, only a small part of the research in the fascinating domain of molecular radiobiology can be covered here. Some articles are presenting the contribution of biophysical models and computational techniques to the understanding of IR effects on molecules such as DNA and proteins, or on larger systems such as chromatin, chromosomes and even cells (Nikjoo et al., Štěpán & Davídková, Ballarini & Carante, and Nikitaki et al.). In these papers, as well as in many others, several qualities of IR are compared in order to explain the observed differences of effects. The damages induced by the low energy electrons and new techniques involved in their study are discussed in great detail (Sanche and Fromm & Boulanouar). The chemistry behind the IR induced damages (single or clustered), studied in many laboratories around the world is presented in several papers (Cadet & Wagner, Sevilla et al., Chatgilialoglu et al., and Greenberg). One of them addresses a very useful comparison between the effects of IR and UV exposure on DNA (Ravanat & Douki). The majority of the papers in this Special Issue is dealing with DNA and this reflects the real situation: damages of DNA are more studied than those of other biomolecules. This is due to the role of DNA as main support of hereditary information. Nevertheless, more and more studies are outlining the influence of epigenetic

  6. Combining research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A. The femtosecond molecular dynamics of small gas-phase anion clusters. Part B. Surveying student beliefs about chemistry and the development of physical chemistry learning tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Jack

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation combines work in the areas of experimental physical chemistry and chemical education. In the area of physical chemistry, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to interrogate the time-dependence for energy redistribution, solvent reorientation, and dissociation dynamics in small gas-phase anion clusters. The chemical education research addressed in this manuscript include the development and validation of a survey to measure students' beliefs about chemistry and the learning of chemistry and the development and testing of learning tutorials for use in undergraduate physical chemistry courses in thermodynamics and kinetics. In the first part of this dissertation, the Cu(CD3OD) dynamics are investigated using a combination of femtosecond pump-probe experiments and ab initio calculations. Dissociation of this complex into Cu and CD3OD occurs on two distinct time scales: 3 and 30 ps, which arise, respectively, from the coupling of intermolecular solvent rotations and excited methyl rotor rotation into the Cu-O dissociation component upon electron photodetachment of the precursor anion. In the second part of this dissertation, the time-resolved recombination of photodissociated IBr-(CO2)n (n = 5 - 10) cluster anions is investigated. Upon excitation to the A' 2pi 1/2 state of the chromophore, the bare anion results in I- and Br products, upon solvation with CO2, the IBr- chromophore regains near-IR absorption after recombination and vibrational relaxation on the ground electronic state. The recombination times vary with the number of solvent molecules from 12 ps for n = 5 to 900 ps for n = 10. Extensive electronic structure and non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations provide a framework to understand this behavior. In the third part of this dissertation, the modification and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in chemistry is presented in detail. The CLASS survey is designed to measure student

  7. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  8. Integration of classical and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, L.

    1989-01-01

    The perennial aspect of the Newtonian foundation of mathematical physics is that the concept of ''motion,'' that is, ''kinematics,'' is to serve as the interface between mathematics and physics. Kinematics subdivides into the theory of orbital translation and that of undulation and spinning. Newtonian mechanics is based on giving to translational kinematics a priority over the other modes, since planetary revolution can be represented as translation modified by gravitation. The so-called breakdown of classical physics stems from giving the translational priority a canonical status and extending it to the constituents of matter. We claim that in this case the priority is to be reversed. The main content of this paper is to establish the algebraic model for an indivisible, undulating entity that we call a ''wave simplex.'' It is used as the point of departure for a non-Newtonian quantum dynamics in which physical and algebraic concepts are in close correspondence. The postulates of the classical phenomenological theories and those of the canonical theories based on translational priority are established as theorems under the proper limiting conditions, and forces are constructed rather than postulated. While the formal structure of two-level quantum mechanics is established as well, exception is taken to treating spin as a property of a point particle. It is considered self-evident that a spinning object is orientable, a property accounted for in terms of a unitary triplet. This is the point of departure for an intrinsic particle dynamics. A main result is the integration of classical and quantum physics, thus closing the gap created by the heuristic method of canonical quantization

  9. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  10. Workshop on the interface between radiation chemistry and radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Twenty-four papers are grouped under the session headings: measurements of physical and chemical properties, track structure modeling, spurs and track structure, and the 10 - 16 to 10 - 12 second region. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the papers; four of the remaining papers had previously been abstracted

  11. Comptox Chemistry Dashboard: Web-Based Data Integration Hub for Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Data (ACS Fall meeting 4 of 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Computational Toxicology Program integrate advances in biology, chemistry, exposure and computer science to help prioritize chemicals for further research based on potential human health risks. This work involves computational and da...

  12. A Study of Faculty Approaches to Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael Ryan

    Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.

  13. Expanding frontiers in materials chemistry and physics with multiple anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Attfield, J Paul; Hiroi, Zenji; Rondinelli, James M; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2018-02-22

    During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials. We devote attention to the crucial roles that multiple anions play during synthesis, characterization, and in the physical properties of these materials. We discuss the opportunities enabled by recent advances in synthetic approaches for design of both local and overall structure, state-of-the-art characterization techniques to distinguish unique structural and chemical states, and chemical/physical properties emerging from the synergy of multiple anions for catalysis, energy conversion, and electronic materials.

  14. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  16. Opportunities for Teaching Sustainable Development through the Chemistry Component of CAPS Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakeni, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The realisation that education may, in part, have contributed to non-sustainable environmental practices warrants rethinking about what learners experience at school. One approach could involve the promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD). This study analysed the opportunities to integrate ESD presented by the chemistry component…

  17. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Weitz, Joshua S; Nelson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics

  18. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Nelson, Daniel C; Weitz, Joshua S

    2010-10-04

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  19. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  20. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  1. For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-01-01

    An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

  2. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  3. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  4. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  5. Subject Knowledge Enhancement Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: The Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Jones, Robert Bryn; Mallaburn, Andrea; Clays, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses are one option open in England to graduates with a science background whose first degree content is judged to be insufficient to train to become chemistry or physics teachers. Previous articles in "School Science Review" have discussed the structure of one type of extended SKE course offered at…

  6. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us. (paper)

  7. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-08-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us.

  8. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  9. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  10. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  11. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  12. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  13. A Game-Based Approach to an Entire Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenfeld, Thorsten; Zenker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We designed, implemented, and evaluated a game-based learning approach to increase student motivation and achievement for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. By focusing only on the most important game aspects, the implementation was realized with a production ratio of 1:8 (study load in hours divided by production effort in hours).…

  14. A Procedure to Create a Pedagogic Conversational Agent in Secondary Physics and Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Marín, Diana; Boza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogic Conversational Agents are computer applications that can interact with students in natural language. They have been used with satisfactory results on the instruction of several domains. The authors believe that they could also be useful for the instruction of Secondary Physics and Chemistry Education. Therefore, in this paper, the…

  15. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Spermine-DNA Interactions - Nanostructure and Physical Supramolecular Chemistry of DNA Condensation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kral, Teresa; Langner, M.; Hof, Martin; Adjimatera, N.; Blagbrough, I. S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, Supplement (2004), s22-s23 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : fluorescence * nanostructure * DNA condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.348, year: 2004

  16. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  17. Integration of clinical chemistry, expression, and metabolite data leads to better toxicological class separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Brunak, Søren; Frederiksen, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    A large number of databases are currently being implemented within toxicology aiming to integrate diverse biological data, such as clinical chemistry, expression, and other types of data. However, for these endeavors to be successful, tools for integration, visualization, and interpretation...... are needed. This paper presents a method for data integration using a hierarchical model based on either principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis of clinical chemistry, expression, and nuclear magnetic resonance data using a toxicological study as case. The study includes...... the three toxicants alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate, dimethylnitrosamine, and N-methylformamide administered to rats. Improved predictive ability of the different classes is seen, suggesting that this approach is a suitable method for data integration and visualization of biological data. Furthermore...

  18. The chemistry and physics of nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Eimerl, D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer new nonlinear optical materials with specific desired characteristics has engendered a need for a theoretical description of optical properties which is readily accessible to chemists, yet correctly treats the essential physics of dielectric response. This paper describes a simple empirical molecular orbital model which gives useful insights into the relationship between chemical composition, crystalline structure, and optical susceptibilities. The authors compare the probabilities of finding new harmonic generators in various chemical classes. Rigorous bounds on the magnitudes of linear and nonlinear optical coefficients and their anisotropies are also discussed

  19. Parallel algorithms for quantum chemistry. I. Integral transformations on a hypercube multiprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteside, R.A.; Binkley, J.S.; Colvin, M.E.; Schaefer, H.F. III

    1987-01-01

    For many years it has been recognized that fundamental physical constraints such as the speed of light will limit the ultimate speed of single processor computers to less than about three billion floating point operations per second (3 GFLOPS). This limitation is becoming increasingly restrictive as commercially available machines are now within an order of magnitude of this asymptotic limit. A natural way to avoid this limit is to harness together many processors to work on a single computational problem. In principle, these parallel processing computers have speeds limited only by the number of processors one chooses to acquire. The usefulness of potentially unlimited processing speed to a computationally intensive field such as quantum chemistry is obvious. If these methods are to be applied to significantly larger chemical systems, parallel schemes will have to be employed. For this reason we have developed distributed-memory algorithms for a number of standard quantum chemical methods. We are currently implementing these on a 32 processor Intel hypercube. In this paper we present our algorithm and benchmark results for one of the bottleneck steps in quantum chemical calculations: the four index integral transformation

  20. Liquid-state physical chemistry fundamentals, modeling, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de With, Gijsbertus

    2013-01-01

    For many processes and applications in science and technology a basic knowledge of liquids and solutions is a must. Gaining a better understanding of the behavior and properties of pure liquids and solutions will help to improve many processes and to advance research in many different areas. This book provides a comprehensive, self-contained and integrated survey of this topic and is a must-have for many chemists, chemical engineers and material scientists, ranging from newcomers in the field to more experienced researchers. The author offers a clear, well-structured didactic approach and provides an overview of the most important types of liquids and solutions. Special topics include chemical reactions, surfaces and phase transitions. Suitable both for introductory as well as intermediate level as more advanced parts are clearly marked. Includes also problems and solutions.

  1. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008. The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%, aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58. The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β, calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with

  2. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. The physical basis of thermodynamics with applications to chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Richet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    Given that thermodynamics books are not a rarity on the market, why would an additional one be useful? The answer is simple: at any level, thermodynamics is usually taught as a somewhat abstruse discipline where many students get lost in a maze of difficult concepts. However, thermodynamics is not as intricate a subject as most people feel. This book fills a niche between elementary textbooks and mathematically oriented treatises, and provides readers with a distinct approach to the subject. As indicated by the title, this book explains thermodynamic phenomena and concepts in physical terms before proceeding to focus on the requisite mathematical aspects. It focuses on the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on thermodynamic properties and places emphasis on rapidly evolving fields such as amorphous materials, metastable phases, numerical simulations of microsystems and high-pressure thermodynamics. Topics like redox reactions are dealt with in less depth, due to the fact that there is a...

  4. Developing 21st century skills in chemistry classrooms: Opportunities and challenges of STEAM integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinugrahaningsih, Tritiyatma; Rahmawati, Yuli; Ridwan, Achmad

    2017-08-01

    The paper portrays the first year of two-year study in integration Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM) in chemistry learning. The research focused on developing 21st-century skills of chemistry students in secondary schools. The 21st-century skills as a set of abilities that students need to develop in facing the future challenge which involves learning, literacy, and life skills. The study was conducted in two secondary schools both public and private school in topics of hydrocarbon, petroleum, solubility, and acid base in year 10 and 11. The qualitative methodology was applied to explore the students' learning experiences and understanding the research context. Data was collected through observation, interview, reflective journal, and 21st-century rubric. The STEAM approach was integrated through modification of project-based learning model. The students had opportunities to develop their own projects by integrating chemistry and STEAM principles to their project. The results show that students have developed their critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, collaboration and argumentation skills, leadership and responsibility, information and literacy skills. The researchers faced the challenges of integrating STEAM within the chemistry curricula, empowering students, and managing the teaching and time resources. Students have started to challenge their critical and creative thinking within the existing learning environments. Integrating STEAM into chemistry learning has developed students' 21st-century skills in those three areas. Teachers also learned to develop their competencies for being facilitators and agents of change, in addition to skills development in dealing with students' differences.

  5. Basic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories: ACTILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K; Konashi, K; Fujii, T; Uehara, A; Nagasaki, S; Ohtori, N; Tokunaga, Y; Kambe, S

    2010-01-01

    Basic research in actinide chemistry and physics is indispensable to maintain sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. Actinides, especially minor actinides of americium and curium, need to be handled in special facilities with containment and radiation shields. To promote and facilitate actinide research, close cooperation with the facilities and sharing of technical and scientific information must be very important and effective. A three-year-program B asic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories , ACTILAB, was started to form the basis of sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. In this program, research on actinide solid-state physics, solution chemistry and solid-liquid interface chemistry is made using four main facilities in Japan in close cooperation with each other, where basic experiments with transuranium elements can be made. The 17 O-NMR measurements were performed on (Pu 0.91 Am 0.09 )O 2 to study the electronic state and the chemical behaviour of Am and Cm ions in electrolyte solutions was studied by distribution experiments.

  6. Physical chemistry and modelling of the sintering of actinide oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelle, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a synthesis of the work I have carried out or to which I have numerically contributed to from 1996 up to 2012 in the Department of Plutonium Uranium and minor Actinides in Cadarache CEA Center. Their main goal is the study and the modeling of the sintering process of nuclear fuels which is the unifying thread of this document. Both in order to take into account the physical and chemical features of the actinide bearing oxide material and in order to combine the different transport phenomena leading to sintering, a sub-granular scale model is under development. Extension to a varying chemical composition as well as exchanges with the gaseous phase are foreseen. A simulation on a larger scale (pellet scale) is ongoing in the framework of a PhD thesis. Validation means have been tested with (U,Pu)O 2 material on the scale of the pellet (Small Angle Neutron Diffusion), on the scale of powder granules (X-Ray High Resolution Micro-Tomography) and with CeO 2 at the 'Institut de Chimie Separative' in Marcoule on a single crystal scale (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope). The required microstructure homogeneity for nuclear fuels has led to a campaign of experimental studies about the role of Cr 2 O 3 as a sintering aid. Whole of these studies improve our understanding of fuel sintering and hence leads to an improved mastering of this process. (author) [fr

  7. Before big science the pursuit of modern chemistry and physics, 1800-1940

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    Today's vast multinational scientific monoliths bear little resemblance to the modest laboratories of the early nineteenth century. Yet early in the nineteenth century--when heat and electricity were still counted among the elements--changes were already under way that would revolutionize chemistry and physics into the "big science" of the late twentieth century, expanding tiny, makeshift laboratories into bustling research institutes and replacing the scientific amateurs and generalist savants of the early Victorian era with the professional specialists of contemporary physical science. Mary Jo Nye traces the social and intellectual history of the physical sciences from the early 1800s to the beginning of the Second World War, examining the sweeping transformation of scientific institutions and professions during the period and the groundbreaking experiments that fueled that change, from the earliest investigations of molecular chemistry and field dynamics to the revolutionary breakthroughs of quantum mecha...

  8. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2001-03-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  9. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B [ed.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  10. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  11. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  12. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.

  13. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I [eds.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.

  14. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  15. The Chemistry Departement of the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1946, the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research (IKO) in Amsterdam was founded as a typical post World War II effort to cope with the surge in scientific research, primarily in the USA. At present, the Institute encompasses almost 250 workers - including a Philips research group - out of which nearly 30 are members of the Chemistry Department. In the beginning, the investigations dealt with more or less conventional tracerwork using long-lived radionuclides produced in nuclear reactors. This changed rapidly with the synchrocyclotron coming into operation in 1947. The present can be best characterized as a sort of a transition state. Emphasis has been laid upon more typical chemical aspects of the research program: a shift from ''nuclear'' chemistry to ''radio'' chemistry. The future is determined by the 500 MeV linear electron accelerator, dubbed MEA (Medium Energy Accelerator) already under construction. (T.G.)

  16. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures.Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  17. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  18. Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education: Implications for ... The aim of this study was to analyse indigenous Zulu games towards integrating indigenous game skill and knowledge ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Delayed Reaction: The Tardy Embrace of Physical Organic Chemistry by the German Chemical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of physical organic chemistry, which focuses on the mechanisms and structures of organic reactions and molecules using the tools of physical chemistry, was a major development in twentieth-century chemistry. It first flourished in the interwar period, in the UK and then in the US. Germany, by contrast, did not embrace the field until almost a half century later. The great success of classical organic chemistry, especially in synthesis, encouraged indifference to the new field among German chemists, as did their inductivist research philosophy, as enunciated by Walter Hückel's ground-breaking textbook (1931). This author also resisted new concepts and representations, especially those of the American theoretician, Linus Pauling. The arrival of the Nazi regime reinforced such resistance. Postwar conditions initiated a reaction against this conservative, nationalistic attitude, especially in the American Occupation Zone. Exposure to American textbooks and visiting lecturers influenced attitudes of younger chemists. The accompanying shift towards a more explanatory, less hierarchical mode of pedagogy was consonant with larger social and political developments.

  20. Dogs, Cats, and Kids: Integrating Yoga into Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lisa; Clemente, Fran

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the benefits of integrating yoga into elementary physical education classes. Taught as warm-up exercises or as an entire class, yoga offers children of any age and physical ability the opportunity to experience success in physical activity. Children need to experience joy while participating in physical activity in order to…

  1. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2008-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly) which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student''s ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. By the author''s design, no problems are included in the text, to allow the students to focus on their science course assignments.- Highly accessible presentation of fundamental mathematical techniques needed in science and engineering courses- Use of proven pedagogical techniques develolped during the author's 40 years of teaching experience- illustrations and links to reference material on World-Wide-Web- Coverage of fairly advanced topics, including vector and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, speci...

  2. Use of ionising radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education, as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety licence referred to in section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/1991). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionising radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions

  3. Use of ionizing radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide specifies the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety license referred to the Section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionizing radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions. (3 refs.)

  4. Development of Teaching Materials for a Physical Chemistry Experiment Using the QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 忠与志

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching materials with the QR code was attempted in an educational environment using a mobile telephone. The QR code is not sufficiently utilized in education, and the current study is one of the first in the field. The QR code is encrypted. However, the QR code can be deciphered by mobile telephones, thus enabling the expression of text in a small space.Contents of "Physical Chemistry Experiment" which are available on the Internet are briefly summarized and simplified. T...

  5. Increasing character value and conservation behavior through integrated ethnoscience chemistry in chemistry learning: A Case Study in The Department of Science Universitas Negeri Semarang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmin; Sumarni, Woro

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a factual picture of the improvement of students' conservation character and conservation behavior through the application integrated ethnoscience chemistry learning. This research was a case study on students majoring in the Department Of Science Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty Universitas Negeri Semarang. The subjects of the study were 30 students attending ethnoscience course in one of the teacher education institutions in the even semester of the academic year of 2016/2017. The subjects were given chemistry learning integrated into ethnoscience for eight weeks. The technique of data collection was done by using attitude scale arranged based on Likert scale. The data were analyzed by using qualitative descriptive. The results showed that the integrated ethnoscience chemistry learning contributed positively to the improvement of the character value and conservation behavior

  6. Framing a program designed to train new chemistry/physics teachers for California outlying regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodily, Gerald P., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for a new high school chemistry and physics teacher training program. Eleven participants were interviewed who attended daylong workshops, every other Saturday, for 10 months. The instructors used Modeling Instruction pedagogy and curriculum. All the instructors had high school teaching experience, but only one possessed a doctorate degree. The interview questions focused on four themes: motivation, epistemology, meta-cognition, and self-regulation; and the resulting transcripts were analyzed using a methodology called Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. The cases expressed a strong preference for the program's instruction program over learning subject matter knowledge in university classrooms. The data indicated that the cases, as a group, were disciplined scholars seeking a deep understanding of the subject matter knowledge needed to teach high school chemistry and physics. Based on these results a new approach to training teachers was proposed, an approach that offers novel answers to the questions of how and who to train as science teachers. The how part of the training involves using a program called Modeling Instruction. Modeling instruction is currently used to upgrade experienced science teachers and, in the new approach, replaces the training traditionally administered by professional scientists in university science departments. The who aspect proposes that the participants be college graduates, selected not for university science training, but for their high school math and science background. It is further proposed that only 10 months of daily, face-to-face instruction is required to move the learner to a deep understanding of subject matter knowledge required to teach high school chemistry and physics. Two outcomes are sought by employing this new training paradigm, outcomes that have been unachievable by current educational practices. First, it is hoped that new chemistry and physics teachers can

  7. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  8. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  9. An analysis of interest in students learning of physical chemistry experiment using Scientific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widinda Normalia Arlianty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze interest in student learning of physical chemistry experiment on Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was quantitative. The samples of this research were 2nd-semester student academic year 2015. The data learning interest of students were collected by questionnaire and documentation of seven title experimental. Learning interest consisted of three indicators, concluded feeling good, attention and activity in the learning process. The results of this research showed that score mean of feeling good  indicator was  25,9;  score  mean  of attention indicator 17,8, and score mean of  activity indicator 8,41.  Score Mean  students for the questionnaire interest in student learning  was 51,83 and this data was categorized as “good”.

  10. Materials of 4. international meeting on pulse investigations in physics, chemistry and biology. PULS'94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    4. International Meeting on Pulse Investigations in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, PULS'94 has been organized in honor of Professor Jerzy Kroh, the precursor of radiation chemistry in Poland. The meeting has been divided into three sessions: the historical session (H) with four review lectures, lecture session (L) collected 23 papers and poster session (P) with 39 posters. The fundamental studies on early stages of radiolysis have been presented for different systems being irradiated. The pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis methods has been predominantly used in reported experimental works. The reaction of intermediate products of radiolysis and photolysis such a trapped and solvated electrons, ions and radicals has been extensively studied. The reaction mechanisms and kinetics have been also discussed

  11. Physics and Chemistry of Star and Planet Formation in the Alma ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin

    2014-06-01

    ALMA will open up new avenues of exploration encompassing the wide range of star formation in our galaxy and peering into the central heart of planet-forming circumstellar disks. As we seek to explore the origins of stars and planets molecular emission will be at the front and center of many studies probing gas physics and chemistry. In this talk I will discus some of the areas where we can expect significant advances due to the increased sensitivity and superb spatial resolution of ALMA. In star-forming cores, a rich chemistry is revealed that may be the simpler molecular precursors to more complex organics, such as amino acids, seen within primitive rocks in our own solar system. ALMA will provide new information regarding the relative spatial distribution within a given source for a host of organics, sampling tens to hundreds of transitions of a variety of molecules, including presumably new ones. In this area there is a rich synergy with existing ground and space-based data, including Herschel/Spitzer. Here the increased sampling of sources to be enabled by ALMA should bring greater clarity toward the key products of interstellar chemistry and further constrain processes. On smaller Solar System scales, for over a decade most observations of planet-forming disks focused on the dust thermal continuum emission as a probe of the gas content and structure. ALMA will enable reliable and direct studies of gas to explore the evolving physics of planet-formation, the gas dissipation timescales (i.e. the upper limit to the timescale for giant planet birth), and also the chemistry. It is this chemistry that sets the composition of gas giants and also influences the ultimate composition of water and organic materials that are delivered to terrestrial worlds. Here I will show how we can use molecular emission to determine the gas thermal structure of a disk system and the total gas content - key astrophysical quantities. This will also enable more constrained chemical

  12. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  13. Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium. General Colloquium, 19-21 November 2012, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillon, Francois; Alata, Ivan; Alcaraz, Christian; Alves, Marta; Andre, Philippe; Bachiller, Rafael; Bacmann, Aurore; Baklouti, Donia; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Berne, Olivier; Beroff, Karine; Bertin, Mathieu; Biennier, Ludovic; Bocchio, Marco; Bonal, Lydie; Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchez Giret, Aurelia; Boulanger, Francois; Bracco, Andrea; Bron, Emeric; Brunetto, Rosario; Cabrit, Sylvie; Canosa, Andre; Capron, Michael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cernicharo, Jose; Chaabouni, Henda; Chabot, Marin; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cobut, Vincent; Commercon, Benoit; Congiu, Emanuele; Coutens, Audrey; Danger, Gregoire; Daniel, Fabien; Dartois, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Denis, Alpizar; Despois, Didier; D'hendecourt, Louis; Dontot, Leo; Doronin, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Dulieu, Francois; Dumouchel, Fabien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ellinger, Yves; Falgarone, Edith; Falvo, Cyril; Faure, Alexandre; Fayolle, Edith; Feautrier, Nicole; Feraud, Geraldine; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gamboa, Antonio; Gardez, Aline; Gavilan, Lisseth; Gerin, Maryvonne; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Godard, Benjamin; Godard, Marie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gratier, Pierre; Grenier, Isabelle; Gruet, Sebastien; Gry, Cecile; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Stephane; Gusdorf, Antoine; Guzman, Viviana; Habart, Emilie; Hennebelle, Patrick; Herrera, Cinthya; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Hincelin, Ugo; Hochlaf, Majdi; Huet, Therese; Iftner, Christophe; Jallat, Aurelie; Joblin, Christine; Kahane, Claudine; Kalugina, Yulia; Kleiner, Isabelle; Koehler, Melanie; Kokkin, Damian; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Krim, Lahouari; Lallement, Rosine; Lanza, Mathieu; Lattelais, Marie; Le Bertre, Thibaut; Le Gal, Romane; Le Petit, Franck; Le Picard, Sebastien; Lefloch, Bertrand; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Lesaffre, Pierre; Lique, Francois; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Lopez Sepulcre, Ana; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Margules, Laurent; Martin, Celine; Mascetti, Joelle; Michaut, Xavier; Minissale, Marco; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Mokrane, Hakima; Momferratos, Georgios; Montillaud, Julien; Montmerle, Thierry; Moret-Bailly, Jacques; Motiyenko, Roman; Moudens, Audrey; Noble, Jennifer; Padovani, Marco; Pagani, Laurent; Pardanaud, Cedric; Parisel, Olivier; Pauzat, Francoise; Pernet, Amelie; Pety, Jerome; Philippe, Laurent; Piergiorgio, Casavecchia; Pilme, Julien; Pinto, Cecilia; Pirali, Olivier; Pirim, Claire; Puspitarini, Lucky; Rist, Claire; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Romanzin, Claire; Roueff, Evelyne; Rousseau, Patrick; Sabbah, Hassan; Saury, Eleonore; Schneider, Ioan; Schwell, Martin; Sims, Ian; Spielfiedel, Annie; Stoecklin, Thierry; Talbi, Dahbia; Taquet, Vianney; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Theule, Patrice; Thi, Wing-Fai; Trolez, Yann; Valdivia, Valeska; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Verstraete, Laurent; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Ysard, Nathalie; Yvart, Walter; Zicler Eleonore

    2012-11-01

    This document publishes the oral contributions and the 66 posters presented during a colloquium on physics and chemistry of interstellar medium. The following themes have been addressed: New views on the interstellar medium with Herschel, Planck and Alma, Cycle of interstellar dusts, Physics and Dynamics of the interstellar medium, Molecular complexifying and the link towards pre-biotic chemistry. More precisely, the oral contributions addressed the following topics: Interstellar medium with Herschel and Planck; The anomalous microwave emission: a new window on the physics of small grains; Sub-millimetre spectroscopy of complex molecules and of radicals for ALMA and Herschel missions; Analysing observations of molecules in the ISM: theoretical and experimental studies of energy transfer; Unravelling the labyrinth of star formation with Herschel; Star formation regions with Herschel and Alma: astro-chemistry in the Netherlands; Physical structure of gas and dust in photo-dissociation regions observed with Herschel; Photo-desorption of analogues of interstellar ices; Formation of structures in the interstellar medium: theoretical and numerical aspects; Towards a 3D mapping of the galactic ISM by inversion of absorption individual measurements; Low velocity shocks as signatures of turbulent dissipation in diffuse irradiated gas; Early phases of solar system formation: 3D physical and chemical modelling of the collapse of pre-stellar dense core; Cosmic-ray propagation in molecular clouds; Protostellar shocks in the time of Herschel; A new PDR model of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas; Molecular spectroscopy in the ALMA era and laboratory Astrophysics in Spain; Which molecules to be searched for in the interstellar medium; Physics and chemistry of UV illuminated neutral gas: the Horsehead case; Nitrogen fractionation in dark clouds; Molecular spectral surveys from millimetre range to far infrared; Mechanisms and synthesis at the surface of cold grains

  14. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. The influence of chemistry on severe accident phenomena in integral tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of chemical processes on severe accident phenomena in integral tests is reviewed and recommendations for areas of additional work are made. The results reviewed include those from tests conducted in the in-pile facilities at ACRR, PBF, and TREAT and the TMI-2 accident. Progress has been made in understanding the influence of chemistry on important severe accident phenomena such as core melt progression, hydrogen generation, aerosol generation and transport, and fission product release and transport (including revaporization). An example is the chemistry of volatile fission products, especially iodine and tellurium. Areas where understanding is inadequate are also apparent, such as chemical interactions between fission product vapors and aerosols. Influential chemical processes reviewed include oxidation by steam and interactions among control, structural, fuel, fission product, and aerosol materials

  16. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  17. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38{sup th} JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment.

  18. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38 th JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment

  19. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    ), physics (fluid-dynamical and quantum-mechanical calculations; extensive numerical simulations of various condensed-matter systems; the development of stellar constellations, even the early Universe), chemistry (quantum-chemical calculations on the structures of new chemical compounds; chemical reactions and reaction dynamics), and biology (various models, for example, in population dynamics). We succeeded in our effort to assemble several internationally recognized researchers of Computational Science to deliver invited talks on a couple of exceptionally beautiful late-summer days in the modern premises of the Adult Education Center at Lahti. Among the plenary speakers, Per Bak described his highly original work on self-organized criticality. David Ceperley discussed pioneering numerical simulations of superfluid helium in which, for the first time, Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics has been implemented on a computer. Jim Gunton presented his comprehensive studies of the Cahn-Hilliard equation for the dynamics of ordering in a condensed-matter system far from equilibrium, while Alex Hansen explained those on nonlinear breakdown in disordered materials. Representing the important field of computational chemistry, Bo Jönsson dealt with attractive forces between polyelectrolytes. Kurt Kremer gave an interesting account on computer-simulation studies of complex polymer systems, while Ole Mouritsen reviewed studies of interfacial fluctuations in lipid membranes. Pekka Pyykkö introduced his pioneering work which has led to predictions of completely novel chemical species. Annette Zippelius gave an expert introduction to the highly active field of neural networks. It is evident from each of these intriguing plenary contributions that, indeed, the computational approach is a frontier field of science, possibly providing the most versatile research method available today. We also arranged a competition for the best Posters presented at the Symposium; the

  20. Integrating Simulated Physics and Device Virtualization in Control System Testbeds

    OpenAIRE

    Redwood , Owen; Reynolds , Jason; Burmester , Mike

    2016-01-01

    Part 3: INFRASTRUCTURE MODELING AND SIMULATION; International audience; Malware and forensic analyses of embedded cyber-physical systems are tedious, manual processes that testbeds are commonly not designed to support. Additionally, attesting the physics impact of embedded cyber-physical system malware has no formal methodologies and is currently an art. This chapter describes a novel testbed design methodology that integrates virtualized embedded industrial control systems and physics simula...

  1. The roots of physics students' motivations: Fear and integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dusen, Ben

    Too often, physics students are beset by feelings of failure and isolation rather than experiencing the creative joys of discovery that physics has to offer. This dissertation research was founded on the desire of a teacher to make physics class exciting and motivating to his students. This work explores how various aspects of learning environments interact with student motivation. This work uses qualitative and quantitative methods to explore how students are motivated to engage in physics and how they feel about themselves while engaging in physics. The collection of four studies in this dissertation culminates in a sociocultural perspective on motivation and identity. This perspective uses two extremes of how students experience physics as a lens for understanding motivation: fear and self-preservation versus integrity and self-expression. Rather than viewing motivation as a property of the student, or viewing students as inherently interested or disinterested in physics, the theoretical perspective on motivation and identity helps examine features of the learning environments that determine how students' experience themselves through physics class. This perspective highlights the importance of feeling a sense of belonging in the context of physics and the power that teachers have in shaping students' motivation through the construction of their classroom learning environments. Findings demonstrate how different ways that students experience themselves in physics class impact their performance and interest in physics. This dissertation concludes with a set of design principles that can foster integration and integrity among students in physics learning environments.

  2. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Tianquan [PI, Emory Univ.

    2013-09-20

    The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN (Sept. 8-12) featured the following sessions (approx. 6 speakers per session): (1) Quantum Dots and Nanorods for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (2) Artificial Photosynthesis: Water Oxidation; (3) Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Fuels (2 half-day sessions); (4) Organic Solar Cells; (5) Novel Concepts for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (6) Emerging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion; (7) Interfacial Electron Transfer

  3. Bunsen conference 1999. Atmospheric physical chemistry; Bunsentagung 1999. Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, P.J.; Zellner, R. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    The main subject of the 1999 Bunsen conference was atmospheric physical chemistry. There were lectures and posters on measurement and distribution of atmospheric trace gases, photochemical reactions in the different parts of the atmosphere, natural and anthropogenic emissions resulting from biomass combustion, thermodynamics and microphysics of aerosol, and air pollution abatement. [German] Die Bunsentagung 1999 beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere. Themen der Vortraege und Poster waren u.a. die Messung und Verteilung von Spurengasen in der Atmosphaere, photochemische Reaktionen in den verschiedenen Schichten der Atmosphaere, natuerliche und anthropogene Emissionen durch Verbrennung von Biomasse, Thermodynamik und Microphysik von Aerosolen und Klimaschutz.

  4. Symmetry-adapted basis sets automatic generation for problems in chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2012-01-01

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed

  5. Optimizing Performance of Combustion Chemistry Solvers on Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grout, Ray W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-09

    This work investigates novel algorithm designs and optimization techniques for restructuring chemistry integrators in zero and multidimensional combustion solvers, which can then be effectively used on the emerging generation of Intel's Many Integrated Core/Xeon Phi processors. These processors offer increased computing performance via large number of lightweight cores at relatively lower clock speeds compared to traditional processors (e.g. Intel Sandybridge/Ivybridge) used in current supercomputers. This style of processor can be productively used for chemistry integrators that form a costly part of computational combustion codes, in spite of their relatively lower clock speeds. Performance commensurate with traditional processors is achieved here through the combination of careful memory layout, exposing multiple levels of fine grain parallelism and through extensive use of vendor supported libraries (Cilk Plus and Math Kernel Libraries). Important optimization techniques for efficient memory usage and vectorization have been identified and quantified. These optimizations resulted in a factor of ~ 3 speed-up using Intel 2013 compiler and ~ 1.5 using Intel 2017 compiler for large chemical mechanisms compared to the unoptimized version on the Intel Xeon Phi. The strategies, especially with respect to memory usage and vectorization, should also be beneficial for general purpose computational fluid dynamics codes.

  6. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  7. AN INVARIANT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DISCIPLINE CHEMISTRY-PHYSIC IN THE FORMATION OF TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY / UN INVARIANTE DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA DISCIPLINA QUÍMICA-FÍSICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORES DE QUÍMICA

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri; Carlos Ortigoza Garcell; Enrique Nelson Pacheco Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a mastership thesis on the Didactic of Chemistry. Here it is offered the first approximation which will constitute the invariant of knowledge of the discipline Chemistry-Physic for the measurement as bachelor in education in the specialty of Chemistry; with this invariant, that knowledge is meaningful for the importance of the teachers to be professional work.

  8. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry/Russian Academy of Science Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    Investigations into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste (TTP RL4-3-20-04) were conducted in Fiscal Year 1995 at Westinghouse Hanford Company under the support of the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (EM-53). The investigation had two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress, which was achieved in the liaison subtask during Fiscal Year 1995, is summarized as follows: (1) A technical dialogue has been established with Institute scientists. (2) Editing was done on a technical literature review on the chemistry of transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute. The report was issued in May 1995 as a Westinghouse Hanford Company document. (3) Four tasks from the Institute were selected for support by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work on three tasks commenced on 1 March 1995; the fourth task commenced on 1 April 1995. (4) Technical information describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste was supplied to the Institute. (5) A program review of the four tasks was conducted at the Institute during a visit 25 August to 1 September, 1995. A lecture on the origin, composition, and proposed treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes was presented during this visit. Eight additional tasks were proposed by Institute scientists for support in Fiscal Year 1996. (6) A paper was presented at the Fifth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM'95) in Berlin, Germany on 3 to 9 September, 1995 on the solubility of actinides in alkaline media

  9. Case study on Integral Life Practice intervention for physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicated significant improvements in physical exercise, psychophysiological coherence, general health, psychological well-being, mental skills, mindfulness, mood, resilience, sense of coherence and spirituality. Findings endorse Integral Life Practice theoretical principles and practical guidelines for implementing ...

  10. Inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loverude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe an inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers developed at California State University Fullerton. The course is one of three developed primarily to enhance the science content understanding of prospective teachers. The course incorporates a number of innovative instructional strategies and is somewhat unusual for its interdisciplinary focus. We describe the course structure in detail, providing examples of course materials and assessment strategies. Finally, we provide research data illustrating both the need for the course and the effectiveness of the course in developing student understanding of selected topics. Student responses to various questions reflect a lack of understanding of many relatively simple physical science concepts, and a level of performance that is usually lower than that in comparable courses serving a general education audience. Additional data suggest that course activities improve student understanding of selected topics, often dramatically.

  11. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Womack

    Full Text Available This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines' top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others.

  12. Complex Reaction Kinetics in Chemistry: A Unified Picture Suggested by Mechanics in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Agliari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex biochemical pathways can be reduced to chains of elementary reactions, which can be described in terms of chemical kinetics. Among the elementary reactions so far extensively investigated, we recall the Michaelis-Menten and the Hill positive-cooperative kinetics, which apply to molecular binding and are characterized by the absence and the presence, respectively, of cooperative interactions between binding sites. However, there is evidence of reactions displaying a more complex pattern: these follow the positive-cooperative scenario at small substrate concentration, yet negative-cooperative effects emerge as the substrate concentration is increased. Here, we analyze the formal analogy between the mathematical backbone of (classical reaction kinetics in Chemistry and that of (classical mechanics in Physics. We first show that standard cooperative kinetics can be framed in terms of classical mechanics, where the emerging phenomenology can be obtained by applying the principle of least action of classical mechanics. Further, since the saturation function plays in Chemistry the same role played by velocity in Physics, we show that a relativistic scaffold naturally accounts for the kinetics of the above-mentioned complex reactions. The proposed formalism yields to a unique, consistent picture for cooperative-like reactions and to a stronger mathematical control.

  13. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-08-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers' interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students' experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students' STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students' intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance.

  14. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-01-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers’ interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)–related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students‘ experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students‘ STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students’ intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance. PMID:28808678

  15. Chemistry integrated circuit: chemical system on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuo

    2014-03-28

    By integrating chemical reactions on a large-scale integration (LSI) chip, new types of device can be created. For biomedical applications, monolithically integrated sensor arrays for potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric sensing of biomolecules have been developed. The potentiometric sensor array detects pH and redox reaction as a statistical distribution of fluctuations in time and space. For the amperometric sensor array, a microelectrode structure for measuring multiple currents at high speed has been proposed. The impedimetric sensor array is designed to measure impedance up to 10 MHz. The multimodal sensor array will enable synthetic analysis and make it possible to standardize biosensor chips. Another approach is to create new functional devices by integrating molecular systems with LSI chips, for example image sensors that incorporate biological materials with a sensor array. The quantum yield of the photoelectric conversion of photosynthesis is 100%, which is extremely difficult to achieve by artificial means. In a recently developed process, a molecular wire is plugged directly into a biological photosynthetic system to efficiently conduct electrons to a gold electrode. A single photon can be detected at room temperature using such a system combined with a molecular single-electron transistor.

  16. The Use of Textbooks for Advanced-Level GCE Courses in Physics, Chemistry and Biology by Sixth-Form Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sixth-form students to determine the level of A-level textbook use in physics, chemistry, and biology in English schools found that texts are used primarily after the lesson, at the student's discretion, and with great variations between students. Biology texts were used most, and physics texts used least. (MBR)

  17. Integration and Physical Education: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttinen, Risto Harri Juhani; McLoughlin, Gabriella; Fredrick, Ray, III; Novak, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative has placed an increased focus on mathematics and English language arts. A relationship between physical activity and academic achievement is evident, but research on integration of academic subjects with physical education is still unclear. This literature review examined databases for the years…

  18. Accelerator physics analysis with an integrated toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Michelotti, L.; Satogata, T.

    1992-08-01

    Work is in progress on an integrated software toolkit for linear and nonlinear accelerator design, analysis, and simulation. As a first application, ''beamline'' and ''MXYZPTLK'' (differential algebra) class libraries, were used with an X Windows graphics library to build an user-friendly, interactive phase space tracker which, additionally, finds periodic orbits. This program was used to analyse a theoretical lattice which contains octupoles and decapoles to find the 20th order, stable and unstable periodic orbits and to explore the local phase space structure

  19. Some integral formulations occurring in accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miano, G; Verolino, L [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica; [INFN, Naples (Italy); Vaccaro, V G [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Fisiche; [INFN, Naples (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    In this paper a powerful and robust analytical-numerical approach to study the electromagnetic interaction between a bunch of particles and the discontinuities of the vacuum chamber of a particle accelerator is discussed. In particular the diffraction of the electromagnetic field created by a bunch of a bunch of charges travelling through an iris and a drift tube is considered. Choosing in both cases a spectral transform of the current density distribution on the scatterer as unknowns, an effective numerical model is obtained. These unknowns have to satisfy a system of dual integral equations. A general procedure to transform this system into only one Fredholm integral equation of the second kind (in the case of the iris) or to a system of linear algebraic equations by means of a Neumann series (in the case of the drift tube) is described. These models allow to compute the longitudinal coupling impedance with a good accuracy either in the low frequency limit or in the high frequency limit.

  20. Some integral formulations occurring in accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L.; Vaccaro, V.G.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper a powerful and robust analytical-numerical approach to study the electromagnetic interaction between a bunch of particles and the discontinuities of the vacuum chamber of a particle accelerator is discussed. In particular the diffraction of the electromagnetic field created by a bunch of a bunch of charges travelling through an iris and a drift tube is considered. Choosing in both cases a spectral transform of the current density distribution on the scatterer as unknowns, an effective numerical model is obtained. These unknowns have to satisfy a system of dual integral equations. A general procedure to transform this system into only one Fredholm integral equation of the second kind (in the case of the iris) or to a system of linear algebraic equations by means of a Neumann series (in the case of the drift tube) is described. These models allow to compute the longitudinal coupling impedance with a good accuracy either in the low frequency limit or in the high frequency limit

  1. Physical integrity: the missing link in biological monitoring and TMDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Brenda; Magner, Joseph A; Vondracek, Bruce; Perry, Jim

    2009-12-01

    The Clean Water Act mandates that the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of our nation's waters be maintained and restored. Physical integrity has often been defined as physical habitat integrity, and as such, data collected during biological monitoring programs focus primarily on habitat quality. However, we argue that channel stability is a more appropriate measure of physical integrity and that channel stability is a foundational element of physical habitat integrity in low-gradient alluvial streams. We highlight assessment tools that could supplement stream assessments and the Total Maximum Daily Load stressor identification process: field surveys of bankfull cross-sections; longitudinal thalweg profiles; particle size distribution; and regionally calibrated, visual, stream stability assessments. Benefits of measuring channel stability include a more informed selection of reference or best attainable stream condition for an Index of Biotic Integrity, establishment of a baseline for monitoring changes in present and future condition, and indication of channel stability for investigations of chemical and biological impairments associated with sediment discontinuity and loss of habitat quality.

  2. Sunscreen synthesis and their immobilisation on polymethylmethacrylate: an integrated project in organic chemistry, polymer chemistry and photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtinho, Dina Maria B.; Serra, Maria Elisa S.; Pineiro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Dibenzalacetone and other aldol condensation products are known sunscreens commonly used in cosmetics. This type of compounds can easily be prepared in an Organic Chemistry Lab by reaction of aldehydes with ketones in basic medium. These compounds can be incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) and used as UV light absorbers, for example in sunglasses. This project has the advantage of using inexpensive reagents which are readily available in Chemistry Laboratories. This experiment can also be a base starting point for discussions of organic, polymer and photochemistry topics. (author)

  3. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  4. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of the actinides. V. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Keller, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the last 15 years, actinide research has presented unique challenges both for experimentalists and theorists. The uniqueness stems not only from their nuclear properties, which since the early 1940's has led to their important role in nuclear energy and nuclear technology, but also from their unusual chemical and physical properties which have added new excitement and discoveries to both these disciplines. It is the purpose of this handbook to describe in detail the present understanding of the actinides by means of comprehensive, critical, broad and up-to-date reviews covering both the physics and chemistry of these exotic elements. They are intended to serve as an introduction to the subject for the non-specialist, as a convenient reference work for the specialist, and as a guide for future research. The rapid accelerated pace of research in the last decade continues and carries with it new vigor and excitement to a field in a state of transition. The present sixth volume completes the series. Like volumes 3 and 4, the emphasis is on chemistry, though physical aspects, such as self-radiation effects and electron paramagnetic resonance are also treated. The main body of the volume is devoted to systematic and comprehensive studies of a variety of important actinide compounds. These include relatively simple salts as well as various complexes and organic compounds. The data accumulated on such materials are broadly scattered in the literature, due to the interdisciplinary nature of much of the underlying research. Experts on the various substances have now reviewed this literature and brought it together in this book. refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. Integrated circuits for particle physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Toifl, Thomas H; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    High energy particle physics experiments investigate the nature of matter through the identification of subatomic particles produced in collisions of protons, electrons, or heavy ions which have been accelerated to very high energies. Future experiments will have hundreds of millions of detector channels to observe the interaction region where collisions take place at a 40 MHz rate. This paper gives an overview of the electronics requirements for such experiments and explains how data reduction, timing distribution, and radiation tolerance in commercial CMOS circuits are achieved for these big systems. As a detailed example, the electronics for the innermost layers of the future tracking detector, the pixel vertex detector, is discussed with special attention to system aspects. A small-scale prototype (130 channels) implemented in standard 0.25 mu m CMOS remains fully functional after a 30 Mrad(SiO/sub 2/) irradiation. A full-scale pixel readout chip containing 8000 readout channels in a 14 by 16 mm/sup 2/ ar...

  6. Innovation Developments of Coal Chemistry Science in L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrik, T.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents short historical review and innovation developments of Coal Chemistry Department of L.M. Litvinenko Institute, NAS of Ukraine connected with coal mine exploitation problems, search for decisions toward prevention of spontaneous combustion, dust control in mines, establishing structural chemical features of coal with different genesis and stages of metamorphism with the aim to develop new methods of their modification and rational use. The methods of obtaining inexpensive sorbents from Ukrainian raw materials (including carbon containing waste are proposed. The problems of modern coal chemistry science in IPOCC of NAS of Ukraine are outlined.

  7. Teleology in biology, chemistry and physics education: what primary teachers should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSTAS KAMPOURAKIS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in cognitive psychology suggests that children develop intuitions that may clash with what is accepted by scientists, thus making certain scientific concepts difficult to understand. Children possess intuitions about design and purpose that make them provide teleological explanations to many different sorts of tasks. One possible explanation for the origin of the bias to view objects as made for something derives from an early sensitivity to intentional agents and to their behavior as intentional object users and object makers. What is important is that teleological explanations may not be exclusively restricted in biological phenomena, as commonly assumed. Consequently, primary school teachers should take that into account when teaching biology, chemistry or physics concepts and try to refrain from enforcing students’ teleological intuitions.

  8. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  9. Many-electron approaches in physics, chemistry and mathematics a multidisciplinary view

    CERN Document Server

    Site, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad description of the development and (computational) application of many-electron approaches from a multidisciplinary perspective. In the context of studying many-electron systems Computer Science, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are all intimately interconnected. However, beyond a handful of communities working at the interface between these disciplines, there is still a marked separation of subjects. This book seeks to offer a common platform for possible exchanges between the various fields and to introduce the reader to perspectives for potential further developments across the disciplines. The rapid advances of modern technology will inevitably require substantial improvements in the approaches currently used, which will in turn make exchanges between disciplines indispensable. In essence this book is one of the very first attempts at an interdisciplinary approach to the many-electron problem.

  10. AN APPLICATION OF THE LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidio Corral-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of intensive properties molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures by experimental densities and tangent method in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory presents the problem of making manually the molar volume curve versus mole fraction and the trace of the tangent line trace. The advantage of using a statistical model the Logistic Regression on a Texas VOYAGE graphing calculator allowed trace the curve and the tangents in situ, and also evaluate the students work during the experimental session. The error percentage between the molar volumes calculated using literature data and those obtained with statistical method is minimal, which validates the model. It is advantageous use the calculator with this application as a teaching support tool, reducing the evaluation time of 3 weeks to 3 hours.

  11. Research on teaching and learning in Physics and Chemistry in NorDiNa Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Kinnunen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of teaching and learning processes in research on physics and chemistry education published in NorDiNa 2005–2013. Using the didactic triangle as our theoretical framework we developed a typology to analyse the data and used this to categorise 89 related research papers, from all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary. The results suggest that students’ characteristics, their understanding of the content and learning outcomes are studied frequently. In contrast, science teachers are studied much less. Most papers reported studies that had been done at the teaching organisation level. Course level studies and society level studies were also frequent. However, international level studies were few in this data pool. We conclude by discussing less popular research topics in the science education field.

  12. Table of isotopes for the 1998/99 handbook of chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1998-03-01

    Non-neutron nuclear data have been reviewed and recommended values are presented in the Table of the Isotopes to be published in the Chemical Rubber Company's 1998--1999 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. The information, which is presented in the Isotopes Table for each known chemical element and for each ground state and long-lived isomeric state nuclide of each element includes the atomic weight of the element and the atomic mass of the ground state nuclide, isotopic abundance value (if the nuclide is stable) or the radioactive half-life (if the nuclide is not stable), the mode of decay, branching ratio and the total disintegration energy, the discrete energies of the alpha particles, protons or neutrons and end point energies of beta transitions and their respective intensities. The following additional information is also included, the nuclear spin and parity, the magnetic dipole moment and the electrical quadrupole moment and the gamma ray energies and intensities

  13. Physics and chemistry of niobium materials in the context of superconducting RF cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities excel over the normal conducting RF cavities in the long pulse or continuous wave high energy particle accelerations, and niobium (Nb) is currently the material of choice for fabrication of such SCRF cavities. However the accelerating gradients attained in the Nb SCRF cavities deployed in various high energy particle accelerators are significantly below the theoretical limit predicted by the superconducting properties of Nb. Thus it is very important to understand the physics and chemistry of Nb materials in some details so as to maximize the SCRF cavity performance. This abstract will discuss some issues which help in the development of high gradient and energy efficient Nb SCRF cavities in a cost effective manner. (author)

  14. Using Physical Organic Chemistry To Shape the Course of Electrochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kevin D

    2018-05-09

    While organic electrochemistry can look quite different to a chemist not familiar with the technique, the reactions are at their core organic reactions. As such, they are developed and optimized using the same physical organic chemistry principles employed during the development of any other organic reaction. Certainly, the electron transfer that triggers the reactions can require a consideration of new "wrinkles" to those principles, but those considerations are typically minimal relative to the more traditional approaches needed to manipulate the pathways available to the reactive intermediates formed downstream of that electron transfer. In this review, three very different synthetic challenges-the generation and trapping of radical cations, the development of site-selective reactions on microelectrode arrays, and the optimization of current in a paired electrolysis-are used to illustrate this point.

  15. Jahn-Teller effect fundamentals and implications for physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Koppel, Horst; Barentzen, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect continues to be a paradigm for structural instabilities and dynamical processes in molecules and in the condensed phase. While the basic theorem, first published in 1937, had to await experimental verification for 15 years, the intervening years have seen rapid development, initially in the theoretical arena, followed increasingly by experimental work on molecules and crystals. Among the many important developments in the field we mention cooperative phenomena in crystals, the general importance of pseudo-Jahn-Teller couplings for symmetry-lowering phenomena in molecular systems, nonadiabatic processes at conical intersections of potential energy surfaces and extensions of the basic theory in relation to the discovery of fullerenes and other icosahedral systems. The aim of the present volume is to provide a survey of the state-of-the art in Jahn-Teller interactions at the interface of quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics.

  16. The physical chemistry and materials science behind sinter-resistant catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunqian; Lu, Ping; Cao, Zhenming; Campbell, Charles T; Xia, Younan

    2018-06-18

    Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate. We also discuss strategies for the design and rational fabrication of sinter-resistant catalysts. Finally, we showcase recent success in improving the thermal stability and thus sinter resistance of supported catalytic systems.

  17. Praxeological Organization of School Knowledge: A comparison of the Clapeyron equation approach in both physics and chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Claro Zanardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the Didactic Transposition and Anthropological Theory of Didactic of Chevallard and the relationship between them in order to use them as an analysis tool to understand the appearance of content on the Clapeyron equation in both books of Physics and Chemistry. Praxeological analysis revealed a common core to these two science courses, complemented by some concepts which are contextualized to each one of them. This analysis can provide elements that guide the internal didactical transposition, helping teachers of physics and chemistry to minimize the fragmentation of this content in both science courses.

  18. For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Tai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

  19. The Physics and Chemistry of Color: The Fifteen Causes of Color, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau, Kurt

    2001-07-01

    An updated and revised second edition of the acclaimed classic Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue, or a ruby red? This classic volume studies the physical and chemical origins of color by exploring fifteen separate causes of color and their varied and often subtle occurrences in biology, geology, mineralogy, the atmosphere, technology, and the visual arts. It covers all of the fundamental concepts at work and requires no specialized knowledge. Author Kurt Nassau includes hundreds of illustrations, tables, and photographs-as well as end-of-chapter problems-that aid in visualizing the concepts discussed. An updated bibliography permits readers to pursue their own particular interests and an expanded series of appendices cover advanced topics. The Physics and Chemistry of Color, Second Edition is a one-of-a-kind treatment of color that provides both detailed physical and chemical properties of color and a more general overview of the subject. It will prove highly useful to specialists and non-specialists alike-and fascinate those with varied interests from optics to art history.

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization in Physical Synthesis of Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    A Papa, David

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces techniques that advance the capabilities and strength of modern software tools for physical synthesis, with the ultimate goal to improve the quality of leading-edge semiconductor products.  It provides a comprehensive introduction to physical synthesis and takes the reader methodically from first principles through state-of-the-art optimizations used in cutting edge industrial tools. It explains how to integrate chip optimizations in novel ways to create powerful circuit transformations that help satisfy performance requirements. Broadens the scope of physical synthesis optimization to include accurate transformations operating between the global and local scales; Integrates groups of related transformations to break circular dependencies and increase the number of circuit elements that can be jointly optimized to escape local minima;  Derives several multi-objective optimizations from first observations through complete algorithms and experiments; Describes integrated optimization te...

  1. Dovetailing biology and chemistry: integrating the Gene Ontology with the ChEBI chemical ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view of GO functions and processes. We describe a collaborative effort between the GO and the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology developers to ensure that the representation of chemicals in the GO is both internally consistent and in alignment with the chemical expertise captured in ChEBI. Results We have examined and integrated the ChEBI structural hierarchy into the GO resource through computationally-assisted manual curation of both GO and ChEBI. Our work has resulted in the creation of computable definitions of GO terms that contain fully defined semantic relationships to corresponding chemical terms in ChEBI. Conclusions The set of logical definitions using both the GO and ChEBI has already been used to automate aspects of GO development and has the potential to allow the integration of data across the domains of biology and chemistry. These logical definitions are available as an extended version of the ontology from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/go/extensions/go-plus.owl. PMID:23895341

  2. Managing the physics of the economics of integrated health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zismer, Daniel K; Werner, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    The physics metaphor, as applied to the economics (and financial performance) of the integrated health system, seems appropriate when considered together with the nine principles of management framework provided. The nature of the integrated design enhances leaders' management potential as they consider organizational operations and strategy in the markets ahead. One question begged by this argument for the integrated design is the durability, efficiency and ultimate long-term survivability of the more "traditional" community health care delivery models, which, by design, are fragmented, internally competitive and less capital efficient. They also cannot exploit the leverage of teams, optimal access management or the pursuit of revenues made available in many forms. For those who wish to move from the traditional to the more integrated community health system designs (especially those who have not yet started the journey), the path requires: * Sufficient balance sheet capacity to fund the integration process-especially as the model requires physician practice acquisitions and electronic health record implementations * A well-prepared board13, 14 * A functional, durable and sustainable physician services enterprise design * A redesigned organizational and governance structure * Favorable internal financial incentives alignment design * Effective accountable physician leadership * Awareness that the system is not solely a funding strategy for acquired physicians, rather a fully -.. committed clinical and business model, one in which patient-centered integrated care is the core service (and not acute care hospital-based services) A willingness to create and exploit the implied and inherent potential of an integrated design and unified brand Last, it's important to remember that an integrated health system is a tool that creates a "new potential" (a physics metaphor reference, one last time). The design doesn't operate itself. Application of the management principles

  3. Science Education and the Material Culture of the Nineteenth-Century Classroom: Physics and Chemistry in Spanish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Josep; Cuenca-Lorente, Mar

    2012-02-01

    Although a large number of Spanish secondary schools have preserved an important scientific heritage, including large scientific instrument collections, this heritage has never been officially protected. Their current state is very diverse, and although several research projects have attempted to initiate their recovery and use, their lack of coordination and wide range of methodological approaches has limited their impact. This paper presents a case-study integrated in a new project supported by the Catalan Scientific Instrument Commission (COMIC) whose final aim is the establishment of a research hub for the preservation, study and use of Spanish scientific instrument collections. Major aims in this project are promoting a better coordination of Spanish projects in this field, and furthering international research on science pedagogy and the material culture of science. The major focus of COMIC is currently the recovery of secondary school collections. This paper provides first, a historical account of the development of secondary education in Spain, and the contemporary establishment of physics and chemistry school collections. Second, we focus on a case-study of three Spanish schools (Valencia, Castellón, and Alicante). Finally, we provide a brief overview of current projects to preserve Spanish school collections, and discuss how COMIC can contribute to help to coordinate them, and to take a step forward interdisciplinary research in this context.

  4. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes

  5. Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rangel Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: suziar@yahoo.com The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.

    2017-09-01

    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  7. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  8. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  9. Sol-Gel Application for Consolidating Stone: An Example of Project-Based Learning in a Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Desiree´ M.; Montes, Antonio; Sa´nchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Navas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology was used in the practical laboratories of the Advanced Physical Chemistry department. The project type proposed simulates "real research" focusing on sol-gel synthesis and the application of the obtained sol as a stone consolidant. Students were divided into small groups (2 to 3 students) to…

  10. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  11. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  12. Students' Interest and Experiences in Physics and Chemistry Related Themes: Reflections Based on a ROSE-Survey in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Interest in physics and chemistry topics and out-of-school experiences of Finnish secondary school students (n = 3626, median age 15) were surveyed using the international ROSE questionnaire. Based on explorative factor analysis the scores of six out-of-school experience factors (indicating how often students had done something outside of school)…

  13. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  14. Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

  15. Reasoning Using Particulate Nature of Matter: An Example of a Sociochemical Norm in a University-Level Physical Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole; Rasmussen, Chris; Sweeney, George; Wawro, Megan; Towns, Marcy; Cole, Renee

    2013-01-01

    In college level chemistry courses, reasoning using molecular and particulate descriptions of matter becomes central to understanding physical and chemical properties. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's model of argumentation in order to describe the ways in which students develop…

  16. The 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry; Fast Elementary Processes in Chemical and Biological Systems Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramer, A.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry held in Villeneuve d'Ascq in France. Topics discussed include ultrafast studies in biophysics surface phenomena, photochemical processes, electron and proton transfer, crystalline and microdisperse media and isolated molecules. There were 80 papers presented at the meeting and 14 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  17. Utilization of a Microcomputer for the Study of an Iodine Oxidation and Equilibrium Reaction: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which incorporates the use of a microcomputer to enhance understanding of combined kinetic and equilibrium phenomena, to increase experimental capabilities when working with large numbers of students and limited equipment, and for the student to develop a better understanding of experimental design. (JN)

  18. Milkweed Seed Dispersal: A Means for Integrating Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbee, Gregory D.; Kaiser, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that integrates biology and physics concepts by experimenting with the seed dispersal of common milkweed or similar wind-dispersed seeds. Student teams collect seeds and measure several parameters, review principles of trajectory motion, perform experiments, and graph data. Students examine the ideas of…

  19. Conceptual Integration of Chemical Equilibrium by Prospective Physical Sciences Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaras, Kostas; Dumon, Alain; Larcher, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an empirical study concerning the mastering of the chemical equilibrium concept by prospective physical sciences teachers. The main objective was to check whether the concept of chemical equilibrium had become an integrating and unifying concept for them, that is to say an operational and functional knowledge to explain and…

  20. Synthesis of a drug-like focused library of trisubstituted pyrrolidines using integrated flow chemistry and batch methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Marcus; Baxendale, Ian R; Kuratli, Christoph; Ley, Steven V; Martin, Rainer E; Schneider, Josef

    2011-07-11

    A combination of flow and batch chemistries has been successfully applied to the assembly of a series of trisubstituted drug-like pyrrolidines. This study demonstrates the efficient preparation of a focused library of these pharmaceutically important structures using microreactor technologies, as well as classical parallel synthesis techniques, and thus exemplifies the impact of integrating innovative enabling tools within the drug discovery process.

  1. The Effect of Concept Mapping-Guided Discovery Integrated Teaching Approach on Chemistry Students' Achievement and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, K. V. F.; Eniayeju, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Concept Mapping-Guided Discovery Integrated Teaching Approach on the achievement and retention of chemistry students. The sample comprised 162 Senior Secondary two (SS 2) students drawn from two Science Schools in Nasarawa State, Central Nigeria with equivalent mean scores of 9.68 and 9.49 in their pre-test.…

  2. Water as Life, Death, and Power: Building an Integrated Interdisciplinary Course Combining Perspectives from Anthropology, Biology, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willermet, Cathy; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power", brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  3. The General Philosophy Behind the New Integrated and Co-ordinated Science Courses in N.S.W. and the Science Foundation for Physics Textbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messel, H.; Barker, E. N.

    Described are the science syllabuses and texts for the science courses written to fulfill the aims of the new system of education in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The science course was developed in two stages: (1) A four year integrated science syllabus for grades 7-10, and (2) separate courses in physics, chemistry, and biology with…

  4. AN INVARIANT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DISCIPLINE CHEMISTRY-PHYSIC IN THE FORMATION OF TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY / UN INVARIANTE DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA DISCIPLINA QUÍMICA-FÍSICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORES DE QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a mastership thesis on the Didactic of Chemistry. Here it is offered the first approximation which will constitute the invariant of knowledge of the discipline Chemistry-Physic for the measurement as bachelor in education in the specialty of Chemistry; with this invariant, that knowledge is meaningful for the importance of the teachers to be professional work.

  5. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  6. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D; Kettle, P R [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C.

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  10. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 3. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biology. 6. Development of methods and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  11. Trends in integrated circuit design for particle physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, E V

    2017-01-01

    Integrated circuits are one of the key complex units available to designers of multichannel detector setups. A whole number of factors makes Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) valuable for Particle Physics and Astrophysics experiments. Among them the most important ones are: integration scale, low power dissipation, radiation tolerance. In order to make possible future experiments in the intensity, cosmic, and energy frontiers today ASICs should provide new level of functionality at a new set of constraints and trade-offs, like low-noise high-dynamic range amplification and pulse shaping, high-speed waveform sampling, low power digitization, fast digital data processing, serialization and data transmission. All integrated circuits, necessary for physical instrumentation, should be radiation tolerant at an earlier not reached level (hundreds of Mrad) of total ionizing dose and allow minute almost 3D assemblies. The paper is based on literary source analysis and presents an overview of the state of the art and trends in nowadays chip design, using partially own ASIC lab experience. That shows a next stage of ising micro- and nanoelectronics in physical instrumentation. (paper)

  12. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  13. Integration of Environmental Issues in a Physics Course: 'Physics by Inquiry' High School Teachers' Integration Models and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, David Abiya

    As we approach the second quarter of the twenty-first century, one may predict that the environment will be among the dominant themes in the political and educational discourse. Over the past three decades, particular perspectives regarding the environment have begun to emerge: (i) realization by human beings that we not only live on earth and use its resources at an increasingly high rate but we also actually belong to the earth and the total ecology of all living systems, (ii) there are strong interactions among different components of the large and complex systems that make up our environment, and (iii) the rising human population and its impact on the environment is a great concern (Hughes & Mason, 2014). Studies have revealed that although the students do not have a deep understanding of environmental issues and lack environmental awareness and attitudes necessary for protecting the environment, they have great concern for the environment (Chapman & Sharma, 2001; Fien, Yencken, & Sykes, 2002). However, addressing environmental issues in the classroom and other disciplines has never been an easy job for teachers (Pennock & Bardwell, 1994; Edelson, 2007). Using multiple case studies, this study investigated how three purposefully selected physics teachers teaching a 'Physics by Inquiry' course integrated environmental topics and issues in their classroom. Particularly this study looked at what integration models and practices the three physics teachers employed in integrating environmental topics and issues in their classroom and what challenges the teachers faced while integrating environmental topics in their classrooms. Data collection methods including field notes taken from observations, teachers' interviews and a collection of artifacts and documents were used. The data were coded analyzed and organized into codes and categories guided by Fogarty (1991) models of curriculum integration and Ham and Sewing (1988) four categories of barriers to environmental

  14. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  15. Analysis of the Chemistry activities in 1st level of Spanish Bachelor Physics and Chemistry textbooks from a «Chemistry in context» approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea MARTÍNEZ DÍAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there are two worrying phenomenon happening in the science teaching environment, on one hand there are fewer students who choose science subjects at the time they’re optional and on the other hand the decreasing number of university students enrolled in science careers, if we add those two facts the results of the latest pisa tests, which show that students who choose these materials do not get satisfactory results, we have a hopeless outlook. One way of analysing the situation is exploring what happens in the classroom and in this context we find that the textbook is a resource used extensively in the teaching of Chemistry; one essential element for learning are planned activities in the classroom, so it seems essential to make a full review of them. The objectives in this study are: Analysing and classifying the activities contextualized of chemistry textbooks currently used in eleventh grade and comparing books from different educational laws based on their contextualized activities. For the review and classification of activities it uses a methodology of analysis for qualitative content. The results demonstrate the anecdotic presence of this kind of activities in textbooks; 8308 activities were reviewed of which only 6,46% corresponded to contextualized activities. In addition when comparing the different books, whether they are currently used or the ones from previous educational laws, we see that there is not a turnaround in what refers to the contextualized activities, as a significant variation is not observed in the percentages and therefore do not adapt well to curriculum changes. 

  16. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Giannerini, Simone; González, Diego L

    2016-03-13

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems-or parts of them-within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of the actinides. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Keller, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is the purpose of the Handbook to describe in detail the present understanding of the actinides by means of comprehensive, critical, broad and up to date reviews covering both physics and chemistry of these exotic elements. Volume 3 is the first of two volumes to cover the more chemical, physico-chemical, structural and environmental aspects of the actinide elements. Leading scientists from Europe, USA and P.R. China present critical reviews on important aspects of the behaviour of this radioactive group of elements. In contrast to most other elements radioactivity has, to a degree, a profound influence on the chemical behaviour of the actinides. The unusual behaviour of the 5f-elements - delocalization of the electrons for the light actinides versus localization for the heavier ones - makes them an outstanding tool for the scientist, which can be seen by the variety of oxidation states ranging from +1 to +7. Special laboratory techniques must be developed to deal with the problem of the transcurium elements only being available in small amounts (nanograms to micrograms) or only in the tracer scale. Special emphasis is also placed on the fate of actinides released in the environment, e.g. their reaction to carbonate and organic complexing agents in aquatic systems. In contrast to volumes 1 and 2 which deal mainly with the less radioactive actinides, this volume and the forthcoming volume 4 cover all actinides, in particular those which can be prepared in weighable quantities (up to fermium, element 100). refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J.

    2011-11-01

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  19. Analysis of scientific argumentation in two physical chemistry classrooms using the POGIL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Alena C.

    The benefits of facilitating argumentation in science education have been well reported (Jimenez-Aleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Engaging in argumentation has shown to model authentic scientific inquiry as well as promote development of content knowledge. However, less emphasis has been placed on facilitating argumentation in upper level undergraduate courses, though it is important for evaluating undergraduate curricula to characterize upper level students' scientific reasoning. This work considers two implementations of the POGIL physical chemistry curriculum and evaluates the classroom argumentation. The researchers aimed to consider the content of the arguments and dialectical features characteristic of socially constructed arguments (Nielson, 2013). To do this, whole class sessions were videotaped and Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) was used to identify the arguments generated during the class (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004). A learning progression on chemical thinking (Sevian & Talanquer, 2014) was used as a domain-specific measure of argument quality. Results show differences in argumentation between and across both classrooms that can be explained by analysis of instructor facilitation and the POGIL curriculum. The results from this work will be used to make recommendations for instructor facilitation of argumentation and reform of the POGIL curriculum.

  20. Application of perturbed angular correlations to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinneberg, H H [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    The paper reviews the more recent applications of ..gamma..-..gamma.. time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics. Topics which are discussed in some detail include: Supertransferred hyperfine fields at diamagnetic impurities in antiferromagnetic transition metal compounds and their relation to the covalency of the transition metal-ligand bond; effects of charge transfer on the quadrupole interactions in various partially covalent insulators measured by PAC; fluctuating electric field gradients in heptafluorohafnates; the influence of charge density waves in TaS/sub 2/ and the effect of intercalating on the field gradients at /sup 181/Ta; recent advances in the understanding of electric field gradients in metals; information obtained by PAC on the microscopic structure of alloys as well as defects in pure metals after quenching, implantation or irradiation. Magnetic and electric phase transitions observed in PAC spectra are briefly mentioned. In addition, recent measurements in liquids and gases are reviewed. Three introductory sections are devoted to a brief discussion of the time-differential PAC technique, to a concise explanation of the theoretical expressions needed to analyse PAC spectra and to a short description of the experimental set-up. An outlook suggests some areas of possible future applications.

  1. Physics and Chemistry on Well-Defined Semiconductor and Oxide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peijun

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and other surface spectroscopic techniques have been employed to investigate the following two classes of surface/interface phenomena on well-defined semiconductor and oxide surfaces: (i) the fundamental physical and chemical processes involved in gas-solid interaction on silicon single crystal surfaces, and (ii) the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxide interfaces. The particular systems reported in this dissertation are: NH_3, PH_3 and B_ {10}H_{14} on Si(111)-(7 x 7); NH_3 on Si(100) -(2 x 1); atomic H on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and boron-modified Si(111); Al on Al_2O_3 and Sn on SiO_2.. On silicon surfaces, the surface dangling bonds function as the primary adsorption sites where surface chemical processes take place. The unambiguous identification of surface species by vibrational spectroscopy allows the elementary steps involved in these surface chemical processes to be followed on a molecular level. For adsorbate molecules such as NH_3 and PH_3, the nature of the initial low temperature (100 -300 K) adsorption is found to be dissociative, while that for B_{10}H_ {14} is non-dissociative. This has been deduced based upon the presence (or absence) of specific characteristic vibrational mode(s) on surface. By following the evolution of surface species as a function of temperature, the elementary steps leading to silicon nitride thin film growth and doping of silicon are elucidated. In the case of NH_3 on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and Si(100)-(2 x 1), a detailed understanding on the role of substrate surface structure in controlling the surface reactivity has been gained on the basis of a Si adatom backbond-strain relief mechanism on the Si(111) -(7 x 7). The electronic modification to Si(111) surface by subsurface boron doping has been shown to quench its surface chemistry, even for the most aggressive atomic H. This discovery is potentially meaningful to the technology of gas-phase silicon etching. The

  2. Becoming physics people: Development of integrated physics identity through the Learning Assistant experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of community of practice and physics identity, and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation. Regression models from physics identity studies show that the physics identity construct strongly predicts intended choice of a career in physics. The goal of our current project is to understand the details of the impacts of participation in the LA experience on participants' practice and self-concept, in order to identify critical elements of LA program structure that positively influence physics identity and physics career intentions for students. Our analysis suggests that participation in the LA program impacts LAs in ways that support both stronger "physics student" identity and stronger "physics instructor" identity, and that these identities are reconciled into a coherent integrated physics identity. Increased comfort in interactions with peers, near peers, and faculty seems to be an important component of this identity development and reconciliation, suggesting that a focus on supporting community membership is useful for effective program design.

  3. Chemistry and physics of a single atomic layer: strategies and challenges for functionalization of graphene and graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zheng, Yue Bing; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Gao, Xingfa; Xu, Bingqian; Weiss, Paul S; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-01-07

    Graphene has attracted great interest for its superior physical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties that enable a wide range of applications from electronics to nanoelectromechanical systems. Functionalization is among the significant vectors that drive graphene towards technological applications. While the physical properties of graphene have been at the center of attention, we still lack the knowledge framework for targeted graphene functionalization. In this critical review, we describe some of the important chemical and physical processes for graphene functionalization. We also identify six major challenges in graphene research and give perspectives and practical strategies for both fundamental studies and applications of graphene (315 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. The Physics and Chemistry of Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes as Traced by Simple Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Tat

    2018-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved stars are not fully understood despite decades of research. This thesis addresses two issues in the study of the CSEs of oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars. In the first project, the ammonia (NH3) chemistry of O-rich stars is investigated with multi-wavelength observations; in the second project, the extended atmosphere and inner wind of the archetypal asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star o Ceti (Mira) is studied with high-angular resolution observations. One of the long-standing mysteries in circumstellar chemistry is the perplexing overabundance of the NH3 molecule. NH3 in O-rich evolved stars has been found in much higher abundance, by several orders of magnitude, than that expected in equilibrium chemistry. Several mechanisms have been suggested in the literature to explain this high NH3 abundance, including shocks in the inner wind, photodissociation of nitrogen by interstellar ultraviolet radiation, and nitrogen enrichment in stellar nucleosynthesis; however, none of these suggestions can fully explain the abundances of NH3 and various other molecular species in the CSEs of O-rich stars. In order to investigate the distribution of NH3 in O-rich CSEs, observations of the spectral lines of NH3 from a diverse sample of evolved stars and in different wavelength regimes are necessary. In this thesis, the NH3 line emission and absorption from four O-rich stars are studied. These targets include the AGB star IK Tauri, the pre-planetary nebula OH 231.8+4.2, the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, and the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420. The amount of NH3 observational data has increased drastically thanks to the recent advancement of instrumentation. Observations of NH3 rotational line emission at submillimetre/far-infrared wavelengths were possible with the Herschel Space Observatory (2009–2013). The new wideband correlator in the upgraded Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) provided data of

  5. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-02-01

    In an advanced environmental chemistry course, the inclusion of semester-long scientific service projects successfully integrated the research process with course content. Each project involved a unique community-based environmental analysis in which students assessed an aspect of environmental health. The projects were due in small pieces at even intervals, and students worked independently or in pairs. Initially, students wrote a project proposal in which they chose and justified a project. Following a literature review of their topic, they drafted sampling and analysis plans using methods in the literature. Samples were collected and analyzed, and all students assembled scientific posters describing the results of their study. In the last week of the semester, the class traveled to a regional professional meeting to present the posters. In all, students found the experience valuable. They learned to be professional environmental chemists and learned the value of the discipline to community health. Students not only learned about their own project in depth, but they were inspired to learn textbook material, not for an exam, but because it helped them understand their own project. Finally, having a community to answer to at the end of the project motivated students to do careful work.

  6. Learning How to Teach Chemistry with Technology: Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences with Integrating Technology into Their Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Gail

    2014-06-01

    The Australian Government initiative, Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF), was a targeted response to improve the preparation of future teachers with integrating technology into their practice. This paper reports on TTF research involving 28 preservice teachers undertaking a chemistry curriculum studies unit that adopted a technological focus. For chemistry teaching the results showed that technological knowledge augmented the fundamental pedagogical knowledge necessary for teaching chemistry content. All the pre-service teachers demonstrated an understanding of the role of technology in teaching and learning and reported an increased skill level in a variety of technologies, many they had not used previously. Some students were sceptical about this learning when schools did not have technological resources available. This paper argues that teacher education courses should include technological skills that match those available in schools, as well as introduce new technologies to support a change in the culture of using technology in schools.

  7. Illustrating Concepts in Physical Organic Chemistry with 3D Printed Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael J.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital theory provides a powerful tool for rationalizing and understanding many phenomena in chemistry. In most introductory chemistry courses, students are introduced to atomic and molecular orbitals in the form of two-dimensional drawings. In this work, we describe a general method for producing 3D printing files of orbital models that can be…

  8. Engineering Physics Division integral experiments and their analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Integral experiments are performed as part of the Engineering Physics Division's on-going research in the development and application of radiation shielding methods. Integral experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) under the Division's Magnetic Fusion program are designed to provide data against which ORNL and all other organizations involved in shielding calculations for fusion devices can test their calculational methods and interaction data. The Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) continues to be the primary source of integral data for fission reactor shielding design. The experiments performed at the TSF during the last few years have been sponsored by the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) program. During this report period final documentation was also prepared for the remaining LMFBR shielding experiments, including an examination of streaming through annular slits and measurement of secondary gamma-ray production in reinforced concrete

  9. Understanding student use of differentials in physics integration problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehui Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on students’ use of the mathematical concept of differentials in physics problem solving. For instance, in electrostatics, students need to set up an integral to find the electric field due to a charged bar, an activity that involves the application of mathematical differentials (e.g., dr, dq. In this paper we aim to explore students’ reasoning about the differential concept in physics problems. We conducted group teaching or learning interviews with 13 engineering students enrolled in a second-semester calculus-based physics course. We amalgamated two frameworks—the resources framework and the conceptual metaphor framework—to analyze students’ reasoning about differential concept. Categorizing the mathematical resources involved in students’ mathematical thinking in physics provides us deeper insights into how students use mathematics in physics. Identifying the conceptual metaphors in students’ discourse illustrates the role of concrete experiential notions in students’ construction of mathematical reasoning. These two frameworks serve different purposes, and we illustrate how they can be pieced together to provide a better understanding of students’ mathematical thinking in physics.

  10. Japan - UK Conference: Trends in Physics and Chemistry Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    demonstrations by groups of physics and chemistry teachers of apparatus that they had made. This hugely enjoyable session has resulted in a great number of good ideas appearing ready for use in a certain British physics lab. Poaching ideas in teaching can be an international activity as well! One impression that this session left us with is that, making a gross generalization, the Japanese are physics teachers, the British physics teachers. How delightful if we in Britain could more often gather in this fashion to delight in exploring physics for ourselves. A substantial benefit of the conference was the challenge of presenting the substantive arguments behind the philosophy of curriculum change to teachers from a different culture, with thoughts being tempered in the furnace of translation. When each word requires lengthy translation, they become precious. An attempt to explain what was meant by the phrase `positive formative reinforcement' that had been carelessly written on one overhead transparency on the purpose of assessment has left permanent mental scars (and perhaps rightly so!). And what of the future? The conference, and perhaps more especially the surrounding visits, resulted in the start of new friendships and the renewal of old acquaintances. Other visits and conferences will doubtless be arranged. The two groups of physics teachers have much to share and discuss with each other. In the short term it is hoped that fruitful e-mail communication and cooperation can be continued both between participants and among a wider circle of physics teachers from both countries. Philip Britton and Ian Lawrence Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, and Secretary, IoP Education Group King's School Worcester, and Chairman, IoP Education Group

  11. Integration of radiation and physical safety in large radiator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, P.P.M.; Benedito, A.M.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Growing international concern about radioactive sources after the Sept. 11, 2001 event has led to a strengthening of physical safety. There is evidence that the illicit use of radioactive sources is a real possibility and may result in harmful radiological consequences for the population and the environment. In Brazil there are about 2000 medical, industrial and research facilities with radioactive sources, of which 400 are Category 1 and 2 classified by the - International Atomic Energy Agency - AIEA, where large irradiators occupy a prominent position due to the very high cobalt-60 activities. The radiological safety is well established in these facilities, due to the intense work of the authorities in the Country. In the paper the main aspects on radiological and physical safety applied in the large radiators are presented, in order to integrate both concepts for the benefit of the safety as a whole. The research showed that the items related to radiation safety are well defined, for example, the tests on the access control devices to the irradiation room. On the other hand, items related to physical security, such as effective control of access to the company, use of safety cameras throughout the company, are not yet fully incorporated. Integration of radiation and physical safety is fundamental for total safety. The elaboration of a Brazilian regulation on the subject is of extreme importance

  12. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration...

  13. Integrating Free Computer Software in Chemistry and Biochemistry Instruction: An International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeno, David L.; Jones, Marjorie A.; Friesen, Jon A.; Wirtz, Mark W.; Rios, Luz Amalia; Ocampo, Gonzalo Taborda

    2010-01-01

    At the Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, we used their new computer facilities to introduce chemistry graduate students to biochemical database mining and quantum chemistry calculations using freeware. These hands-on workshops allowed the students a strong introduction to easily accessible software and how to use this software to begin…

  14. Ensuring Sustainability of Tomorrow through Green Chemistry Integrated with Sustainable Development Concepts (SDCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a best practice: an approach to teaching chemistry that our quantitative research has shown to produce large differences between experimental and control groups in terms of achievement, pro-environmental attitudes, values, and motivation. Our interest in teaching chemistry by focusing on sustainable…

  15. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  16. Integration of Video-Based Demonstrations to Prepare Students for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Scaggs, Jonathan; Sheffield, Colin; McDougal, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent, high-quality introductions to organic chemistry laboratory techniques effectively and efficiently support student learning in the organic chemistry laboratory. In this work, we developed and deployed a series of instructional videos to communicate core laboratory techniques and concepts. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested the…

  17. VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials. Collection of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The materials of the VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials, held 8-11 November 2010 in Moscow, are presented. Structure and properties of high-strength nanostructured metal and composite materials, development of research methods and simulation of the structure and properties of materials and nanomaterials, functional ceramic and composite nanomaterials - in sight of the participants. The problems of physicochemical principles and processes for new technologies and forming powder materials and nanomaterials, physicochemical bases of production and processing of advanced inorganic materials, physical chemistry and technology of energy-, resource-saving and environmentally friendly processes for ferrous, non-ferrous and rare metals are under consideration. Promising composite coatings and nanostructured films of functional purposes, physicochemical bases of new processes of shaping and forming of materials and nanomaterials are discussed [ru

  18. Multi-scale multi-physics computational chemistry simulation based on ultra-accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics method for structural materials in boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Akira; Sato, Etsuko; Sato, Ryo; Inaba, Kenji; Hatakeyama, Nozomu

    2014-01-01

    In collaboration with experimental experts we have reported in the present conference (Hatakeyama, N. et al., “Experiment-integrated multi-scale, multi-physics computational chemistry simulation applied to corrosion behaviour of BWR structural materials”) the results of multi-scale multi-physics computational chemistry simulations applied to the corrosion behaviour of BWR structural materials. In macro-scale, a macroscopic simulator of anode polarization curve was developed to solve the spatially one-dimensional electrochemical equations on the material surface in continuum level in order to understand the corrosion behaviour of typical BWR structural material, SUS304. The experimental anode polarization behaviours of each pure metal were reproduced by fitting all the rates of electrochemical reactions and then the anode polarization curve of SUS304 was calculated by using the same parameters and found to reproduce the experimental behaviour successfully. In meso-scale, a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulator was applied to an actual-time simulation of the morphological corrosion behaviour under the influence of an applied voltage. In micro-scale, an ultra-accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) code was applied to various metallic oxide surfaces of Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , Cr 2 O 3 modelled as same as water molecules and dissolved metallic ions on the surfaces, then the dissolution and segregation behaviours were successfully simulated dynamically by using UA-QCMD. In this paper we describe details of the multi-scale, multi-physics computational chemistry method especially the UA-QCMD method. This method is approximately 10,000,000 times faster than conventional first-principles molecular dynamics methods based on density-functional theory (DFT), and the accuracy was also validated for various metals and metal oxides compared with DFT results. To assure multi-scale multi-physics computational chemistry simulation based on the UA-QCMD method for

  19. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  20. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  1. Peer Teaching in the Food Chemistry Laboratory: Student-produced Experiments, Peer and Audio Feedback and Integration of Employability

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the author’s experience over the last several years of implementing an alternative Food Chemistry laboratory practical for a group of third-year BSc Nutraceuticals students. The initial main objectives were to prepare students for the more independent final-year research project; to incorporate innovative approaches to feedback; and to integrate key employability skills into the curriculum. These were achieved through building the skills required to ultimately allow stude...

  2. An Integrated Simulation Module for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferracuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators are often used to replace the real control devices and physical connections during the development stage. The most widespread simulators are free, open source, expandable, flexible and fully integrated into mathematical modeling tools; however, the connection at a physical level and the direct interaction with the real process via the WSN are only marginally tackled; moreover, the simulated wireless sensor motes are not able to generate the analogue output typically required for control purposes. A new simulation module for the control of a wireless cyber-physical system is proposed in this paper. The module integrates the COntiki OS JAva Simulator (COOJA, a cross-level wireless sensor network simulator, and the LabVIEW system design software from National Instruments. The proposed software module has been called “GILOO” (Graphical Integration of Labview and cOOja. It allows one to develop and to debug control strategies over the WSN both using virtual or real hardware modules, such as the National Instruments Real-Time Module platform, the CompactRio, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA, etc. To test the proposed solution, we decided to integrate it with one of the most popular simulators, i.e., the Contiki OS, and wireless motes, i.e., the Sky mote. As a further contribution, the Contiki Sky DAC driver and a new “Advanced Sky GUI” have been proposed and tested in the COOJA Simulator in order to provide the possibility to develop control over the WSN. To test the performances of the proposed GILOO software module, several experimental tests have been made, and interesting preliminary results are reported. The GILOO module has been

  3. An Integrated Simulation Module for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracuti, Francesco; Freddi, Alessandro; Monteriù, Andrea; Prist, Mariorosario

    2016-05-05

    The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators are often used to replace the real control devices and physical connections during the development stage. The most widespread simulators are free, open source, expandable, flexible and fully integrated into mathematical modeling tools; however, the connection at a physical level and the direct interaction with the real process via the WSN are only marginally tackled; moreover, the simulated wireless sensor motes are not able to generate the analogue output typically required for control purposes. A new simulation module for the control of a wireless cyber-physical system is proposed in this paper. The module integrates the COntiki OS JAva Simulator (COOJA), a cross-level wireless sensor network simulator, and the LabVIEW system design software from National Instruments. The proposed software module has been called "GILOO" (Graphical Integration of Labview and cOOja). It allows one to develop and to debug control strategies over the WSN both using virtual or real hardware modules, such as the National Instruments Real-Time Module platform, the CompactRio, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), etc. To test the proposed solution, we decided to integrate it with one of the most popular simulators, i.e., the Contiki OS, and wireless motes, i.e., the Sky mote. As a further contribution, the Contiki Sky DAC driver and a new "Advanced Sky GUI" have been proposed and tested in the COOJA Simulator in order to provide the possibility to develop control over the WSN. To test the performances of the proposed GILOO software module, several experimental tests have been made, and interesting preliminary results are reported. The GILOO module has been applied to a smart home

  4. Towards a physics-integrated view on divertor pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Chr.; Gleason-González, C.; Hauer, V.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kalupin, D.; Varoutis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physics-integrated design approaches are to be preferred over approaches based on simple requirement lists. • A physics-integrated assessment is presented for the divertor vacuum pumping system based on detachment onset conditions for the divertor. • This approach considers density dependent pump albedo to reflect the effects of gas recycling at the divertor and the changes in flow regime with density. • A comparison with DEMO indicates that the divertor pumping system for a pulsed DEMO scales less than linearly with fusion power. - Abstract: One key requirement to design the inner fuel cycle of a divertor tokamak is defined by the torus vessel gas throughput and composition, and the sub-divertor neutral pressure at which the exhaust gas has to be pumped. This paper illustrates how divertor physics aspects can be translated to requirements on the divertor vacuum pumping system. An example workflow is presented that links the realization of detachment conditions with the sub-divertor neutral gas flow patterns in order to determine the appropriate number of torus vacuum pumps. For the example case of a fusion DEMO size machine, it was found that 7 actively pumping cryopumps (ITER-type) are necessary to handle the gas throughput that is needed to manage the heat flux and densities related to detachment onset

  5. Micro-physics of aircraft-generated aerosols and their potential impact on heterogeneous plume chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B; Luo, B P [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1998-12-31

    Answers are attempted to give to open questions concerning physico-chemical processes in near-field aircraft plumes, with emphasis on their potential impact on subsequent heterogeneous chemistry. Research issues concerning the nucleation of aerosols and their interactions among themselves and with exhaust gases are summarized. Microphysical properties of contrail ice particles, formation of liquid ternary mixtures, and nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in contrails are examined and possible implications for heterogeneous plume chemistry are discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  6. Micro-physics of aircraft-generated aerosols and their potential impact on heterogeneous plume chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Luo, B.P. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1997-12-31

    Answers are attempted to give to open questions concerning physico-chemical processes in near-field aircraft plumes, with emphasis on their potential impact on subsequent heterogeneous chemistry. Research issues concerning the nucleation of aerosols and their interactions among themselves and with exhaust gases are summarized. Microphysical properties of contrail ice particles, formation of liquid ternary mixtures, and nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in contrails are examined and possible implications for heterogeneous plume chemistry are discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  7. Does Everyone's Motivational Beliefs about Physical Science Decline in Secondary School?: Heterogeneity of Adolescents' Achievement Motivation Trajectories in Physics and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue

    2017-08-01

    Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.

  8. Integrative Analysis of the Physical Transport Network into Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cope

    Full Text Available Effective biosecurity is necessary to protect nations and their citizens from a variety of threats, including emerging infectious diseases, agricultural or environmental pests and pathogens, and illegal wildlife trade. The physical pathways by which these threats are transported internationally, predominantly shipping and air traffic, have undergone significant growth and changes in spatial distributions in recent decades. An understanding of the specific pathways and donor-traffic hotspots created by this integrated physical transport network is vital for the development of effective biosecurity strategies into the future. In this study, we analysed the physical transport network into Australia over the period 1999-2012. Seaborne and air traffic were weighted to calculate a "weighted cumulative impact" score for each source region worldwide, each year. High risk source regions, and those source regions that underwent substantial changes in risk over the study period, were determined. An overall risk ranking was calculated by integrating across all possible weighting combinations. The source regions having greatest overall physical connectedness with Australia were Singapore, which is a global transport hub, and the North Island of New Zealand, a close regional trading partner with Australia. Both those regions with large amounts of traffic across multiple vectors (e.g., Hong Kong, and those with high levels of traffic of only one type (e.g., Bali, Indonesia with respect to passenger flights, were represented among high risk source regions. These data provide a baseline model for the transport of individuals and commodities against which the effectiveness of biosecurity controls may be assessed, and are a valuable tool in the development of future biosecurity policy.

  9. Fission-product chemistry in severe reactor accidents: Review of relevant integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Hueber, C.

    1992-01-01

    The attenuation of the radioactive fission-product emission from a severe reactor accident will depend on a combination of chemical, physical and thermal-hydraulic effects. Chemical species stabilised under the prevailing conditions will determine the extent of aerosol formation and any subsequent interaction, so defining the magnitude and physical forms of the eventual release into the environment. While several important integral tests have taken place in recent years, these experiments have tended to focus on the generation of mass-balance and aerosol-related data to test and validate materials-transport codes rather than study the impact of important chemical phenomena. This emphasis on thermal hydraulics, fuel behaviour and aerosol properties has occurred in many test (e.g. PBF, DEMONA, Marviken-V, LACE and ACE). Nevertheless, the generation and reaction of the chemical species in all of these programmes determined the transport properties of the resulting vapours and aerosols. Chemical effects have been studied in measurements somewhat subsidiary to the main aims of the tests. This work has been reviewed in detail with respect to Marviken-V, LACE, ACE and Falcon. Specific issues remain to be addressed, and these are discussed in terms of the proposed Phebus-FB programme. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  10. Water physics and chemistry data from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959 (NODC Accession 7101380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959. Data were submitted by...

  11. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from FIXED PLATFORM from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7400880)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972. Data were submitted by Edgerton,...

  12. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6800201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961. Data were submitted by...

  13. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 1976-02-26 to 1976-05-26 (NODC Accession 7800050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 26 February 1976 to 26 May 1976. Data were submitted by the Skidaway...

  14. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969 (NODC Accession 7100605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969. Data were submitted by the Stanford University;...

  15. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8500022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982. Data were submitted by...

  16. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry

  17. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  18. Very Low Surface Energy (Membrane Separations: An Integrated Polymer Chemistry/Engineering Approach and The Influence of Backpulsing on Fouling Properties of Novel Nanofiltration Membranes for Wastewater Remediation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Benny

    1998-01-01

    ...: An Integrated Polymer Chemistry/Engineering Approach, is to explore several new classes of polymeric materials to identify promising routes for developing low-fouling nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation...

  19. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding through an

  20. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-02

    conference held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding

  1. Students' network integration vs. persistence in introductory physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Justyna; Brewe, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Society is constantly in flux, which demands the continuous development of our educational system to meet new challenges and impart the appropriate knowledge/skills to students. In order to improve student learning, among other things, the way we are teaching has significantly changed over the past few decades. We are moving away from traditional, lecture-based teaching towards more interactive, engagement-based strategies. A current, major challenge for universities is to increase student retention. While students' academic and social integration into an institution seems to be vital for student retention, research on the effect of interpersonal interactions is rare. I use of network analysis to investigate academic and social experiences of students in and beyond the classroom. In particular, there is a compelling case that transformed physics classes, such as Modeling Instruction (MI), promote persistence by the creation of learning communities that support the integration of students into the university. I will discuss recent results on pattern development in networks of MI students' interactions throughout the semester, as well as the effect of students' position within the network on their persistence in physics.

  2. Physical and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Watts, Kristopher P; Zhong, Peihan; Wei, Chen-Shuang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and physical impact of virtual reality (VR) integrated training versus traditional training methods in the domain of weld training. Weld training is very important in various industries and represents a complex skill set appropriate for advanced training intervention. As such, there has been a long search for the most successful and most cost-effective method for training new welders. Participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two separate training courses taught by sanctioned American Welding Society certified welding instructors; the duration of each course was 2 weeks. After completing the training for a specific weld type, participants were given the opportunity to test for the corresponding certification. Participants were evaluated in terms of their cognitive and physical parameters, total training time exposure, and welding certification awards earned. Each of the four weld types taught in this study represented distinct levels of difficulty and required the development of specialized knowledge and skills. This study demonstrated that participants in the VR integrated training group (VR50) performed as well as, and in some cases, significantly outperformed, the traditional welding (TW) training group.The VR50 group was found to have a 41.6% increase in overall certifications earned compared with the TW group. VR technology is a valuable tool for the production of skilled welders in a shorter time and often with more highly developed skills than their traditionally trained counterparts. These findings strongly support the use ofVR integrated training in the welding industry.

  3. Integrating Chemical Information Instruction into the Chemistry Curriculum on Borrowed Time: A Multiyear Case Study of a Capstone Research Report for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Danielle L.; Dalal, Heather A.; Dawson, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    To develop information literacy skills in chemistry and biochemistry majors at a primarily undergraduate institution, a multiyear collaboration between chemistry faculty and librarians has resulted in the establishment of a semester-long capstone project for Organic Chemistry II. Information literacy skills were instilled via a progressive…

  4. Integrating physical and financial approaches to manage environmental financial risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Gregory; Meyer, Eliot; Foster, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Physical and/or engineered solutions have long been used to manage risks associated with adverse environmental events. Examples include reservoirs as a tool for mitigating drought-related supply risk, levees for managing flood risk and dredging of inland waterways to ensure navigability during low flow periods. These measures can reduce many types of risk (e.g., loss of life), but are often employed as a means of protecting against financial losses. When the focus is on managing environmental financial risk, physical solutions can be effective, but also costly. In many cases, non-physical tools can provide a less expensive means of managing financial risk, with these often taking the form of financial instruments such as hedging contracts, contingency funds or insurance. Some of these instruments, such as flood insurance, are widely available, but historically many environmental financial risks have been managed primarily (or solely) via physical solutions without much consideration of alternatives, thereby opening opportunities for innovation in developing financial solutions. Recent research has demonstrated that financial instruments can play a significant role in managing drought-related financial risk in sectors as diverse as water utilities, energy generation and inland navigation. Nonetheless, this work has largely considered the use of these instruments within systems in which physical solutions are already in place (but failing to achieve desired performance). The next step in the evolution of managing environmental financial risk involves developing methods for designing risk management strategies that do not assume an established physical system. Here the goal is to identify the relative role that physical solutions and financial instruments should play as they are integrated into a comprehensive risk management strategy. This is not a straightforward challenge as one approach reduces the risk of financial losses and the other redistributes those losses

  5. The common extremalities in biology and physics maximum energy dissipation principle in chemistry, biology, physics and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This book is the first unified systemic description of dissipative phenomena, taking place in biology, and non-dissipative (conservative) phenomena, which is more relevant to physics. Fully updated and revised, this new edition extends our understanding of nonlinear phenomena in biology and physics from the extreme / optimal perspective. The first book to provide understanding of physical phenomena from a biological perspective and biological phenomena from a physical perspective Discusses emerging fields and analysis Provides examples.

  6. Integrated marketing sphere of physical culture and sports in terms of European integration Regional Center Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Popov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: exposure of conceptual and strategic positions of the complex marketing of sphere of physical culture and sport in the conditions of European integration of regional center. Material and Methods: analysis of literary sources, analysis of documents of legislative, normatively-legal and programmatic maintenance, analysis of the systems, questioning as a questionnaire. Results: the analysis of the systems of terms of development of sphere of physical culture and sport is carried out by the study of modern tendencies, interests of young people and habitants of regional center; complex description of conceptual and strategic positions of the relatively complex marketing of sphere of physical culture and sport is presented in the conditions of European integration of regional center. Conclusions: it is set that the decision of tasks in relation to conditioning for development of sphere of physical culture and sport must come true with the observance of certain principles; got founding in relation to development of marketing plan of forming of sporting image Kharkiv.

  7. Characterizing physical properties and heterogeneous chemistry of single particles in air using optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Wang, C.; Pan, Y. L.; Videen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of solid particles in a gaseous environment are of increasing interest; however, most of the heterogeneous chemistry studies of airborne solids were conducted on particle ensembles. A close examination on the heterogeneous chemistry between single particles and gaseous-environment species is the key to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of hydroscopic growth, cloud nuclei condensation, secondary aerosol formation, etc., and reduce the uncertainty of models in radiative forcing, climate change, and atmospheric chemistry. We demonstrate an optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy (OT-RS) system to study the heterogeneous chemistry of the solid particles in air at single-particle level. Compared to other single-particle techniques, optical trapping offers a non-invasive, flexible, and stable method to isolate single solid particle from substrates. Benefited from two counter-propagating hollow beams, the optical trapping configuration is adaptive to trap a variety of particles with different materials from inorganic substitution (carbon nanotubes, silica, etc.) to organic, dye-doped polymers and bioaerosols (spores, pollen, etc.), with different optical properties from transparent to strongly absorbing, with different sizes from sub-micrometers to tens of microns, or with distinct morphologies from loosely packed nanotubes to microspheres and irregular pollen grains. The particles in the optical trap may stay unchanged, surface degraded, or optically fragmented according to different laser intensity, and their physical and chemical properties are characterized by the Raman spectra and imaging system simultaneously. The Raman spectra is able to distinguish the chemical compositions of different particles, while the synchronized imaging system can resolve their physical properties (sizes, shapes, morphologies, etc.). The temporal behavior of the trapped particles also can be monitored by the OT-RS system at an indefinite time with a resolution from

  8. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996.

  9. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996

  10. An Integrated Limnology, Microbiology & Chemistry Exercise for Teaching Summer Lake Stratification, Nutrient Consumption & Chemical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnivant, Frank M.

    2006-01-01

    Most chemistry and biology teachers will agree that students have a "disconnect" between these two disciplines. This likely results from the categorization of the topics into two classes or two separate years of study. In this article, the author provides one example of how the two disciplines can be related in an environmental application that…

  11. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  12. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-01-01

    An active service-learning research work is conducted in the field of advanced environmental chemistry. Multiple projects are assigned to students, which promote individual learning skills, self-confidence as scientists, and a deep understanding of the environmental chemist's profession.

  13. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  14. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  15. Integration of Information Literacy Components into a Large First-Year Lecture-Based Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locknar, Angela; Mitchell, Rudolph; Rankin, Janet; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    A first-year chemistry course is ideal for introducing students to finding and using scholarly information early in their academic careers. A four-pronged approach (lectures, homework problems, videos, and model solutions) was used to incorporate library research skills into a large lecture-based course. Pre- and post-course surveying demonstrated…

  16. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  17. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: Integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. -- Highlights: • Hazards from natural seepage were evaluated through a multidisciplinary WOE study. • Caged eels and mussels were chosen as bioindicator organisms. • Evaluations obtained from various LOEs were not always in accordance. • Biological effects of natural hydrocarbons release were demonstrated. • WOE approach could discriminate different levels of hazard in low impacted conditions. -- A multidisciplinary WOE study in a shallow coastal seepage summarized a Moderate level of risk based on integration of sediment chemistry with biological effects in caged organisms

  18. Contributions for the chemistry, physics and technology of the elementary carbon in various states for the Carbon '76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delle, W.W.

    1976-07-01

    This report is the compilation of a number of papers prepared by KFA Juelich for the 2nd International Carbon Conference CARBON '76 at Baden-Baden, June 28th - July 2nd, 1976. The presentations deal with objectives of chemistry, physics and technology of the elementary carbon in various states including irradiation induced effects on graphite and pyrolytic carbon. The work was partly sponsored by the Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie of the Federal Republic of Germany as well as by the Government of North-Rhine-Westfalia. (orig.) [de

  19. Physical chemistry of portland-cement hydrate, radioactive-waste hosts: Final report, January 16, 1987--December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grutzeck, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is a final report summarizing the results of a study of the physical and crystal chemistry of potential hydroxylated radioactive waste hosts compatible with portland cement. Research has focussed on the identification and evaluation of hydrated host phases for four ions: cesium, strontium, iodine and boron. These ions were chosen because they are among the most long lived of the radioactive waste ions as well as the most difficult to immobilize with cement-based materials. Results show that such phases do indeed exist, and that they are excellent host phases for the above ions

  20. Research into condensed matter using large-scale apparatus. Physics, chemistry, biology. Progress report 1992-1995. Summarizing reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Activities for research into condensed matter have been supported by the German BMBF with approx. 102 million Deutschmarks in the years 1992 through 1995. These financial means have been distributed among 314 research projects in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and other fields, which all rely on the intensive utilization of photon and particle beams generated in large-scale apparatus of institutions for basic research. The volume in hand first gives information of a general kind and statistical data on the distribution of financial means, for a number of priority research projects. The project reports are summarizing reports on the progress achieved in the various projects. (CB) [de

  1. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  2. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  3. Integrated Circuit Design in US High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geronimo, G. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Christian, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bebek, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Garcia-Sciveres, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippe, H. V. D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Grillo, AA [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Newcomer, M [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-07-10

    This whitepaper summarizes the status, plans, and challenges in the area of integrated circuit design in the United States for future High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. It has been submitted to CPAD (Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors) and the HEP Community Summer Study 2013(Snowmass on the Mississippi) held in Minnesota July 29 to August 6, 2013. A workshop titled: US Workshop on IC Design for High Energy Physics, HEPIC2013 was held May 30 to June 1, 2013 at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). A draft of the whitepaper was distributed to the attendees before the workshop, the content was discussed at the meeting, and this document is the resulting final product. The scope of the whitepaper includes the following topics: Needs for IC technologies to enable future experiments in the three HEP frontiers Energy, Cosmic and Intensity Frontiers; Challenges in the different technology and circuit design areas and the related R&D needs; Motivation for using different fabrication technologies; Outlook of future technologies including 2.5D and 3D; Survey of ICs used in current experiments and ICs targeted for approved or proposed experiments; IC design at US institutes and recommendations for collaboration in the future.

  4. Nuclear data and integral experiments in reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, U.

    1980-01-01

    The material given here broadly covers the content of the 10 lectures delivered at the Winter Course on Reactor Theory and Power Reactors, ICTP, Trieste (13 February - 10 March 1978). However, the parts that could easily be found in the current literature have been omitted and replaced with the appropriate references. The needs for reactor physics calculations, particularly as applicable to commercial reactors, are reviewed in the introduction. The relative merits and shortcomings of fundamental and semi-empirical methods are discussed. The relative importance of different nuclear data, the ways in which they can be measured or calculated, and the sources of information on measured and evaluated data are briefly reviewed. The various approaches to the condensation of nuclear data to multigroup cross sections are described. After some consideration to the sensitivity calculations and the evaluation of errors, some of the most important type of integral experiments in reactor physics are introduced, with a view to showing the main difficulties in the interpretation and utilization of their results and the most recent trends in experimentation. The conclusions try to assign some priorities in the implementation of experimental and calculational capabilities, especially for a developing country. (author)

  5. Several interfaces between radiation physics and chemistry that could pleasure each other more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of currently active areas in Radiation Chemistry that may be pertinent to what Radiation Physicists can calculate. It begins with an overlapping topic, the nonhomogeneous kinetics of reactions in spurs followed by electron thermalization distances and thermal electron mobilities in fluids, electron scattering in gases, and finally, a possible new approach to calculating the energies and shapes of the optical absorption bands of solvated electrons. 18 figures, 2 tables

  6. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  7. Preparing prospective physics teachers to teach integrated science in junior high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiyanto; Hartono; Nugroho, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    The physics education study program especially prepares its students to teach physics in senior high school, however in reality many its graduates have become science teachers in junior high school. Therefore introducing integrated science to prospective physics teachers is important, because based on the curriculum, science in the junior high school should be taught integratedly. This study analyzed integrated science teaching materials that developed by prospective physics teachers. Results from this study showed that majority of the integration materials that developed by the prospective physics teachers focused on topic with an overlapping concept or theme as connecting between two or three subjects.

  8. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Qingzheng; Via, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide bet...

  9. One hundred years at the intersection of chemistry and physics the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, 1911-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Steinhauser, Thomas; James, Jeremiah

    2011-01-01

    This volume, occasioned by the centenary of the Fritz Haber Institute, formerly the Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, covers the Institute's scientific and institutional history from its founding in 1911 as one the earliest institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, through its renaming for its founding director in 1952 and incorporation in the Max Planck Society, until the present. The Institute's pace-setting research in physical chemistry and chemical physics has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel Laureates.

  10. Lectures on Selected Topics in Mathematical Physics: Elliptic Functions and Elliptic Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, William A.

    2015-12-01

    This volume is a basic introduction to certain aspects of elliptic functions and elliptic integrals. Primarily, the elliptic functions stand out as closed solutions to a class of physical and geometrical problems giving rise to nonlinear differential equations. While these nonlinear equations may not be the types of greatest interest currently, the fact that they are solvable exactly in terms of functions about which much is known makes up for this. The elliptic functions of Jacobi, or equivalently the Weierstrass elliptic functions, inhabit the literature on current problems in condensed matter and statistical physics, on solitons and conformal representations, and all sorts of famous problems in classical mechanics. The lectures on elliptic functions have evolved as part of the first semester of a course on theoretical and mathematical methods given to first- and second-year graduate students in physics and chemistry at the University of North Dakota. They are for graduate students or for researchers who want an elementary introduction to the subject that nevertheless leaves them with enough of the details to address real problems. The style is supposed to be informal. The intention is to introduce the subject as a moderate extension of ordinary trigonometry in which the reference circle is replaced by an ellipse. This entre depends upon fewer tools and has seemed less intimidating that other typical introductions to the subject that depend on some knowledge of complex variables. The first three lectures assume only calculus, including the chain rule and elementary knowledge of differential equations. In the later lectures, the complex analytic properties are introduced naturally so that a more complete study becomes possible.

  11. Carrier-doped aromatic hydrocarbons: a new platform in condensed matter chemistry and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heguri, Satoshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2018-02-27

    High-quality bulk samples of the first four polyacenes, which are naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene, doped with alkali metal in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 stoichiometries were prepared and their fundamental properties were systematically studied. A new systematic understanding on the electronic states of electron-doped polyacenes sensitive to the energetic balance among on-site Coulomb repulsion, bandwidth and the Peierls instability was provided. The carrier-doped typical aromatic hydrocarbons showed a large variety of properties as well as charge transfer complexes and metal-doped fullerides. We open a new avenue for organometallic and inorganic chemistry.

  12. Advances in imaging and electron physics time resolved electron diffraction for chemistry, biology and material science

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges two long-running serials-Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field.

  13. An integrated genetic, physical, and transcriptional map of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, H.; Kooy, R.F.; Wijngaard, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In this study a genetic map containing 20 markers and typed in 40 CEPH families is presented. It includes 7 thusfar untyped microsatellite markers, 7 that have previously been mapped on a subset of 8 CEPH families, one reference marker, D13S71, and three telomeric VNTR markers. Also, 4 intragenic RB1 markers were typed. The markers have an average heterozygosity of 73% (80%, excluding the three RFLPs). The total sex average length of the map is 140 cM. The mean female to male ratio is 1.54. For the non-telomeric part of the chromosome between the markers D13S221 in 13q12 and D13S173 in 13q33-q34, this ratio is 1.99. This ratio is reversed in the telomeric part of the chromosome between D13S173 and D13S234 in distal 13q34, where it is 0.47. A high new mutation frequency of 1% was detected in the (CTTT(T)){sub n} repeat in intron 20 of the RB1 gene. The map has been integrated with 7 microsatellite markers and 2 RFLP markers from CEPH database version 7.0, resulting in a map with 32 markers (28 loci) of chromosome 13q. In addition, a deletion hybrid breakpoint map ordering 50 markers in 18 intervals is constructed. It includes 32 microsatellite markers, 4 genes, 5 STSs, and 9 ESTs. Each of 18 intervals contains at least one microsatellite marker included in the extended genetic map. These data allow a correlation between the genetic and physical map of chromosome 13. New ESTs are currently being identified and localized at this integrated map.

  14. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  15. Career-Oriented Performance Tasks in Chemistry: Effects on Students Integrated Science Process Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Allen A. Espinosa; Sheryl Lyn C. Monterola; Amelia E. Punzalan

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach against the traditional teaching approach (TTA) in enhancing students’ integrated science process skills. Specifically, it sought to find out if students exposed to COPT have higher integrated science process skills than those students exposed to the traditional teaching approach (TTA). Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach aims to integrate career-oriented examples and inquiry-b...

  16. Enviro-HIRLAM online integrated meteorology–chemistry modelling system: strategy, methodology, developments and applications (v7.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environment – High Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM is developed as a fully online integrated numerical weather prediction (NWP and atmospheric chemical transport (ACT model for research and forecasting of joint meteorological, chemical and biological weather. The integrated modelling system is developed by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI in collaboration with several European universities. It is the baseline system in the HIRLAM Chemical Branch and used in several countries and different applications. The development was initiated at DMI more than 15 years ago. The model is based on the HIRLAM NWP model with online integrated pollutant transport and dispersion, chemistry, aerosol dynamics, deposition and atmospheric composition feedbacks. To make the model suitable for chemical weather forecasting in urban areas, the meteorological part was improved by implementation of urban parameterisations. The dynamical core was improved by implementing a locally mass-conserving semi-Lagrangian numerical advection scheme, which improves forecast accuracy and model performance. The current version (7.2, in comparison with previous versions, has a more advanced and cost-efficient chemistry, aerosol multi-compound approach, aerosol feedbacks (direct and semi-direct on radiation and (first and second indirect effects on cloud microphysics. Since 2004, the Enviro-HIRLAM has been used for different studies, including operational pollen forecasting for Denmark since 2009 and operational forecasting atmospheric composition with downscaling for China since 2017. Following the main research and development strategy, further model developments will be extended towards the new NWP platform – HARMONIE. Different aspects of online coupling methodology, research strategy and possible applications of the modelling system, and fit-for-purpose model configurations for the meteorological and air quality communities are discussed.

  17. Multivariate Calibration and Model Integrity for Wood Chemistry Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addressed a rapid method to monitor hardwood chemical composition by applying Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, with particular interest in model performance for interpretation and prediction. Partial least squares (PLS and principal components regression (PCR were chosen as the primary models for comparison. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set to collect the original data. PLS was found to provide better predictive capability while PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks and suggests that PCR is better for model interpretation of key underlying functional groups. Specifically, when PCR was utilized, an error in peak loading of ±15 cm−1 from the true mean was quantified. Application of the first derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision. Research results identified the wavenumbers important in the prediction of extractives, lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and further demonstrated the utility in FT-IR for rapid monitoring of wood chemistry.

  18. A Trusted Autonomic Architecture to Safeguard Cyber-Physical Control Leaf Nodes and Protect Process Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Chiluvuri, Nayana Teja

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are networked through IT infrastructure and susceptible to malware. Threats targeting process control are much more safety-critical than traditional computing systems since they jeopardize the integrity of physical infrastructure. Existing defence mechanisms address security at the network nodes but do not protect the physical infrastructure if network integrity is compromised. An interface guardian architecture is implemented on cyber-physical control leaf nodes to mai...

  19. Chemistry and physics at liquid alkali metal/solid metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the chemistry of processes which take place at the interface between liquid alkali metals and solid metal surfaces. A brief review of wetting data for liquid sodium is given and the significance of critical wetting temperatures discussed on the basis of an oxide-film reduction mechanism. The reactions of metal oxides with liquid metals are outlined and a correlation with wetting data established. The transfer of dissolved species from the liquid metal across the interface to form solid phases on the solid metal surface is well recognised. The principal features of such processes are described and a simple thermodynamic explanation is outlined. The reverse process, the removal of solid material into solution, is also considered. (author)

  20. Integração de processos físico-químicos e oxidativos avançados para remediação de percolado de aterro sanitário (chorume Integration of physical chemistry and advanced oxidative processes for remediation of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson Rodrigo Pacheco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho está sendo proposto um processo integrado para a remediação de chorume, consistente na separação preliminar das substâncias húmicas, por precipitação em meio ácido, e o tratamento subseqüente do sobrenadante por meio de processos oxidativos avançados. Em geral, a precipitação preliminar permite remover uma pequena parcela da DQO (14% e grande parte da cor, o que permite significativas melhoras no tratamento fotoquímico posterior. Quando aplicado na forma de um sistema de múltiplas adições de peróxido de hidrogênio, o sistema UV/H2O2 permite descolorações da ordem de 95% e reduções de DQO de 75%, em tempos de reação de 120 min. Trata-se de um resultado bastante promissor, principalmente levando-se em consideração a elevada resistência da matriz em estudo.In this work, we propose the integration of processes for remediation of landfill leachate, where humic substances are preliminary precipited and separated in acidic conditions and an advanced oxidative process further treats the soluble fraction. Typically, the precipitation of humic substances reduces 14% of the COD content and a great part of the intrinsic color, fact that significantly improves the efficiency of the photochemical treatment. When applied as a successive H2O2 additions system the UV/H2O2 process induce color and COD reductions of 95 and 75% respectively, in reaction times of 120 min. This results are very promissory, principally because the recalcitrant character of the leachate matrix.

  1. Workshop of Advanced Science Research Center, JAERI. Nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Nagame, Yuichiro

    2004-03-01

    A liquid drop model predicts that the fission barrier of a nucleus whose atomic number (Z) is larger than 106 disappears, so that such heavier nuclei as Z > 106 cannot exist. The shell effect, however, drastically changes structure of the fission barrier and stabilizes nucleus against fission, predicting the presence of super heavy element (SHE, Z=114-126) with measurable half-life. In the SHE region, a wave function of outermost electron of an atom, which controls chemical properties of an elements, is disturbed or changed by relativistic effects compared to the one from the non-relativistic model. This suggests that the SHEs have different chemical properties from those of lighter elements belonging to the same family. The chemistry of SHEs requires event by event analysis to reveal their chemical properties, thus is called 'atom-at-a-time chemistry'. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been investigating fusion mechanism between heavy nuclei to find out favorable reactions to produce SHE by using JAERI-tandem and booster accelerator. In the JAERI-tandem facility, isotopes of Rf and Db are produced by using actinide targets such as 248 Cm in order to investigate their chemical properties. The present workshop was held in Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI at February 27-28 (2003) in order to discuss current status and future plans for the heavy element research. The workshop also included topics of the radioactive nuclear beam project forwarded by the JAERI-KEK cooperation and the nuclear transmutation facility of J-PARC. Also included is the nuclear fission process as a decay characteristic of heavy elements. There were sixty participants in the workshop including graduate and undergraduate eleven students. We had guests from Germany and Hungary. Through the workshop, we had a common knowledge that researches on SHE in Japan should fill an important role in the world. (author)

  2. Studies of the chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium at the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, supported by the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.

    1995-04-01

    Studies at Hanford in the 1980s revealed the potential for actinides to form stable soluble complexes in alkaline media, simulating radioactive tank waste. Pu(IV) hydrous oxide and Pu(VI) solubility increased with hydroxide concentration, ionic strength, and aluminate/carbonate concentrations. Subsequent contacts between US and Russian researchers in 1993 led to a technical literature review of the chemistry of TRU and Tc in alkaline media; this review addresses oxidation states, solubility, speciation, redox reactions, electrochemistry, radiation chemistry, and separations in alkaline media. As an outgrowth, a program of fundamental and applied chemistry studies of TRU and Tc is being conducted at IPC/RAS with US DOE support: solubility, redox reagents, coprecipitation, and radiation chemistry. This overview provides information on the Hanford Site tank waste system, US DOE technological needs, and IPC/RAS developments

  3. NODC Standard Format Water Physics and Chemistry (F004) Data (1949-1985) (NODC Accession 0012901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data from measurements and analyses of physical and chemical characteristics of the water column. Chemical parameters that may be recorded are...

  4. Automating multistep flow synthesis: approach and challenges in integrating chemistry, machines and logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay A. Shukla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of automation in the multistep flow synthesis is essential for transforming laboratory-scale chemistry into a reliable industrial process. In this review, we briefly introduce the role of automation based on its application in synthesis viz. auto sampling and inline monitoring, optimization and process control. Subsequently, we have critically reviewed a few multistep flow synthesis and suggested a possible control strategy to be implemented so that it helps to reliably transfer the laboratory-scale synthesis strategy to a pilot scale at its optimum conditions. Due to the vast literature in multistep synthesis, we have classified the literature and have identified the case studies based on few criteria viz. type of reaction, heating methods, processes involving in-line separation units, telescopic synthesis, processes involving in-line quenching and process with the smallest time scale of operation. This classification will cover the broader range in the multistep synthesis literature.

  5. Research activity of institute of physical chemistry of Russian Academy of sciences in the field of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikaev, A.K. [Institute of Physical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The report is a brief review of the most important directions in research activity of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of RAS (Moscow) in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The main attention is paid to researches and developments on liquid radioactive waste management including the removal of wastes to deep geological formations and the immobilization of the wastes. In particular, the data from the study on the properties of new, basaltic-like matrices for the immobilization are presented. The results of research on gas evolution from the systems modeling liquid high-level radioactive wastes are considered. The separation of some radionuclides from irradiated nuclear and the production of radiation sources by various methods are discussed. (author)

  6. The kINPen—a review on physics and chemistry of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Stephan; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2018-06-01

    The kINPen® plasma jet was developed from laboratory prototype to commercially available non-equilibrium cold plasma jet for various applications in materials research, surface treatment and medicine. It has proven to be a valuable plasma source for industry as well as research and commercial use in plasma medicine, leading to very successful therapeutic results and its certification as a medical device. This topical review presents the different kINPen plasma sources available. Diagnostic techniques applied to the kINPen are introduced. The review summarizes the extensive studies of the physics and plasma chemistry of the kINPen performed by research groups across the world, and closes with a brief overview of the main application fields.

  7. Divisible Atoms or None at All? Facing the European Contributions to Developments of Chemistry and Physics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Južnič, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important Mid-European professor with more than six thousand academic descendants was the leading Slovenian erudite Jurij Vega. In broader sense, Vega's and other applied sciences of the south of Holy Roman Empire of German Nationality were connected with the mercury mine of Idrija during the last half of millennia. The Idrija Mine used to be one of the two top European producers of mercury, the basic substance of atomistic alchemists. Idrija Mine contributions to the history of techniques, their examinations and approbations is comparable to the other Mid-European achievements. The peculiarities of Idrija mining environment where people valued mostly the applicative knowhow is put into the limelight. The applicative abilities of Idrija employers affected the broader surroundings including Vega's Jesuit teachers in nearby Ljubljana and the phenomena of comparatively many China-Based Jesuits connected with the area of modern Slovenia. The Jesuits' Mid-European education and networks are put into the limelight, as well as their adopted Chinese networks used for their bridging between Eastern and Western Sciences. The Western origin of the scientific-technologic-industrial revolution(s) with causes for their apparent nonexistence in Chinese frames is discussed as another Eurocentric rhetorical racist question which presumes the scientific-technologic-industrial revolution(s) as something good, positive, and therefore predominantly European. The Chinese ways into progress without those troublemaking revolutions is focused for the first time in historiography from combined scientific, moral, religious, and economic viewpoints. The Chinese contributions to particular areas of research in chemistry and physics is focused to find out the preferences and most frequent stages of (European) paradigms involved in the Chinese networks. Some predictions of future interests of Chinese chemistry and physics are provided. The Chinese Holistic Confucian distrust in

  8. Dependence of actinide solid state chemistry and physics on the changing role of the 5f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the chemistry, physics, and material science of the actinides do not reflect perfectly a series of elements with a regular increase in the number of localized f-electrons (f-orbital occupation). This situation results from the changing role of the 5f-electrons across the series. Therefore, a full understanding of the properties of the individual elements necessitates an understanding of the series as a whole. The changing influence of the f-electrons is reflected in many of the actinide's properties. Systematic comparisons of selected high-temperature and high-pressure behaviors of actinide materials are discussed to demonstrate the variable nature and roles of the f-electrons, as well as their susceptibility to experimental parameters. (author)

  9. Dependence of actinide solid state chemistry and physics on the changing role of the 5f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the chemistry, physics, and material science of the actinides do not reflect perfectly a series of elements with a regular increase in the number of localized f-electrons (f-orbital occupation). This situation results from the hanging role of the 5f-electrons across the series. Therefore, a full understanding of the properties of the individual elements necessitates an understanding of the series as a whole. The changing influence of the f-electrons is reflected in many of the actinide's properties. Systematic comparisons of selected high-temperature and high-pressure behaviors of actinide materials are discussed to demonstrate the variable nature and roles of the f-electrons, as well as their susceptibility to experimental parameters

  10. Features of integrated professional training for physically disabled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-11

    Jul 11, 2009 ... Methods: This retrospective survey included all physically disabled people admitted to two rehabilitation centres in Congo between 1996 and ..... borders in Congo, physically disabled people are exempt from paying taxes.

  11. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  12. College physics with an integrated approach to forces and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Giambattista, Alan; Richardson, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    College Physics, Third Edition is the best solution for today's college physics market. With a unique, new, approach to physics that builds a conceptual framework as motivation for the physical principles, consistent problem solving coverage strategies, stunning art, extensive end-of-chapter material, and superior media support, Giambattista, Richardson, and Richardson delivers a product that addresses today's market needs with the best tools available.

  13. Strategies for Integrating Elementary Classroom Concepts and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ingrid L.; Abbate, Vinny; Chase, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which physical educators, or any other teacher in a school, can incorporate physical movement skills (physical literacy) while teaching reading, writing or any other content area at the same time.

  14. Simulations of physics and chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds with a general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, J.

    2005-04-20

    A polar stratospheric cloud submodel has been developed and incorporated in a general circulation model including atmospheric chemistry (ECHAM5/MESSy). The formation and sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles can thus be simulated as well as heterogeneous chemical reactions that take place on the PSC particles. For solid PSC particle sedimentation, the need for a tailor-made algorithm has been elucidated. A sedimentation scheme based on first order approximations of vertical mixing ratio profiles has been developed. It produces relatively little numerical diffusion and can deal well with divergent or convergent sedimentation velocity fields. For the determination of solid PSC particle sizes, an efficient algorithm has been adapted. It assumes a monodisperse radii distribution and thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas phase and the solid particle phase. This scheme, though relatively simple, is shown to produce particle number densities and radii within the observed range. The combined effects of the representations of sedimentation and solid PSC particles on vertical H{sub 2}O and HNO{sub 3} redistribution are investigated in a series of tests. The formation of solid PSC particles, especially of those consisting of nitric acid trihydrate, has been discussed extensively in recent years. Three particle formation schemes in accordance with the most widely used approaches have been identified and implemented. For the evaluation of PSC occurrence a new data set with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage was available. A quantitative method for the comparison of simulation results and observations is developed and applied. It reveals that the relative PSC sighting frequency can be reproduced well with the PSC submodel whereas the detailed modelling of PSC events is beyond the scope of coarse global scale models. In addition to the development and evaluation of new PSC submodel components, parts of existing simulation programs have been

  15. Students' perception of an integrated approach of teaching entire sequence of medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacotherapeutics courses in PharmD curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Schweiger, Teresa A

    2015-04-01

    To develop an integrated approach of teaching medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacotherapeutics and to evaluate students' perceptions of integration as they progress through the PharmD curriculum. Instructors from each discipline jointly mapped the course contents and sequenced the course delivery based on organ systems/disease states. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology contents were integrated and aligned with respective pharmacotherapeutics contents to deliver throughout second and third year of the curriculum. In addition to classroom lectures, active learning strategies such as recitation, case studies, online-discussion boards, open book quizzes, and writing patient progress notes were incorporated to enhance student learning. Student learning was assessed by examination scores, patient progress notes, and writing assignments. The impact of course integration was evaluated by a Web-based survey. One hundred and sixty-nine students completed the survey. Students exhibited positive attitude toward the integrated approach of teaching medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutics. The P3 and P4 students better appreciated the benefits of integration compared to P2 students (P < .05). Students perceived the course integration as an effective way of learning. This study supports course improvement and the viability of expanding the concept of integration to other courses in the curriculum. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Solichatun, Susilowati A. 2013. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 84-100. Frying process is one of the oldest cooking methods and most widely practiced in the world. Frying process is considered as a dry cooking method because the process does not involve water. In frying process, oil conduction occurs at high temperature pressing water out of food in the form of bubbles. Fried foods last longer due to reduced water levels lead less decomposition by microbes, even fried foods can be enhanced nutritional value and quality of appearance. Food frying technology can extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables and frying oil enhances the flavors of the products, however, improper frying oil can have harmful effects on human health. Vacuum frying is a promising technology that may be an option for the production of novel snacks such as fruit and vegetable crisps that present the desired quality and respond to new health trends. This technique fry food at a low temperature and pressure so that the nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the quality of the used oil does not quickly declined and became saturated oils that are harmful to human health. This technique produces chips that have physical, physico-chemical, chemical, and sensory generally better than conventional deep-fat frying methods.

  17. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Ronald B

    1996-01-01

    This book was written to help mathematics students and those in the physical sciences learn modern mathematical techniques for setting up and analyzing problems. The mathematics used is rigorous, but not overwhelming, while the authors carefully model physical situations, emphasizing feedback among a beginning model, physical experiments, mathematical predictions, and the subsequent refinement and reevaluation of the physical model itself. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of various physical problems and equations that play a central role in applications. The following chapters take up the t

  18. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  19. Discharge physics and chemistry of a novel atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Henins, I.; Hermann, J.W.; Selwyn, G.S.; Jeong, J.Y.; Hickis, R.

    1999-07-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a unique plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. The APPJ operates with RF power and produces a stable non-thermal discharge in capacitively-coupled configuration. The discharge is spatially and temporally homogeneous and provides a unique gas phase chemistry that is well suited for various applications including etching, film deposition, surface treatment and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2--2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} for a helium discharge at a power level of 3--30 W cm{sup {minus}3}. The APPJ also produces a large flux, equivalent of up to 10,000 monolayer s{sup {minus}1}, of chemically-active, atomic and metastable molecular species which can impinge surfaces several cm downstream of the confined source. In addition, the efforts are in progress to measure the electron density using microwave diagnostics and to benchmark the gas phase chemical model by using LIF and titration.

  20. Proceedings of the symposium on chemistry and physics of surface of metals and their oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered include: structure of crystalline surfaces; thermodynamic, electrostatic, and physicochemical considerations on defect structure and metal to metal interfaces; physical properties of metal surfaces; stress corrosion cracking; corrosion; passivation; mass transfer across interfaces; electrodeposition; Auger electron spectroscopy; electron microscopy; and catalysis. (GHT)

  1. From Foam Rubber to Volcanoes: The Physical Chemistry of Foam Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lee D.; McCarlie, V. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The process of foam formation is used for demonstrating the way in which the application of physiochemical principles and knowledge of the physical properties of the materials contributes towards the understanding of a wide range of phenomenon. Solubility of gas and bubble growth should be considered during the development of foamed polymer…

  2. Synthesis and optical spectroscopy of (hetero)-nanocrystals: An exciting interplay between Chemistry and Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, E.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and study of the optical properties of various colloidal semiconductor (hetero)nanocrystals ((H)NCs). Before the experimental results are discussed in detail, the essential theoretical background on the chemical and physical aspects of this work is provided in

  3. 77 FR 9226 - Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1013-000] Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  4. Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shizgal, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...

  5. Supporting Knowledge Integration in Chemistry with a Visualization-Enhanced Inquiry Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and impact of an inquiry-oriented online curriculum that takes advantage of dynamic molecular visualizations to improve students' understanding of chemical reactions. The visualization-enhanced unit uses research-based guidelines following the knowledge integration framework to help students develop coherent…

  6. Integrating Botany with Chemistry & Art to Improve Elementary School Children's Awareness of Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…

  7. A Program of Integration for the University and the High School in the Field of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Filho, Aricelso Maia Limaverde; Carneiro, Maria Tereza W. Dias; Godoy, Jose Marcus de Oliveira; Goulart, Mauricio Silveira; Guerchon, Jose

    This paper describes the Project for Integrating the University, the School, and Society (PIUES), developed as part of an effort to restructure the teaching of engineering at the Pontifical Catholic University in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. New courses for high school teachers were developed that focused on the debates over basic concepts in…

  8. The physics and chemistry of Earth's dynamic surface (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James W.

    2013-04-01

    Ralph Alger Bagnold became a Fellow of the Royal Society and one of the founders of modern geomorphology despite having no formal academic affiliation, no cadre of students or postdocs under his command, no steady financial support, and no scientific training beyond a second-class honors degree in engineering. What he did have, and used to great effect, were a deep curiosity about natural phenomena, a powerful physical intellect, a talent for clever experimentation, extensive opportunities to observe geomorphic processes at work in the field, and - perhaps most important of all - the time and freedom to focus his energies on significant scientific challenges. A hallmark of Bagnold's work is the artful compromise between the goal of simple, general, physical laws describing natural phenomena, and the practical necessity for observational empiricisms to account for the real-world complexities that cannot be incorporated explicitly into such simple laws. Efforts to find these sorts of artful compromises continue to the present day. Typically, both in Bagnold's work and in present-day geomorphology, one seeks mathematical process laws whose form embodies the "pure physics" of the problem, and whose coefficients subsume the inevitable observational empiricisms. Present-day geomorphologists have an array of new tools that open our eyes to temporal and spatial scales that were invisible to Bagnold and his contemporaries. These observations, in turn, have yielded new surprises and challenges, sometimes confounding our intuition about how geomorphic systems "should" behave. One surprise has been that decadal-scale erosion rates, as reflected in stream sediment loads and reservoir sedimentation rates, often differ from longer-term erosion rates by large multiples. In some agricultural landscapes, modern-day erosion rates greatly exceed the long-term background rate, as one might intuitively expect. In other landscapes, however, contemporary erosion rates can be a small

  9. Hot cell chemistry for isotope production at Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.W.; Bentley, G.E.; Ott, M.A.; DeBusk, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    A family of standardized glass and plastic ware has been developed for the unit processes of dissolution, volume reduction, ion exchange, extraction, gasification, filtration, centrifugation, and liquid transfer in the hot cells. Computerized data handling and gamma pulse analysis have been applied to quality control and process development in hot cell procedures for production of isotopes for research in physics and medicine. The above has greatly reduced the time needed to set up for and produce a new isotope

  10. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths: Volume 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr; Eyring, L.; Choppin, G.R.; Lander, G.H.

    1993-10-01

    This volume of the handbook is the first of a three volume set of reviews devoted to the interrelationships, similarities, differences and contrasts of the lanthanide and actinide series of elements. The volume contains eight chapters (numbered 110-117) concerned with some of the physical aspects of lanthanide and actinide series. The first three chapters are theoretical in nature and the last five are more heavily oriented towards experimental studies

  11. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  12. Validity And Practicality of Experiment Integrated Guided Inquiry-Based Module on Topic of Colloidal Chemistry for Senior High School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andromeda, A.; Lufri; Festiyed; Ellizar, E.; Iryani, I.; Guspatni, G.; Fitri, L.

    2018-04-01

    This Research & Development study aims to produce a valid and practical experiment integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry. 4D instructional design model was selected in this study. Limited trial of the product was conducted at SMAN 7 Padang. Instruments used were validity and practicality questionnaires. Validity and practicality data were analyzed using Kappa moment. Analysis of the data shows that Kappa moment for validity was 0.88 indicating a very high degree of validity. Kappa moments for the practicality from students and teachers were 0.89 and 0.95 respectively indicating high degree of practicality. Analysis on the module filled in by students shows that 91.37% students could correctly answer critical thinking, exercise, prelab, postlab and worksheet questions asked in the module. These findings indicate that the integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry was valid and practical for chemistry learning in senior high school.

  13. Physical interpretation of the J2 integral by identifying the associated crack translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cong Hao; Chu, Seok Jae

    2016-01-01

    The physical interpretation of the J integral (i.e., J 1 integral) is clear. J 1 integral is the energy release rate associated with crack extension(i.e., translation of the crack in the x 1 direction). However, the physical interpretation of the J 2 integral remains unclear. In this study, different crack translations in the x 2 direction were selected and tested by calculating the energy release rates associated with the crack translations and comparing them with the theoretical value of the J 2 integral.

  14. Acceleration of Feynman loop integrals in high-energy physics on many core GPUs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, F; Ishikawa, T; Hamaguchi, N; Koike, T; Nakasato, N

    2013-01-01

    The current and future colliders in high-energy physics require theorists to carry out a large scale computation for a precise comparison between experimental results and theoretical ones. In a perturbative approach several methods to evaluate Feynman loop integrals which appear in the theoretical calculation of cross-sections are well established in the one-loop level, however, more studies are necessary for higher-order levels. Direct Computation Method (DCM) is developed to evaluate multi-loop integrals. DCM is based on a combination of multidimensional numerical integration and extrapolation on a sequence of integrals. It is a fully numerical method and is applicable to a wide class of integrals with various physics parameters. The computation time depends on physics parameters and the topology of loop diagrams and it becomes longer for the two-loop integrals. In this paper we present our approach to the acceleration of the two-loop integrals by DCM on multiple GPU boards

  15. Chlorophyll fluorescence, Orbital and Photosynthesis: practical activities integrating concepts of Chemistry, Physics and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgion Lucio da Silva Loreto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available These laboratory activities explore the relationship between the reserve of energy that occur during photosynthesis and the chlorophyll fluorescence emission when in solution as opposed to absence of fluorescence when the chlorophyll are in intact chloroplasts. This proposal can be used as short demo or as  activities with longer duration, to show chlorophyll's properties associated with the photosynthesis. The materials proposed for the implementation of the activities are simple, and possible to building it by the students, enabling the development of various skills and experimental proposals. The protocols are based on observations and record key questions to continue the execution. During the activities, questions promotes pauses for moments of reflection and review of concepts. At the end are presented and discussed proposals for development of interdisciplinary projects.

  16. Complementarity of integral and differential experiments for reactor physics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry.

    1981-04-01

    In this paper, the following topics are studied: uranium 238 effective integral; thermal range uranium 238 capture cross section; Americium 242 m capture cross section. The mentioned examples show that differential and integral experiments are both useful to the reactor physicists

  17. Integrating numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Numerical computation has many pedagogical advantages: it develops analytical skills and problem-solving skills, helps to learn through visualization, and enhances physics education. Unfortunately, numerical computation is not taught to undergraduate education physics students in Indonesia. Incorporate numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum presents many challenges. The main challenges are the dense curriculum that makes difficult to put new numerical computation course and most students have no programming experience. In this research, we used case study to review how to integrate numerical computation into undergraduate education physics curriculum. The participants of this research were 54 students of the fourth semester of physics education department. As a result, we concluded that numerical computation could be integrated into undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel combined with another course. The results of this research become complements of the study on how to integrate numerical computation in learning physics using spreadsheet excel.

  18. Using Mole Ratios of Electrolytic Products of Water for Analysis of Household Vinegar: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu

    2012-01-01

    A simple 3-h physical chemistry undergraduate experiment for the quantitative analysis of acetic acid in household vinegar is presented. The laboratory experiment combines titration concept with electrolysis and an application of the gas laws. A vinegar sample was placed in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell. Electrolysis of water…

  19. Evaluation of a Voluntary Tutoring Program in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics for First-Year Undergraduates at Universidad Andres Bello, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Verónica A.; Acuña, Fabiola C.; Quiero, Felipe J.; López, Margarita; Zahn, Carmen I.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary results of a tutoring program that provides personalized academic assistance to first-year undergraduates enrolled in introductory chemistry, physics and mathematics courses at Universidad Andres Bello (UNAB), in Concepción, Chile. Intervened courses have historically large enrolments, diverse student population…

  20. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  1. Examining the Use of Adaptive Technologies to Increase the Hands-On Participation of Students with Blindness or Low Vision in Secondary-School Chemistry and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supalo, Cary A.; Humphrey, Jennifer R.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Wohlers, H. David; Carlsen, William S.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether a suite of audible adaptive technologies would increase the hands-on participation of high school students with blindness or low vision in chemistry and physics courses, data were examined from a multi-year field study conducted with students in mainstream classrooms at secondary schools across the United States. The students…

  2. Teaching Introductory Quantum Physics and Chemistry: Caveats from the History of Science and Science Teaching to the Training of Modern Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Finding the best ways to introduce quantum physics to undergraduate students in all scientific areas, in particular for chemistry students, is a pressing, but hardly a simple task. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of taking into account lessons from the history of the discipline and the ongoing controversy over its interpretations and…

  3. Estimating the Analytical and Surface Enhancement Factors in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): A Novel Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana E.; Alnajjar, Khadijeh S.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Stahler, Adam; Hunter, Nora E.; Weaver, Kent M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Meyerhoefer, Allie J.; Dolson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel laboratory experiment was successfully implemented for undergraduate and graduate students in physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The main goal of the experiment was to rigorously determine the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing capabilities of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These were quantified by…

  4. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report: Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, October 1977-September 1978. [Summary of research activities at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R. E.; Inokuti, Mitio [eds.

    1978-01-01

    Research presented includes 32 papers, six of which have appeared previously in ERA, and 26 appear in this issue of ERA. Molecular physics and chemistry including photoionization, molecular properties, oscillator strengths, scattering, shape resonances, and photoelectrons are covered. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  5. Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's Atmosphere: An Experiment in Physical and Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of atmospheric oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure physical chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…

  6. Flash Photolysis Experiment of o-Methyl Red as a Function of pH: A Low-Cost Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Molly C.; Perkins, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost, time-resolved spectroscopy experiment appropriate for third year physical chemistry students is presented. Students excite o-methyl red in basic solutions with a laser pointer and use a modular spectrometer with a CCD array detector to monitor the transient spectra as the higher-energy cis conformer of the molecule converts back to the…

  7. Mediating Relationship of Differential Products in Understanding Integration in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of introductory physics, we study student conceptual understanding of differentials, differential products, and integrals and possible pathways to understanding these quantities. We developed a multiple choice conceptual assessment employing a variety of physical contexts probing physical understanding of these three quantities and…

  8. The Kinetic-Molecular and Thermodynamic Approaches to Osmotic Pressure: A Study of Dispute in Physical Chemistry and the Implications for Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berg, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    Osmotic pressure proves to be a useful topic for illustrating the disputes brought to bear on the chemistry profession when mathematics was introduced into its discipline. Some chemists of the late 19th century thought that the introduction of mathematics would destroy that "chemical feeling" or "experience" so necessary to the practice of…

  9. Actin Immobilization on Chitin for Purifying Myosin II: A Laboratory Exercise That Integrates Concepts of Molecular Cell Biology and Protein Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…

  10. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  11. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Pohanka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman’s assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone’s integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans’s assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.. It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results’ relevance.

  12. From Ultrafast Electron Transfer to Single Molecule Spectroscopy: Forces Driving Contemporary Themes in Physical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, Christy

    2011-08-28

    The goal of the current proposal is to obtain partial support for an upcoming symposium planned for the Fall 2011 American Chemical Society national meeting. The symposium is designed to honor the deceased senior physical chemist and Department of Energy Principle Investigator, Professor Paul Barbara. The primary use of support from DOE’s Basic Energy Sciences division would be to fund registration for postdoctoral and junior scientists, as well as registration and travel support for principle investigators from Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs). Professor Barbara was particularly adept at mentoring postdoctoral scholars in their transition to independent researchers. DOE support would help to promote the participation of these early career scientists in this symposium. Professor Barbara undertook many projects of considerable importance to the Nation’s energy program; it is hoped that the symposium, beyond honoring him, will also provide an opportunity to discuss the best ways to move forward the unfinished science he initiated with his collaborators.

  13. Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscience stands out for its interdisciplinarity. Barriers between disciplines disappear and the fields tend to converge at the very smallest scale, where basic principles and tools are universal. Novel properties are inherent to nanosized systems due to quantum effects and a reduction in dimensionality: nanoscience is likely to continue to revolutionize many areas of human activity, such as materials science, nanoelectronics, information processing, biotechnology and medicine. This textbook spans all fields of nanoscience, covering its basics and broad applications. After an introduction to the physical and chemical principles of nanoscience, coverage moves on to the adjacent fields of microscopy, nanoanalysis, synthesis, nanocrystals, nanowires, nanolayers, carbon nanostructures, bulk nanomaterials, nanomechanics, nanophotonics, nanofluidics, nanomagnetism, nanotechnology for computers, nanochemistry, nanobiology, and nanomedicine. Consequently, this broad yet unified coverage addresses research in academ...

  14. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matel, L.; Dulanska, S.

    2013-01-01

    This text-book is an introductory text in nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, aimed on university undergraduate students in chemistry and related disciplines (physics, nuclear engineering). It covers the key aspects of modern nuclear chemistry. The text begins with basic theories in contemporary physics. It relates nuclear phenomena to key divisions of chemistry such as atomic structure, spectroscopy, equilibria and kinetics. It also gives an introduction to sources of ionizing radiation, detection of ionizing radiation, nuclear power industry and accident on nuclear installations as well as basic knowledge's of radiobiology. This book is essential reading for those taking a first course in nuclear chemistry and is a useful companion to other volumes in physical and analytical chemistry. It will also be of use to those new to working in nuclear chemistry or radiochemistry.

  15. On the comparison of numerical methods for the integration of kinetic equations in atmospheric chemistry and transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Rick D.; Ford, Gregory D.

    The integration of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that arise in atmospheric photochemistry is of significant concern to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry modelers. As a consequence of the stiff nature of these ODE systems, their solution requires a large fraction of the total computational effort in three-dimensional chemical model simulations. Several integration techniques have been proposed and utilized over the years in an attempt to provide computationally efficient, yet accurate, solutions to chemical kinetics ODES. In this work, we present a comparison of some of these techniques and argue that valid comparisons of ODE solvers must take into account the trade-off between solution accuracy and computational efficiency. Misleading comparison results can be obtained by neglecting the fact that any ODE solution method can be made faster or slower by manipulation of the appropriate error tolerances or time steps. Comparisons among ODE solution techniques should therefore attempt to identify which technique can provide the most accurate solution with the least computational effort over the entire range of behavior of each technique. We present here a procedure by which ODE solver comparisons can achieve this goal. Using this methodology, we compare a variety of integration techniques, including methods proposed by Hesstvedt et al. (1978, Int. J. Chem. Kinet.10, 971-994), Gong and Cho (1993, Atmospheric Environment27A, 2147-2160), Young and Boris (1977, J. phys. Chem.81, 2424-2427) and Hindmarsh (1983, In Scientific Computing (edited by Stepleman R. S. et al.), pp. 55-64. North-Holland, Amsterdam). We find that Gear-type solvers such as the Livermore Solver for ordinary differential equations (LSODE) and the sparse-matrix version of LSODE (LSODES) provide the most accurate solution of our test problems with the least computational effort.

  16. An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Gellert, Ralf; Schroder, C.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Knudson, A.T.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.; Brückner, J.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; De Souza, P.A.; Economou, T.E.; Ghosh, A.; Hahn, B.C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Haskin, L.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Joliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Madsen, M.B.; McLennan, S.M.; McSween, H.Y.; Richter, L.; Rieder, R.; Rodionov, D.; Soderblom, L.; Squyres, S. W.; Tosca, N.J.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.; Zipfel, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mineralogical and elemental compositions of the martian soil are indicators of chemical and physical weathering processes. Using data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, we show that bright dust deposits on opposite sides of the planet are part of a global unit and not dominated by the composition of local rocks. Dark soil deposits at both sites have similar basaltic mineralogies, and could reflect either a global component or the general similarity in the compositions of the rocks from which they were derived. Increased levels of bromine are consistent with mobilization of soluble salts by thin films of liquid water, but the presence of olivine in analysed soil samples indicates that the extent of aqueous alteration of soils has been limited. Nickel abundances are enhanced at the immediate surface and indicate that the upper few millimetres of soil could contain up to one per cent meteoritic material.

  17. Resolution enhancement in integral microscopy by physical interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llavador, Anabel; Sánchez-Ortiga, Emilio; Barreiro, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Genaro; Martínez-Corral, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Integral-imaging technology has demonstrated its capability for computing depth images from the microimages recorded after a single shot. This capability has been shown in macroscopic imaging and also in microscopy. Despite the possibility of refocusing different planes from one snap-shot is crucial for the study of some biological processes, the main drawback in integral imaging is the substantial reduction of the spatial resolution. In this contribution we report a technique, which permits to increase the two-dimensional spatial resolution of the computed depth images in integral microscopy by a factor of √2. This is made by a double-shot approach, carried out by means of a rotating glass plate, which shifts the microimages in the sensor plane. We experimentally validate the resolution enhancement as well as we show the benefit of applying the technique to biological specimens.

  18. John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

  19. Assessing the recharge of a coastal aquifer using physical observations, tritium, groundwater chemistry and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Isaac R; Zhang, Chenming; Maher, Damien T; Atkins, Marnie L; Holland, Rodney; Morgenstern, Uwe; Li, Ling

    2017-02-15

    Assessing recharge is critical to understanding groundwater and preventing pollution. Here, we investigate recharge in an Australian coastal aquifer using a combination of physical, modelling and geochemical techniques. We assess whether recharge may occur through a pervasive layer of floodplain muds that was initially hypothesized to be impermeable. At least 59% of the precipitation volume could be accounted for in the shallow aquifer using the water table fluctuation method during four significant recharge events. Precipitation events rates were estimated in the area underneath the floodplain clay layer rather than in the sandy area. A steady-state chloride method implied recharge rates of at least 200mm/year (>14% of annual precipitation). Tritium dating revealed long term net vertical recharge rates ranging from 27 to 114mm/year (average 58mm/year) which were interpreted as minimum net long term recharge. Borehole experiments revealed more permeable conditions and heterogeneous infiltration rates when the floodplain soils were dry. Wet conditions apparently expand floodplain clays, closing macropores and cracks that act as conduits for groundwater recharge. Modelled groundwater flow paths were consistent with tritium dating and provided independent evidence that the clay layer does not prevent local recharge. Overall, all lines of evidence demonstrated that the coastal floodplain muds do not prevent the infiltration of rainwater into the underlying sand aquifer, and that local recharge across the muds was widespread. Therefore, assuming fine-grained floodplain soils prevent recharge and protect underlying aquifers from pollution may not be reasonable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  1. Chemistry in South Africa - yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The jubilee convention of the South African Chemical Institute covered the development of chemistry in South Africa. Specialists in the field of chemistry covered topics with reference to organic chemistry, extraction metallurgy, analytical chemistry, mass spectroscopy, instrumentation, theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry, chromatography, industrial chemistry and solid state chemistry

  2. A new integrability theory for certain nonlinear physical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A new mathematically sound integrability theory for certain nonlinear problems defined by ordinary or partial differential equations is defined. The new theory works in an arbitrary finite number of space dimensions. Moreover, if a system is integrable in the new sense described here, it has a remarkable stability property that distinguishes if from any previously known integrability ideas. The new theory proceeds by establishing a ''global normal form'' for the problem at hand. This normal form holds subject to canonical coordinate transformations, extending such classical ideas by using new nonlinear methods of infinite dimensional functional analysis. The global normal form in question is related to the mathematical theory of singularities of mappings of H. Whitney and R. Thom extended globally and form finite to infinite dimensions. Thus bifurcation phenomena are naturally included in the new integrability theory. Typical examples include the classically nonintegrable Riccati equation, certain non-Euclidean mean field theories, certain parabolic reaction diffusion equations and the hyperbolic nonlinear telegrapher's equation. (Author)

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mixed-Valence Compounds : Theory and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro­ vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre­ hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec­ trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...

  4. Secondary Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB Teachers’ Views about In-service Training Related to Curricular Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Çağlayan Mercan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey the Physics, Chemistry and Biology (PCB curricula were renewed in 2008. However, little in-service training for teachers has been conducted to disseminate the ideas in the new curricula. The purpose of this study was to investigate PCB teachers’ views on in-service training, which may serve as the base knowledge of educational change in Turkey that can be used in further curricular development. In Istanbul 99 teachers voluntarily participated in this qualitative case study. Data were collected utilizing semi-structured interviews and analyzed by employing constant comparative analysis. The data showed that for 40% of the teachers the in-service training was insufficient: the new curricula were not introduced to them adequately. Only 7% of the teachers expressed positive views towards the in-service training. The teachers were concerned about the incompetence of the trainers and the low quality of the training programs. 20% of the teachers felt that they need to keep up to date with the new curricula and establish ways of cooperation among teachers. The results imply that educational change is more than changing the curriculum, which requires serious planning for implementation requiring a reconceptualization of in-service training as part of a larger professional development framework.

  5. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (1000 cells), transparent, and genetically tractable. Despite its simplicity, the worm exhibits complex phenotypes associated with multicellularity: the worm has differentiated cells and organs, it ages and has a well-defined lifespan, and it is capable of learning and remembering. This Review argues that the balance between simplicity and complexity in the worm will make it a useful tool in determining the relationship between molecular-scale phenomena and organism-level phenomena, such as aging, behavior, cognition, and disease. Following an introduction to worm biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Application of a faith-based integration tool to assess mental and physical health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Donna M; Leak, Jean; Carver, Monique E; Smith, Selina A

    2017-01-01

    To build on current research involving faith-based interventions (FBIs) for addressing mental and physical health, this study a) reviewed the extent to which relevant publications integrate faith concepts with health and b) initiated analysis of the degree of FBI integration with intervention outcomes. Derived from a systematic search of articles published between 2007 and 2017, 36 studies were assessed with a Faith-Based Integration Assessment Tool (FIAT) to quantify faith-health integration. Basic statistical procedures were employed to determine the association of faith-based integration with intervention outcomes. The assessed studies possessed (on average) moderate, inconsistent integration because of poor use of faith measures, and moderate, inconsistent use of faith practices. Analysis procedures for determining the effect of FBI integration on intervention outcomes were inadequate for formulating practical conclusions. Regardless of integration, interventions were associated with beneficial outcomes. To determine the link between FBI integration and intervention outcomes, additional analyses are needed.

  7. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-01-01

    To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. The current implementation status of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme in 12 rehabilitation centres and 5 hospitals with a rehabilitation department was described by scoring fidelity and satisfaction. Seventy-one rehabilitation professionals filled out a questionnaire on how sports and physical activity, including stimulation activities, were implemented into rehabilitation care. Total fidelity scores (in %) were calculated for each organization. Professionals' satisfaction was rated on a scale from 1 to 10. In most organizations sports and physical activity were to some extent integrated during and after rehabilitation (fidelity scores: median = 54%, IQR = 23%). Physical activity stimulation was not always embedded as standard component of a rehabilitation treatment. Professionals' satisfaction rated a median value of 8.0 (IQR = 0.0) indicating high satisfaction rates. The fidelity outcome showed that activities to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation were integrated into rehabilitation care, but not always delivered as standardized component. These findings have emphasized the importance to focus on integrating these activities into routines of organizations. Implications for Rehabilitation Components of an evidence-based programme to stimulate sports and physical activity during and after rehabilitation can be used to measure the current status of the integration of sports and physical activity in rehabilitation care in a structural and effective way. The method described in the current study can be used to compare the content of the rehabilitation care regarding the integration of sports and physical activity among organizations both on a national and international level

  8. How to Integrate Tai Ji Quan into Physical Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    Tai ji quan, also known as "tai chi," is an ancient Chinese exercise characterized by soft, slow, and meditative movements. It consists of a set of continuous, evenly paced, carefully choreographed, but natural, body shifts. "Tai ji" is an ancient Chinese philosophy, while "tai ji quan" refers to a type of physical activity based on tai ji…

  9. Rainsticks: Integrating Culture, Folklore, and the Physics of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine; Fies, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is for students to build a rainstick out of materials in their own environment and imitate the sound of rain while investigating the physical principles of sound. Students will be able to relate the sound produced by an instrument to the type and quantity of materials used in its construction.

  10. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  11. Mixed signal custom integrated circuit development for physics instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Monolithic Systems Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been greatly involved in custom mixed-mode integrated circuit development for the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and position-sensitive germanium spectrometer front-ends for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This paper will outline the work done for both PHENIX and the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of full-custom, mixed-signal CMOS integrated electronics. This paper presents the architectures chosen for the various PHENIX detectors which include position-sensitive silicon, capacitive pixel, and phototube detectors, and performance results for the subsystems as well as a system description of the NRL germanium strip system and its performance. The performance of the custom preamplifiers, discriminators, analog memories, analog-digital converters, and control circuitry for all systems will be presented

  12. Mixed signal custom integrated circuit development for physics instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S. [and others

    1998-10-01

    The Monolithic Systems Development Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been greatly involved in custom mixed-mode integrated circuit development for the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and position-sensitive germanium spectrometer front-ends for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This paper will outline the work done for both PHENIX and the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of full-custom, mixed-signal CMOS integrated electronics. This paper presents the architectures chosen for the various PHENIX detectors which include position-sensitive silicon, capacitive pixel, and phototube detectors, and performance results for the subsystems as well as a system description of the NRL germanium strip system and its performance. The performance of the custom preamplifiers, discriminators, analog memories, analog-digital converters, and control circuitry for all systems will be presented.

  13. The association between family and friend integration and physical activity: results from the NHIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Britta A; Strong, David; Linke, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    Social integration predicts morbidity and mortality, but its relationships with specific health behaviors that could explain this relationship, such as physical activity, have not been established. Additionally, studies associating social integration with health have not distinguished between sources of social contact (family vs. friends), which could be differentially related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social integration and physical activity and to explore differences in family and friend social integration. Data came from the 2001 wave of the National Health Interview Survey. Adult participants (N = 33,326) indicated levels of social integration by reporting whether they had seen and/or called friends and/or family in the past 2 weeks and also reported their weekly minutes of physical activity. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (≥ 150 min/week) and odds of inactivity (0 min/week) based on levels of social integration. Greater integration predicted higher odds of meeting PA guidelines and lower odds of inactivity after controlling for sociodemographic variables. This association was stronger and dose-dependent for integration with friends, whereas moderate family contact predicted greater activity than high levels of family contact. Those who are more socially integrated, particularly with friends rather than family, are also more physically active, which could partially explain the link between social integration and morbidity and mortality. Future studies examining this association should distinguish between sources of integration and explore why and how contact with friends vs. family is differentially associated with health behaviors.

  14. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  15. My view of mathematics and physics (integration of mathematics into physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronov S.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available this paper explores a new view of modern physics. New material is added to the modern mathematical physics. Filling a gap in physics theory and physical laws already in existence is the purpose of the article. The paper is devoted to contemporary issues. The work contains first development of formulas: gravitational pulse formula, vibration in pendulum formula, photon formula, three field energy density in atom formula, neutrino energy formula, equal energy of two kinds conversion formula and ray of light energy formula. The author introduces the conversion sign for scientific use in this article. The practical importance of the work involves innovative technology development.

  16. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  17. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    An exact line integral representation is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The positions of source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. Numerical examples...... are presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation....

  18. Driven by Beliefs: Understanding Challenges Physical Science Teachers Face When Integrating Engineering and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Ellis, Joshua A.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to ignore the increased use of technological innovations in today's world, which has led to various calls for the integration of engineering into K-12 science standards. The need to understand how engineering is currently being brought to science classrooms is apparent and necessary in order to address these calls for integration.…

  19. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  20. Integrating Video-Capture Virtual Reality Technology into a Physically Interactive Learning Environment for English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Chih Hung; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design and develop a Physically Interactive Learning Environment, the PILE system, by integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a classroom. The system is designed for elementary school level English classes where students can interact with the system through physical movements. The system is designed to…

  1. Mediating relationship of differential products in understanding integration in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of introductory physics, we study student conceptual understanding of differentials, differential products, and integrals and possible pathways to understanding these quantities. We developed a multiple choice conceptual assessment employing a variety of physical contexts probing physical understanding of these three quantities and administered the instrument to over 1000 students in first and second semester introductory physics courses. Using a regression-based mediation analysis with conceptual understanding of integration as the dependent variable, we found evidence consistent with a simple mediation model: the relationship between differentials scores and integral scores may be mediated by the understanding of differential products. The indirect effect (a quantifiable metric of mediation) was estimated as a b =0.29 , 95% CI [0.25, 0.33] for N =1102 Physics 1 students, and a b =0.27 , 95% CI [0.14, 0.48] for N =65 Physics 2 students. We also find evidence that the physical context of the questions can be an important factor. These results imply that for introductory physics courses, instructional emphasis first on differentials then on differential products in a variety of contexts may in turn promote better integral understanding.

  2. The current implementation status of the integration of sports and physical activity into Dutch rehabilitation care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Hettinga, Florentina J; Alingh, Rolinde A; Duijf, Marjo; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V; van der Schans, Cees P

    PURPOSE: To describe the current status of the nationwide implementation process of a sports and physical activity stimulation programme to gain insight into how sports and physical activity were integrated into Dutch rehabilitation care. METHODS: The current implementation status of a sports and

  3. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making-REPOPA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.R.; Bertram, M.; Hamalainen, R.-M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Skovgaard, T.; Valente, A.; Castellani, T.; Chereches, R.; Edwards, N.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures and the initial

  4. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  5. Where and how does physical therapy fit? Integrating physical therapy into interprofessional HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBoer, Heather; Andrews, Matthew; Cudd, Stephanie; Leung, Ellie; Petrie, Alana; Chan Carusone, Soo; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2018-03-13

    To investigate the role of physical therapy in HIV care from the perspective of people living with HIV and health care professionals with expertise in HIV care. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews (with health care professionals) and focus groups (with people living with HIV). We purposively sampled health care professionals and recruited people living with HIV in collaboration with an HIV-specialty hospital. We asked participants about their knowledge of and experiences with physical therapy, and perceptions of the physical therapy role in interprofessional HIV care. We analyzed data using content analytical techniques. Thirteen people living with HIV and 12 health care professionals conceptualized physical therapy as positively influencing independence and social participation, and as a valuable ally in interprofessional collaboration. The Framework of Physical Therapy Role in HIV Care consists of two components: (1) multidimensional and client-centered roles of physical therapy addressing physical, psychological and social health domains; and (2) contextual factors important to consider for the role of physical therapy: aging, episodic nature of HIV, multimorbidity, competing priorities, continuity of care, stigma, resource security and social isolation. The interaction between contextual factors and health domains can influence the role of physical therapy. The role of physical therapy in HIV is multidimensional and client-centered. This Framework can be used by rehabilitation professionals working with people living with HIV. Implications for Rehabilitation Participants living with HIV in this study experienced physical therapy as a means of addressing rehabilitation goals that positively influenced physical health and social participation. The role of physical therapy in HIV care is multidimensional and client-centered and can address health challenges in physical, social and psychological health domains. The presence

  6. The Integration of Green Chemistry Experiments with Sustainable Development Concepts in Pre-Service Teachers' Curriculum: Experiences from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida Hg; Mohamed, Norita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce green chemistry experiments as laboratory-based pedagogy and to evaluate effectiveness of green chemistry experiments in delivering sustainable development concepts (SDCs) and traditional environmental concepts (TECs). Design/methodology/approach: Repeated measure design was employed to evaluate…

  7. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  8. From hot atom chemistry to epithermal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The rise and fall of hot atom chemistry (HAC) over the years from 1934 to 2004 is reviewed. Several applications are discussed, in particular to astrophysics and the interaction of energetic ions and atoms in space. Epithermal chemistry (ETC) is proposed to substitute the old name, since it better fits the energy range as well as the non-thermal and non-equilibrium character of the reactions. ETC also avoids the strong connexion of HAC to nuclear chemistry and stands for the opening of the field to physical chemistry and astrophysics. (orig.)

  9. Physical security and accountancy - capability and limits of integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis as well as the objectives of physical security are different from those of international safeguards. But it seems to be reasonable to combine measures which provide advantages to both in terms of the inspectorates resources and non-hindrance of plant concept and operational strategy. Starting with a comparison of objectives, principles and measures, common aspects are defined to investigate exemplarily capability and limits in terms of technical feasibility as well as compliance with national regulations and principles of EURATOM/IAEA-Safeguards from the viewpoint of the designer of an industrial German reprocessing plant

  10. Becoming Physics People: Development of Integrated Physics Identity through the Learning Assistant Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Eleanor W.; Conn, Jessica; Close, Hunter G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the experience of students in the Physics Learning Assistant (LA) program at Texas State University in terms of the existing theoretical frameworks of "community of practice" and "physics identity," and explore the implications suggested by these theories for LA program adoption and adaptation.…

  11. Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting functions in a safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting systems to enhance overall safeguards capability are developed and presented. These concepts identify ways in which material accounting systems can be used to enable effective monitoring of authorized movement of nuclear material through physical protection boundaries. Concepts are also discussed for monitoring user access to nuclear material and for tagging user identification to material accounting transactions through physical protection functions. These result in benefits in detecting diversion and in positively tracing material movement. Finally, coordination of safeguards information from both subsystems in such an integrated system through a safeguards coordination center is addressed with emphasis on appropriate response in case of discrepancies

  12. Physics of integrated high-performance NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Heidbrink, W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skiner, C. H.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wade, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.

    2005-01-01

    An overarching goal of magnetic fusion research is the integration of steady state operation with high fusion power density, high plasma β, good thermal and fast particle confinement, and manageable heat and particle fluxes to reactor internal components. NSTX has made significant progress in integrating and understanding the interplay between these competing elements. Sustained high elongation up to 2.5 and H-mode transitions during the I p ramp-up have increased β p and reduced l i at high current resulting in I p flat-top durations exceeding 0.8s for I p >0.8MA. These shape and profile changes delay the onset of deleterious global MHD activity yielding β N values >4.5 and β T ∼20% maintained for several current diffusion times. Higher ∫ N discharges operating above the non-wall limit are sustained via rotational stabilization of the RWM. H-mode confinement scaling factors relative to H98(y,2) span the range 1±0.4 for B T >4kG and show a stron (Nearly linear) residual scaling with B T . Power balance analysis indicates the electron thermal transport dominates the loss power in beam-heated H m ode discharges, but the core χ e can be significantly reduced through current profile modification consistent with reversed magnetic shear. Small ELM regimes have been obtained in high performance plasmas on NSTX, but the ELM type and associated pedestal energy loss are found to depend sensitively on the boundary elongation, magnetic balance, and edge collisionality. NPA data and TRANSP analysis suggest resonant interactions with mid-radius tearing modes may lead to large fast-ion transport. The associated fast-ion diffusion and/or loss likely impact(s) both the driven current and power deposition profiles from NBI heating. Results from experiments to initiate the plasma without the ohmic solenoid and integrated scenario with the TSC code will also be described. (Author)

  13. High-pressure synthesis, crystal chemistry and physics of perovskites with small cations at the A site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belik, Alexei A; Yi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABO 3 perovskites with small cations at the A site (A = Sc 3+ , In 3+ and Mn 2+ and B = Al 3+ and transition metals) are reviewed. They extend the corresponding families of perovskites with A 3+ = Y, La–Lu, and Bi and A 2+ = Cd, Ca, Sr and Ba and exhibit the largest structural distortions. As a result of these large distortions, they show, in many cases, distinct structural and magnetic properties. These are manifested in: B-site-ordered monoclinic structures of ScMnO 3 and ‘InMnO 3 ’; an unusual superstructure of ScRhO 3 and InRhO 3 ; antiferromagnetic ground states and multiferroic properties of Sc 2 NiMnO 6 and In 2 NiMnO 6 ; two magnetic transitions in ScCrO 3 and InCrO 3 with very close transition temperatures; a Pnma-to-P-1 structural transition and k = (½, 0, ½) magnetic ordering in ScVO 3 ; and incommensurate magnetic ordering of Mn 2+ spins in metallic MnVO 3 . A large number of simple ScBO 3 , InBO 3 and MnBO 3 perovskites has not been synthesized yet, and the number of experimental and theoretical works on each known ScBO 3 , InBO 3 and MnBO 3 perovskites counts to only one or two (except for ScAlO 3 ). The synthesis, crystal chemistry and physics of perovskites with small cations at the A site is an emerging field in perovskite science. (topical review)

  14. Adapting to large-scale changes in Advanced Placement Biology, Chemistry, and Physics: the impact of online teacher communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumin, Kim; Dede, Chris; Fischer, Christian; Foster, Brandon; Lawrenz, Frances; Eisenkraft, Arthur; Fishman, Barry; Jurist Levy, Abigail; McCoy, Ayana

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, the field of teacher professional learning has coalesced around core characteristics of high quality professional development experiences (e.g. Borko, Jacobs, & Koellner, 2010. Contemporary approaches to teacher professional development. In P. L. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 7, pp. 548-556). Oxford: Elsevier.; Darling-Hammond, Hyler, & Gardner, 2017. Effective teacher professional development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute). Many countries have found these advances of great interest because of a desire to build teacher capacity in science education and across the full curriculum. This paper continues this progress by examining the role and impact of an online professional development community within the top-down, large-scale curriculum and assessment revision of Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. This paper is part of a five-year, longitudinal, U.S. National Science Foundation-funded project to study the relative effectiveness of various types of professional development in enabling teachers to adapt to the revised AP course goals and exams. Of the many forms of professional development our research has examined, preliminary analyses indicated that participation in the College Board's online AP Teacher Community (APTC) - where teachers can discuss teaching strategies, share resources, and connect with each other - had positive, direct, and statistically significant association with teacher self-reported shifts in practice and with gains in student AP scores (Fishman et al., 2014). This study explored how usage of the online APTC might be useful to teachers and examined a more robust estimate of these effects. Findings from the experience of AP teachers may be valuable in supporting other large-scale curriculum changes, such as the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards or Common Core Standards, as well as parallel curricular shifts in other countries.

  15. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  16. Physics chemistry experimental dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong Myeong

    1990-09-01

    This book explains gas chromatograph, light wave, light source, optical machine, name of idiom, inertial force, inertia moment, properties of inertia and gravitational mass, strong electromagnet, detector, operation of high pressure gas, schedules of high pressure gas, measurement of molecular weight of macromolecule, creation and heating value of solid fuel, measurement of solubility of solid, mechanical properties of solid, resonance, alternating current polarography, molecular motion of gas, observation experiment of gas expansion, measurement of gas specific gravity, and measurement of electromotive force.

  17. Integrated use of soil physical and water isotope methods for ecohydrological characterization of desertified areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külls, Christoph; Nunes, Alice; Köbel-Batista, Melanie; Branquinho, Cristina; Bianconi, Nadja; Costantini, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures for monitoring desertification and soil degradation require a thorough understanding of soil physical properties and of the water balance in order to guide restoration efforts (Costantini et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that long term restoration success on degraded land depends on a series of interacting factors such as exposition, soil type, soil hydrology including lateral flow on hill-slope catenae. Recently, new soil water isotope measurement techniques have been developed (Garvelmann et al. 2012) that provide much faster and reliable stable water isotope profiles in soils. This technique yield information on groundwater recharge, soil water balance and on the origin of water available for plants, which in combination with conservative chemical tracers (chloride) can be validated. A multidisciplinary study including ecologists, soil physicists and hydrologists of the COST Action Desert Restoration Hub was carried out on four semi-arid sites in Portugal. A comparative characterization of soil physical parameters, soil water isotope and chloride profiles was performed in order to estimate pedoclimate, soil aridity, soil water balance and groundwater recharge. In combination with soil physical data a comprehensive and cross-validated characterization of pedoclimate and soil aridity was obtained. These indicators were then integrated and related to plant cover. The long-term rainfall of the four sites ranges from 512 to 638 mm, whereas air temperature is from 15.8 to 17.0°C. The De Martonne index of aridity spans from 19.3 to 24.6, pointing to semiarid to moderately arid climatic conditions. The long-term average number of days when the first 0.50 m of soil is dry ranges from 110 to 134, while the mean annual soil temperature at 0.50 m spans from 15.8 and 19.1°C. The studied profiles show different hydrological characteristics, in particular, the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1-1 to 10-100 µm/s. Three out of four profiles show a

  18. Peer-teaching in the food chemistry laboratory: student-produced experiments, peer and audio feedback, and integration of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Lisa Dunne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the author’s experience over the last several years of implementing an alternative Food Chemistry laboratory practical model for a group of third-year BSc Nutraceuticals students. The initial main objectives were to prepare students for the more independent final-year research project; to incorporate innovative approaches to feedback; and to integrate key employability skills into the curriculum. These were achieved through building the skills required to ultimately allow...

  19. Integrable dissipative exclusion process: Correlation functions and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampe, N.; Ragoucy, E.; Rittenberg, V.; Vanicat, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study a one-parameter generalization of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a one-dimensional lattice. In addition to the usual dynamics (where particles can hop with equal rates to the left or to the right with an exclusion constraint), annihilation and creation of pairs can occur. The system is driven out of equilibrium by two reservoirs at the boundaries. In this setting the model is still integrable: it is related to the open XXZ spin chain through a gauge transformation. This allows us to compute the full spectrum of the Markov matrix using Bethe equations. We also show that the stationary state can be expressed in a matrix product form permitting to compute the multipoints correlation functions as well as the mean value of the lattice and the creation-annihilation currents. Finally, the variance of the lattice current is computed for a finite-size system. In the thermodynamic limit, it matches the value obtained from the associated macroscopic fluctuation theory.

  20. Integrated Tokamak modeling: When physics informs engineering and research planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca Maria

    2018-05-01

    Modeling tokamaks enables a deeper understanding of how to run and control our experiments and how to design stable and reliable reactors. We model tokamaks to understand the nonlinear dynamics of plasmas embedded in magnetic fields and contained by finite size, conducting structures, and the interplay between turbulence, magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities, and wave propagation. This tutorial guides through the components of a tokamak simulator, highlighting how high-fidelity simulations can guide the development of reduced models that can be used to understand how the dynamics at a small scale and short time scales affects macroscopic transport and global stability of plasmas. It discusses the important role that reduced models have in the modeling of an entire plasma discharge from startup to termination, the limits of these models, and how they can be improved. It discusses the important role that efficient workflows have in the coupling between codes, in the validation of models against experiments and in the verification of theoretical models. Finally, it reviews the status of integrated modeling and addresses the gaps and needs towards predictions of future devices and fusion reactors.