WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated parasite control

  1. Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock - Alternative control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Paul1

    Full Text Available Internal parasites are considered by some to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock. The growing concern about the resistance of internal parasites to all classes of dewormers has caused people to look for alternatives. As dewormers lose their effectiveness, the livestock community fears increasing economic losses from worms. There is no one thing that can be given or done to replace chemical dewormers. It will take a combination of extremely good management techniques and possibly some alternative therapies. It is not wise to think that one can just stop deworming animals with chemical dewormers. It is something one will need to change gradually, observing and testing animals and soil, in order to monitor the progress. Alternative parasite control is an area that is receiving a lot of interest and attention. Programs and research will continue in the pursuit of parasite control, using alternative and more management-intensive methods. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 431-435

  2. Integrated parasite management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi

    2015-01-01

    communities at risk through mass drug administration. However, we argue that treatment alone will not reduce the risk from eating infected fish and that sustainable effective control must adopt an integrated FZT control approach based on education, infrastructure improvements, and management practices...... that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms.......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target...

  3. Parasitic worms: knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Western Côte d'Ivoire with implications for integrated control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia A Acka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. METHODS: We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001. Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections.

  4. Plant parasite control and soil fauna diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Patrick; Blouin, Manuel; Boyer, Johnny; Cadet, Patrice; Laffray, Daniel; Pham-Thi, Anh-Thu; Reversat, Georges; Settle, William; Zuily, Yasmine

    2004-07-01

    The use of pesticides to control plant parasites and diseases has generated serious problems of public health and environmental quality, leading to the promotion of alternative Integrated Pest Management strategies that tend to rely more on natural processes and the active participation of farmers as observers and experimenters in their own fields. We present three case studies that point at different options provided by locally available populations of soil organisms, the maintenance of diverse populations of pests or increased resistance of plants to pest attacks by their interactions with earthworms and other useful soil organisms. These examples demonstrate the diversity of options offered by the non-planned agro-ecosystem diversity in pest control and the need to identify management options that maintain this biodiversity.

  5. Parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects: integrating functional and mechanistic research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Melissa A; Singer, Michael S

    2017-08-15

    Research on parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects is contributing to an emerging literature that considers possible adaptive consequences of altered feeding behavior for the host or the parasite. Several recent ecoimmunological studies show that insects can adaptively alter their foraging behavior in response to parasitism. Another body of recent work shows that infection by parasites can change the behavior of insect hosts to benefit the parasite; manipulations of host feeding behavior may be part of this phenomenon. Here, we address both the functional and the underlying physiological frontiers of parasite-altered feeding behavior in order to spur research that better integrates the two. Functional categories of parasite-altered behavior that are adaptive for the host include prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, while host manipulation is adaptive for the parasite. To better understand and distinguish prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, further study of physiological feedbacks affecting host sensory systems is especially needed. For host manipulation in particular, research on mechanisms by which parasites control host feedbacks will be important to integrate with functional approaches. We see this integration as critical to advancing the field of parasite-altered feeding behavior, which may be common in insects and consequential for human and environmental health. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Integrated controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984, all portions of the Nova control system that were necessary for the support of laser activation and completion of the Nova project were finished and placed in service on time. The Nova control system has been unique in providing, on schedule, the capabilities required in the central control room and in various local control areas throughout the facility. The ambitious goal of deploying this system early enough to use it as an aid in the activation of the laser was accomplished; thus the control system made a major contribution to the completion of Nova activation on schedule. Support and enhancement activities continued during the year on the VAX computer systems, central control room, operator consoles and displays, Novanet data communications network, system-level software for both the VAX and LSI-11 computers, Praxis control system computer language, software management tools, and the development system, which includes office terminals. Computational support was also supplied for a wide variety of test fixtures required by the optical and mechanical subsystems. Significant new advancements were made in four areas in integrated controls this year: the integration software (which includes the shot scheduler), the Praxis language, software quality assurance audit, and software development and data handling. A description of the accomplishments in each of these areas follows

  7. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  8. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  9. [Current situation of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Lan, Zhang; Yan-Kun, Zhu; Wei-Qi, Chen; Yan, Deng; Peng, Li

    2018-01-10

    To understand the current status of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province, so as to provide the reference for promoting the integrative ability of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in Henan Province. The questionnaires were designed and the method of census was adopted. The information, such as the amounts, majors, education background, technical titles, working years, and turnover in each parasitic disease control and prevention organization was collected by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) at all levels. The data were descriptively analyzed. Totally 179 CDCs were investigated, in which only 19.0% (34/179) had the independent parasitic diseases control institution (department) . There were only 258 full-time staffs working on parasitic disease control and prevention in the whole province, in which only 61.9% (159/258) were health professionals. Those with junior college degree or below in the health professionals accounted for 60.3% (96/159) . Most of them (42.1%) had over 20 years of experience, but 57.9% (92/159) of their technical post titles were at primary level or below. The proportion of the health professionals is low in the parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province. The human resource construction for parasitic disease control and prevention at all levels should be strengthened.

  10. Suicidal germination for parasitic weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Binne; Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Kannan, Chinnaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga and Orobanche spp. cause severe yield losses in agriculture, especially in developing countries and the Mediterranean. Seeds of these weeds germinate by a chemical signal exuded by the roots of host plants. The radicle thus produced attaches to the root of the host plant, which can then supply nutrients to the parasite. There is an urgent need to control these weeds to ensure better agricultural production. The naturally occurring chemical signals are strigolactones (SLs), e.g. strigol and orobanchol. One option to control these weeds involves the use of SLs as suicidal germination agents, where germination takes place in the absence of a host. Owing to the lack of nutrients, the germinated seeds will die. The structure of natural SLs is too complex to allow multigram synthesis. Therefore, SL analogues are developed for this purpose. Examples are GR24 and Nijmegen-1. In this paper, the SL analogues Nijmegen-1 and Nijmegen-1 Me were applied in the field as suicidal germination agents. Both SL analogues were formulated using an appropriate EC-approved emulsifier (polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate) and applied to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields infested by Orobanche ramosa L. (hemp broomrape), following a strict protocol. Four out of 12 trials showed a reduction in broomrape of ≥95%, two trials were negative, two showed a moderate result, one was unclear and in three cases there was no Orobanche problem in the year of the trials. The trial plots were ca 2000 m 2 ; half of that area was treated with stimulant emulsion, the other half was not treated. The optimal amount of stimulant was 6.25 g ha -1 . A preconditioning prior to the treatment was a prerequisite for a successful trial. In conclusion, the suicidal germination approach to reducing O. ramosa in tobacco fields using formulated SL analogues was successful. Two other options for weed control are discussed: deactivation of stimulants prior to action and

  11. Satellite technology and the control of parasitic diseases in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential application of these techniques in the surveillance, control and prevention of parasitic diseases in Africa is explored in this write-up. Keywords: surveillance, parasitic diseases, satellite techniques, remote sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning Sytem (GPS), human and robotic, ...

  12. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  13. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  14. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S. Bosch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites cause infectious diseases that are either a severe public health problem or an economic burden. In this paper we will shed light on how oxidative stress can influence the host-pathogen relationship by focusing on three major diseases: babesiosis, coccidiosis, and toxoplasmosis.

  15. Contemporary models and prospects of control of parasitic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petričević Saša M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and expert-scientific factors determine activities in connection with the development of the control of parasitic infections in the upcoming period of the 21st century. The primary research activities are directed at studies of the physiological functions of parasites and the ecological relations between the parasite and the host, and all that is undertaken with the objective of securing adequate pharmacotherapy/pharmacoprophylaxis and immunoprophilaxis. As there is a huge expansion in the synthesis of chemical compounds, there is a great number of potential substances for use in the form of a medicine. Along these lines, activities concerning the development of new antiparasitics and/or modification of existing ones are primarily based on securing a quality target spot for its action. Another possibility in the area of research is connected to the problem of resistance of parasites and intensive studies of the biochemical-physiological characteristics of parasites, as well as the development of an active epidemiological-episootiological network for monitoring resistance. In parallel with the development of medicines, the results of investigations of physiological functions of parasites and their mutual relations with their host, are intensely used for the development of immunological control, and the development of vaccines (for example, the development of vaccines for the control of coccidiosis, babesiosis, echinococcosis. The second important approach is related to studies of parasitic zoonoses, the effect of global warming on the epidemiological-episootiological characteristics of parasitic diseases and the selection of resistant animal breeds/hybrids. Animal welfare is also of importance, the perfecting of reliable, rapid and less-costly methods for diagnosing parasitic diseases and the development of in vitro methods for the examination of resistance to antiparasitics.

  16. Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2009-08-07

    The benefits of using antiparasitic drugs in farm animals are unquestionable. However, despite anthelmintic use as the predominant control strategy, extreme parasite infection cases are appearing in sheep and goat production; these impact productivity and have show mortality rates reaching pre-drug use levels. This was a predictable situation resulting from the loss of efficacy by all available products, particularly when some products were used as the sole intervention. The concepts of agroecology and holistic agriculture, which advocate the use of integrated management strategies, such as target selected treatment, herbal medicine, and the application of other parasite control alternatives, are not completely new, but are undergoing a resurgence because of their more sustainable appeal. The objective of this review article is to examine the problem of parasite control in the face of parasite drug resistance and to outline some strategies that may be used in parasite control programmes. Before they are accepted and recommended by the WAAVP, agroecological methods such as those listed above and described in detail herein should be validated based on scientific evidence of their efficacy for parasite control and should be tested for both host and environmental safety.

  17. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  18. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against economically important parasitic diseases of farm animals has met with mixed success. Examples are presented ranging from the highly effective and much used commercial vaccine against cattle lungworm to the almost completely unsuccessful attempts to immunize sheep against liver fluke. The results presented emphasize that this approach is likely to be successful only if there is evidence of a strong degree of acquired immunity to the natural infection. The extension of immunological control to those systems where the parasite provokes only a modest resistance by the host will probably depend on a much greater understanding of the mechanism of the immune response. Such fundamental studies are likely to rely heavily on nuclear techniques, e.g. in the labelling of antigens, antibodies and parasites with radioactive isotopes. (author)

  20. Nematode parasite control of livestock in the tropics/subtropics: the need for novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-10-01

    Because parasites are more abundant, small ruminants in the tropical/subtropical regions of the world experience much greater ravages from internal parasitic disease than those in the temperate regions. In the tropics/subtropics, the limiting ecological factor influencing the severity of parasitism is rainfall, as temperatures almost always favour hatching and development of the free-living stages. Attempts to expand sheep and goat production by replacing traditional village production systems, which rarely involve anthelmintic treatment, with large-scale intensive commercial enterprises invariably induce complete reliance on anthelmintics to control nematode parasites. This has led to the widespread development of high level, multiple anthelmintic resistance throughout the tropics/subtropics, and in certain regions this has reached the ultimate disastrous scenario of total chemotherapeutic failure. Immediate concerted efforts are needed to resolve this crisis. Significant benefits are likely to emerge from research into non-chemotherapeutic approaches to nematode parasite control, such as grazing management, worm vaccines, breed selection and biological control. However, it is likely that none, in isolation or collectively, will completely replace the need for effective anthelmintics. What is needed is the integration of all methods of parasite control as they come to hand, with the underlying aim of reducing the use and thus preserving the effectiveness of anthelmintics. Although cheap and simple procedures, based on sound epidemiological principles, can achieve dramatic benefits in worm control, they have been poorly adopted by livestock owners. Clearly then, the greatest need is for technology transfer and education programmes, but these activities are generally found to be chronically under-resourced.

  1. Targeting protein-protein interactions for parasite control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Taylor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding new drug targets for pathogenic infections would be of great utility for humanity, as there is a large need to develop new drugs to fight infections due to the developing resistance and side effects of current treatments. Current drug targets for pathogen infections involve only a single protein. However, proteins rarely act in isolation, and the majority of biological processes occur via interactions with other proteins, so protein-protein interactions (PPIs offer a realm of unexplored potential drug targets and are thought to be the next-generation of drug targets. Parasitic worms were chosen for this study because they have deleterious effects on human health, livestock, and plants, costing society billions of dollars annually and many sequenced genomes are available. In this study, we present a computational approach that utilizes whole genomes of 6 parasitic and 1 free-living worm species and 2 hosts. The species were placed in orthologous groups, then binned in species-specific orthologous groups. Proteins that are essential and conserved among species that span a phyla are of greatest value, as they provide foundations for developing broad-control strategies. Two PPI databases were used to find PPIs within the species specific bins. PPIs with unique helminth proteins and helminth proteins with unique features relative to the host, such as indels, were prioritized as drug targets. The PPIs were scored based on RNAi phenotype and homology to the PDB (Protein DataBank. EST data for the various life stages, GO annotation, and druggability were also taken into consideration. Several PPIs emerged from this study as potential drug targets. A few interactions were supported by co-localization of expression in M. incognita (plant parasite and B. malayi (H. sapiens parasite, which have extremely different modes of parasitism. As more genomes of pathogens are sequenced and PPI databases expanded, this methodology will become increasingly

  2. One world health: socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotics for the Control of Parasites: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Agnès Travers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live organisms, which confer benefits to the host. Their efficiency was demonstrated for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections, and allergic symptoms, but their use is mostly limited to bacterial and viral diseases. During the last decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite infections were reported covering mainly intestinal diseases but also some nongut infections, that are all of human and veterinary importance. In most cases, evidence for a beneficial effect was obtained by studies using animal models. In a few cases, cellular interactions between probiotics and pathogens or relevant host cells were also investigated using in vitro culture systems. However, molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects are as yet poorly understood. These studies indicate that probiotics might indeed provide a strain-specific protection against parasites, probably through multiple mechanisms. But more unravelling studies are needed to justify probiotic utilisation in therapeutics.

  4. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have...

  5. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever... parasites or have been exposed thereto, such livestock must be treated and the movement thereof restricted...

  6. “It All Started from Worms”: Korea-Japan Parasite Control Cooperation and Asian Network, 1960s - 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho JUNG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Association of Health Promotion and Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP, and Taiwan’s Chinese Foundation of Health all originated from parasite control organizations. Currently these organizations hold no apparent relations to parasite control activities. However, many of the senior leaderships of these organizations including presidents, have parasitology as their background. Kunii Chojiro (the founder of Japan Association of Parasite Control (JAPC and JOICFP explained it as “it all started from worms.” In 1949, Kunii Chojiro established JAPC after personally experienced intestinal parasite infection. The JAPC people conducted mass examination and mass chemotherapy focusing on school children, which allowed them to have sustainable income. In 1965, the Korea Association of Parasite Eradication (KAPE requested JAPC to assist Korea’s parasite control activity. In 1968, when Korea-Japan cooperation for parasite control activity established, Japan’s operating procedures were directly absorbed by KAPE. With support from JAPC and official development aid through Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency in Japan (now Japan International Cooperation Agency, Korea successfully controlled parasite infection. Post-war and cold-war geopolitics had a significant impact on Korea-Japan cooperation. In 1960s the president of KAPE, Chong-Chin Lee and Kunii Chojiro were well known figures in population control network. They did understand the importance of population control, but did not agree with the approaches taken by western population control experts. From their point of view, it had to be self-initiated, economically self sustainable grass-root activities rather than top-down activities, as experienced in their parasite control in Japan and Korea. This lead to a new Asian model named “Integrated Program”. Together with their influence in population control network, Kunii and Lee manage to

  7. Parasites in marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  8. Selective therapy in equine parasite control--application and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Pfister, K; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2014-05-28

    Since the 1960s equine parasite control has relied heavily on frequent anthelmintic treatments often applied with frequent intervals year-round. However, increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins and Parascaris equorum are now forcing the equine industry to change to a more surveillance-based treatment approach to facilitate a reduction in treatment intensity. The principle of selective therapy has been implemented with success in small ruminant parasite control, and has also found use in horse populations. Typically, egg counts are performed from all individuals in the population, and those exceeding a predetermined cutoff threshold are treated. Several studies document the applicability of this method in populations of adult horses, where the overall cyathostomin egg shedding can be controlled by only treating about half the horses. However, selective therapy has not been evaluated in foals and young horses, and it remains unknown whether the principle is adequate to also provide control over other important parasites such as tapeworms, ascarids, and large strongyles. One recent study associated selective therapy with increased occurrence of Strongylus vulgaris. Studies are needed to evaluate potential health risks associated with selective therapy, and to assess to which extent development of anthelmintic resistance can be delayed with this approach. The choice of strongyle egg count cutoff value for anthelmintic treatment is currently based more on tradition than science, and a recent publication illustrated that apparently healthy horses with egg counts below 100 eggs per gram (EPG) can harbor cyathostomin burdens in the range of 100,000 luminal worms. It remains unknown whether leaving such horses untreated constitutes a potential threat to equine health. The concept of selective therapy has merit for equine strongyle control, but several questions remain as it has not been fully scientifically evaluated. There is a great need for new and

  9. Transmission traits of malaria parasites within the mosquito: Genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity, and consequences for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Ohm, Johanna; Dabiré, Kounbobr R; Cohuet, Anna; Choisy, Marc; Thomas, Matthew B; Cator, Lauren

    2018-04-01

    Evaluating the risk of emergence and transmission of vector-borne diseases requires knowledge of the genetic and environmental contributions to pathogen transmission traits. Compared to the significant effort devoted to understanding the biology of malaria transmission from vertebrate hosts to mosquito vectors, the strategies that malaria parasites have evolved to maximize transmission from vectors to vertebrate hosts have been largely overlooked. While determinants of infection success within the mosquito host have recently received attention, the causes of variability for other key transmission traits of malaria, namely the duration of parasite development and its virulence within the vector, as well as its ability to alter mosquito behavior, remain largely unknown. This important gap in our knowledge needs to be bridged in order to obtain an integrative view of the ecology and evolution of malaria transmission strategies. Associations between transmission traits also need to be characterized, as they trade-offs and constraints could have important implications for understanding the evolution of parasite transmission. Finally, theoretical studies are required to evaluate how genetic and environmental influences on parasite transmission traits can shape malaria dynamics and evolution in response to disease control.

  10. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  11. Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.

  12. Integrated mobile robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidi, Omead; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the strucwre implementation and operation of a real-time mobile robot controller which integrates capabilities such as: position estimation path specification and hacking human interfaces fast communication and multiple client support The benefits of such high-level capabilities in a low-level controller was shown by its implementation for the Naviab autonomous vehicle. In addition performance results from positioning and tracking systems are reported and analyzed.

  13. An integrated gyrotron controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Georg, E-mail: michel@ipp.mpg.de; Sachtleben, Juergen

    2011-10-15

    The ECRH system of W7-X is composed of 10 independent gyrotron modules. Each module consists of one gyrotron and its peripherals such as power supplies, cooling plants and distributed PLC systems. The fast real-time control functions such as the timing of the two high voltage supplies, trigger pulses, protection, modulation and communication with the central control of W7-X, is implemented in an integrated controller which is described in this paper. As long-term maintainability and sustainability are important for nuclear fusion experiments, the choice fell on an FPGA-based design which is exclusively based on free (as in 'freedom') software and configuration code. The core of the controller consists of a real-time Java virtual machine (JVM) that provides the TCP-IP connectivity as well as more complicated control functions, and which interacts with the gyrotron-specific hardware. Both the gyrotron-specific hardware and the JVM are implemented on the same FPGA, which is the main component of the controller. All 10 controllers are currently completed and operational. All parameters and functions are accessible via Ethernet. Due to the open, FPGA-based design, most hardware modifications can be made via the network as well. This paper discusses the capabilities of the controllers and their integration into the central W7-X control.

  14. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control.

  15. An integrated in vitro imaging platform for characterizing filarial parasite behavior within a multicellular microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kassis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic Filariasis, a Neglected Tropical Disease, is caused by thread-like parasitic worms, including B. malayi, which migrate to the human lymphatic system following transmission. The parasites reside in collecting lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes for years, often resulting in lymphedema, elephantiasis or hydrocele. The mechanisms driving worm migration and retention within the lymphatics are currently unknown. We have developed an integrated in vitro imaging platform capable of quantifying B. malayi migration and behavior in a multicellular microenvironment relevant to the initial site of worm injection by incorporating the worm in a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel in the presence of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs. The platform utilizes a motorized controllable microscope with CO2 and temperature regulation to allow for worm tracking experiments with high resolution over large length and time scales. Using post-acquisition algorithms, we quantified four parameters: 1 speed, 2 thrashing intensity, 3 percentage of time spent in a given cell region and 4 persistence ratio. We demonstrated the utility of our system by quantifying these parameters for L3 B. malayi in the presence of LECs and HDFs. Speed and thrashing increased in the presence of both cell types and were altered within minutes upon exposure to the anthelmintic drug, tetramisole. The worms displayed no targeted migration towards either cell type for the time course of this study (3 hours. When cells were not present in the chamber, worm thrashing correlated directly with worm speed. However, this correlation was lost in the presence of cells. The described platform provides the ability to further study B. malayi migration and behavior.

  16. Optimal profit of the parasitation by Aphelinus mali in an IPM complementary strategy for the control of Eriosoma lanigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, D; Bangels, E; Belien, T; Schoevaerts, C; De Maeyer, L

    2011-01-01

    During summer the parasitoid Aphelinus mali may certainly reduce the infestation of woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), but studies on the single interaction rarely indicate sufficient biological control in the period May-June. In this period chemical control by spirotetramat or pirimicarb remains indispensable in order to anticipate on dense migration waves and subsequent colonization of extension shoots by E. lanigerum. The limited parasitation by A. mali around flowering is linked with a delayed emergence from diapause and with a slower reproduction rate than its host. In 2010 and 2011 the first adult flights monitored on yellow sticky traps corresponded perfectly with the currently used prediction models for A. mali. Further accurate monitoring all along the season enabled also to determine a well defined endo-parasitic phase of A. mali occurring after the small peak observed around flowering. During this endo-parasitic phase A. mali larvae reside inside their mummified host. Compounds with higher acute toxicity on A. mali adults, like chloronicotinyl insecticides (CNI's), are preferably positioned here. Selectivity in the time can then be claimed. Respecting this principle, the further parasitation potential of A. mali in summer is not hampered. Preservation of the first peak of flights of A. mali in the pre-flowering period is essential for an exponential flight increase. This is essential for the parasitation of E. lanigerum in summer, which constitutes a valuable complement in the integrated control strategy.

  17. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Krkošek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application

  18. Control strategies for a stochastic model of host-parasite interaction in a seasonal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corral, A; López García, M

    2014-08-07

    We examine a nonlinear stochastic model for the parasite load of a single host over a predetermined time interval. We use nonhomogeneous Poisson processes to model the acquisition of parasites, the parasite-induced host mortality, the natural (no parasite-induced) host mortality, and the reproduction and death of parasites within the host. Algebraic results are first obtained on the age-dependent distribution of the number of parasites infesting the host at an arbitrary time t. The interest is in control strategies based on isolation of the host and the use of an anthelmintic at a certain intervention instant t0. This means that the host is free living in a seasonal environment, and it is transferred to a uninfected area at age t0. In the uninfected area, the host does not acquire new parasites, undergoes a treatment to decrease the parasite load, and its natural and parasite-induced mortality are altered. For a suitable selection of t0, we present two control criteria that appropriately balance effectiveness and cost of intervention. Our approach is based on simple probabilistic principles, and it allows us to examine seasonal fluctuations of gastrointestinal nematode burden in growing lambs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of parasitism in donkeys of project and control areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken with the aim of comparing the status of parasitism in donkeys in the Donkey Health and welfare Project intervention (Bereh, Ada and Boset) and Control (Yekaduda, Gerado and Meki) areas of, Central Ethiopia, in 2005. Parasites are prime problem of donkeys among other problems including ...

  20. Monitor de Control Integral

    OpenAIRE

    García Corominas, Estefania

    2016-01-01

    Control Integral es un programa informático especializado en gestión de ferreterías, bricolaje, suministros industriales y centros de construcción. Este programa está formado por dos ejecutables: el primero de ellos es el de ‘Gestión' y el segundo es el llamado ‘Monitor'. El módulo de gestión se compone de diferentes características para satisfacer las necesidades de los clientes, actualización automática de precios de los artículos, terminal punto de venta (TPV) este permite la creación e im...

  1. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. Methods and analysis WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded

  2. Investigation of Amino Acids As Herbicides for Control of Orobanche minor Parasitism in Red Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fernández-Aparicio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain amino acids induce inhibitory effects in plant growth due to feedback inhibition of metabolic pathways. The inhibition patterns depend on plant species and the plant developmental stage. Those amino acids with inhibitory action on specific weeds could be utilized as herbicides, however, their use for weed control has not been put into practice. Orobanche minor is a weed that parasitizes red clover. O. minor germination is stimulated by clover root exudates. The subsequent seedling is an obligated parasite that must attach quickly to the clover root to withdraw its nutrients. Early development of O. minor is vulnerable to amino acid inhibition and therefore, a series of in vitro, rhizotron, and field experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of amino acids to inhibit O. minor parasitism. In in vitro experiments it was found that among a collection of 20 protein amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan strongly interfere with O. minor early development. Field research confirmed their inhibitory effect but revealed that methionine was more effective than lysine and tryptophan, and that two successive methionine applications at 308 and 543 growing degree days inhibited O. minor emergence in red clover up to 67%. We investigated additional effects with potential to influence the practical use of amino acids against broomrape weeds, whether the herbicidal effect may be reversible by other amino acids exuded by host plants or may be amplified by inducing host resistance barriers against O. minor penetration. This paper suggests that amino acids may have the potential to be integrated into biorational programs of broomrape management.

  3. Investigation of Amino Acids As Herbicides for Control of Orobanche minor Parasitism in Red Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Bernard, Alexandre; Falchetto, Laurent; Marget, Pascal; Chauvel, Bruno; Steinberg, Christian; Morris, Cindy E; Gibot-Leclerc, Stephanie; Boari, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Bohan, David A; Sands, David C; Reboud, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Certain amino acids induce inhibitory effects in plant growth due to feedback inhibition of metabolic pathways. The inhibition patterns depend on plant species and the plant developmental stage. Those amino acids with inhibitory action on specific weeds could be utilized as herbicides, however, their use for weed control has not been put into practice. Orobanche minor is a weed that parasitizes red clover. O. minor germination is stimulated by clover root exudates. The subsequent seedling is an obligated parasite that must attach quickly to the clover root to withdraw its nutrients. Early development of O. minor is vulnerable to amino acid inhibition and therefore, a series of in vitro , rhizotron, and field experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of amino acids to inhibit O. minor parasitism. In in vitro experiments it was found that among a collection of 20 protein amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan strongly interfere with O. minor early development. Field research confirmed their inhibitory effect but revealed that methionine was more effective than lysine and tryptophan, and that two successive methionine applications at 308 and 543 growing degree days inhibited O. minor emergence in red clover up to 67%. We investigated additional effects with potential to influence the practical use of amino acids against broomrape weeds, whether the herbicidal effect may be reversible by other amino acids exuded by host plants or may be amplified by inducing host resistance barriers against O. minor penetration. This paper suggests that amino acids may have the potential to be integrated into biorational programs of broomrape management.

  4. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-12-30

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded by a Partnership for Better Health--Project grant from the National

  5. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  6. Integrating chytrid fungal parasites into plankton ecology: research gaps and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenken, Thijs; Alacid, Elisabet; Berger, Stella A; Bourne, Elizabeth C; Gerphagnon, Mélanie; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Gsell, Alena S; Ibelings, Bas W; Kagami, Maiko; Küpper, Frithjof C; Letcher, Peter M; Loyau, Adeline; Miki, Takeshi; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Rasconi, Serena; Reñé, Albert; Rohrlack, Thomas; Rojas-Jimenez, Keilor; Schmeller, Dirk S; Scholz, Bettina; Seto, Kensuke; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Sukenik, Assaf; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Van den Wyngaert, Silke; Van Donk, Ellen; Wolinska, Justyna; Wurzbacher, Christian; Agha, Ramsy

    2017-10-01

    Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years. Yet, we still know little about the ecology of chytrids, their life cycles, phylogeny, host specificity and range. Information on the contribution of chytrids to trophic interactions, as well as co-evolutionary feedbacks of fungal parasitism on host populations is also limited. This paper synthesizes ideas stressing the multifaceted biological relevance of phytoplankton chytridiomycosis, resulting from discussions among an international team of chytrid researchers. It presents our view on the most pressing research needs for promoting the integration of chytrid fungi into aquatic ecology. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Evaluation on intervention measures of comprehensive control for parasitic diseases in demonstration plot of Xiangyun County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Juan, Li; Shao-Rong, Chen; Yan-Hong, Li; Wen, Fang; Chun-Rong, Ke; Li-Bo, Wang

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive intervention measures to control and prevent parasitic diseases in the demonstration plot of Xiangyun County, so as to provide the evidence for establishing appropriate measures of parasitic diseases control and prevention. The baseline data of soil-transmitted nematode infections were obtained in 2006. A series of intervention measures, including health education, deworming, drinking water improvement,latrine improvement, and environment reconstruction, were performed for three years and the effect of the comprehensive intervention measures was evaluated by the national expert group in 2009. The awareness rate of parasitic disease knowledge of residents in 2009 (86.96%) was significantly higher than that in 2006 (35.20%) (Chi2 = 122.95, P transmitted nematode infections, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides in both 2006 and 2009 were the highest and the rates were 18.74% and 2.08%, respectively. In the demonstration plots for parasitic diseases control and prevention of Xiangyun County, the effect of the comprehensive intervention measures which take health education as the forerunner and give priority to control source of parasite infection is remarkable. The measures implemented can achieve the purpose to reduce the infection rates of parasites and improve human health.

  8. Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Libersat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host. Such parasite–host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions. To name just a few examples, some worms induce crickets and other terrestrial insects to commit suicide in water, enabling the exit of the parasite into an aquatic environment favorable to its reproduction. In another example of behavioral manipulation, ants that consumed the secretions of a caterpillar containing dopamine are less likely to move away from the caterpillar and more likely to be aggressive. This benefits the caterpillar for without its ant bodyguards, it is more likely to be predated upon or attacked by parasitic insects that would lay eggs inside its body. Another example is the parasitic wasp, which induces a guarding behavior in its ladybug host in collaboration with a viral mutualist. To exert long-term behavioral manipulation of the host, parasite must secrete compounds that act through secondary messengers and/or directly on genes often modifying gene expression to produce long-lasting effects.

  9. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  10. Integrated control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that instrument manufacturers must develop standard network interfaces to pull together interrelated systems such as automatic start-up, optimization programs, and online diagnostic systems. In the past individual control system manufacturers have developed their own data highways with proprietary hardware and software designs. In the future, electric utilities will require that future systems, irrespective of manufacturer, should be able to communicate with each other. Until now the manufactures of control systems have not agreed on the standard high-speed data highway system. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in conjunction with several electric utilities and equipment manufactures, is working on developing a standard protocol for communicating between various manufacturers' control systems. According to N. Michael of Sargent and Lundy, future control room designs will require that more of the control and display functions be accessible from the control room through CRTs. There will be less emphasis on traditional hard-wired control panels

  11. Use of irradiation to control infectivity of food-borne parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are common throughout the world, pose significant health problems and cause economic losses in terms of agricultural commodities and human productivity. The diseases usually occur through consumption of raw or partially cooked foods with are infected by various parasites (e.g. tapeworms, roundworms, flukes, parasitic protozoa, etc.). The problem is significant in developing countries where the population has the habit of consuming raw food of animal origin. Available data, with the exception of data on Trichinella spiralis, a parasitic nematode, were insufficient for the use of irradiation technology to control food-borne parasites. Therefore, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation to Control Infectivity of Food-Borne Parasites was implemented by the FAO/IAEA in 1986. The results of the work carried out over five years (1986-1991) by twelve researchers participating in the programme, have established conclusively the potential for application of food irradiation in the control of liver flukes, tapeworms, roundworms, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, etc. This report includes the conclusions and recommendations of the participants concerning the results obtained and need for further research. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Control of parasites in cultured marine finfishes in Southeast Asia--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, L T

    1997-10-01

    Mariculture in Southeast Asia began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly during the 1980s, with the commercial hatchery production of the seabass Lates calcarifer. Other important cultured species were Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus malabaricus, Lutjanus johni, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Intensification in the polyculture of these species and the large-scale international movement of fingerlings or juveniles, as well as the rapid expansion and concentration of fish farms, have caused severe problems resulting from parasitic infections. Infections in maricultured fish are predominantly caused by monoxenous parasites, in particular the capsalid and diplectanid monogeneans. Heteroxenous blood parasites also successfully maintained transmission in the culture system despite their requirement for an intermediate host. Prophylactic chemical treatments helped to reduce parasitic infection but did not eliminate them and once introduced into the floating netcage culture system, these parasites managed to maintain their transmission successfully. Despite the current lack of information regarding the biology of many parasites affecting cultured marine fishes, it nevertheless is possible to develop methodologies to produce an integrated health management system specifically designed to the needs of the mariculture practiced in the Southeast Asian region. This system is important and should include a sequence of prophylaxes, adequate nutrition, sanitation, immunization and an effective system of marketing for farmed fishes.

  13. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  14. Integral control for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiver, Chris; Logemann, Hartmut; Rebarber, Richard; Bill, Adam; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Hodgson, Dave; Townley, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel management methodology for restocking a declining population. The strategy uses integral control, a concept ubiquitous in control theory which has not been applied to population dynamics. Integral control is based on dynamic feedback-using measurements of the population to inform management strategies and is robust to model uncertainty, an important consideration for ecological models. We demonstrate from first principles why such an approach to population management is suitable via theory and examples.

  15. Integrated control rod monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Katsuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device in which an entire control rod driving time measuring device and a control rod position support device in a reactor building and a central control chamber are integrated systematically to save hardwares such as a signal input/output device and signal cables between boards. Namely, (1) functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device for monitoring control rods which control the reactor power and a control rod position indication device are integrated into one identical system. Then, the entire devices can be made compact by the integration of the functions. (2) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated in a central operation board and a board in the site. Then, the place for the installation of them can be used in common in any of the cases. (3) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated to one identical system to save hardware to be used. Then, signal input/output devices and drift branching panel boards in the site and the central operation board can be saved, and cables for connecting both of the boards is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  16. Future Integrated Fire Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Bonnie W

    2005-01-01

    Future advances in fire control for air and missile defense depend largely on a network-enabled foundation that enables the collaborative use of distributed warfare assets for time-critical operations...

  17. Evaluation of five treatments to control intestinal parasites in sheep in Ayapango, state of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Intestinal parasites are one of the most common problems in sheep production systems. However, the strategies used to eliminate these parasites have not yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of five anthelmintics (with different active ingredients on the parasite load in sheep. Materials and Methods: In this study, 107 Rambouillet breed sheep were randomly assigned to five groups. Next, fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and sent to the laboratory for analysis. We then dewormed each group of sheep using different anthelmintic products: Ivermectin 1%/clorsulon 10%, levamisole 12%, closantel sodium 5%, ivermectin 10%, and closantel 5%/albendazole 3.75% with a dosage corresponding to each sheep. At 15 days post-treatment, we took fecal samples and performed a coproparasitoscopic study, using the Faust flotation technique to assess the presence or absence of parasite eggs and the McMaster technique to quantify eggs. Results: Ivermectin/clorsulon was more effective in eliminating parasites than other anthelmintics used, especially in Haemonchus spp. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using ivermectin/clorsulon decreases the number of eggs in feces and is one alternative in controlling parasites in sheep, leading to a reduction in the incidence of health problems, and consequently, improved productivity.

  18. Integrated pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The hazards induced by pests are responsible for about 50% of the agricultural production. There are two types of methods for pest control. The traditional methods including chemical, biological, mechanical and physical methods. The modern methods depending on germs, phermones, hormones and genetic methods. The sterile insect technique is the most recent one and the more effective. It depends on the use of insect to destroy itself.

  19. The Functioning of Strategic Management in the Control of Endemic Parasitic Diseases in Iran (Case: fascioliasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Hajimohammadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic management in the control of endemic parasitic diseases is essential according to their widespread negative consequences. Fascioliasis is one of the most common diseases of this kind in Iran. Preventing and controlling of this disease requires the formulation of a suitable strategic plan with rational goals and main strategies as same as the development, implementing and monitoring of operational programs.

  20. Protein kinase C-dependent signaling controls the midgut epithelial barrier to malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazzy Pakpour

    Full Text Available Anopheline mosquitoes are the primary vectors of parasites in the genus Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria. Malaria parasites undergo a series of complex transformations upon ingestion by the mosquito host. During this process, the physical barrier of the midgut epithelium, along with innate immune defenses, functionally restrict parasite development. Although these defenses have been studied for some time, the regulatory factors that control them are poorly understood. The protein kinase C (PKC gene family consists of serine/threonine kinases that serve as central signaling molecules and regulators of a broad spectrum of cellular processes including epithelial barrier function and immunity. Indeed, PKCs are highly conserved, ranging from 7 isoforms in Drosophila to 16 isoforms in mammals, yet none have been identified in mosquitoes. Despite conservation of the PKC gene family and their potential as targets for transmission-blocking strategies for malaria, no direct connections between PKCs, the mosquito immune response or epithelial barrier integrity are known. Here, we identify and characterize six PKC gene family members--PKCδ, PKCε, PKCζ, PKD, PKN, and an indeterminate conventional PKC--in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the anopheline PKCs support most subfamily assignments. All six PKCs are expressed in the midgut epithelia of A. gambiae and A. stephensi post-blood feeding, indicating availability for signaling in a tissue that is critical for malaria parasite development. Although inhibition of PKC enzymatic activity decreased NF-κB-regulated anti-microbial peptide expression in mosquito cells in vitro, PKC inhibition had no effect on expression of a panel of immune genes in the midgut epithelium in vivo. PKC inhibition did, however, significantly increase midgut barrier integrity and decrease development of P. falciparum oocysts in A. stephensi, suggesting that PKC

  1. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  2. Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

    Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

  3. Modeling effective transmission pathways and control of the world's most successful parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew; Lenhart, Suzanne; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) is a single-celled, intracellular protozoan responsible for the disease toxoplasmosis. The parasite is prevalent worldwide, and it infects all warm-blooded vertebrates. Consumption of meats in which this parasite has encysted confers risk of infection to people and other animals, as does ingestion of water or foods contaminated with environmentally resistant oocysts excreted by cats. Vertical transmission (from mother to offspring) is also possible, leading to disease risk and contributing additional means of ensuring perpetuation of transmission. In this work, we adopt a differential equation model to investigate the effective transmission pathways of T. gondii, as well as potential control mechanisms. Detailed analyses are carried out to examine the significance of transmission routes, virulence, vertical transmission, parasite-induced changes in host behavior, and controls based on vaccination and harvesting. Modeling and analysis efforts may shed insights into understanding the complex life cycle of T. gondii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultural control measures to diminish sorghum yield loss and parasite success under Striga hermonthica infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Katile, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prospects of reducing Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. parasitism by means of cultural control measures were assessed. In a pot experiment, deep planting, the use of transplants and shallow soil-tillage, strongly delayed and reduced Striga infection of a sensitive and a tolerant sorghum cultivar.

  5. Rapid identification of genes controlling virulence and immunity in malaria parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Abkallo, Hussein M.

    2017-07-13

    Identifying the genetic determinants of phenotypes that impact disease severity is of fundamental importance for the design of new interventions against malaria. Here we present a rapid genome-wide approach capable of identifying multiple genetic drivers of medically relevant phenotypes within malaria parasites via a single experiment at single gene or allele resolution. In a proof of principle study, we found that a previously undescribed single nucleotide polymorphism in the binding domain of the erythrocyte binding like protein (EBL) conferred a dramatic change in red blood cell invasion in mutant rodent malaria parasites Plasmodium yoelii. In the same experiment, we implicated merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and other polymorphic proteins, as the major targets of strain-specific immunity. Using allelic replacement, we provide functional validation of the substitution in the EBL gene controlling the growth rate in the blood stages of the parasites.

  6. Parasitic plants in agriculture: Chemical ecology of germination and host-plant location as targets for sustainable control: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; John F. Tooker; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Parasitic plants are among the most problematic pests of agricultural crops worldwide. Effective means of control are generally lacking, in part because of the close physiological connection between the established parasite and host plant hindering efficient control using traditional methods. Seed germination and host location are critical early-growth stages that...

  7. Morphology, molecules, and monogenean parasites: an example of an integrative approach to cichlid biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Van Steenberge

    Full Text Available The unparalleled biodiversity of Lake Tanganyika (Africa has fascinated biologists for over a century; its unique cichlid communities are a preferred model for evolutionary research. Although species delineation is, in most cases, relatively straightforward, higher-order classifications were shown not to agree with monophyletic groups. Here, traditional morphological methods meet their limitations. A typical example are the tropheine cichlids currently belonging to Simochromis and Pseudosimochromis. The affiliations of these widespread and abundant cichlids are poorly understood. Molecular work suggested that genus and species boundaries should be revised. Moreover, previous morphological results indicated that intraspecific variation should be considered to delineate species in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. We review the genera Simochromis and Pseudosimochromis using an integrative approach. Besides a morphometric study and a barcoding approach, monogenean Cichlidogyrus (Platyhelminthes: Ancyrocephalidae gill parasites, often highly species-specific, are used as complementary markers. Six new species are described. Cichlidogyrus raeymaekersi sp. nov., C. muterezii sp. nov. and C. banyankimbonai sp. nov. infect S. diagramma. Cichlidogyrus georgesmertensi sp. nov. was found on S. babaulti and S. pleurospilus, C. franswittei sp. nov. on both S. marginatus and P. curvifrons and C. frankwillemsi sp. nov. only on P. curvifrons. As relatedness between Cichlidogyrus species usually reflects relatedness between hosts, we considered Simochromis monotypic because the three Cichlidogyrus species found on S. diagramma belonged to a different morphotype than those found on the other Simochromis. The transfer of S. babaulti, S. marginatus, S. pleurospilus and S. margaretae to Pseudosimochromis was justified by the similarity of their Cichlidogyrus fauna and the intermediate morphology of S. margaretae. Finally parasite data also supported the synonymy between S

  8. INTEGRATED WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach.

  9. Questionnaire study on parasite control practices on Thoroughbred and Standardbred breeding farms in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwell, Charlotte F; Rosanowski, Sarah M; Scott, Ian; Sells, Patrick D; Rogers, Chris W

    2015-04-15

    Against a global background of increasing anthelmintic resistance in parasites, little is known about the current parasite control strategies adopted within the equine industry in New Zealand. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the current parasite management and control practices used on Thoroughbred and Standardbred stud farms in New Zealand. An online questionnaire was used to collect data on the demographics of respondents, parasite control methods, grazing management, and use of faecal egg counts. Questions regarding parasite control strategy, how often horses were dewormed, number of treatments per year and stocking density were stratified by horse type: young stock (foals/weanlings/yearlings), wet mares (nursing a foal) or dry mares, and industry (Thoroughbred and Standardbred). Questions on grazing management were stratified by horse type and the breeding and non-breeding season. In total, 136 respondents completed the survey, of which most (66%; 90/136) were involved in the Thoroughbred breeding industry. Most (98%; 134/136) respondents used anthelmintic products to treat the horses on their property, and regardless of industry type most respondents were using interval drenching for young stock (86/129; 53%), dry mares (51/124; 41%) or wet mares (50/126; 40%). Of those respondents treating on regular interval, 55% (68/123), 42% (50/119) and 38% (46/122) were treating young stock, wet mares and dry mares every 6-8 weeks. The median number of treatments per year for young stock, dry mares and wet mares was 6 (IQR 4-8), 4 (IQR 3-6) and 4 (IQR 3-6), respectively; there was no difference in frequency of treatments by industry type. In the last 12 months respondents used a median of 2 (IQR 2-4) and 3 (IQR 2-4) different anthelmintic products to treat horses on Thoroughbred and Standardbred breeding farms, respectively. Of the respondents reporting the anthelmintic products used in the last 12 months, 95% used at least one product containing

  10. Broomrape weeds. Underground mechanisms of parasitism and associated strategies for their control: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eFernandez-Aparicio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes are plant-parasitic weeds which constitute one of the most difficult-to-control of all biotic constraints that affect crops in Mediterranean, central and eastern Europe, and Asia. Due to their physical and metabolic overlap with the crop, their underground parasitism, their achlorophyllous nature, and hardly destructible seed bank, broomrape weeds are usually not controlled by management strategies designed for non-parasitic weeds. Instead, broomrape are in a current state of intensification and spread due to lack of broomrape-specific control programs, unconscious introduction to new areas and may be decline of herbicide use and global warming to a lesser degree. We reviewed relevant facts about the biology and physiology of broomrape weeds and the major feasible control strategies. The points of vulnerability of some underground events, key for their parasitism such as crop-induced germination or haustorial development are reviewed as inhibition targets of the broomrape-crop association. Among the reviewed strategies are those aimed 1 to reduce broomrape seed bank viability, such as fumigation, herbigation, solarization and use of broomrape-specific pathogens; 2 diversion strategies to reduce the broomrape ability to timely detect the host such as those based on promotion of suicidal germination, on introduction of allelochemical interference, or on down-regulating host exudation of germination-inducing factors; 3 strategies to inhibit the capacity of the broomrape seedling to penetrate the crop and connect with the vascular system, such as biotic or abiotic inhibition of broomrape radicle growth, crop resistance to broomrape penetration either natural, genetically engineered or elicited by biotic- or abiotic-resistance-inducing agents and 4 strategies acting once broomrape seedling has bridged its vascular system with that of the host, aimed to impede or to endure the parasitic sink such as those based on the delivery of herbicides

  11. Broomrape Weeds. Underground Mechanisms of Parasitism and Associated Strategies for their Control: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Reboud, Xavier; Gibot-Leclerc, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Broomrapes are plant-parasitic weeds which constitute one of the most difficult-to-control of all biotic constraints that affect crops in Mediterranean, central and eastern Europe, and Asia. Due to their physical and metabolic overlap with the crop, their underground parasitism, their achlorophyllous nature, and hardly destructible seed bank, broomrape weeds are usually not controlled by management strategies designed for non-parasitic weeds. Instead, broomrapes are in current state of intensification and spread due to lack of broomrape-specific control programs, unconscious introduction to new areas and may be decline of herbicide use and global warming to a lesser degree. We reviewed relevant facts about the biology and physiology of broomrape weeds and the major feasible control strategies. The points of vulnerability of some underground events, key for their parasitism such as crop-induced germination or haustorial development are reviewed as inhibition targets of the broomrape-crop association. Among the reviewed strategies are those aimed (1) to reduce broomrape seed bank viability, such as fumigation, herbigation, solarization and use of broomrape-specific pathogens; (2) diversion strategies to reduce the broomrape ability to timely detect the host such as those based on promotion of suicidal germination, on introduction of allelochemical interference, or on down-regulating host exudation of germination-inducing factors; (3) strategies to inhibit the capacity of the broomrape seedling to penetrate the crop and connect with the vascular system, such as biotic or abiotic inhibition of broomrape radicle growth and crop resistance to broomrape penetration either natural, genetically engineered or elicited by biotic- or abiotic-resistance-inducing agents; and (4) strategies acting once broomrape seedling has bridged its vascular system with that of the host, aimed to impede or to endure the parasitic sink such as those based on the delivery of herbicides via

  12. Integrated control of Rapeseed pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U.; Hamed, M.

    1990-06-01

    Rapeseed crop is attacked by different insects amongst which cabbage butterfly in Pakistan. Integrated control was conducted and results are mentioned in this report. The mortality in the remaining insecticides varied from 55-83% which was significantly higher than control. The higher dosages of gamma radiation ranged between 60-225 krad and results revealed that the mortality response increased with the post-irradiation time. Mortality was also significantly higher at 80-120 krad as compared to control. These results concluded that mortality was dose dependent. (A.B.)

  13. The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  14. [Challenge and strategy of prevention and control of important parasitic diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-04-17

    China was once a country with the heaviest burden of parasitic diseases. Under the leadership of the Communist Party and national authority, after more than 60 years' efforts of prevention and control, the remarkable results have been achieved in China. However, affected by the social and economic development and environmental changes, the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, especially imported parasitic diseases, are facing new challenges, and the parasitic diseases, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis, appear increasingly. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the transmission risks of these diseases are more increased. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and results of parasitic disease prevention and control in China, understand the present parasitic disease epidemic situation of the Belt and Road Initiative related countries, analyze the transmission risks of important parasitic diseases, and present some relevant suggestions, so as to provide the evidence for the health administrative department formulating the prevention and control strategies of such parasitic diseases timely and effectively.

  15. Textile antenna integrated with compact AMC and parasitic elements for WLAN/WBAN applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Herwansyah; Soh, Ping Jack; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Shohaimi, Nursuriati; Yan, Sen; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.

    2016-12-01

    A wearable antenna fully designed and fabricated using textile is presented. Both antenna and artificial magnetic conductor plane are designed for operation in the wireless local area network (WLAN)/wireless body area network (WBAN) band from 2.4 to 2.5 GHz. The AMC unit element is designed based on the rectangular patch structure, which is then integrated using slots and slits for bandwidth broadening. Meanwhile, the combination of the slits and L-shaped parasitic elements applied at four edges of the rectangular antenna structure enabled unidirectional radiation outwards from the body. The structure is coaxially fed using a rectangular ring slot centered on the radiating element. Simulated and measured reflection and radiation performance indicate a satisfactory agreement, fulfilling the requirements for WLAN/WBAN applications both in free space and on body. The shielding effectiveness provided by the AMC plane is also evaluated numerically in terms of specific absorption rate, indicating levels below the European regulatory limit of 2 W/kg.

  16. Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae: implications in integrated pest management strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kermani

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM Plutella xylostella (L. has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday (Hym., Braconidae can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1 and their progeny (F2 had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

  17. Disrupting Mosquito Reproduction and Parasite Development for Malaria Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Childs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of mosquito populations with insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual sprays remains the cornerstone of malaria reduction and elimination programs. In light of widespread insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, however, alternative strategies for reducing transmission by the mosquito vector are urgently needed, including the identification of safe compounds that affect vectorial capacity via mechanisms that differ from fast-acting insecticides. Here, we show that compounds targeting steroid hormone signaling disrupt multiple biological processes that are key to the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria. When an agonist of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E is applied to Anopheles gambiae females, which are the dominant malaria mosquito vector in Sub Saharan Africa, it substantially shortens lifespan, prevents insemination and egg production, and significantly blocks Plasmodium falciparum development, three components that are crucial to malaria transmission. Modeling the impact of these effects on Anopheles population dynamics and Plasmodium transmission predicts that disrupting steroid hormone signaling using 20E agonists would affect malaria transmission to a similar extent as insecticides. Manipulating 20E pathways therefore provides a powerful new approach to tackle malaria transmission by the mosquito vector, particularly in areas affected by the spread of insecticide resistance.

  18. Radiological controls integrated into design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.W. [Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  19. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites. Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  20. La epizootiología como herramienta para el control parasitario en ovinos Parasite epizootiology in the parasite control in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Arece

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo interno en los ovinos constituye una de las limitantes de mayor importancia en el desarrollo exitoso de la producción ovina. El primer paso para lograr un control parasitario está relacionado con el estudio de la epizootiología de los agentes etiológicos, y entre ellos el conocimiento de las especies que circulan en los rebaños. Para realizar este tipo de estudio se seleccionaron tres unidades de producción ovinas de la provincia de Matanzas, cuyos animales y sistema de manejo son representativos de los del resto de la provincia. Se encontró que los animales están infestados de forma simpátrica por dos especies del género Haemonchus (H. placei y H. contortus que superan el 90% del conteo fecal durante todo el año. También se encontró Trichostrongylus colubriformis y Oesophagostomum columbianum, en menor cuantía. Las mayores tasas de infestación se presentaron en el período lluvioso en las tres unidades, lo que muestra una estacionalidad evidente. Las crías se parasitaron en función del sistema de manejo implementado y las reproductoras paridas fueron las más susceptibles en un grupo de hembras incorporadas a la reproducción. Estos elementos son de vital importancia para la puesta en marcha de planes de control parasitario.Internal parasitism in sheep constitutes one of the most important limitations in the successful development of sheep production. The first step for achieving parasite control is related to the study of the epizootiology of the etiological agents, and among them the knowledge on the species that circulate in the herds. For performing this type of study, three sheep production units of Matanzas province were selected, which animals and management system are representative of the rest of the province. The animals were found to be infested in a sympatric way by two species of the Haemonchus genus (H. placei and H. contortus which exceed 90% of the fecal count during the whole year. Also

  1. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  2. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  3. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  4. Sunflower resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana is controlled by specific QTLs for different parasitism stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann eLouarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation.In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with H. debilis. Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii young tubercle and (iii shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey and for the three stages of broomrape development.The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  5. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  6. Chemical Control for Host-Parasitoid Model within the Parasitism Season and Its Complex Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we develop a host-parasitoid model with Holling type II functional response function and chemical control, which can be applied at any time of each parasitism season or pest generation, and focus on addressing the importance of the timing of application pesticide during the parasitism season or pest generation in successful pest control. Firstly, the existence and stability of both the host and parasitoid populations extinction equilibrium and parasitoid-free equilibrium have been investigated. Secondly, the effects of key parameters on the threshold conditions have been discussed in more detail, which shows the importance of pesticide application times on the pest control. Thirdly, the complex dynamics including multiple attractors coexistence, chaotic behavior, and initial sensitivity have been studied by using numerical bifurcation analyses. Finally, the uncertainty and sensitivity of all the parameters on the solutions of both the host and parasitoid populations are investigated, which can help us to determine the key parameters in designing the pest control strategy. The present research can help us to further understand the importance of timings of pesticide application in the pest control and to improve the classical chemical control and to make management decisions.

  7. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hauer, Matthew L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability.

  8. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles H

    2010-02-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  10. Strongyle infections and parasitic control strategies in German horses - a risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephanie; Pfister, Kurt; Becher, Anne M; Scheuerle, Miriam C

    2014-11-12

    As a consequence of the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes, new strategies for equine parasite control are being implemented. To assess the potential risks of these, the occurrence of strongyles was evaluated in a group of 1887 horses. The distribution of fecal egg counts (FECs), the frequency of anthelmintic drug use, and the deworming intervals were also analyzed. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 1887 fecal samples from either selectively or strategically dewormed horses were collected at 195 horse farms all over Germany and analyzed quantitatively with a modified McMaster technique. All samples with FEC ≥20 eggs per gram (EPG) were subjected to coproculture to generate third-stage larvae (LIII) for species differentiation. Egg counts were below the limit of detection (20 EPG) in 1046 (55.4%) samples and above it in 841 (44.6%) samples. Strongylus vulgaris larvae were identified in two of the 841 positive samples. Infections with cyathostomes were found on every farm. The most frequently applied anthelmintic was ivermectin (788/50.8%), followed by pyrantel (336/21.6%). The mean time since last treatment was 6.3 months. High-egg-shedding (>500 EPG) strategically dewormed horses (183/1357) were treated, on average, three times/year. The planned treatment date was already exceeded by 72.5% of the high egg-shedders and by 58.1% of the moderate (200-500 EPG) and low egg-shedders (20-199 EPG). S. vulgaris seems to be rare in Germany and no difference in its frequency has yet been found between selectively treated horses and horses receiving treatment in strategic intervals. However, inconsistent parasite control has been observed. Therefore, to minimize the risks for disease, consistent and efficient parasite control should be implemented.

  11. From integrated control to integrated farming, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated control or integrated pest management (IPM), as envisaged originally, is not being practised to any large extent in arable farming, notwithstanding considerable research efforts. The reasons for this are discussed. A more basic approach called integrated farming is suggested. Preliminary

  12. The Puf-family RNA-binding protein Puf2 controls sporozoite conversion to liver stages in the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Müller

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by unicellular, obligate intracellular parasites of the genus Plasmodium. During host switch the malaria parasite employs specialized latent stages that colonize the new host environment. Previous work has established that gametocytes, sexually differentiated stages that are taken up by the mosquito vector, control expression of genes required for mosquito colonization by translational repression. Sexual parasite development is controlled by a DEAD-box RNA helicase of the DDX6 family, termed DOZI. Latency of sporozoites, the transmission stage injected during an infectious blood meal, is controlled by the eIF2alpha kinase IK2, a general inhibitor of protein synthesis. Whether RNA-binding proteins participate in translational regulation in sporozoites remains to be studied. Here, we investigated the roles of two RNA-binding proteins of the Puf-family, Plasmodium Puf1 and Puf2, during sporozoite stage conversion. Our data reveal that, in the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei, Puf2 participates in the regulation of IK2 and inhibits premature sporozoite transformation. Inside mosquito salivary glands puf2⁻ sporozoites transform over time to round forms resembling early intra-hepatic stages. As a result, mutant parasites display strong defects in initiating a malaria infection. In contrast, Puf1 is dispensable in vivo throughout the entire Plasmodium life cycle. Our findings support the notion of a central role for Puf2 in parasite latency during switch between the insect and mammalian hosts.

  13. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  14. The use of tanniferous plant in the goat diet as alternative to parasite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surama Freitas Zanini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of pink pepper meal supplementation (PPM in the dairy goats diet as an antiparasitic agent compared with ionophore, the monensin sodium. A total of 18 female Saanen goats, were distributed in a completely randomized in groups of three treatments and six replications, consisting of the experimental groups: negative control (did not receive anticoccidial agent or PPS, group 1 (supplemented with 30% of PPM and group 2 (supplemented with anticoccidial agent – monensin sodium. There was a significant effect of treatments on voluntary feed intake on growing phases (P ? 0.05. Furthermore, the animals treated with PPM had the lowest food consumption compared with the other treatments (P ? 0.05, but without negative effect on live body weight. In general, at both phases of rearing, it was not detected significant difference between the voluntary feed intake of control group and with monensin sodium supplementation (P > 0.05, but the food consumption in the control group did not result on increase of live body weight probably due to sanitary challenges such as gastrointestinal parasites. The opposite was observed in animals treated with monensin sodium that had the highest body weight (P ? 0.05 that did not differ from animals fed with pink pepper (P > 0.05. By the way, in the growth phase our results revealed significantly effect of treatments on live body weight (P ? 0.05. Animals fed with pink pepper supplementation had a greater live body weight compared with the control (P ? 0.05 and similar to those supplemented with the monensin sodium (P > 0.05. The number of oocysts per gram of faeces was lower in animals treated with PPS that differed significantly from control (P ? 0.05. Regarding the count number of eggs per gram of faeces OPG, it was not detected significant effect of treatments (P> 0.05. It was found that the pink pepper supplementation was effective in the control of gastrointestinal parasites of

  15. Identification of loci controlling restriction of parasite growth in experimental Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ramirez-Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis (NC caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6 are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain, confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD = 4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1. Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5

  16. Identification of Loci Controlling Restriction of Parasite Growth in Experimental Taenia crassiceps Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Anny; Sciutto-Conde, Edda; Fragoso-González, Gladis; Gros, Philippe; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system that is endemic in many developing countries. In this study, a genetic approach using the murine intraperitoneal cysticercosis caused by the related cestode Taenia crassiceps was employed to identify host factors that regulate the establishment and proliferation of the parasite. A/J mice are permissive to T. crassiceps infection while C57BL/6J mice (B6) are comparatively restrictive, with a 10-fold difference in numbers of peritoneal cysticerci recovered 30 days after infection. The genetic basis of this inter-strain difference was explored using 34 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic strains derived from A/J and B6 progenitors, that were phenotyped for T. crassiceps replication. In agreement with their genetic background, most AcB strains (A/J-derived) were found to be permissive to infection while most BcA strains (B6-derived) were restrictive with the exception of a few discordant strains, together suggesting a possible simple genetic control. Initial haplotype association mapping using >1200 informative SNPs pointed to linkages on chromosomes 2 (proximal) and 6 as controlling parasite replication in the AcB/BcA panel. Additional linkage analysis by genome scan in informative [AcB55xDBA/2]F1 and F2 mice (derived from the discordant AcB55 strain), confirmed the effect of chromosome 2 on parasite replication, and further delineated a major locus (LOD = 4.76, p<0.01; peak marker D2Mit295, 29.7 Mb) that we designate Tccr1 (T. crassiceps cysticercosis restrictive locus 1). Resistance alleles at Tccr1 are derived from AcB55 and are inherited in a dominant fashion. Scrutiny of the minimal genetic interval reveals overlap of Tccr1 with other host resistance loci mapped to this region, most notably the defective Hc/C5 allele which segregates both in the AcB/BcA set and in the AcB55xDBA/2 cross. These results strongly suggest that the complement component 5 (C5) plays a

  17. Comparative anthelminthic efficacy of nitroxynil, levamisole, closantel, moxidectin and fenbendazole on parasite control in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Costa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different drugs in the control of parasites of sheep belonging to the Centro Agropecuário da Palma, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, municipality of Capão do Leão, RS. Seventy-eight female Corriedale and Ideal sheep with an initial body weight of 48.35 ± 4.71 kg were randomly selected and divided into six groups submitted to the following treatments: control treatment and treated with 34%nitroxynil, 18.8% levamisole hydrochloride, 10% closantel, 1% moxidectin, and 10% fenbendazole. The drugs were administered according to the recommendations of the manufacturers. Fecal samples were collected before (day 0 and after treatment (days 7, 4, 21 and 28 and were used for the determination of fecal egg count (FEC in the different groups. Efficacy was evaluated based on the percentage reduction in FEC and percent efficacy of the drugs. The fecal samples were processed for coproculture to identify the parasite genera present in the herd. The percentages of efficacy observed on day 28 post-treatment were 96.93% for nitroxynil, 95.8% for levamisole hydrochloride, 95.5% for closantel, 80.2% for moxidectin, and 27.5% for fenbendazole. The nematode species present in the herd was Haemonchus spp. (100%. Nitroxynil, closantel and levamisole hydrochloride were effective in eliminating gastrointestinal nematodes. Anthelmintic resistance was observed to moxidectin and fenbendazole.

  18. Neuro-fuzzy Control of Integrating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasičkaninová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy technology is adaptive and easily applicable in different areas.Fuzzy logic provides powerful tools to capture the perceptionof natural phenomena. The paper deals with tuning of neuro-fuzzy controllers for integrating plant and for integrating plantswith time delay. The designed approach is verified on three examples by simulations and compared plants with classical PID control.Designed fuzzy controllers lead to better closed-loop control responses then classical PID controllers.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasite control during prepuberty improves mammary parenchyma development in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Adrián F; Mejía, Miguel E; Licoff, Nicolás; Diab, Santiago S; Formía, Néstor; Ornstein, Ana; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M

    2013-12-06

    Parasitism during development impairs normal growth and delays the onset of puberty through altered hormone profiles, including insulin-like growth factor one (IGF-1). As mammary gland development during prepuberty is strongly dependent on IGF-1, we determined if antiparasitic treatment during this stage of growth improved mammary gland development. One group of Holstein heifers was treated monthly, rotationally with antiparasitic drugs from birth to 70 weeks of age, a second group was untreated. Treated heifer calves had between 56% and 65% less EPG counts than untreated ones. Presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus was demonstrated. Treatment effectively advanced the onset of puberty and increased IGF-1 levels. At 20, 30, 40 and 70 weeks of age biopsies from the mammary gland were taken and histological sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Pictures were analyzed to compare parenchyma area in relation to total mammary tissue between groups. Mammary samples from treated heifers had higher ratios of parenchyma/total area than untreated ones. As mammary development during prepuberty is crucial for mammary performance during lactation, these results add new evidence to the importance of gastrointestinal parasite control in heifers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Latch-up control in CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, A.; Dawes, W.; Estreich, D.; Packard, H.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for latch-up, a pnpn self-sustaining low impedance state, is inherent in standard bulk CMOS-integrated circuit structures. Under normal bias, the parasitic SCR is in its blocking state but, if subjected to a large voltage spike or if exposed to an ionizing environment, triggering may occur. This may result in device burn-out or loss of state. The problem has been extensively studied for space and weapons applications. Prevention of latch-up has been achieved in conservative design (approx. 9 μm p-well depths) by the use of minority lifetime control methods such as gold doping and neutron irradiation and by modifying the base transport factor with buried layers. The push toward VLSI densities will enhance parasitic action sufficiently so that the problem will become of more universal concern. The paper will surveys latch-up control methods presently employed for weapons and space applications on present (approx. 9 μm p-well) CMOS and indicates the extent of their applicability to VLSI designs

  1. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Corrado; Lamden, Kenneth; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Copyright © 2015, Minetti et al.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  3. Integrating Experimentation into Control Courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.; Kraker, de A.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, the Netherlands, aims to provide a stimulating educational environment that emphasizes the role of hands-on experiments. To achieve this goal, the Department integrated an experimentation program with courses in the

  4. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  5. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  6. Controlled chaos of polymorphic mucins in a metazoan parasite (Schistosoma mansoni interacting with its invertebrate host (Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Roger

    Full Text Available Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata. Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism-a "controlled chaos"-based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also

  7. Controlled Chaos of Polymorphic Mucins in a Metazoan Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni) Interacting with Its Invertebrate Host (Biomphalaria glabrata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Emmanuel; Grunau, Christoph; Pierce, Raymond J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Gourbal, Benjamin; Galinier, Richard; Emans, Rémi; Cesari, Italo M.; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Invertebrates were long thought to possess only a simple, effective and hence non-adaptive defence system against microbial and parasitic attacks. However, recent studies have shown that invertebrate immunity also relies on immune receptors that diversify (e.g. in echinoderms, insects and mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata)). Apparently, individual or population-based polymorphism-generating mechanisms exists that permit the survival of invertebrate species exposed to parasites. Consequently, the generally accepted arms race hypothesis predicts that molecular diversity and polymorphism also exist in parasites of invertebrates. We investigated the diversity and polymorphism of parasite molecules (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins, SmPoMucs) that are key factors for the compatibility of schistosomes interacting with their host, the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. We have elucidated the complex cascade of mechanisms acting both at the genomic level and during expression that confer polymorphism to SmPoMuc. We show that SmPoMuc is coded by a multi-gene family whose members frequently recombine. We show that these genes are transcribed in an individual-specific manner, and that for each gene, multiple splice variants exist. Finally, we reveal the impact of this polymorphism on the SmPoMuc glycosylation status. Our data support the view that S. mansoni has evolved a complex hierarchical system that efficiently generates a high degree of polymorphism—a “controlled chaos”—based on a relatively low number of genes. This contrasts with protozoan parasites that generate antigenic variation from large sets of genes such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Our data support the view that the interaction between parasites and their invertebrate hosts are far more complex than previously thought. While most studies in this matter have focused on invertebrate host diversification, we clearly show that diversifying mechanisms also exist on

  8. Analog integrated circuit design automation placement, routing and parasitic extraction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Ricardo; Horta, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to a variety of tools for analog layout design automation. After discussing the placement and routing problem in electronic design automation (EDA), the authors overview a variety of automatic layout generation tools, as well as the most recent advances in analog layout-aware circuit sizing. The discussion includes different methods for automatic placement (a template-based Placer and an optimization-based Placer), a fully-automatic Router and an empirical-based Parasitic Extractor. The concepts and algorithms of all the modules are thoroughly described, enabling readers to reproduce the methodologies, improve the quality of their designs, or use them as starting point for a new tool. All the methods described are applied to practical examples for a 130nm design process, as well as placement and routing benchmark sets. Introduces readers to hierarchical combination of Pareto fronts of placements; Presents electromigration-aware routing with multilayer multiport terminal structures...

  9. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    pourront etre enploy6s. Avant l’attaque, des profils de vole contr~lant I’Anergie seront 6tablis pour augmenter au maximum l’dnergie disponible do...VERIIATION PROCEDURES NTRTO PERFORM CONTROL SYSTEM REPEAT TESTS WITH ACTUAL ENGIRE ITEATO INTEGRATION TO TIENMO. RUUINED TE VALIDATE TESTING TESI ...fonrtionnement est disponible . Teat-dea rodur d’nrf /sortie .an. scs i lquiesent posslde ce* deux dispositife, on test des rodeurs et sx~fiutA *Sur une vote do

  10. Biological control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., at low temperatures : a systems analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, is an important pest in ornamentals and nursery stock in The Netherlands. The larvae, which feed on the root system of the plant, can be controlled by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis.

  11. [Progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Chuan-xin

    2013-08-01

    Antibody has extensive application prospects in the biomedical field. The inherent disadvantages of traditional polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody limit their application values. The humanized and fragmented antibody remodeling has given a rise to a series of genetic engineered antibody variant. This paper reviews the progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  12. Combining epidemiology with basic biology of sand flies, parasites, and hosts to inform leishmaniasis transmission dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Orin; Peters, Nathan C; Rogers, Matthew E; Bern, Caryn

    2017-10-01

    Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection. Animal models demonstrate that sand flies with the highest parasite loads and percent metacyclic promastigotes transmit more parasites with greater frequency, resulting in higher load infections that are more likely to be both symptomatic and efficient reservoirs. The existence of mammalian and sand fly "super-spreaders" provides a biological basis for the spatial and temporal clustering of clinical leishmanial disease. Sand fly blood-feeding behavior will determine the efficacies of indoor residual spraying, topical insecticides, and bed nets. Interventions need to have sufficient coverage to include transmission hot spots, especially in the absence of field tools to assess infectiousness. Interventions that reduce sand fly densities in the absence of elimination could have negative consequences, for example, by interfering with partial immunity conferred by exposure to sand fly saliva. A deeper understanding of both sand fly and host biology and behavior is essential to ensuring effectiveness of vector interventions.

  13. [Bibliometric analysis of literature regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Li; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control using a bibliometric method. The literature pertaining to integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfangdata, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS and Google Scholar, and a bibliometric analysis of literature captured was performed. During the period from January 1, 2004 through September 30, 2014, a total of 94 publications regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control were captured, including 78 Chinese articles (82.98%) and 16 English papers (17.02%). The Chinese literature was published in 21 national journals, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control had the largest number of publications, consisting of 37.23% of total publications; 16 English papers were published in 12 international journals, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the largest number of publications (3 publications). There were 37 affiliations publishing these 94 articles, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (16 publications), Anhui Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (12 publications) and Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (9 publications) ranked top three affiliations in number of publications. A total of 157 persons were co-authored in these 94 publications, and Wang, Zhou and Zhang ranked top 3 authors in number of publications. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control has been widely implemented in China, and the achievements obtained from the implementation of this strategy should be summarized and transmitted internationally.

  14. Integrity of subsea control umbilical

    OpenAIRE

    Yasseri, R; Yasseri, S; Wang, B

    2014-01-01

    Controlling subsea oil and gas production systems requires fibre optics, power cables and tubes for the transportation of chemical for injection and fluid for hydraulic controls. These are arranged in helical bundles in successive layers. Shaped thermoplastic fillers are used to separate components and to fill out voids in the cross section. If necessary, armour is added to provide strength for the dynamic loads. This paper describes the application of 3D finite element method to assess the s...

  15. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  16. Integrated Control System Engineering Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile ASTEC Advanced Speech Technology Experimental Configuration BA Body Axis BCIU Bus Control Interface Unit BMU Bus...support nreeded to tie an ASTEC speech recognition system into the DIGISYN fJcility and support an FIGR experiment designed to investigate the voice...information passed to the PDP computer consisted of integers which represented words or phrases recognized by the ASTEC recognition system. An interface

  17. Evaluation of Clonostachys rosea for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Soil and in Roots of Carrot and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mudassir; Dubey, Mukesh; McEwan, Kerstin; Menzel, Uwe; Franko, Mikael Andersson; Viketoft, Maria; Jensen, Dan Funck; Karlsson, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Biological control is a promising approach to reduce plant diseases caused by nematodes. We tested the effect of the fungus Clonostachys rosea strain IK726 inoculation on nematode community composition in a naturally nematode infested soil in a pot experiment, and the effect of C. rosea on plant health. The numbers of plant-parasitic nematode genera extracted from soil and plant roots decreased by 40 to 73% when C. rosea was applied, while genera of nonparasitic nematodes were not affected. Soil inoculation of C. rosea increased fresh shoot weight and shoot length of wheat plants by 20 and 24%, respectively, while only shoot dry weight increased by 48% in carrots. Light microscopy of in vitro C. rosea-nematode interactions did not reveal evidence of direct parasitism. However, culture filtrates of C. rosea growing in potato dextrose broth, malt extract broth and synthetic nutrient broth exhibited toxicity toward nematodes and immobilized 57, 62, and 100% of the nematodes, respectively, within 48 h. This study demonstrates that C. rosea can control plant-parasitic nematodes and thereby improve plant growth. The most likely mechanism responsible for the antagonism is antibiosis through production of nematicidal compounds, rather than direct parasitism.

  18. Use of Gamma Rays to Control of Internal Parasites and Pathogenic Bacteria in Silver side Fish (Bissaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawki, H.A.; El-Hanafy, A.E.A.; Shagar, G.I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of Gamma irradiation to control of internal parasites and pathogenic bacteria found in silver side fish (Atherina) (Bissaria) was investigated. The detected parasites and the prevalence were adult Trematode (37.5%); Cestodes (95%) and Nematode (22.5%) for control silver side fish. The counts of detected microorganisms, (Total bacterial count; Psychrophilic bacteria; Mold and yeast; E.coli and Staphyloccous aureus ) were 4.89 ; 2.30; 2.32; 2.31 and 2.04 log 10 cfu/g for control silver side fish, respectively. Applied irradiation doses reduce the infected rate by Trematode, Cestodes and Nematode, furthermore, gamma irradiation with different doses (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 5 kGy) reduce the microorganisms count of silver side fish (Bissaria) samples and the rate of decrement increase with the dose increase. Total bacterial count was not detected by using dose 5 kGy while Psychrophilic bacteria were completely eliminated using dose 1 kGy. On the other hand mold and yeast; E.coli and Staph aureus in silver side fish samples were not detected after subjected to gamma irradiation with dose 4 kGy. The results suggest that the applied doses completely elimination different internal parasites and pathogenic bacteria found in silver side fish. Thus, it could be conclude that the irradiation dose of 4 kGy can be effectively applied to ensure the safety of internal parasites and pathogenic bacteria found in silver side fish (Atherina) (Bissaria) with regards to these harmful parasites and pathogenic bacteria

  19. Management and control of parasites on dairy farms in northwestern region of São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    Full Text Available Abstract Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian’s regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests. The majority (87.5% controlled ticks at a high frequency, without technical criteria and care to apply the acaricide. Spraying was the most used mode of acaricide application (95% and endectocides were used by 45%. Cattle tick fever was the harm most associated with ticks (87.5% followed closely by screwworm (77.5%. However, 65% were satisfied with their tick control. About the control of others parasites, all dewormed at least twice a year their animals; 65% were controlling horn fly; 40% had problems with screwworm. The interviewers had in general good level of education and the farms generally exhibited a high degree of technology for milk production on pasture because half of them received technical assistance frequently.

  20. Drug resistance makes new control measures of stomach parasites in small ruminants necessary = Resistentie maakt nieuwe aanpak van de bestrijding van maagdarmwormen bij kleine herkauwers noodzakelijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysker, M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Ploeger, H.W.; Vellema, P.

    2005-01-01

    Control of Parasitic gastroenteritis in small ruminants is threatened by the worldwide growing problem of anthelmintic resistance. Therfore, alternativeapproaches for worm control are imperative. Of utmost importance is to slow down selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance by using alternative

  1. Genetic control of acquired resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windon, R.G.; Wagland, B.M.; Dineen, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A radiation attenuated larval vaccine has been used to evaluate the role of genetic components of the immune response in the control of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep. Through selection based on age dependent responsiveness, lines of sheep have been established in which lambs are either high or low responders to vaccination and challenge infection. The estimated and realized heritabilities for the selected trait are 0.35-0.41. Significant interline differences were demonstrated and, within the lines, ewe lambs were consistently more responsive than rams or wethers. The effect of selection was not antigenically specific, since high responsiveness to T. colubriformis was associated with increased responsiveness to other related (T. rugatus) and unrelated parasites (Ostertagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus). In addition, high responders had a more vigorous reaction against naturally acquired infections than low responders. The general immunological competence was also increased in high responders; this was shown by the levels of serum complement fixing antibody to larval antigens after vaccination and challenge, in vitro blastogenic responses stimulated by larval antigens and the phagocytic function of peripheral leucocytes. No production penalty (weight gain and wool growth) was associated with heightened responsiveness. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  2. Duddingtonia flagrans formulated in rice bran in the control of Oesophagostomum spp. intestinal parasite of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini Rodrigues, João Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Campos, Artur Kanadani; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Aguiar, Anderson Rocha; Ferraz, Carolina Magri; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; Valadão, Marisa Caixeta; de Oliveira, Thais; de Freitas, Samuel Galvão; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

    2018-01-01

    Three experimental assays with Duddingtonia flagrans (isolated AC001) were carried out. The growth of the genus Duddingtonia present in formulation of rice bran, its predatory capability on Oesophagostomum spp. infective larvae (L 3 ) in petri dishes (assay 1), its action in faecal cultures with eggs of that parasite (assay 2) and isolate's capability of predation after passing through gastrointestinal tract of swine (assay 3) was evaluated. At assay 3, feces were collected at time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h after feed animals with the formulation. Assays 1 and 2 showed a statistical difference (p  0.05). The results demonstrate that the fungal isolate AC001 formulated in rice bran can prey on L 3 of Oesophagostomum spp., in vitro and after passing through the gastrointestinal tract, without loss of viability. This isolate may be an alternative in the control of Oesophagostomum spp. in swine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  4. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  5. Application of nuclear techniques in study of host parasite relationship and immunological control of parasite diseases of livestock in India- an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this review article was to make a realistic appraisal of scientific achievements in understanding host parasite relationship and in development of safe effective diagnosis of diseases caused by parasites. The article also enlists future prospects and areas of future study. 99 refs., 4 tabs

  6. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  7. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  8. Double impact: natural molluscicide for schistosomiasis vector control also impedes development of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae into adult parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Carvalho Augusto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis has been reported in 78 endemic countries and affects 240 million people worldwide. The digenetic parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs fresh water to compete its life cycle. There, it is susceptible to soluble compounds that can affect directly and/or indirectly the parasite's biology. The cercariae stage is one of the key points in which the parasite is vulnerable to different soluble compounds that can significantly alter the parasite's life cycle. Molluscicides are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of schistosomiasis transmission and Euphorbia milii latex is effective against snails intermediate hosts.We used parasitological tools and electron microscopy to verify the effects of cercariae exposure to natural molluscicide (Euphorbia milii latex on morphology, physiology and fitness of adult parasite worms. In order to generate insights into key metabolic pathways that lead to the observed phenotypes we used comparative transcriptomics and proteomics.We describe here that the effect of latex on the adult is not due to direct toxicity but it triggers an early change in developmental trajectory and perturbs cell memory, mobility, energy metabolism and other key pathways. We conclude that latex has not only an effect on the vector but applies also long lasting schistosomastatic action. We believe that these results are of interest not only to parasitologists since it shows that natural compounds, presumably without side effects, can have an impact that occurred unexpectedly on developmental processes. Such collateral damage is in this case positive, since it impacts the true target of the treatment campaign. This type of treatment could also provide a rational for the control of other pests. Our results will contribute to enforce the use of E. milii latex in Brazil and other endemic countries as cheap alternative or complement to mass drug treatment with Praziquantel, the only available drug to cure the

  9. Development of nuclear techniques in food and life engineering - Irradiation of food and drinking water to control parasitic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jong; Shin, Eun Hee; Guk, Sang Mee; Han, Eun Taek; Kim, Jae Lip [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To prevent some intestinal trematodes which are highly prevalent in Korea, the effect of irradiation on fishes and metacercariae has been analyzed for control of parasites. The metacercariae of intestinal trematodes were irradiated with various doses, and the infection rates and developmental status were assayed for estimation of optimal radiation doses. In addition, to examine the differences of susceptibility to radiation among the parasites, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined, and degree of apoptosis were observed. As a result, 100 Gy irradiation was sufficient for Metagonimus yokogawai to redue their infectivity and development, and 200 Gy was for Gymnophalloides seoi. While Neodiplostomum seoulense, a kind of intestinal rematode, was proved to be highly susceptible to radiation, sparganum and Anisakis were resistant to radiation. These might result from the differences of SOD activity among parasites. The apoptosis of parasites was mainly observed after 100 Gy irradiation, and further study was required to decide whether these phenomenon influences the susceptibility to radiation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  10. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Name Romsyah

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all s...

  11. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.Prôcedeu-se o estudo da prevalência de enteroparasitoses entre escolares de 7 a 18 anos, de condições sõcio-econômicas baixas e residentes no distritoperi-urbano de Rubião Júnior, município de Botucatu, São Paulo, com o objetivo de analisar o papel de medidas profiláticas e terapêuticas no controle das parasitoses diagnosticadas. Dos 219 alunos estudados na primeira avaliação parasitolõgica, 123 (56.1% mostraram-se positivos para unia ou mais parasitoses. O tratamento foi aplicado para 84 escolares, por serem estes portadores de parasitos patogênicos. A segunda avaliação parasitolõgica foi realizada 4 a 6 meses após o tratamento em 75 (89% escolares. Os resultados indicam que o uso combinado do tratamento e medidas profiláticas foi capaz de limitar a ocorrência de novas infecções para níveis 73-1% foram encontradas para a maioria das parasitoses, exceto

  12. Two-dimensional parasitic capacitance extraction for integrated circuit with dual discrete geometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Dan; Ren Zhuoxiang; Qu Hui; Xu Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Capacitance extraction is one of the key issues in integrated circuits and also a typical electrostatic problem. The dual discrete geometric method (DGM) is investigated to provide relative solutions in two-dimensional unstructured mesh space. The energy complementary characteristic and quick field energy computation thereof based on it are emphasized. Contrastive analysis between the dual finite element methods and the dual DGMs are presented both from theoretical derivation and through case studies. The DGM, taking the scalar potential as unknown on dual interlocked meshes, with simple form and good accuracy, is expected to be one of the mainstreaming methods in associated areas. (paper)

  13. Proportional-Integral-Resonant AC Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an improved stationary-frame AC current controller based on the proportional-integral-resonant control action (PIR is proposed. Namely, the novel two-parameter PIR controller is applied in the stationary-frame AC current control, accompanied by the corresponding parameter-tuning procedure. In this way, the proportional-resonant (PR controller, common in the stationary-frame AC current control, is extended by the integral (I action in order to enable the AC current DC component tracking, and, also, to enable the DC disturbance compensation, caused by the voltage source inverter (VSI nonidealities and by nonlinear loads. The proposed controller parameter-tuning procedure is based on the three-phase back-EMF-type load, which corresponds to a wide range of AC power converter applications, such as AC motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies, and active filters. While the PIR controllers commonly have three parameters, the novel controller has two. Also, the provided parameter-tuning procedure needs only one parameter to be tuned in relation to the load and power converter model parameters, since the second controller parameter is directly derived from the required controller bandwidth value. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is verified by means of simulation and experimental runs.

  14. Strict integrity control of biomedical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatrieux, Gouenou; Maitre, Henri; Sankur, Bulent

    2001-08-01

    The control of the integrity and authentication of medical images is becoming ever more important within the Medical Information Systems (MIS). The intra- and interhospital exchange of images, such as in the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems), and the ease of copying, manipulation and distribution of images have brought forth the security aspects. In this paper we focus on the role of watermarking for MIS security and address the problem of integrity control of medical images. We discuss alternative schemes to extract verification signatures and compare their tamper detection performance.

  15. Tinjauan Kembali* (Review Sebuah Tinjauan Tentang Parasit Tali Putri (Cuscuta Spp.) Dan Pengendaliannya [a Review of Dodder (Cuscuta Spp.) and Its Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryo, Sunaryo

    2003-01-01

    Cuscuta species are parasitic seed plants with twining stems, that coil and fasten to host plants with attachments called haustoria.The Cuscuta stem forms the haustorial coil around the host.Several species of Cuscuta are troublesome parasites on numerous dicotyledonous plants and make eradication and control most difficult. Overall control of Cuscuta is based on mechanical, cultural,chemical and biological methods. Resistant varieties of susceptible crops and biological control are presently...

  16. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  17. INTEGRATED PLASMA CONTROL FOR ADVANCED TOKAMAKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUMPHREYS, D.A.; FERRON, J.R.; JOHNSON, R.D; LEUER, J.A.; PENAFLOR, B.G.; WALKER, M.L.; WELANDER, A.S.; KHAYRUTDINOV, R.R; DOKOUKA, V.; EDGELL, D.H.; FRANSSON, C.M.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 Advanced tokamaks (AT) are distinguished from conventional tokamaks by their high degree of shaping, achievement of profiles optimized for high confinement and stability characteristics, and active stabilization of MHD instabilities to attain high values of normalized beta and confinement. These high performance fusion devices thus require accurate regulation of the plasma boundary, internal profiles, pumping, fueling, and heating, as well as simultaneous and well-coordinated MHD control action to stabilize such instabilities as tearing modes and resistive wall modes. Satisfying the simultaneous demands on control accuracy, reliability, and performance for all of these subsystems requires a high degree of integration in both design and operation of the plasma control system in an advanced tokamak. The present work describes the approach, benefits, and progress made in integrated plasma control with application examples drawn from the DIII-D tokamak. The approach includes construction of plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers which operate in concert with one another as well as with supervisory modules, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and iteration of the design-test loop to optimize performance

  18. Integrated Control Sytems of Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Name\tRomsyah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp . and Penicillium s pp . i n agricultural products has been a concern regarding their effect to health and economic impact. Integrated control system should be based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP approach involving Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP . Prevention should be carried out through pre harvest, harvest, post harvest, as well as control quality at all stages of production. Pre harvest control is conducted through the selection of resistant varieties, insect control and weeds management mechanically or applying fungicides and herbicides, plant rotation, irrigation and soil management, as well as biological control . Harvesting at the right time using clean equipments from fungal contamination and insect infestation avoids the contamination of mycotoxins . Post harvest control by physical selection, washing and dilution, drying, storage, application of chemicals and binding agents, natural products, nutrients and vitamins, microbiological control, heating and radiation could also minimize mycotoxin in food and feed . Although chemicals can effectively reduce mycotoxin, the use of those on food/feed should be considered the safety . The addition of natural products, nutrition supplements and vitamins suppress the negative effect of mycotoxin on animals . The use of non-toxigenic fungi and other microbes as biological control is the effective and safe methods for food/feed . The implementation of integrated mycotoxin control system by utilizing the HACCP concept would meet the qualified and safe food/feed products .

  19. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  20. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan; Majidi, Majid; Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties

  1. Integration of control and fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    The integrated design of control and fault detection is studied. The result of the analysis is that it is possible to separate the design of the controller and the filter for fault detection in the case where the nominal model can be assumed to be fairly accurate. In the uncertain case, however......, the design of the filter and the controller can not be separated when an optiomal design is desired. For systems with significant uncertainties, there turn out to be a fundamental trade-off between the performance in the control loop and the performance in the filter....

  2. Leveraging rural energy investment for parasitic disease control: schistosome ova inactivation and energy co-benefits of anaerobic digesters in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Remais

    by 6%. With reported energy savings valued at roughly 600 CNY per year, 2-3 years were required to recoup the capital costs of biogas systems. In villages without subsidies, no new biogas systems were implemented.Sustainable strategies that integrate rural energy needs and sanitation offer tremendous promise for long-term control of parasitic diseases, while simultaneously reducing energy costs and improving quality of life. Government policies can enhance the financial viability of such strategies by introducing fiscal incentives for joint sanitation/sustainable energy projects, along with their associated public outreach and education programs.

  3. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  4. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  5. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal ControlIntegrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  6. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  7. Plant hormone cytokinins control cell cycle progression and plastid replication in apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Tahara, Michiru; Matsubara, Ryuma; Toyama, Tomoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2018-02-01

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell and plastid development. Here, we show that the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei, an opportunistic human pathogen and a rodent malaria agent, respectively, produce cytokinins via a biosynthetic pathway similar to that in plants. Cytokinins regulate the growth and cell cycle progression of T. gondii by mediating expression of the cyclin gene TgCYC4. A natural form of cytokinin, trans-zeatin (t-zeatin), upregulated expression of this cyclin, while a synthetic cytokinin, thidiazuron, downregulated its expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analysis showed that t-zeatin increased the genome-copy number of apicoplast, which are non-photosynthetic plastid, in the parasite, while thidiazuron led to their disappearance. Thidiazuron inhibited growth of T. gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, a human malaria parasite, suggesting that thidiazuron has therapeutic potential as an inhibitor of apicomplexan parasites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  9. Molecular and Morphological Characterization and Biological Control Capabilities of a Pasteuria ssp. Parasitizing Rotylenchulus reniformis, the Reniform Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liesbeth M; Hewlett, Thomas E; Green, April; Simmons, Lee J; Kelley, Karen; Doroh, Mark; Stetina, Salliana R

    2010-09-01

    Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of 10 described species of reniform nematodes and is considered the most economically significant pest within the genus, parasitizing a variety of important agricultural crops. Rotylenchulus reniformis collected from cotton fields in the Southeastern US were observed to have the nematode parasitic bacterium Pasteuria attached to their cuticles. Challenge with a Pasteuria-specific monoclonal antibody in live immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA) confirmed the discovery of Pasteuria infecting R. reniformis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were employed to observe endospore ultrastructure and sporogenesis within the host. Pasteuria were observed to infect and complete their life-cycle in juvenile, male and female R. reniformis. Molecular analysis using Pasteuria species-specific and degenerate primers for 16s rRNA and spoII, and subsequent phylogenetic assessment, placed the Pasteuria associated with R. reniformis in a distinct clade within established assemblages for the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes. A global phylogenetic assessment of Pasteuria 16s rDNA using the Neighbor-Joining method resulted in a clear branch with 100% boot-strap support that effectively partitioned the Pasteuria infecting phytopathogenic nematodes from the Pasteuria associated with bacterivorous nematodes. Phylogenetic analysis of the R. reniformis Pasteuria and Pasteuria spp. parasitizing a number of economically important plant parasitic nematodes revealed that Pasteuria with different host specificities are closely related and likely constitute biotypes of the same species. This suggests host preference, and thus effective differentiation and classification are most likely predicated by an influential virulence determinant(s) that has yet to be elucidated. Pasteuria Pr3 endospores produced by in vitro fermentation demonstrated efficacy as a commercial bionematicide to control R. reniformis on cotton in pot tests, when applied as a seed

  10. Integrated identification, modeling and control with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guojun

    This thesis deals with the integration of system design, identification, modeling and control. In particular, six interdisciplinary engineering problems are addressed and investigated. Theoretical results are established and applied to structural vibration reduction and engine control problems. First, the data-based LQG control problem is formulated and solved. It is shown that a state space model is not necessary to solve this problem; rather a finite sequence from the impulse response is the only model data required to synthesize an optimal controller. The new theory avoids unnecessary reliance on a model, required in the conventional design procedure. The infinite horizon model predictive control problem is addressed for multivariable systems. The basic properties of the receding horizon implementation strategy is investigated and the complete framework for solving the problem is established. The new theory allows the accommodation of hard input constraints and time delays. The developed control algorithms guarantee the closed loop stability. A closed loop identification and infinite horizon model predictive control design procedure is established for engine speed regulation. The developed algorithms are tested on the Cummins Engine Simulator and desired results are obtained. A finite signal-to-noise ratio model is considered for noise signals. An information quality index is introduced which measures the essential information precision required for stabilization. The problems of minimum variance control and covariance control are formulated and investigated. Convergent algorithms are developed for solving the problems of interest. The problem of the integrated passive and active control design is addressed in order to improve the overall system performance. A design algorithm is developed, which simultaneously finds: (i) the optimal values of the stiffness and damping ratios for the structure, and (ii) an optimal output variance constrained stabilizing

  11. Effects of different methods to control the parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel in processing tomato crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Disciglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The root-parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel represents a major problem for processing tomato crops. The control of this holoparasitic plant is difficult, and better understanding of treatment methods is needed to develop new and specific control strategies. This study investigated 12 agronomic, chemical, biological and biotechnological strategies for the control of this parasitic weed, in comparison with the untreated situation. The trial was carried out in 2014 at the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Environment of the University of Foggia (southern Italy, using processing tomato plants grown in pots filled with soil from a field that was heavily infested with P. ramosa. After transplantation, top dressing was performed with 70 kg ha–1 nitrogen. A randomised block design with 3 replicates (pots was adopted. During the growing cycle of the tomato, at 70, 75, 81 and 88 days after transplantation, the number of parasitic shoots (branched plants that had emerged in each pot was determined, and the leaf chlorophyll of the plants was measured using a soil-plantanalysis- development meter. At harvesting on 8 August 2014, the major quanti-qualitative yield parameters were determined, including marketable yield, mean weight, dry matter, soluble solids, and fruit colour. The results show lower chlorophyll levels in the parasitised tomato plants, compared to healthy plants. None of the treatments provided complete control against P. ramosa. However, among the methods tested, Radicon® biostimulant (Radicon, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL, USA, compost activated with Fusarium oxysporum, nitrogen and sulphur mineral fertilisers, EnzoneTM soil fumigant (Elliott Chemicals Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand, and a resistant tomato genotype mitigated the virulence of the attacks of this parasite. These effects should be improved by combining some of these treatments, especially for gradual and continued reduction in the seed bank of the parasite in the

  12. The integration of two control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickley, M.; White, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past year the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) has installed a new machine control system, based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The migration from CEBAF's old control system, Thaumaturgic Automated Control Logic (TACL), had to be done concurrently with commissioning of the CEBAF accelerator. The smooth transition to EPICS was made possible by the similarity of the control systems' topological design and network communication protocol. Both systems have operator display computer nodes which are decoupled from the data acquisition and control nodes. The communication between display and control nodes of both control systems is based on making named requests for data, with data being passed on change of value. Due to TACL's use of a central communications process, it was possible to integrate both control systems' network communications in that process. This in turn meant that CEBAF did not require changes to any other software in order to support network communication between TACL and EPICS. CEBAF implemented the machine's control under EPICS in an evolutionary, controlled manner. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Integrated Control for Small Power Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The control strategies of the small power wind generator are usually divided into the maximum power point tracking (MPPT case, which requires the wind generator produce power as much as possible, and the power limited control (PLC case that demands the wind generator produce a power level following the load requirement. Integration of these two operating cases responding to flexible and sophisticated power demands is the main topic of this article. A small power wind generator including the sluggish mechanical dynamic phenomenon, which uses the permanent magnet synchronous generator, is introduced to validate different control methods integrating MPPT and PLC cases and based on hysteresis control. It is a matter of an indirect power control method derived from three direct methods following perturb and observe principle as well as from a look-up table. To analyze and compare the proposed power control methods, which are implemented into an emulator of a small power wind generator, a power demand profile is used. This profile is randomly generated based on measured rapid wind velocity data. Analyzing experimental results, from the power viewpoint, all proposed methods reveal steady-state error with big amount of peak resulting from the nature of perturb and observe.

  14. Social Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Miguel A.; Nguyen, HoangKim T.; Oberholzer, Michael; Hill, Kent L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Protozoan parasites cause tremendous human suffering worldwide, but strategies for therapeutic intervention are limited. Recent studies illustrate that the paradigm of microbes as social organisms can be brought to bear on questions about parasite biology, transmission and pathogenesis. This review discusses recent work demonstrating adaptation of social behaviors by parasitic protozoa that cause African sleeping sickness and malaria. The recognition of social behavior and cell-cell communication as a ubiquitous property of bacteria has transformed our view of microbiology, but protozoan parasites have not generally been considered in this context. Works discussed illustrate the potential for concepts of sociomicrobiology to provide insight into parasite biology and should stimulate new approaches for thinking about parasites and parasite-host interactions. PMID:22020108

  15. Biological control potential of the obligate parasite Pasteuria penetransagainst the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Brinjal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans against the rootknot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation was assessed in brinjal. The seedling pans with sterilized soil were inoculated with nematodes and root powder of P. penetrans were applied at different dosages viz., 0 x 10(6), 0.5 x 10(6) spores and 1 x 10(6) spores/pan. Seeds of brinjal cv Co2 were sown in the pans and seedlings were allowed to grow. The seedlings were transplanted to microplots containing sterilized soil. Observations on nematode infestation and plant growth were recorded at seedling, flowering, and fruiting stages. Nematode infestation was significantly reduced by P. penetrans treatment. There was 22, 75 and 86% reduction in nematode population of soil over control at seedling, flowering and fruiting stages, respectively, at higher spore density (1 x 10(6)). Egg mass production was decreased by 63, 78 and 89% over control at 35 (seedling), 100 (flowering) and 160 (fruiting) days after sowing respectively, at 1 x 10(6) spores treated soil. The parasitizing ability of P. penetrans increased with the age of the crop. At higher spore density the percentage of parasitization was increased from 52.0 (35 days after sowing) to 90.0 (160 days after sowing) %. At these stages of the crop, the spore load per juvenile also increased at the higher dose. The P. penetrans application enhanced the plant growth. The weight of the shoot was increased by 17.6% whereas root weight by 41.0% over the control at fruiting stage. The experimental results revealed the potential use of P. penetrans as biological control agent of M. incognita. Application of P. penetrans spores in the nursery is a good strategy since the mass multiplication is quite difficult.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasite control during prepuberty improves mammary parenchyma development in Holstein heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, AF; Mejía, ME; Licoff, N; Diab, SS; Formía, N; Ornstein, A; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, IM

    2013-01-01

    Parasitism during development impairs normal growth and delays the onset of puberty through altered hormone profiles, including insulin-like growth factor one (IGF-1).Asmammary gland development during prepuberty is strongly dependent on IGF-1, we determined if antiparasitic treatment during this stage of growth improved mammary gland development. One group of Holstein heifers was treated monthly, rotationally with antiparasitic drugs from birth to 70 weeks of age, a secon...

  17. Distinct genetic control of parasite elimination, dissemination, and disease after Leishmania major infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurey, Irina; Kobets, Tetyana; Havelková, Helena; Slapničková, Martina; Quan, L.; Trtková, Kateřina; Grekov, Igor; Svobodová, M.; Stassen, A. P. M.; Hutson, A.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2009), s. 619-633 ISSN 0093-7711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/06/1745; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:EC(XE) 05-1000004-7761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Leishmania major * Parasite elimination * QTL mapping Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.988, year: 2009

  18. Integrated circuit implementation of fuzzy controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas Díaz, José Luis; Sánchez Solano, Santiago; Baturone Castillo, María Iluminada; Barriga Barros, Ángel

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents mixed-signal current-mode CMOS circuits to implement programmable fuzzy controllers that perform the singleton or zero-order Sugeno’s method. Design equations to characterize these circuits are provided to explain the precision and speed that they offer. This analysis is illustrated with the experimental results of prototypes integrated in standard CMOS technologies. These tests show that an equivalent precision of 6 bits is achieved. The connection of these...

  19. An Integrated Control Strategy Takes Clonorchis sinensis Under Control in an Endemic Area in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yalan; Huang, Dana; Geng, Yijie; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Fan; Wu, Chunli; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Xin; Wu, Shuang; Cao, Jianping; Zhang, Renli

    2017-12-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is an important foodborne zoonosis worldwide and prevalent in China for more than 2000 years. According to the experience of controlling Schistosoma japonica, China started to establish the integrated control strategy for C. sinensis in endemic areas. Lou village, the largest village in Shenzhen city in South China was taken as a pilot site. This longitudinal study assessed the infection status of C. sinensis among people and intermediate hosts from 2006 to 2014 in Lou village. After a continuous intervention with the integrated control strategy, the prevalence of C. sinensis decreased significantly to 2.01% in 2014. The infection intensity also reduced significantly with eggs per gram varying from 45.6 ± 3.4 in 2010 to 21.7 ± 1.6 in 2012. There is also a statistically significant decrease of the prevalence of C. sinensis metacercariae in fish hosts from 16.51% in 2008 before the intervention to 5.33% in 2014. All the old-styled toilets were replaced by sanitary ones with a harmless processing design in 2014. No viable parasite eggs were detected in stool samples from the reconstructed toilets. Health education played an important role in changing the eating habits among the local residents, with a significant decrease in the prevalence of eating raw fish from 91.99% in 2008 to 59.87% in 2014. The evaluation suggested that the integrated strategy we have performed in Lou village is effective in controlling the C. sinensis infection and maintaining the infection rate at a lower level, which can be promoted in other endemic areas.

  20. Serotonin Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni: A Serotonin–Activated G Protein-Coupled Receptor Controls Parasite Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammed; Ribeiro, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neuroactive substance in all the parasitic helminths. In Schistosoma mansoni, serotonin is strongly myoexcitatory; it potentiates contraction of the body wall muscles and stimulates motor activity. This is considered to be a critical mechanism of motor control in the parasite, but the mode of action of serotonin is poorly understood. Here we provide the first molecular evidence of a functional serotonin receptor (Sm5HTR) in S. mansoni. The schistosome receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is distantly related to serotonergic type 7 (5HT7) receptors from other species. Functional expression studies in transfected HEK 293 cells showed that Sm5HTR is a specific serotonin receptor and it signals through an increase in intracellular cAMP, consistent with a 5HT7 signaling mechanism. Immunolocalization studies with a specific anti-Sm5HTR antibody revealed that the receptor is abundantly distributed in the worm's nervous system, including the cerebral ganglia and main nerve cords of the central nervous system and the peripheral innervation of the body wall muscles and tegument. RNA interference (RNAi) was performed both in schistosomulae and adult worms to test whether the receptor is required for parasite motility. The RNAi-suppressed adults and larvae were markedly hypoactive compared to the corresponding controls and they were also resistant to exogenous serotonin treatment. These results show that Sm5HTR is at least one of the receptors responsible for the motor effects of serotonin in S. mansoni. The fact that Sm5HTR is expressed in nerve tissue further suggests that serotonin stimulates movement via this receptor by modulating neuronal output to the musculature. Together, the evidence identifies Sm5HTR as an important neuronal protein and a key component of the motor control apparatus in S. mansoni. PMID:24453972

  1. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  2. Performance and parasite control of different genetic groups of lambs finished in irrigated pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Fernandes Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the following four genetic groups of hair sheep: Santa Inês (SI, Morada Nova (MN, Brazilian Somali (BS, and the F1 1/2Dorper x 1/2Morada Nova crossbreed on traits related to growth and parasitic infection. Thirty-three male lambs of the same age and of simple birth, under the same pre-weaning management conditions were used in the experiment. After weaning the animals were housed in a completely randomized design in paddocks made of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Along the course of the research, the performance of the four groups of sheep was observed to be negatively affected by gastrointestinal parasites, but there was a genotype effect to the average daily weight gain (ADWG, where the SI and F1 genotypes presented higher values. The effects of genotype, time and genotype x time interaction were significant in weight and corporal score (CS measurements. The BS lambs had the highest CS values throughout the experiment despite not presenting greater weight gain when compared to the SI and F1 breeds. There were also significant effects of time and genotype x time interaction for packed cell volume (PCV and FAMACHA© score (FAM and only the time effect was significant in the total number of eggs per gram (EPG and total plasma protein (TPP. The MN lambs showed higher PCV values and unlike the other groups, presented a FAMACHA© score below 3 and PCV above 23% even having a higher EPG tendency, especially in the initial phase, indicating a possible higher resilience to infection caused by gastrointestinal parasites.

  3. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  4. Development of remote control integrator system on Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yichun; Wang Lingzhi; Shu Shuangbao

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet with the requirement of electromagnetic diagnosis to the J-TEXT Tokamak, a remote control integrator system was developed. With modular design method, the integrator system is composed of the integrator cards, a control card, a linear power card and the BNC interface cards, and it uses the PC control soft- ware to conduct network control. An integrator system provides 32 integrator channels, and all integral channels have four kinds of integral time constants for remote selection and provide three kinds of integrator running control methods. According to laboratory and J-TEXT field testing, it shows that the output voltage range is -10-10 V, output noise is not more than 5 mV, and for the four kinds of integral time constants, the integral output drifts are all less than 5 mV within 100 s for each integrator channel. (authors)

  5. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  6. RAAIS: Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (Part II). Integrated analysis of parasitic weed problems in rice in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Rodenburg, J.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Kayeke, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic weeds such as Striga spp and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in smallholder rice production systems form an increasing problem for food and income security in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we implement the Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Innovation Systems (RAAIS) as a diagnostic tool to

  7. National Ignition Facility integrated computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J. LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The NIF design team is developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is based on an object-oriented software framework applicable to event-driven control systems. The framework provides an open, extensible architecture that is sufficiently abstract to construct future mission-critical control systems. The ICCS will become operational when the first 8 out of 192 beams are activated in mid 2000. The ICCS consists of 300 front-end processors attached to 60,000 control points coordinated by a supervisory system. Computers running either Solaris or VxWorks are networked over a hybrid configuration of switched fast Ethernet and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). ATM carries digital motion video from sensors to operator consoles. Supervisory software is constructed by extending the reusable framework components for each specific application. The framework incorporates services for database persistence, system configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. More than twenty collaborating software applications are derived from the common framework. The framework is interoperable among different kinds of computers and functions as a plug-in software bus by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA). CORBA transparently distributes the software objects across the network. Because of the pivotal role played, CORBA was tested to ensure adequate performance

  8. Integrated soft sensor model for flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijälä, G; Lumley, D

    2006-01-01

    Tighter discharge permits often require wastewater treatment plants to maximize utilization of available facilities in order to cost-effectively reach these goals. Important aspects are minimizing internal disturbances and using available information in a smart way to improve plant performance. In this study, flow control throughout a large highly automated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was implemented in order to reduce internal disturbances and to provide a firm foundation for more advanced process control. A modular flow control system was constructed based on existing instrumentation and soft sensor flow models. Modules were constructed for every unit process in water treatment and integrated into a plant-wide model. The flow control system is used to automatically control recirculation flows and bypass flows at the plant. The system was also successful in making accurate flow estimations at points in the plant where it is not possible to have conventional flow meter instrumentation. The system provides fault detection for physical flow measuring devices. The module construction allows easy adaptation for new unit processes added to the treatment plant.

  9. Integrated tools for control-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Clark, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The basic functions embedded within a user friendly software package (MATRIXx) are used to provide a high level systems approach to the analysis of linear control systems. Various control system analysis configurations are assembled automatically to minimize the amount of work by the user. Interactive decision making is incorporated via menu options and at selected points, such as in the plotting section, by inputting data. There are five evaluations such as the singular value robustness test, singular value loop transfer frequency response, Bode frequency response, steady-state covariance analysis, and closed-loop eigenvalues. Another section describes time response simulations. A time response for random white noise disturbance is available. The configurations and key equations used for each type of analysis, the restrictions that apply, the type of data required, and an example problem are described. One approach for integrating the design and analysis tools is also presented.

  10. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)

    2003-06-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  11. Integrated Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.; Sun, B.; Wray, L.; Smith, J.

    1992-02-01

    This document presents the first industry-wide integrated research and development plan to support upgrading instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in nuclear power plants in the United States. The plan encompasses both solving obsolescence problems and introducing modern I ampersand C technology into the industry. Accomplishing this plan will provide the technological base to modernize existing plants, as well as bridge the gap to meet Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) requirements for modern I ampersand C systems. This plan defines Research and Development tasks to meet the identified needs for the following technical elements: Instrumentation, Control and Protection, Man-Machine Support Systems, Maintenance, Communications, Verification and Validation, and Specifications and Standards

  12. How have fisheries affected parasite communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in the abundance of unfished hosts. While complex life cycle parasites tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, directly transmitted parasites tended to increase. Among complex life cycle parasites, those with fished hosts tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, while those with unfished hosts tended to increase. However, among directly transmitted parasites, responses did not differ between parasites with and without fished hosts. This work suggests that parasite assemblages are likely to change substantially in composition in increasingly fished ecosystems, and that parasite life history and fishing status of the host are important in predicting the response of individual parasite species or groups to fishing.

  13. The past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisuna, Ambrose O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Okui, Albert P; Snow, Robert W

    2015-04-15

    An important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs. A review of published and un-published reports of malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda was conducted for the period 1900-2013. The objective was to provide a perspective as to how epidemiological intelligence was used to design malaria control before and during the global malaria eradication programme (GMEP) and to contrast this with the evidence generated in support of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative from 1998 to date. During the GMEP era, comprehensive investigations were undertaken on the effectiveness of vector and parasite control such as indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) at different sites in Uganda. Nationwide malariometric surveys were undertaken between 1964 and 1967 to provide a profile of risk, epidemiology and seasonality leading to an evidence-based national cartography of risk to characterize the diversity of malaria transmission in Uganda. At the launch of the RBM initiative in the late 1990s, an equivalent level of evidence was lacking. There was no contemporary national evidence-base for the likely impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), no new malariometric data, no new national cartography of malaria risk or any evidence of tailored intervention delivery based on variations in the ecology of malaria risk in Uganda. Despite millions of dollars of overseas development assistance over the last ten years in ITN, and more recently the resurrection of the use of IRS, the epidemiological impact of vector control remains uncertain due to an absence of nationwide basic parasite and vector-based field studies. Readily available epidemiological data should become the future business model to maximize malaria funding from 2015. Over the next five to ten years, accountability, impact analysis, financial

  14. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  15. Parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Foundations of roentgenological semiotics of parasitic diseases of lungs, w hich are of the greatest practical value, are presented. Roentgenological pictu res of the following parasitic diseases: hydatid and alveolar echinococcosis, pa ragonimiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiasis, bilharziasis (Schistosomias is) of lungs, are considered

  16. Nuclear techniques in the study and control of parasitic diseases of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This publication presents the results of a five-year Co-ordinated Research Programme conducted under the auspices of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. The aims of this programme were to encourage studies on the development of new vaccines or on a more extensive application of the available vaccines, and to stimulate examination of the immunology, pathogenesis and genetics of host-parasite relationships of veterinary importance in developing countries. The individual papers are essentially a synthesis of the work presented by the participants of the programme at a final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 14 May 1987 as well as work presented at previous meetings in Nairobi and Rabat. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. An Integrated Biological Control System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.R.; Caudill, J.G.; Giddings, R.F.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Roos, R.C.; Wilde, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimate spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  18. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  19. Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controls for Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Walter; Garg, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    The research vision of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the area of integrated flight and propulsion controls technologies is described. In particular the Integrated Method for Propulsion and Airframe Controls developed at the Lewis Research Center is described including its application to an advanced aircraft configuration. Additionally, future research directions in integrated controls are described.

  20. Latch-up control in CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, A. Jr.; Estreich, D.B.; Dawes, W.R. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for latch-up, a pnpn self-sustaining low impedance state, is inherent in standard bulk CMOS structures. Under normal bias, the parasitic SCR is in its blocking state, but if subjected to a high-voltage spike or if exposed to an ionizing environment, triggering may occur. Prevention of latch-up has been achieved by lifetime control methods such as gold doping or neutron irradiation and by modifying the structure with buried layers. Smaller, next-generation CMOS designs will enhance parasitic action making the problem a concern for other than military or space applications alone. Latch-up control methods presently employed are surveyed. Their adaptability to VSLI designs is analyzed

  1. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes

  2. Integrated Programme Control Systems: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C. W. [Babcock International Group PLC (formerly UKAEA Ltd) B21 Forss, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Dounreay was the UK's centre of fast reactor research and development from 1955 until 1994 and is now Scotland's largest nuclear clean up and demolition project. After four decades of research, Dounreay is now a site of construction, demolition and waste management, designed to return the site to as near as practicable to its original condition. Dounreay has a turnover in the region of Pounds 150 million a year and employs approximately 900 people. It subcontracts work to 50 or so companies in the supply chain and this provides employment for a similar number of people. The plan for decommissioning the site anticipates all redundant buildings will be cleared in the short term. The target date to achieve interim end state by 2039 is being reviewed in light of Government funding constraints, and will be subject to change through the NDA led site management competition. In the longer term, controls will be put in place on the use of contaminated land until 2300. In supporting the planning, management and organisational aspects for this complex decommissioning programme an integrated programme controls system has been developed and deployed. This consists of a combination of commercial and bespoke tools integrated to support all aspects of programme management, namely scope, schedule, cost, estimating and risk in order to provide baseline and performance management data based upon the application of earned value management principles. Through system evolution and lessons learned, the main benefits of this approach are management data consistency, rapid communication of live information, and increased granularity of data providing summary and detailed reports which identify performance trends that lead to corrective actions. The challenges of such approach are effective use of the information to realise positive changes, balancing the annual system support and development costs against the business needs, and maximising system performance. (author)

  3. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-01

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage

  4. The CALIPSO Integrated Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Ousley, Wes; Valentini, Marc; Thomas, Jason; Dejoie, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is a joint NASA-CNES mission to study the Earth's cloud and aerosol layers. The satellite is composed of a primary payload (built by Ball Aerospace) and a spacecraft platform bus (PROTEUS, built by Alcatel Alenia Space). The thermal control subsystem (TCS) for the CALIPSO satellite is a passive design utilizing radiators, multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, and both operational and survival surface heaters. The most temperature sensitive component within the satellite is the laser system. During thermal vacuum testing of the integrated satellite, the laser system's operational heaters were found to be inadequate in maintaining the lasers required set point. In response, a solution utilizing the laser system's survival heaters to augment the operational heaters was developed with collaboration between NASA, CNES, Ball Aerospace, and Alcatel-Alenia. The CALIPSO satellite launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on April 26th, 2006. Evaluation of both the platform and payload thermal control systems show they are performing as expected and maintaining the critical elements of the satellite within acceptable limits.

  5. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  6. Integration, de-integration and liberal controlled finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    2008-01-01

    With the forthcoming adoption of the 3. directive of the European Commission project, the European Union will make a new step towards integration. The stake for gas or electric utilities is of prime importance: each will have to de-integrate and positioned itself as an infrastructure company or as a production and commercialization company. In other words, they will have to chose between 'regulation and recurrent incomes' or 'fortunes and risks of production and trade'. Such changes, added to the globalization of gas trades linked with the development of LNG, require more investments than in the past. However, these over-investments combined to technical progresses allow to expect that this mutation will not significantly weaken the security of gas supplies in the European Union. The end-user, on the other hand, will certainly not make any profit of this integration considering the enhanced volatility of markets more and more dominated by the speculative strategies of financial operators. (J.S.)

  7. Controlling covert integration in EU politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaensen, J.; Coremans, E.; Bursens, Peter; De Landtsheer, Christl; Braeckmans, Luc; Segaert, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Without the prospect of new treaty revisions, integration in the European Union is often believed to come at a standstill. However, recent research suggests that deepening integration still continues, albeit in more covert ways. The risk associated with such covert integration is that it is not

  8. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  9. Integrated control system for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, William F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Integrated Control System (ICS) has been developed to facilitate Plowshare nuclear detonations by following a unified system approach. This system consolidates the techniques for firing, safety program, scientific program, and communications. Maximum emphasis is placed upon control and data transmission by radio rather than hardwire or coaxial cable. The ICS consists of a Command Point (CP) Trailer, a radio repeater station, a field station (the ICE Box), and several chassis located in the explosive canister. Commands originate in the CP and are transmitted via microwave radio to the ICE Box; monitors are returned to the CP from the canister, the ICE Box, and sensors near ground zero. The system allows complete checkout and operation before shipment to the field. The explosive canister may be dry-run at the assembly area (at NTS) before shipment to the field. The basic detonation functions for every event are: 1. Arming and firing commands in the explosive canister and at surface ground zero. 2. Environmental monitors and suitable arming monitors in the explosive canister. 3. Safety monitors at the zero site for weather, RAMS (Remote Area Monitoring System), and cavity collapse. Secondary functions that may be required for a specific project are: 4. Scientific program of phenomenology measurements. 5. Explosive performance measurements. 6. Ground zero television. 7. Auxiliary communications such as local telephones, VHF radio. By combining functions that have previously been performed by separate organizations and systems, the ICS attempts a minimum cost detonation service. Economy of operation results because: 1. Operating personnel work on more than one sub-system. 2. Interfaces and interface complexity are minimized. 3. A reduced dependence upon signal cables results from a microwave-based system. 4. Pre-fabrication allows test operation before shipment to the field and minimizes setup time in the field. The ICS is in use on the Sturtevant event and is

  10. Integrated optical switch circuit operating under FPGA control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabile, R.; Zal, M.; Williams, K.A.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are enabling an abrupt step change in networking systems providing massive bandwidth and record transmission. The increasing complexity of high connectivity photonic integrated switches requires sophisticated control planes and more intimate high speed electronics. Here

  11. Use of costic acid, a natural extract from Dittrichia viscosa, for the control of Varroa destructor, a parasite of the European honey bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Sofou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Costic acid has been isolated from the plant Dittrichia viscosa and its efficacy against Varroa destructor, a parasite of Apis mellifera, the European honey bee, has been studied. Costic acid exhibited potent in vivo acaricidal activity against the parasite. Initial experiments showed that the compound is not toxic for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC at concentrations of up to 230 micromolar (μM, indicating that costic acid could be used as a safe, low-cost and efficient agent for controlling varroosis in honey bee colonies.

  12. Trade-offs in parasitism efficiency and brood size mediate parasitoid coexistence, with implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitoids often are selected for use as biological control agents because of their high host specificity, yet such host specificity can result in strong interspecific competition. However, few studies have examined if and how various extrinsic factors (such as parasitism efficiency) influence the ...

  13. Helminth parasite communities of two Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 (Anura: Leiuperidae populations under different conditions of habitat integrity in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Adults of Physalaemus cuvieri were collected and necropsied between November 2009 and January 2010. This was carried out in order to report and compare the helminth fauna associated with two populations of this anuran species from the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest under different conditions of habitat integrity. The hosts from the disturbed area were parasitized with five helminth taxa: Cosmocerca parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Nematoda and Polystoma cuvieri (Monogenea while those from the preserved area had four helminth taxa: C. parva, Aplectana sp., Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., and Acanthocephalus saopaulensis (Acanthocephala. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance, mean richness, importance index and dominance frequency of helminth component communities were similar in both areas. The helminth community associated with anurans from the disturbed area had higher diversity than that from the preserved area. This study is the first to report on the acanthocephalan parasites of Ph. cuvieri, and the similarity between helminth fauna composition of two host populations under different selective pressures.

  14. Integrated malaria vector control in different agro-ecosystems in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbahale, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a complex disease and its transmission is a function of the interaction between the Anopheles mosquito vector, the Plasmodium parasite, the hosts and the environment. Malaria control has mainly targeted the Plasmodium parasite or the adult anopheline mosquitoes. However, development of

  15. Integrated system for nuclear installation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchev, M.; Boyiklieva, R.; Peneva, A.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison between the international requirements and standards to an integrated management system is presented. The IAEA GS-R-3, BS PASS 99, ISO 9001, ISO 14001, BS OHSAS 18001 and ISO/IEC 27001 are reviewed and compared by the following aspects: definition and integration of processes; safety culture, risk analyses, satisfaction of the concerned parties, actions in case of discrepancy

  16. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios Control of parasites in domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Semenas

    1999-08-01

    vermicularis e III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale e Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSÕES: Todas as amostras de semi-sólidos analisadas foram consideradas aptas para seu uso como fertilizantes porque não se registrou em nenhuma delas a presença de ovos viáveis de Ascaris lumbricoides, e somente 6 das amostras líquidas foram consideradas aptas para rego, por carecer de ovos ou por ser sua concentração igual ou inferior a 1 ovo por litro.OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of the presence of parasites in semisolid and liquid sewage in Argentinian Patagonia in view of the fact that this is a restriction for its use. METHODS: The samples taken at 4 Domestic Sewage Plants were analyzed in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Environmental Protection Agency, World Health Organization and some other classifications. RESULTS: Only 2 of 6 semisolid samples analyzed had non-viable Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Of the 10 liquid samples analyzed, only 2 did not contain eggs whereas the remaining ones had pathogens of categories I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis and III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONS: All semisolid samples turned out to be satisfactory for use as fertilizer as no viable Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in any of them. But only 6 of the liquid samples were satisfactory for use as they had no eggs or their concentrations was equal to or less than 1 egg per litre.

  17. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  18. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  19. Human Systems Integration Assessment of Network Centric Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quashnock, Dee; Kelly, Richard T; Dunaway, John; Smillie, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    .... FORCEnet is the operational construct and architectural framework for Naval Network Centric Warfare in the information age that integrates warriors, sensors, networks, command and control, platforms...

  20. Chemical control of ticks on cattle and the resistance of these parasites to acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J E; Pound, J M; Davey, R B

    2004-01-01

    Toward the end of the nineteenth century a complex of problems related to ticks and tick-borne diseases of cattle created a demand for methods to control ticks and reduce losses of cattle. The discovery and use of arsenical solutions in dipping vats for treating cattle to protect them against ticks revolutionized tick and tick-borne disease control programmes. Arsenic dips for cattle were used for about 40 years before the evolution of resistance of ticks to the chemical, and the development and marketing of synthetic organic acaricides after World War II provided superior alternative products. Most of the major groups of organic pesticides are represented on the list of chemicals used to control ticks on cattle. Unfortunately, the successive evolution of resistance of ticks to acaricides in each chemical group with the concomitant reduction in the usefulness of a group of acaricides is a major reason for the diversity of acaricides. Whether a producer chooses a traditional method for treating cattle with an acaricide or uses a new method, he must recognize the benefits, limitations and potential problems with each application method and product. Simulation models and research were the basis of recommendations for tick control strategies advocating approaches that reduced reliance on acaricides. These recommendations for controlling ticks on cattle are in harmony with recommendations for reducing the rate of selection for acaricide resistance. There is a need to transfer knowledge about tick control and resistance mitigation strategies to cattle producers.

  1. An integrated approach to process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The control of production processes is the subject of several disciplines, such as statistical process control (SPC), total productive maintenance (TPM), and automated process control (APC). Although these disciplines are traditionally separated (both in science and in business practice), their

  2. Commercial Biological Control Agents Targeted Against Plant-Parasitic Root-knot Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stéphane Tranier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are microscopic round worms, which cause severe agricultural losses. Their attacks affect the productivity by reducing the amount and the caliber of the fruits. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using microorganisms to reduce the quantity of pests infecting crops. Biological control is developing gradually, and with time, more products are being marketed worldwide. They can be formulated with bacteria, viruses or with filamentous fungi, which can destroy and feed on phytoparasitic nematodes. To be used by the farmers, biopesticides must be legalized by the states, which has led to the establishment of a legal framework for their use, devised by various governmental organizations.

  3. Integrated control of Strongylus vulgaris infection in horses using ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, J D

    1985-05-01

    An attempt was made to control or eliminate Strongylus vulgaris from a closed group of three horses at pasture near Perth, Western Australia, by dosing with ivermectin on four occasions during the time of year when it was believed that environmental conditions would eliminate all the non-parasitic stages of that species. At necropsy, five months after the last dose of anthelmintic and after continually grazing the same pastures, no S vulgaris or arterial lesions were found in those horses and S edentatus, Draschia megastoma and Habronema species were also almost completely eliminated.

  4. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP3–Ca2+ signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab; Kawai, Satoru; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca 2+ oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca 2+ - and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca 2+ ) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca 2+ imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca 2+ oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP 3 –Ca 2+ and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum

  5. Epidemiology and control of Schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Rajini; Hunjan, Gurdip S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of parasitic infections and the efficacy of treatment among school children in rural villages of south Saint Lucia. A total of 554 school children participated in this study. Parasitic infections were confirmed by using Kato- Katz method. Overall, 61.6% of the school children were infected by any parasitic infection. The helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%), Hookworm (11.9%), Strongyloides (9.7%), Trichuris trichiura (4.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%), Taenia solium (0.8%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2.1%), Entamoeba coli (9.7%), Iodameba butschlii (5%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.8%) and Endolimax nana (2.1%). The control intervention included treatment with albendazole 400 mg and praziquantel 40 mg/kg as well as awareness campaigns. Post-interventional assessment showed the total prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection reduced from 61.6 to 3.6% with a cure rate of 94.2%, following the control methods.

  6. Design of RS232-powered controller for switched parasitic array antenna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, MOR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often convenient to power up peripheral devices directly from the host device interface, without a need for additional and/or external power supply. In this paper we present a design of the RS232-powered controller for electronically...

  7. Nuclear techniques in plant pathology 1. Plant disease control and physiology of parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are advantageously used in several areas of plant pathology. Among them are: induction of mutation for disease resistance, studies with pesticides, disease control through pathogen inactivation, induction of variability and stimulation in pathogens and natural enemies, studies of microorganism physiology and diseased plant physiology, effect of gamma radiation on pesticides, technology of pesticides application, etc. (Author) [pt

  8. Parasitic Apologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatolo, Renata; Ursi, Biagio; Bongelli, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The action of apologizing can be accomplished as the main business of the interaction or incidentally while participants are doing something else. We refer to these apologies as "parasitic apologies," because they are produced "en passant" (Schegloff, 2007), and focus our analysis on this type of apology occurring at the…

  9. Polyether ionophores: broad-spectrum and promising biologically active molecules for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Ii, Dion A; Meujo, Damaris Af; Hamann, Mark T

    2009-02-01

    As multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens continue to emerge, there is a substantial amount of pressure to identify new drug candidates. Carboxyl polyethers, also referred to as polyether antibiotics, are a unique class of compounds with outstanding potency against a variety of critical infectious disease targets including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. The characteristics of these molecules that are of key interest are their selectivity and high potency against several MDR etiological agents. Although many studies have been published about carboxyl polyether antibiotics, there are no recent reviews of this class of drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of the spectrum of activity of polyether antibiotics, their mechanism of action, toxicity and potential as drug candidates to combat drug-resistant infectious diseases. Polyether ionophores show a high degree of promise for the potential control of drug-resistant bacterial and parasitic infections. Despite the long history of use of this class of drugs, very limited medicinal chemistry and drug optimization studies have been reported, thus leaving the door open to these opportunities in the future. Scifinder and PubMed were the main search engines used to locate articles relevant to the topic presented in the present review. Keywords used in our search were specific names of each of the 88 compounds presented in the review as well as more general terms such as polyethers, ionophores, carboxylic polyethers and polyether antibiotics.

  10. Enhancing LTE with Cloud-RAN and Load-Controlled Parasitic Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Boviz, Dora; Checko, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Cloud radio access network systems, consisting of remote radio heads densely distributed in a coverage area and connected by optical fibers to a cloud infrastructure with large computational capabilities, have the potential to meet the ambitious objectives of next generation mobile networks. Actual...... presented for the fronthaul enables flexibility and elasticity in resource allocation to support BS virtualization. A layered design of information control for the proposed end-to-end solution is presented. The feasibility and effectiveness of such an LCPAA-enabled C-RAN system setup has been validated...

  11. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3%) and 238 goat flocks (52.6%) were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6%) and goat (85.1%) flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year) in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007), whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance

  12. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  13. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  14. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  15. Local and Integral Control of Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); J. Wijngaard (Jacob)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn most of the literature on performance analysis of production systems, buffer are assumed to be controlled locally. In automated production systems buffers are not always the result of local physical space restrictions, but may also be software- controlled. Software-controlled buffers

  16. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability

  17. Assessing the usefulness of mineral licks containing herbal extracts with anti-parasitic properties for the control of gastrointestinal helminths in grazing sheep – a field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative methods of parasite control, of particular importance in sustainable farming, is the use of medicinal plants. The specific aim of the present field trial was to assess the anti-parasitic effects of herbal extracts contained in a commercially available lick formulation for sheep. At the outset of this study conducted during the grazing season, all animals were de-wormed and then randomly assigned to one of the two separately kept groups (treatment and control, each consisting of 25 animals (11 ewes and 14 lambs. The treatment group received mineral licks containing the extracts of the plants with anti-parasitic properties, while control animals received standard mineral licks ad libitum. Rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from all animals for the McMaster analyses. There were no significant differences in the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections between the treatment and control groups. Thus, we were not able to ascertain the efficacy of the commercial herbal de-wormer tested for the control of gastrointestinal helminths in grazing ewes and their lambs.

  18. Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture

  19. Effect of a controlled-release albendazole capsule on parasitism and productivity of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Krupicer, I; Legény, J; Juris, P; Veselý, L

    1991-11-01

    The efficacy of intraruminal albendazole (ABZ) capsules (Profitril-Captec) and the effect of treatment on productivity were studied in 300 ewes infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Coprological tests revealed that treated animals remained negative for 10 weeks after the administration of capsules. Contamination of pasture with nematode larvae was significantly reduced during the whole experiment. Necropsy of 14 animals (seven treated and seven untreated) showed 96.9-99.2% efficacy against the nematodes Nematodirus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris ovis, while efficacy was 88.5% against D. dendriticum. During the 6 month pasture season (May-October 1989), treated ewes produced on average 2.56 kg cheese and 0.6 kg wool per ewe more than untreated controls. Our study confirms the reliability of the ABZ slow-release capsules over 90 days and the positive effect of treatment on nematode contamination of pasture and ewe productivity.

  20. Nonlinear reset integrator control design: Application to the active suspension control of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Acho Zuppa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We present an unexampled reset integrator control design based on the Clegg integrator system. Using an appropriate mathematical model of our Clegg integrator controller, stability proof of the closed-loop system applied to the vibration control problem of a second-order system is shown without invoking hybrid system theory. Furthermore, we illustrate the pplicability of our controller, from the numerical experiment point of view, to the suspension vibration control of vehicles.

  1. Intestinal Protozoal Parasites in Diarrheal Children and Associated Risk Factors at Yirgalem Hospital, Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdu, Teshome; Abunna, Fufa; Girma, Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Aim. A case-control study was conducted to determine the prevalence of G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium, spp and E. histolytica/dispar in diarrheal children at Yirgalem Hospital from February 2011 to August. Subjects and Methods. A total of 230 children participated in the study of which 115 (50%) were cases and 115 (50%) were controls. A single stool sample was collected and examined by direct saline wet mount, formol-ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Results. Eighty-four (36.52%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasites (57 (49.56%) from diarrheal children and 27 (23.47%) out of nondiarrheal children). The prevalence of G. lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp, and E. histolytica/dispar was 15.65%, 9.56%, and 4.35% in children with diarrhea and 1.74%, 5.21%, and 1.74% in those without it, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp and E. histolytica/dispar revealed higher infection in males (10.81% and 5.4%, resp.) than in females (7.32% and 2.43%, resp.). G. lamblia infection was higher in females (29.27%) than in males (8.11%). Cryptosporidium spp infection was higher in the age groups of ≤4 years old (53.84%). Significant difference was seen between 10 and 13 (7.69%) years old. Higher prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar was found in 5-9 years (85.71%) than ≤4 years old (14.28%). Conclusion. Cryptosporidium spp, E. histolytica/dispar, and G. lamblia were higher in children with diarrhea than in those without it.

  2. Aspergillus alliaceus, a new potential biological control of the root parasitic weed Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybeke, Mehmet; Sen, Burhan; Okten, Suzan

    2014-07-01

    During extensive surveys in fields heavily infested by broomrape in the Trakya Region-Turkey, a different new fungus, Aspergillus alliaceus, was isolated from the infected broomrape. It is aimed to investigate whether or not it is really a pathogen for Orobanche. The fungi was exposed to a greenhouse environment in order to assess its pathogenicity and virulence against Orobanche cernua. In addition, infection tests on Orobanche seeds were also performed under laboratory conditions. The fungus was subjected using two different methods, exposure to a liquid culture with conidial solution and a sclerotial solid culture with fungal mycelia. Cytological studies were carried out at light, TEM and SEM levels. The results show that the sclerotial solid culture with fungal mycelia quickly caused necrosis and was more effective than the other type. It also greatly diminished attachments, tubercles, and caused the emergence of shoots and an increase in the total shoot number of Orobanche. In addition, both when the fungi was exposed to both soil and used to contaminate sunflower seeds, its pathogenicity was more effective. Consequently, it was determined that A. alliaceus was an effective potential biological control of broomrape throughout its life cycle from dormant seed to mature plant. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Multimodal Signal Integration for Feeding Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Marcus L; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-04-21

    Feeding is arguably one of the most well-conserved and important adaptive behaviors across all species. In this issue of Cell, Yapici et al. use a novel real-time feeding assay in Drosophila flies to identify a neural circuit that integrates gustatory input and hunger state to modulate food ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimising Controlled Human Malaria Infection Studies Using Cryopreserved P. falciparum Parasites Administered by Needle and Syringe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Sheehy

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies have become a routine tool to evaluate efficacy of candidate anti-malarial drugs and vaccines. To date, CHMI trials have mostly been conducted using the bite of infected mosquitoes, restricting the number of trial sites that can perform CHMI studies. Aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge provide a potentially more accurate, reproducible and practical alternative, allowing a known number of sporozoites to be administered simply by injection.We sought to assess the infectivity of PfSPZ Challenge administered in different dosing regimens to malaria-naive healthy adults (n = 18. Six participants received 2,500 sporozoites intradermally (ID, six received 2,500 sporozoites intramuscularly (IM and six received 25,000 sporozoites IM.Five out of six participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites ID, 3/6 participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites IM and 6/6 participants receiving 25,000 sporozoites IM were successfully infected. The median time to diagnosis was 13.2, 17.8 and 12.7 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 2,500 sporozoites IM and 25,000 sporozoites IM respectively (Kaplan Meier method; p = 0.024 log rank test.2,500 sporozoites ID and 25,000 sporozoites IM have similar infectivities. Given the dose response in infectivity seen with IM administration, further work should evaluate increasing doses of PfSPZ Challenge IM to identify a dosing regimen that reliably infects 100% of participants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048.

  5. Integrated structure/control design - Present methodology and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Newsom, J. R.; Zeiler, T. A.; Gilbert, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to current methodology applied to the integration of the optimal design process for structures and controls. Multilevel linear decomposition techniques proved to be most effective in organizing the computational efforts necessary for ISCD (integrated structures and control design) tasks. With the development of large orbiting space structures and actively controlled, high performance aircraft, there will be more situations in which this concept can be applied.

  6. Variable Structure PID Control to Prevent Integrator Windup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. E.; Hodel, A. S.; Hung, J. Y.

    1999-01-01

    PID controllers are frequently used to control systems requiring zero steady-state error while maintaining requirements for settling time and robustness (gain/phase margins). PID controllers suffer significant loss of performance due to short-term integrator wind-up when used in systems with actuator saturation. We examine several existing and proposed methods for the prevention of integrator wind-up in both continuous and discrete time implementations.

  7. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  8. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  9. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures

  10. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures

  11. CHECWORKS integrated software for corrosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefski, C.; Pietralik; Hazelton, T.

    1997-01-01

    CHECWORKS, a comprehensive software package for managing Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC, also called erosion-corrosion and flow-assisted corrosion) concerns, is expanding to include other systems and other aspects of corrosion control in CANDU reactors. This paper will outline CHECWORKS applications at various CANDU stations and further plans for CHECWORKS to become a code for comprehensive corrosion control management. (author)

  12. Integrated plant automation using programmable logic controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the world of automation the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has became for control. It now not only replaces the earlier relay logic controls but also has taken over many additional control functions. Initially the PLC was used to replace relay logic, but is ever-increasing range of functions means that it is found in many and more complex applications. As the structure of the PLC is based on the same principles as those employed in computer architecture, it is capable of performance not only relay switching tasks, but also other applications such as counting, calculating, comparing and the processing of analogue signals. Due to the simplicity of entering and modifying the programmed instructions to suit the requirements of the process under control, the PLC is truly a versatile and flexible device that can be employed easily and efficiently to repeatedly control tasks that vary in nature and complexes. A photograph of the Siemens S-5 95U. To illustrate the advantage of using a PLC over a traditional relay logic system, consider a control system with 20 input/output points. This assembly could comprise 60-80 relays, some counter/timers and a great deal of wiring. This assembly would be cumbersome with a power consumption of 30-40VA. A considerable time would be required to design, test and commission the assembly and once it is in full working order any desired modification, even of minor nature, could require major hardware changes. (author)

  13. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded systems in a very short time at a fraction of the present day costs. The ultimate focus of current research is on transformation control laws to efficient concurrent algorithms, with concerns about...

  14. Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Claire E; Peachey, Laura; Hodgkinson, Jane; Matthews, Jacqui B; Trawford, Andrew; Mulugeta, Getachew; Tefera, Gebre; Pinchbeck, Gina L

    2013-09-11

    Gastrointestinal nematode infections constitute a threat to the health and welfare of donkeys worldwide. Their primary means of control is via anthelmintic treatments; however, use of these drugs has constraints in developing countries, including cost, limited availability, access to cheaper generic forms of variable quality and potential anthelmintic resistance. As an alternative, bioactive plants have been proposed as an option to treat and control gastrointestinal helminths in donkeys. This study aimed to use participatory methodology to explore donkey owner knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to the use of plant-based treatments for gastrointestinal parasites of donkeys in Ethiopia. In focus groups, 22/29 groups stated they knew of plants used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys. All groups volunteered plants that were used in cattle and/or small ruminants. In total, 21 plants were named by participants. 'Koso' (Hagenia abyssinica) 'Grawa' (Vernonia amygdalina) and a mixed roots and leaves preparation were the most frequently named plant preparations. 'Enkoko' (Embelia shimperi) and 'a mixture of roots and leaves' were ranked highly for effectiveness in donkeys. However, 'Grawa' and 'Koso' were the highest ranked when taking into account both the rank position and the number of groups ranking the plant.Thematic analysis of participants' current attitudes and beliefs surrounding traditional plant-based remedies for gastrointestinal parasites revealed that anthelmintics obtained from clinics were generally favoured due to their ease of administration and perceived higher effectiveness. There was doubt surrounding the effectiveness of some plant-based treatments, but there were also perceived advantages including their low cost, ease of cultivation and availability. However, plant-based treatments were considered a "past trend" and people favoured "modern" medicine, particularly among the younger generation. There was extensive

  15. Integrated Computer Controlled Glow Discharge Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Erik; Post-Zwicker, Andrew

    2002-11-01

    An "Interactive Plasma Display" was created for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to demonstrate the characteristics of plasma to various science education outreach programs. From high school students and teachers, to undergraduate students and visitors to the lab, the plasma device will be a key component in advancing the public's basic knowledge of plasma physics. The device is fully computer controlled using LabVIEW, a touchscreen Graphical User Interface [GUI], and a GPIB interface. Utilizing a feedback loop, the display is fully autonomous in controlling pressure, as well as in monitoring the safety aspects of the apparatus. With a digital convectron gauge continuously monitoring pressure, the computer interface analyzes the input signals, while making changes to a digital flow controller. This function works independently of the GUI, allowing the user to simply input and receive a desired pressure; quickly, easily, and intuitively. The discharge tube is a 36" x 4"id glass cylinder with 3" side port. A 3000 volt, 10mA power supply, is used to breakdown the plasma. A 300 turn solenoid was created to demonstrate the magnetic pinching of a plasma. All primary functions of the device are controlled through the GUI digital controllers. This configuration allows for operators to safely control the pressure (100mTorr-1Torr), magnetic field (0-90Gauss, 7amps, 10volts), and finally, the voltage applied across the electrodes (0-3000v, 10mA).

  16. Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaramaiah C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chaitanya Shivaramaiah,1 John R Barta,2 Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco,3 Guillermo Téllez,1 Billy M Hargis11Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada; 3Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, MexicoAbstract: Coccidiosis, caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria, is probably the most expensive parasitic disease of poultry. Species of Eimeria are ubiquitous where poultry are raised and are known to cause drastic reductions in performance and induce mortality, thereby affecting the overall health status of poultry. Chemotherapy has been the predominant form of disease control for many years, even though vaccination is steadily gaining importance as a feasible control method. The objective of this review is to highlight recent advancements in understanding the role of host immunity against coccidiosis. In addition, pros and cons associated with chemotherapy and the role of vaccination as an increasingly popular disease control method are discussed. Finally, the role played by recombinant vaccines as a potential vaccination tool is highlighted. With interest growing rapidly in understanding host–parasite biology, recent developments in designing recombinant vaccines and potential epitopes that have shown promise are mentioned.Keywords: Eimeria, coccidiosis, chemotherapy, recombinant vaccines, immunity

  17. Integration of Design and Control through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    A systematic computer aided analysis of the process model is proposed as a pre-solution step for integration of design and control problems. The process model equations are classified in terms of balance equations, constitutive equations and conditional equations. Analysis of the phenomena models...... (structure selection) issues for the integrated problems are considered. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... representing the constitutive equations identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control. Furthermore, the analysis is able to identify a set of process (control) variables...

  18. Supervisory Model Predictive Control of the Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kristian; Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2017-01-01

    This paper benchmarks a centralized control system based on model predictive control for the operation of the heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) against a fully decentralized control system using the most complete column model currently available in the literature. The centralized control...... system outperforms the decentralized system, because it handles the interactions in the HIDiC process better. The integral absolute error (IAE) is reduced by a factor of 2 and a factor of 4 for control of the top and bottoms compositions, respectively....

  19. Anthelmintic metabolism in parasitic helminths: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Peter M; MacKintosh, Neil; Morphew, Russell M

    2012-08-01

    Anthelmintics are the cornerstone of parasitic helminth control. Surprisingly, understanding of the biochemical pathways used by parasitic helminths to detoxify anthelmintics is fragmented, despite the increasing global threat of anthelmintic resistance within the ruminant and equine industries. Reductionist biochemistry has likely over-estimated the enzymatic role of glutathione transferases in anthelmintic metabolism and neglected the potential role of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYPs). Proteomic technologies offers the opportunity to support genomics, reverse genetics and pharmacokinetics, and provide an integrated insight into both the cellular mechanisms underpinning response to anthelmintics and also the identification of biomarker panels for monitoring the development of anthelmintic resistance. To date, there have been limited attempts to include proteomics in anthelmintic metabolism studies. Optimisations of membrane, post-translational modification and interaction proteomic technologies in helminths are needed to especially study Phase I CYPs and Phase III ABC transporter pumps for anthelmintics and their metabolites.

  20. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  1. Integrated control of the wastewater system – potentials and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Ane Loft; Grum, Morten; Muschalla, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Applying integrated control to a sewer system and wastewater treatment plant often leads to additional benefits for both systems when compared to controlling them independently. However, barriers such as a lack of incentive for utilities to put this type of control in place mean that in practice...

  2. Gain Scheduling of Observer-Based Controllers with Integral Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

     This paper presents a method for continuous gain scheduling of  observer-based controllers with integral action. Given two stabilising controllers for a given system, explicit state space formulae are presented, allowing to change gradually from one  controller to the other while preserving...

  3. Adaptive control in multi-threaded iterated integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncker, Elise de; Yuasa, Fukuko

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we have developed a technique for the direct computation of Feynman loop-integrals, which are notorious for the occurrence of integrand singularities. Especially for handling singularities in the interior of the domain, we approximate the iterated integral using an adaptive algorithm in the coordinate directions. We present a novel multi-core parallelization scheme for adaptive multivariate integration, by assigning threads to the rule evaluations in the outer dimensions of the iterated integral. The method ensures a large parallel granularity as each function evaluation by itself comprises an integral over the lower dimensions, while the application of the threads is governed by the adaptive control in the outer level. We give computational results for a test set of 3- to 6-dimensional integrals, where several problems exhibit a loop integral behavior.

  4. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-01-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended

  5. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-11-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended.

  6. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  7. New control system: solutions for CAMAC and VME integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Lecorche, E.

    1991-01-01

    Three solutions for a new control system are presented. This system must integrate the whole existing CAMAC park with its LTR software, the VME modules for new interfaces and new processes, user interfaces integrating workstations for best graphic visualizations of setting tasks, the use of ETHERNET net and of the programming language ADA. (A.B.). 3 figs

  8. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  9. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded

  10. Advances in integrated plasma control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Hahn, S.H.; Humphreys, D.A.; In, Y.; Johnson, R.D.; Kim, J.S.; La Haye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Welander, A.S.; Xiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    The DIII-D advanced tokamak physics program requires extremely high performance from the DIII-D plasma control system, including simultaneous accurate regulation of plasma shape, stored energy, density and divertor characteristics, as well as coordinated suppression of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. To satisfy these demanding control requirements, we apply the integrated plasma control method, consisting of construction of physics-based plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers that operate in concert with one another, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and optimization through iteration of the design-test loop. The present work describes progress in development of physics models and development and experimental application of new model-based plasma controllers on DIII-D. We also describe the development of the control software, hardware, and model-based control algorithms for the superconducting EAST and KSTAR tokamaks

  11. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  12. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  13. Integrated Damage-Adaptive Control System (IDACS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI, in collaboration with Boeing Phantom Works, proposes to develop and test an efficient Integrated Damage Adaptive Control System (IDACS). The proposed system is...

  14. High prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among children and adolescents in Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa: no difference between patients and age-matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leicht von Huth, Sebastian; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kemp, Michael

    Introduction: Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa, is among the poorest countries in the world. Although previous health interventions have improved childhood mortality and –morbidity dramatically, gastrointestinal parasitic infections remain a major health concern. The prevalence and impact of these i......Introduction: Guinea-Bissau, Western Africa, is among the poorest countries in the world. Although previous health interventions have improved childhood mortality and –morbidity dramatically, gastrointestinal parasitic infections remain a major health concern. The prevalence and impact...... controls were included between August 2015 and February 2017 at Bandim Health Centre. Questionnaires including personal data, symptoms, sanitation (access to toilet and fresh water) and household size were recorded. Fecal samples were examined locally by trained technicians, using conventional light...

  15. Transient performance of integrated SOFC system including spatial temperature control

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F; Fardadi, M; Shaffer, B; Brouwer, J; Jabbari, F

    2010-01-01

    Spatial temperature feedback control has been developed for a simulated integrated non-pressurized simple cycle solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The fuel cell spatial temperature feedback controller is based on (1) feed-forward set-points that minimize temperature variation in the fuel cell electrode-electrolyte solid temperature profile for the system operating power range, and (2) decentralized proportional-integral based feedback to maintain the fuel cell spatial temperature profile du...

  16. Computer-integrated electric-arc melting process control system

    OpenAIRE

    Дёмин, Дмитрий Александрович

    2014-01-01

    Developing common principles of completing melting process automation systems with hardware and creating on their basis rational choices of computer- integrated electricarc melting control systems is an actual task since it allows a comprehensive approach to the issue of modernizing melting sites of workshops. This approach allows to form the computer-integrated electric-arc furnace control system as part of a queuing system “electric-arc furnace - foundry conveyor” and consider, when taking ...

  17. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    , but they are characterized by variable generation that is only partly predictable. Managing loads is already used in limited circumstances to improve security and efficiency of the power system. In power systems with a large penetration of variable generation, load management has large role to play in adapting consumption......Electric energy systems stand on the brink of radical change as the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions pushes more efficient utilization of energy resources and the adoption of renewable energy sources. New renewable sources such as wind and solar have a large potential......-sensitive load controller has been designed, implemented, and tested in real-life settings. Its performance demonstrated a large potential resource, in some cases greater than the average power consumption. The accuracy of load models was validated by comparison with field data. A voltage-sensitive controller...

  18. Non-traditional Forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep: Preliminary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project compared lambs grazing forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with lambs grazing brown mid-rib forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) hybrid (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. Lambs grazed these fo...

  19. Parasite-host interactions between the Varroa mite and the honey bee : a contribution to sustainable Varroa control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction

    Varroa mites as parasites of honey bees

    Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000), is the most important pest of European races of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., weakening bees

  20. Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene-toluene......Heat integrated distillation column (HiDC) is the most energy efficient distillation approach making efficient utilization of internal heat integration through heat pump. The rectifying section acts as a heat source with high pressure, while the stripping section operates as a heat sink with low...

  1. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S; De La Torre, Carola M; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G; Grundler, Florian M W

    2015-10-13

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction.

  2. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  3. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local

  4. Adaptive integral robust control and application to electromechanical servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenxiang; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a continuous adaptive integral robust control with robust integral of the sign of the error (RISE) feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, in which the RISE feedback gain is adapted online to ensure the robustness against disturbances without the prior bound knowledge of the additive disturbances. In addition, an adaptive compensation integrated with the proposed adaptive RISE feedback term is also constructed to further reduce design conservatism when the system also exists parametric uncertainties. Lyapunov analysis reveals the proposed controllers could guarantee the tracking errors are asymptotically converging to zero with continuous control efforts. To illustrate the high performance nature of the developed controllers, numerical simulations are provided. At the end, an application case of an actual electromechanical servo system driven by motor is also studied, with some specific design consideration, and comparative experimental results are obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pixel extraction based integral imaging with controllable viewing direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chao-Chao; Deng, Huan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose pixel extraction based integral imaging with a controllable viewing direction. The proposed integral imaging can provide viewers three-dimensional (3D) images in a very small viewing angle. The viewing angle and the viewing direction of the reconstructed 3D images are controlled by the pixels extracted from an elemental image array. Theoretical analysis and a 3D display experiment of the viewing direction controllable integral imaging are carried out. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theory. A 3D display based on the integral imaging can protect the viewer’s privacy and has huge potential for a television to show multiple 3D programs at the same time. (paper)

  6. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  7. Control of mitochondrial integrity in ageing and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szklarczyk, R.J.; Nooteboom, M.; Osiewacz, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    Various molecular and cellular pathways are active in eukaryotes to control the quality and integrity of mitochondria. These pathways are involved in keeping a 'healthy' population of this essential organelle during the lifetime of the organism. Quality control (QC) systems counteract processes that

  8. Integral inventory control in spare parts networks with capacity restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Integral inventory control of repairable items in service networks can result in a significant gain compared to traditional local control mechanisms, in terms of both efficiency and customer service. Research on quantitative decision support models has yielded various useful results. However, in

  9. Development and comparison of integrated dynamics control systems with fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, four integrated dynamics control (IDC) systems abbreviated as IDCB, IDCS, IDCF, and IDCR are developed, evaluated and compared. IDC systems were integrated with brake and steer control systems to enhance lateral stability and handling performance. To construct the IDC systems, a vehicle model with fourteen degrees of freedom, a fuzzy logic controller, and a sliding mode ABS controller were used. They were tested with various steering inputs when excessive full brake pressure or no brake pressure was applied on dry asphalt, wet asphalt, a snow-covered paved road, and a split-µ road. The results showed that an IDC-equipped vehicle improved lateral stability and controllability in every driving condition compared to an ABS-equipped vehicle. Under all road conditions, IDC controllers enabled the yaw rate to follow the reference yaw rate almost perfectly and reduced the body slip angle. On a split-µ road, IDCB, IDCS, IDCF, and IDCR vehicles drove straight ahead with only very small deviations.

  10. Control structure selection for energy integrated distillation column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.E.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    This paper treats a case study on control structure selection for an almost binary distillation column. The column is energy integrated with a heat pump in order to transfer heat from the condenser to the reboiler. This integrated plant configuration renders the possible control structures somewhat...... different from what is usual for binary distillation columns. Further the heat pump enables disturbances to propagate faster through the system. The plant has six possible actuators of which three must be used to stabilize the system. Hereby three actuators are left for product purity control. An MILP...

  11. Host density drives the postglacial migration of the tree parasite, Epifagus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Hsin Erica; Manos, Paul S

    2010-09-28

    To survive changes in climate, successful species shift their geographic ranges to remain in suitable habitats. For parasites and other highly specialized species, distributional changes not only are dictated by climate but can also be engineered by their hosts. The extent of host control on parasite range expansion is revealed through comparisons of host and parasite migration and demographic histories. However, understanding the codistributional history of entire forest communities is complicated by challenges in synthesizing datasets from multiple interacting species of differing datatypes. Here we integrate genetic and fossil pollen datasets from a host-parasite pair; specifically, the population structure of the parasitic plant (Epifagus virginiana) was compared with both its host (Fagus grandifolia) genetic patterns and abundance data from the paleopollen record of the last 21,000 y. Through tests of phylogeographic structure and spatial linear regression models we find, surprisingly, host range changes had little effect on the parasite's range expansion and instead host density is the main driver of parasite spread. Unlike other symbionts that have been used as proxies to track their host's movements, this parasite's migration routes are incongruent with the host and instead reflect the greater importance of host density in this community's assembly. Furthermore, these results confirm predictions of disease ecological models regarding the role of host density in the spread of pathogens. Due to host density constraints, highly specialized species may have low migration capacities and long lag times before colonization of new areas.

  12. Parasite infection and immune and health-state in wild fish exposed to marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, María Cruz; Bagnato, Estefanía; Palacios, María Gabriela

    2017-06-15

    Association between parasitism and immunity and health-state was investigated in wild Sebastes oculatus after having determined that pollution exposure is associated with altered immune and health-state parameters. Given the importance of the immune system in antiparasite defense we predicted: (i) parasite infection would be higher in pollution-exposed than in control fish and (ii) fish with lower immune and health-state parameters would show higher parasitism than fish in better condition. Metazoan parasite fauna was compared between pollution-exposed and non-exposed fish and parasitic indices were correlated with integrated measures of immunity and health-state. Results provided little support for the predictions; some parasite taxa increased, some decreased, and some were not affected in pollution-exposed fish despite their altered health and immunity. Furthermore, there was no link between individual immune and health-state parameters and parasitism. These findings highlight the complexity of host-parasite-environment interactions in relation to pollution in natural marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated Control Modeling for Propulsion Systems Using NPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Khary I.; Felder, James L.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Yu, Albert Y.; Lehmann, William V. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), an advanced engineering simulation environment used to design and analyze aircraft engines, has been enhanced by integrating control development tools into it. One of these tools is a generic controller interface that allows NPSS to communicate with control development software environments such as MATLAB and EASY5. The other tool is a linear model generator (LMG) that gives NPSS the ability to generate linear, time-invariant state-space models. Integrating these tools into NPSS enables it to be used for control system development. This paper will discuss the development and integration of these tools into NPSS. In addition, it will show a comparison of transient model results of a generic, dual-spool, military-type engine model that has been implemented in NPSS and Simulink. It will also show the linear model generator s ability to approximate the dynamics of a nonlinear NPSS engine model.

  14. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission...... of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity...... of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two...

  15. Experiences with integrated concepts for the control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Thomas H; Miller, James E; Burke, Joan M; Mosjidis, Jorge A; Kaplan, Ray M

    2012-05-04

    The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats. Consequently, infection with GIN is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. With anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the U.S., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. The Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in response to this crisis and over the last decade has successfully validated the use of several novel control technologies, including FAMACHA(©) for the implementation of targeted selective treatments (TST), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), nematode-trapping fungi, and grazing or feeding hay of the high-tannin perennial legume sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)]. Producer attitudes toward GIN control in the U.S. have been shifting away from exclusive dependence upon anthelmintics toward more sustainable, integrated systems of parasite control. Some novel control technologies have been readily adopted by producers in combination with appropriate diagnostic tools, such as FAMACHA(©). Others techniques are still being developed, and will be available for producer use as they are validated. Although new drugs will likely be available to U.S. goat and sheep producers in the future, these will also be subject to development of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, the adoption and implementation of sustainable GIN control principles will remain important. With emerging markets for grass-fed or organic livestock, there will continue to be a critical need for research and outreach on development and on-farm application of integrated GIN control systems for small ruminants in the U.S. for the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Propulsion/flight control integration technology (PROFIT) software system definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, C. M.; Hastings, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Propulsion Flight Control Integration Technology (PROFIT) program is designed to develop a flying testbed dedicated to controls research. The control software for PROFIT is defined. Maximum flexibility, needed for long term use of the flight facility, is achieved through a modular design. The Host program, processes inputs from the telemetry uplink, aircraft central computer, cockpit computer control and plant sensors to form an input data base for use by the control algorithms. The control algorithms, programmed as application modules, process the input data to generate an output data base. The Host program formats the data for output to the telemetry downlink, the cockpit computer control, and the control effectors. Two applications modules are defined - the bill of materials F-100 engine control and the bill of materials F-15 inlet control.

  17. Research on Integrated Control of Microgrid Operation Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, ZhiPing; Gao, JinFeng; Li, HangYu

    2018-03-01

    The mode switching control of microgrid is the focus of its system control. According to the characteristics of different control, an integrated control system is put forward according to the detecting voltage and frequency deviation after switching of microgrid operating mode. This control system employs master-slave and peer-to-peer control. Wind turbine and photovoltaic(PV) adopt P/Q control, so the maximum power output can be achieved. The energy storage will work under the droop control if the system is grid-connected. When the system is off-grid, whether to employ droop control or P/f control is determined by system status. The simulation has been done and the system performance can meet the requirement.

  18. Parasitic diseases of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of the main parasitic diseases of lungs is described: echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, amebiosis and some rarely met parasitic diseases

  19. A novel coordinated control for Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Xue; Xia, Genglei; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed IPWR coordinated control strategy to avoid flow instability of OTSG. • Tuned PID controller parameters by Fuzzy kernel wavelet neural network with kernel trick and adaptive variable step-size. • Transition process exhibit the effectiveness of the novel IPWR control system. - Abstract: Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (IPWR) has the characteristic of strong coupling, nonlinearity and complicated dynamic performance, which requires high standards of the control strategy and controller design. Most of IPWR systems utilize control strategy of ideal steady-state and PID controller, even though this strategy causes flow instability in the once through steam generator (OTSG) in low load conditions. Besides, the simple form of PID limits the performance developing which could not appropriately satisfy the requirements for quality. Motivated by these drawbacks, this paper proposes an IPWR coordinated control strategy and adopts PID controller to control each subsystem. The control strategy considers the system as a two-level hierarchical control system, and considers coordinating controller and bottom controllers. In the period of controller design, this strategy utilizes PID controller to control each subsystem, and modifies the controller parameters in real time by Fuzzy-KWNN algorithm, which adaptively achieves the system adjustment. Finally, simulation results are presented to exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed IPWR control system

  20. The KSTAR integrated control system based on EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ju, C.J.; Kim, M.K.; Park, M.K.; Choi, J.W.; Kyum, M.C.; Kwon, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) control system will be developed with several subsystems, which consist of the central control system (e.g. plasma control, machine control, diagnostic control, time synchronization, and interlock systems) and local control systems for various subsystems. We are planning to connect the entire system with several networks, viz. a reflective-memory-based real-time network, an optical timing network, a gigabit Ethernet network for generic machine control, and a storage network. Then it will evolve into a network-based, distributed real-time control system. Thus, we have to consider the standard communication protocols among the subsystems and how to handle the various kinds of hardware in a homogeneous way. To satisfy these requirements, EPICS has been chosen for the KSTAR control. The EPICS framework provides network-based real-time distributed control, operating system independent programming tools, operator interface tools, archiving tools, and interface tools with other commercial and non-commercial software. The most important advantage of the use of the EPICS framework is in providing homogeneity of the system for the control system developer. The developer does not have to be concerned about the specifics of the local system, but can concentrate on the implementation of the control logic with EPICS tools. We will present the details of the integration issues and also will give a brief summary of the entire KSTAR control system from an integration point of view

  1. [An integrated theory of natural control of animal populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, F

    1968-11-01

    Since the twenties of our century, at least 15 theories worth discussing have been developped which intend to explain the causes of natural control of animal populations (for details see SCHWERDTFEGER, 1968). An attempt is made to integrate the different-partly contrary-ideas and new results into a general theory. The basis to start from is the cybernetic principle of feed-back mechanism introduced into population dynamics by WILBERT (1962): an actual value (e.g. the inside temperature of a refrigerator) is permanently changed by perturbances (the always higher outside temperature); through a regulator (a thermostat), each change puts in action a regulating variable (a cooling device) which alters the actual towards the index value (required inside temperature).The often complicated processes that take part in the natural control of populations are summarized in Fig. 6. The actual value is the existing population density (Abundanz). The perturbances primarily causing its fluctuations (Fluktuation) are fertility and immigration which raise the abundance, mortality and emigration which lower it.The amplitude of the fluctuation must be limited, if the population is not to die out or to destroy its habitat by continuous increase. It is determined (Determination) as a sort of index value, the lower limit of which corresponds in the extreme to the minimal density guaranteeing the existence of the population, while the upper limit is formed by the environmental capacity. The latter is determined either by the total supply of requisites and the ability of the animals to use it or by the local minimum of adverse effects. The capacity of the environment and therewith the amplitude of fluctuations can be fixed or variable. It is fixed in a population of Great Tits with territorial behaviour: in an oak stand, the number of breeding pairs cannot be higher than the number of territories fitting in. It is variable in the case of bark beetles living in wind thrown spruce trees

  2. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz; Gray, Darren J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Gomes, Santina J.; Traub, Rebecca; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%). Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and

  3. Wide-band polarization controller for Si photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velha, P; Sorianello, V; Preite, M V; De Angelis, G; Cassese, T; Bianchi, A; Testa, F; Romagnoli, M

    2016-12-15

    A circuit for the management of any arbitrary polarization state of light is demonstrated on an integrated silicon (Si) photonics platform. This circuit allows us to adapt any polarization into the standard fundamental TE mode of a Si waveguide and, conversely, to control the polarization and set it to any arbitrary polarization state. In addition, the integrated thermal tuning allows kilohertz speed which can be used to perform a polarization scrambler. The circuit was used in a WDM link and successfully used to adapt four channels into a standard Si photonic integrated circuit.

  4. Design and control of integrated chromatography column sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Niklas; Löfgren, Anton; Olofsson, Marianne; Sellberg, Anton; Nilsson, Bernt; Tiainen, Peter

    2017-07-01

    To increase the productivity in biopharmaceutical production, a natural step is to introduce integrated continuous biomanufacturing which leads to fewer buffer and storage tanks, smaller sizes of integrated unit operations, and full automation of the operation. The main contribution of this work is to illustrate a methodology for design and control of a downstream process based on integrated column sequences. For small scale production, for example, pre-clinical studies, integrated column sequences can be implemented on a single chromatography system. This makes for a very efficient drug development platform. The proposed methodology is composed of four steps and is governed by a set of tools, that is presented, that makes the transition from batch separations to a complete integrated separation sequence as easy as possible. This methodology, its associated tools and the physical implementation is presented and illustrated on a case study where the target protein is separated from impurities through an integrated four column sequence. This article shows that the design and control of an integrated column sequence was successfully implemented for a tertiary protein separation problem. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:923-930, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Model reduction in integrated controls-structures design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    1993-01-01

    It is the objective of this paper to present a model reduction technique developed for the integrated controls-structures design of flexible structures. Integrated controls-structures design problems are typically posed as nonlinear mathematical programming problems, where the design variables consist of both structural and control parameters. In the solution process, both structural and control design variables are constantly changing; therefore, the dynamic characteristics of the structure are also changing. This presents a problem in obtaining a reduced-order model for active control design and analysis which will be valid for all design points within the design space. In other words, the frequency and number of the significant modes of the structure (modes that should be included) may vary considerably throughout the design process. This is also true as the locations and/or masses of the sensors and actuators change. Moreover, since the number of design evaluations in the integrated design process could easily run into thousands, any feasible order-reduction method should not require model reduction analysis at every design iteration. In this paper a novel and efficient technique for model reduction in the integrated controls-structures design process, which addresses these issues, is presented.

  6. A rotorcraft flight/propulsion control integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttledge, D. G. C.

    1986-01-01

    An eclectic approach was taken to a study of the integration of digital flight and propulsion controls for helicopters. The basis of the evaluation was the current Gen Hel simulation of the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a model of the GE T700 engine. A list of flight maneuver segments to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of such an integrated control system was composed, based on past experience and an extensive survey of the U.S. Army Air-to-Air Combat Test data. A number of possible features of an integrated system were examined and screened. Those that survived the screening were combined into a design that replaced the T700 fuel control and part of the control system in the UH-60A Gen Hel simulation. This design included portions of an existing pragmatic adaptive fuel control designed by the Chandler-Evans Company and an linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based N(p) governor designed by the GE company, combined with changes in the basic Sikorsky Aircraft designed control system. The integrated system exhibited improved total performance in many areas of the flight envelope.

  7. Patient safety and infection control: bases for curricular integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa Mara Bernardes da; Bim, Lucas Lazarini; Bim, Felipe Lazarini; Sousa, Alvaro Francisco Lopes; Domingues, Pedro Castania Amadio; Nicolussi, Adriana Cristina; Andrade, Denise de

    2018-05-01

    To analyze curricular integration between teaching of patient safety and good infection prevention and control practices. Integrative review, designed to answer the question: "How does curricular integration of content about 'patient safety teaching' and content about 'infection prevention and control practices' occur in undergraduate courses in the health field?". The following databases were searched for primary studies: CINAHL, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Europe PMC and MEDLINE. The final sample consisted of 13 studies. After content analysis, primary studies were grouped into two subject categories: "Innovative teaching practices" and "Curricular evaluation. Patient safety related to infection prevention and control practices is present in the curriculum of health undergraduate courses, but is not coordinated with other themes, is taught sporadically, and focuses mainly on hand hygiene.

  8. Integrated seismic design of structure and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structural optimization procedure presented in this book makes it possible to achieve seismic protection through integrated structural/control system design. In particular, it is explained how slender structural systems with a high seismic performance can be achieved through inclusion of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an integral part of the system. Readers are provided with essential introductory information on passive structural control and passive energy dissipation systems. Dynamic analyses of both single and multiple degree of freedom systems are performed in order to verify the achievement of pre-assigned performance targets, and it is explained how the optimal integrated design methodology, also relevant to retrofitting of existing buildings, should be applied. The book illustrates how structural control research is opening up new possibilities in structural forms and configurations without compromising structural performance.

  9. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  10. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  11. Signalling in malaria parasites – The MALSIG consortium#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerig C.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending on their developmental stage in the life cycle, malaria parasites develop within or outside host cells, and in extremely diverse contexts such as the vertebrate liver and blood circulation, or the insect midgut and hemocoel. Cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling the parasite to sense and respond to the intra- and the extra-cellular environments are therefore key elements for the proliferation and transmission of Plasmodium, and therefore are, from a public health perspective, strategic targets in the fight against this deadly disease. The MALSIG consortium, which was initiated in February 2009, was designed with the primary objective to integrate research ongoing in Europe and India on i the properties of Plasmodium signalling molecules, and ii developmental processes occurring at various points of the parasite life cycle. On one hand, functional studies of individual genes and their products in Plasmodium falciparum (and in the technically more manageable rodent model Plasmodium berghei are providing information on parasite protein kinases and phosphatases, and of the molecules governing cyclic nucleotide metabolism and calcium signalling. On the other hand, cellular and molecular studies are elucidating key steps of parasite development such as merozoite invasion and egress in blood and liver parasite stages, control of DNA replication in asexual and sexual development, membrane dynamics and trafficking, production of gametocytes in the vertebrate host and further parasite development in the mosquito. This article, which synthetically reviews such signalling molecules and cellular processes, aims to provide a glimpse of the global frame in which the activities of the MALSIG consortium will develop over the next three years.

  12. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-04-01

    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  13. Integrated control and diagnostic system architectures for future installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; March-Leuba, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear reactors of the 21st century will employ increasing levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and distributed communications are needed to implement the fully automated plant. It will be equally challenging to integrate developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the US Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. The research tasks under this project focus on some of the first-level breakthroughs in control design, diagnostic techniques, and information system design that will provide a path to enable the design process to be automated in the future. This paper describes the conceptual development of an integrated nuclear plant control and information system architecture, which incorporates automated control system development that can be traced to a set of technical requirements. The expectation is that an integrated plant architecture with optimal control and efficient use of diagnostic information can reduce the potential for operational errors and minimize challenges to the plant safety systems

  14. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  15. Profiling MHC II immunopeptidome of blood-stage malaria reveals that cDC1 control the functionality of parasite-specific CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draheim, Marion; Wlodarczyk, Myriam F; Crozat, Karine; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Tomavo, Stanislas; Hassan, Ali; Salvioni, Anna; Demarta-Gatsi, Claudia; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Dalod, Marc; Berry, Antoine; Silvie, Olivier; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    In malaria, CD4 Th1 and T follicular helper (T FH ) cells are important for controlling parasite growth, but Th1 cells also contribute to immunopathology. Moreover, various regulatory CD4 T-cell subsets are critical to hamper pathology. Yet the antigen-presenting cells controlling Th functionality, as well as the antigens recognized by CD4 T cells, are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the MHC II immunopeptidome presented by DC during blood-stage malaria in mice. We establish the immunodominance hierarchy of 14 MHC II ligands derived from conserved parasite proteins. Immunodominance is shaped differently whether blood stage is preceded or not by liver stage, but the same ETRAMP-specific dominant response develops in both contexts. In naïve mice and at the onset of cerebral malaria, CD8α + dendritic cells (cDC1) are superior to other DC subsets for MHC II presentation of the ETRAMP epitope. Using in vivo depletion of cDC1, we show that cDC1 promote parasite-specific Th1 cells and inhibit the development of IL-10 + CD4 T cells. This work profiles the P. berghei blood-stage MHC II immunopeptidome, highlights the potency of cDC1 to present malaria antigens on MHC II, and reveals a major role for cDC1 in regulating malaria-specific CD4 T-cell responses. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Integral LQR Control of a Star-Shaped Octorotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M. STOICA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by presenting the model of the star-shaped octorotor. LQR control is chosen to stabilize the attitude and altitude of the vehicle. Waypoint navigation is also implemented. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy under nominal conditions. However, in practice mass related uncertainties can occur. In this case the results are unsatisfactory. Thus the improvement of the applied LQR control strategy is proposed. It is shown that after adding integral action to the altitude controller the issue is solved.

  17. Multi-technology control centre to integrate 460 MW renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The new RWE Innogy Aersa Control Centre that has been certified to act as an interface with CECRE (the Renewable Energy Control Centre) since February 2015, connects RWE’s 20 renewable energy facilities with REE, the Spanish Electricity Grid. As a result, it ensures that wind farms, in addition to hydropower and solar plants, can inject the energy generated by its 460 MW installed safely and with no penalties. Green Eagle Solutions, a provider of software solutions for renewable energy companies, has collaborated with RWE in the development of this Control Centre, meeting the high standards of quality and safety required by RWE. This centre uses CompactSCADA® technology to integrate power generation facilities that need to be integrated in a Control Centre to communicate with REE’s CECRE. (Author)

  18. An Integrated Control System for Heating and Indoor Climate Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    which geothermal heat pump, solar driven heat pumps and the other types are categorized as renewable or renewable energy sources. In the present study, we investigated modeling and control of hydronic heat emitters integrated with a ground-source heat pump. Optimization of the system performance...... in terms of energy efficiency, associated energy cost and occupants’ thermal comfort is the main objective to be fulfilled via design of an integrated controller. We also proposed control strategies to manage energy consumption of the building to turn domestic heat demands into a flexible load in the smart...... in order to maximize the heat pump’s efficiency and by this means reduce the power consumption of the heat pump. The hypothesis is that such an optimal point coincides with saturation of at least one of the subsystems control valves. The idea is implemented experimentally using simple PI and on...

  19. Integrated control centre concepts for CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L.R.; Davey, E.C.; Lapointe, P.A.; Shah, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The size and complexity of nuclear power plants has increased significantly in the last 20 years. There is general agreement that plant safety and power production can be enhanced if more operational support systems that are significantly different from the ones based on the more conventional technologies used in plant control rooms. In particular, artificial intelligence and related technologies will play a major role in the development of innovative methods for information processing and presentation. These technologies must be integrated into the overall management and control philosophy of the plant and not be treated as vehicles to implement point solutions. The underlying philosophy behind our approach is discussed in this paper. Operator support systems will integrate into the overall control philosophy by complementing the operator. Four support systems are described; each is a prototype of a system being considered for the CANDU 3 control centre

  20. Integrated control centre concepts for CANDU power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupton, L. R.; Davey, E. C.; Lapointe, P. A.; Shah, R. R.

    1990-01-15

    The size and complexity of nuclear power plants has increased significantly in the last 20 years. There is general agreement that plant safety and power production can be enhanced if more operational support systems that are significantly different from the ones based on the more conventional technologies used in plant control rooms. In particular, artificial intelligence and related technologies will play a major role in the development of innovative methods for information processing and presentation. These technologies must be integrated into the overall management and control philosophy of the plant and not be treated as vehicles to implement point solutions. The underlying philosophy behind our approach is discussed in this paper. Operator support systems will integrate into the overall control philosophy by complementing the operator. Four support systems are described; each is a prototype of a system being considered for the CANDU 3 control centre.

  1. Advances in Integrated Plasma Control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Humphreys, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The DIII-D experimental program in advanced tokamak (AT) physics requires extremely high performance from the DIII-D plasma control system (PCS) [B.G.Penaflor, et al., 4 th IAEA Tech. Mtg on Control and Data Acq., San Diego, CA (2003)], including simultaneous and highly accurate regulation of plasma shape, stored energy, density, and divertor characteristics, as well as coordinated suppression of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. To satisfy these demanding control requirements, we apply the integrated plasma control method, consisting of construction of physics-based plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers that operate in concert with one another as well as with supervisory modules, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and optimization through iteration of the design-test loop. The present work describes progress in development of physics models and development and experimental application of several new model-based plasma controllers on DIII-D. We discuss experimental use of advanced shape control algorithms containing nonlinear techniques for improving control of steady state plasmas, model-based controllers for optimal rejection of edge localized mode disturbances during resistive wall mode stabilization, model-based controllers for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, including methods for maximizing stabilization effectiveness with substantial constraints on available power, model-based integrated control of plasma rotation and beta, and initial experience in development of model-based controllers for advanced tokamak current profile modification. The experience gained from DIII-D has been applied to the development of control systems for the EAST and KSTAR tokamaks. We describe the development of the control software, hardware, and model-based control algorithms for these superconducting tokamaks, with emphasis on relevance of

  2. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  3. Integrals of Motion for Discrete-Time Optimal Control Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain a discrete time analog of E. Noether's theorem in Optimal Control, asserting that integrals of motion associated to the discrete time Pontryagin Maximum Principle can be computed from the quasi-invariance properties of the discrete time Lagrangian and discrete time control system. As corollaries, results for first-order and higher-order discrete problems of the calculus of variations are obtained.

  4. Controlling a sample changer using the integrated counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, S.; Stevens, M.P.

    1985-06-01

    Control of the Sample Changer from a counting system can be achieved by using a Scaler Timer type 6255 and Sample Changer Control Interface type 6263. The interface used, however, has quite complex circuitry. The application therefore lends itself to the use of another 6000 Series module the Integrated Counting System (ICS). Using this unit control is carried out through a control program written in BASIC for the Commodore PET (or any other device with an IEEE-488 interface). The ICS then controls the sample changer through an interface unit which is relatively simple. A brief description of how ICS controls the sample changer is given. The control program is then described, firstly the running options are given, followed by a program description listing and flowchart. (author)

  5. Controlling a sample changer using the integrated counting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, S; Stevens, M P

    1985-06-01

    Control of the Sample Changer from a counting system can be achieved by using a Scaler Timer type 6255 and Sample Changer Control Interface type 6263. The interface used, however, has quite complex circuitry. The application therefore lends itself to the use of another 6000 Series module-the Integrated Counting System (ICS). Using this unit control is carried out through a control program written in BASIC for the Commodore PET (or any other device with an IEEE-488 interface). The ICS then controls the sample changer through an interface unit which is relatively simple. A brief description of how ICS controls the sample changer is given. The control program is then described; first the running options are given, followed by a program description listing and flowchart.

  6. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized

  7. Integrated identification and control for nanosatellites reclaiming failed satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nan; Luo, Jianjun; Ma, Weihua; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    Using nanosatellites to reclaim a failed satellite needs nanosatellites to attach to its surface to take over its attitude control function. This is challenging, since parameters including the inertia matrix of the combined spacecraft and the relative attitude information of attached nanosatellites with respect to the given body-fixed frame of the failed satellite are all unknown after the attachment. Besides, if the total control capacity needs to be increased during the reclaiming process by new nanosatellites, real-time parameters updating will be necessary. For these reasons, an integrated identification and control method is proposed in this paper, which enables the real-time parameters identification and attitude takeover control to be conducted concurrently. Identification of the inertia matrix of the combined spacecraft and the relative attitude information of attached nanosatellites are both considered. To guarantee sufficient excitation for the identification of the inertia matrix, a modified identification equation is established by filtering out sample points leading to ill-conditioned identification, and the identification performance of the inertia matrix is improved. Based on the real-time estimated inertia matrix, an attitude takeover controller is designed, the stability of the controller is analysed using Lyapunov method. The commanded control torques are allocated to each nanosatellite while the control saturation constraint being satisfied using the Quadratic Programming (QP) method. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed integrated identification and control method.

  8. Developing an Integration Infrastructure for Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Zinnecker, Alicia; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Kratz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine engine control technology is poised to make the first revolutionary leap forward since the advent of full authority digital engine control in the mid-1980s. This change aims squarely at overcoming the physical constraints that have historically limited control system hardware on aero-engines to a federated architecture. Distributed control architecture allows complex analog interfaces existing between system elements and the control unit to be replaced by standardized digital interfaces. Embedded processing, enabled by high temperature electronics, provides for digitization of signals at the source and network communications resulting in a modular system at the hardware level. While this scheme simplifies the physical integration of the system, its complexity appears in other ways. In fact, integration now becomes a shared responsibility among suppliers and system integrators. While these are the most obvious changes, there are additional concerns about performance, reliability, and failure modes due to distributed architecture that warrant detailed study. This paper describes the development of a new facility intended to address the many challenges of the underlying technologies of distributed control. The facility is capable of performing both simulation and hardware studies ranging from component to system level complexity. Its modular and hierarchical structure allows the user to focus their interaction on specific areas of interest.

  9. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  10. Integrated vehicle dynamics control using State Dependent Riccati Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, B.; Mansvelders, R.; Vermeer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a State Dependent Riccati Equations (SDRE) solution for Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control (IVDC). The SDRE approach is a nonlinear variant of the well known Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and implements a quadratic cost function optimization. A modified version of this

  11. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  12. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  13. Design and control of integrated styrene aniline production plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partenie, O.; Van der Last, V.; Sorin Bildea, C.; Altimari, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the operational difficulties arising from simultaneously performing exothermic and endothermic reactions, and demonstrates that a plant can be built and safely operated by integrating the design and plantwide control issues. The behaviour of reactor – separation – recycle

  14. Adaptive control of power supply for integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a circuit arrangement and method for controlling power supply in an integrated circuit wherein at least one working parameter of at least one electrically isolated circuit region (10) is monitored, and the conductivity of a variable resistor means is locally

  15. Analysis of Basic Transmission Networks for Integrated Ship Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.N.; Granum-Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Description of a computer network for Integrated Ship Control Systems which is going to be developed as part of an EC-project. Today equipment of different make are not able to communicate with each other because most often each supplier of ISC systems has got their own proprietary network.....

  16. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  17. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A

    2011-01-01

    tend not to be grown on a large scale. From the grower’s perspective, the savings in fungicide input that can be achieved with these varieties are not compensated by the higher (perceived) risk of blight. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. The spray strategies...

  18. TEAM 1 Integrated Research Partnerships for Malaria Control ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    TEAM 1 Integrated Research Partnerships for Malaria Control through an Ecohealth Approach in. East Africa. Abstract: Representing East Africa, the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR, Tanzania), icipe, the. Kigali Health Institute (Rwanda) and the Kamuli local government district authority in Uganda form.

  19. Design of model based LQG control for integrated building systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yahiaoui, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Soethout, L.L.; Paassen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The automation of the operation of integrated building systems requires using modern control techniques to enhance the quality of the building indoor environments. This paper describes the theatrical base and practical application of an optimal dynamic regulator using modelbased Linear Quadratic

  20. Integration of Design and Control Through Model Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russel, Boris Mariboe; Henriksen, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    of the phenomena models representing the process model identify the relationships between the important process and design variables, which help to understand, define and address some of the issues related to integration of design and control issues. The model analysis is highlighted through examples involving...... processes with mass and/or energy recycle. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. An integrated architecture for the ITER RH control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, David Thomas; Tesini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Control system architecture integrating ITER remote handling equipment systems. ► Standard control system architecture for remote handling equipment systems. ► Research and development activities to validate control system architecture. ► Standardization studies to select standard parts for control system architecture. - Abstract: The ITER remote handling (RH) system has been divided into 7 major equipment system procurements that deliver complete systems (operator interfaces, equipment controllers, and equipment) according to task oriented functional specifications. Each equipment system itself is an assembly of transporters, power manipulators, telemanipulators, vehicular systems, cameras, and tooling with a need for controllers and operator interfaces. From an operational perspective, the ITER RH systems are bound together by common control rooms, operations team, and maintenance team; and will need to achieve, to a varying degree, synchronization of operations, co-operation on tasks, hand-over of components, and sharing of data and resources. The separately procured RH systems must, therefore, be integrated to form a unified RH system for operation from the RH control rooms. The RH system will contain a heterogeneous mix of specially developed RH systems and off-the-shelf RH equipment and parts. The ITER Organization approach is to define a control system architecture that supports interoperable heterogeneous modules, and to specify a standard set of modules for each system to implement within this architecture. Compatibility with standard parts for selected modules is required to limit the complexity for operations and maintenance. A key requirement for integrating the control system modules is interoperability, and no module should have dependencies on the implementation details of other modules. The RH system is one of the ITER Plant systems that are integrated and coordinated through the hierarchical structure of the ITER CODAC system

  2. Tensor Product Model Transformation Based Adaptive Integral-Sliding Mode Controller: Equivalent Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model.

  3. Integrated pollution prevention and control scares industrial companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    It will not be easy to obtain a permit to open a new industrial plant. And not only the new ones but all important operating industrial productions will require a so called integrated permit. Both authorities and company managers consider the validation process to be more demanding compared to the current procedure for obtaining a building or user permit. As of August 1, 2003 - the day a new Act on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is expected to enter into force - only integrated permits will be given. The related bill has been passed to the parliament for the second reading. As of end of April next year the future of 31 industrial plants will depend on whether they will be granted a integrated permit or not. IPPC is a terror for companies due to its seriousness, complexity and the relatively short time given, should they not manage to obtain a permit the plant may be closed down. The European Commission (EC) Directive 96/61/EC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control raises the same concerns among companies in European Union (EU) member states. It is one of the most strict environmental standards and one of the sensitive conditions of EU entry. That is one of the reasons transition periods for this Directive were negotiated for ten Slovak companies. (Authors)

  4. EFFECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE INTEGRATED INDUSTRIAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Dyundik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the organizational and administrative structure of the integrated metallurgical company is investigated. It is shown that linearly – a staff control system to become a limiting factor in its development. Management of transformations represents purposeful translation process of the integrated metallurgical company in a new qualitative state. The purpose . The subject of the article is to analyze the organization of management, to improve it on the basis of a new conceptual approach to the modernization of the control system integrated steel companies and the allocation of the subsystems.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are the comparative analysis methods.The Results. Studied approaches to the development of integrated management of the metallurgical company, the possibility of change.Conclusions / signifi cance. Management development in an integrated steel company requires in-depth study of existing internal operating conditions and specifi cs of the company, as well as the planning and implementation of measures to improve its receptivity to innovation.

  5. Robust output LQ optimal control via integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Leonid; Bejarano, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Featuring original research from well-known experts in the field of sliding mode control, this monograph presents new design schemes for implementing LQ control solutions in situations where the output system is the only information provided about the state of the plant. This new design works under the restrictions of matched disturbances without losing its desirable features. On the cutting-edge of optimal control research, Robust Output LQ Optimal Control via Integral Sliding Modes is an excellent resource for both graduate students and professionals involved in linear systems, optimal control, observation of systems with unknown inputs, and automatization. In the theory of optimal control, the linear quadratic (LQ) optimal problem plays an important role due to its physical meaning, and its solution is easily given by an algebraic Riccati equation. This solution turns out to be restrictive, however, because of two assumptions: the system must be free from disturbances and the entire state vector must be kn...

  6. Fault tolerant control schemes using integral sliding modes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamayun, Mirza Tariq; Alwi, Halim

    2016-01-01

    The key attribute of a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) system is its ability to maintain overall system stability and acceptable performance in the face of faults and failures within the feedback system. In this book Integral Sliding Mode (ISM) Control Allocation (CA) schemes for FTC are described, which have the potential to maintain close to nominal fault-free performance (for the entire system response), in the face of actuator faults and even complete failures of certain actuators. Broadly an ISM controller based around a model of the plant with the aim of creating a nonlinear fault tolerant feedback controller whose closed-loop performance is established during the design process. The second approach involves retro-fitting an ISM scheme to an existing feedback controller to introduce fault tolerance. This may be advantageous from an industrial perspective, because fault tolerance can be introduced without changing the existing control loops. A high fidelity benchmark model of a large transport aircraft is u...

  7. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  8. NSSS Component Control System Design of Integral Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Koo; Kwon, Ho Je; Jeong, Kwong Il; Park, Heui Youn; Koo, In Soo

    2005-01-01

    MMIS(Man Machine Interface System) of an integral reactor is composed of a Control Room, Plant Protection System, Control System and Monitoring System which are related with the overall plant operation. MMIS is being developed with a new design concept and digital technology to reduce the Human Factor Error and improve the systems' safety, reliability and availability. And CCS(component control system) is also being developed with a new design concept and digital hardware technology A fully digitalized system and design concept are introduced in the NSSS CCS

  9. Optimal integral force feedback for active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yik R.; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes an improvement to Integral Force Feedback (IFF), which is a popular method for active vibration control of structures and mechanical systems. Benefits of IFF include robustness, guaranteed stability and simplicity. However, the maximum damping performance is dependent on the stiffness of the system; hence, some systems cannot be adequately controlled. In this paper, an improvement to the classical force feedback control scheme is proposed. The improved method achieves arbitrary damping for any mechanical system by introducing a feed-through term. The proposed improvement is experimentally demonstrated by actively damping an objective lens assembly for a high-speed confocal microscope.

  10. Integration of OLE into the TACL control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, B.; Douglas, D.; Kewisch, J.; Kloeppel, P.; Kraft, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    OLE, the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This paper addresses the results of a successful integration of OLE into the CEBAF control system, TACL. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine. The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis

  11. What is the role of health education in the integrated strategy to control transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Dong, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Ming-Sen

    2012-05-01

    In 2009, Wang et al.'s field trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine, reported that a comprehensive strategy aiming to reduce the roles of humans and cattle as sources of Schistosoma japonicum infection in snails was implemented and proved effective and promising in dramatically reducing the percentage of infected humans and snails, which had been extended to other endemic provinces in China afterwards. This implies that the integrated schistosomiasis-control strategies of interventions including political will, financial support and residents' participation to control human and bovine sources of S. japonicum infection in snails may direct to successfully interrupt the parasitic transmission and to ultimately eliminate schistosomiasis. Confusingly, however, the role of health education, which is a critical part of the integrated strategy and should play an active role in schistosomiasis control, was not reflected. We wish the authors to provide the readers a better and clearer statement of the role of health education as part of the integrated control strategy and so we write this comment.

  12. Integrated flight/propulsion control - Subsystem specifications for performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, W. K.; Rock, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is presented for calculating multiple subsystem specifications given a number of performance requirements on the integrated system. This procedure applies to problems where the control design must be performed in a partitioned manner. It is based on a structured singular value analysis, and generates specifications as magnitude bounds on subsystem uncertainties. The performance requirements should be provided in the form of bounds on transfer functions of the integrated system. This form allows the expression of model following, command tracking, and disturbance rejection requirements. The procedure is demonstrated on a STOVL aircraft design.

  13. Challenges and opportunities in integration of design and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    Process synthesis and design of plant operation are related topics but current industrial practice solves these problems sequentially. The implication of this sequential strategy may result in design of processing systems which are very hard to control. This paper presents a discussion on drivers...... for an integrated approach and outlines the challenges in formulation of such a multi-objective synthesis problem. This discussion is viewed in relation to some of the changing trends in the industry. Significant results have been published which in different ways seek to handle the integrated problem. Further...

  14. Integrated multi-sensory control of space robot hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Kan, E. P.; Killion, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dexterous manipulation of a robot hand requires the use of multiple sensors integrated into the mechanical hand under distributed microcomputer control. Where space applications such as construction, assembly, servicing and repair tasks are desired of smart robot arms and robot hands, several critical drives influence the design, engineering and integration of such an electromechanical hand. This paper describes a smart robot hand developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for experimental use and evaluation with the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  15. A 4-year study on the effectiveness of alternate grazing of cattle and sheep in the control of bovine parasitic gastro-enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairden, K; Armour, J; Duncan, J L

    1995-11-01

    In many farming enterprises, animal management systems which could provide a practical and effective alternative to chemotherapy for the control of bovine helminthosis would be readily accepted. One system which has been proposed and shown to be effective in the short or medium term involves grazing different host species on a rotational basis. The study described here examined the effect of alternating cattle and sheep annually over an extended period of 4 years. Up to the second grazing season the system appeared to be successful, with a marked reduction in the cattle worm burdens. However, by the end of the study period the parasite burdens in calves grazed on the alternated pasture were equal to, or greater than, those of set-stocked control animals. It was thus clear that the alternate grazing strategy had failed. Data obtained from other parameters measured, i.e. faecal egg counts, pasture larval numbers and plasma pepsinogen levels, confirmed this observation.

  16. Coordinate control of integral reactor based on single neuron PID controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Xia Hong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the main type of reactors in the future, the development of the integral reactor has attracted worldwide attention. On the basis of understanding the background of the integral reactor, the author will be familiar with and master the power control of reactor and the feedwater flow control of steam generator, and the speed control of turbine (turbine speed control is associated with the turbine load control). According to the expectative program 'reactor power following turbine load' of the reactor, it will make coordinate control of the three and come to a overall control scheme. The author will use the supervisory learning algorithm of Hebb for single neuron PID controller with self-adaptation to study the coordinate control of integral reactor. Compared with conventional PI or PID controller, to a certain extent, it solves the problems that traditional PID controller is not easy to tune real-time parameters and lack of effective control for a number of complex processes and slow-varying parameter systems. It improves the security, reliability, stability and flexibility of control process and achieves effective control of the system. (authors)

  17. An Integration Testing Facility for the CERN Accelerator Controls System

    CERN Document Server

    Stapley, N; Bau, J C; Deghaye, S; Dehavay, C; Sliwinski, W; Sobczak, M

    2009-01-01

    A major effort has been invested in the design, development, and deployment of the LHC Control System. This large control system is made up of a set of core components and dependencies, which although tested individually, are often not able to be tested together on a system capable of representing the complete control system environment, including hardware. Furthermore this control system is being adapted and applied to CERN's whole accelerator complex, and in particular for the forthcoming renovation of the PS accelerators. To ensure quality is maintained as the system evolves, and toimprove defect prevention, the Controls Group launched a project to provide a dedicated facility for continuous, automated, integration testing of its core components to incorporate into its production process. We describe the project, initial lessons from its application, status, and future directions.

  18. Research and implementation of novel approaches for the control of nematode parasites in Latin America and the Caribbean: is there sufficient incentive for a greater extension effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Molento, M; Mendoza de Gives, P

    2012-05-04

    The widespread presence of anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in outdoor ruminant production systems has driven the need to identify and develop novel approaches for the control of helminths with the intention to reduce the dependence on commercial anthelmintic drugs. This paper identifies what has been done in Latin America (LA) in terms of estimating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminant production systems and the application of different novel approaches for the control of helminths in those systems, including research and extension activities. Firstly, the paucity of knowledge of AR is discussed in the context of different countries, as well as, the available economic resources for research, the technical infrastructure available and the practical difficulties of the production systems. It is then proposed that the search for novel approaches is not only driven by AR but also by the need for techniques that are feasible for application by resource-poor farmers in non-commercial subsistence farming systems. However, the commercial benefits of these approaches are often limited and so are funding inputs in most countries. The workers participating in the research into different novel approaches are identified as well as the different methods being studied in the different areas of LA according to their published results. In addition, the difficulties experienced during extension efforts to reach farmers and help them to adopt novel approaches for the control of parasitic nematodes in LA are discussed. The role of regulatory authorities in these countries is discussed as some methods of control might need an official confirmation of their efficacy as well as authorization prior to application as they may affect animal products (i.e. residues) and/or impose a hazard for animal welfare. The role of the pharmaceutical companies is also discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    The next generation of broadband access networks is expected to be heterogeneous. Multiple wired and wireless systems can be integrated, in order to simultaneously provide seamless access with an appropriate Quality of Service (QoS). Wireless networks support ubiquitous connectivity yet low data...... rates, whereas optical networks can offer much higher data rates but only provide fixed connection structures. Their complementary characteristics make the integration of the two networks a promising trend for next generation networks. With combined strengths, the converged network will provide both...... the complementary characteristics of the optical networks and the wireless networks, addresses motivations for their interworking, discusses the current progress in hybrid network architectures as well as the functionalities of a control system, and identifies the achieved research contributions in the integrated...

  20. Integrated circuit devices in control systems of coal mining complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Systems of automatic monitoring and control of coal mining complexes developed in the 1960's used electromagnetic relays, thyristors, and flip-flops on transistors of varying conductivity. The circuits' designers, devoted much attention to ensuring spark safety, lowering power consumption, and raising noise immunity and repairability of functional devices. The fast development of integrated circuitry led to the use of microelectronic components in most devices of mine automation. An analysis of specifications and experimental research into integrated circuits (IMS) shows that the series K 176 IMS components made by CMOS technology best meet mine conditions of operation. The use of IMS devices under mine conditions has demonstrated their high reliability. Further development of integrated circuitry involve using microprocessors and microcomputers. (SC)

  1. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  2. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  3. Integrating commercial software in accelerator control- case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Using existing commercial software is the dream of any control system engineer for the development cost reduction that can reach one order of magnitude. This dream often vanishes when appears the requirement to have a uniform and consistent architecture through a wide number of components and applications. This makes it difficult to integrate several commercial packages that often impose different user interface and communication standards. This paper will describe the approach and standards that have been chosen for the CERN ISOLDE control system that have allowed several commercial packages to be integrated in the system as-they-are permitting the software development cost to be reduced to a minimum. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  4. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.

  5. Integrating Simulated Physics and Device Virtualization in Control System Testbeds

    OpenAIRE

    Redwood , Owen; Reynolds , Jason; Burmester , Mike

    2016-01-01

    Part 3: INFRASTRUCTURE MODELING AND SIMULATION; International audience; Malware and forensic analyses of embedded cyber-physical systems are tedious, manual processes that testbeds are commonly not designed to support. Additionally, attesting the physics impact of embedded cyber-physical system malware has no formal methodologies and is currently an art. This chapter describes a novel testbed design methodology that integrates virtualized embedded industrial control systems and physics simula...

  6. Integrating CERN e-groups into TWiki access control.

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, PL; Hoymr, N; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    Wikis allow for easy collaborative editing of documents on the web for users located in different buildings, cities or even countries. TWiki culture lends to open free form editing and most pages are world readable and editable by CERN authenticated users, however access control is possible and is used to protect sensitive documents. This note discusses the integration of E-groups for authorisation purposes at CERN.

  7. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  8. Use of integrity control and automatic start of reserve in a multi-channel temperature and flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, L.

    1975-01-01

    A way to increase reliability of process quantity control is control of the integrity of the control plants themselves. The possibilities of integrity control on control devices having simply duplicated control channels or working on the basis of the ''two-from-three'' principle are valued. A highly reliable integrity control is possible by use of test signals. For an appropriate control device, structure and function of the assemblies are described. The integrity control device may be used in the water coolant temperature and flow rate control system for all technological channels of the research reactor ''Maria''

  9. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  10. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  11. Multivariable robust control of an integrated nuclear power reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Etchepareborda

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of the main control system of the CAREM nuclear power plant is presented. This plant is an inherently safe low-power nuclear reactor with natural convection on the primary coolant circuit and is self-pressurized with a steam dome on the top of the pressure vessel (PV. It is an integrated reactor as the whole primary coolant circuit is within the PV. The primary circuit transports the heat to the secondary circuit through once-through steam generators (SG. There is a feedwater valve at the inlet of the SG and a turbine valve at the outlet of the SG. The manipulated variables are the aperture of these valves and the reactivity of the control rods. The control target is to regulate the primary and secondary pressures and to monitor steam flow reference ramps on a range of nominal flow from 100% to 40%. The requirements for the control system are robust stability, low-order simple controllers and transient/permanent error bounding. The controller design is based on a detailed RETRAN plant model, from which linear perturbed open-loop dynamic models at different powers are identified. Two low-order nominal models with their associated uncertainties are chosen for two different power ranges. Robust controllers with acceptable performances are designed for each range. Numerical optimization based on the loop-shaping method is used for the controller design. The designed controllers are implemented in the RETRAN model and tested in simulations achieving successful results.

  12. Hybrid viscous damper with filtered integral force feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Brodersen, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid damper systems active control devices are usually introduced to enhance the performance of otherwise passive dampers. In the present paper a hybrid damper concept is comprised of a passive viscous damper placed in series with an active actuator and a force sensor. The actuator motion...... is controlled by a filtered integral force feedback strategy, where the main feature is the filter, which is designed to render a damper force that in a phase-plane representation operates in front of the corresponding damper velocity. It is demonstrated that in the specific parameter regime where the damper...

  13. An integrated approach for integrated intelligent instrumentation and control system (I3CS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.H.; Kim, J.T.; Kwon, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power plants to guarantee the safety of public should be designed to reduce the operator intervention resulting in operating human errors, identify the process states in transients, and aid to make a decision of their tasks and guide operator actions. For the sake of this purpose, MMIS(MAN-Machine Interface System) in NPPs should be the integrated top-down approach tightly focused on the function-based task analysis including an advanced digital technology, an operator support function, and so on. The advanced I and C research team in KAERI has embarked on developing an Integrated Intelligent Instrumentation and Control System (I 3 CS) for Korea's next generation nuclear power plants. I 3 CS bases the integrated top-down approach on the function-based task analysis, modern digital technology, standardization and simplification, availability and reliability, and protection of investment. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs

  14. An integrated approach for integrated intelligent instrumentation and control system (I{sup 3}CS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C H; Kim, J T; Kwon, K C [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear power plants to guarantee the safety of public should be designed to reduce the operator intervention resulting in operating human errors, identify the process states in transients, and aid to make a decision of their tasks and guide operator actions. For the sake of this purpose, MMIS(MAN-Machine Interface System) in NPPs should be the integrated top-down approach tightly focused on the function-based task analysis including an advanced digital technology, an operator support function, and so on. The advanced I and C research team in KAERI has embarked on developing an Integrated Intelligent Instrumentation and Control System (I{sup 3}CS) for Korea`s next generation nuclear power plants. I{sup 3}CS bases the integrated top-down approach on the function-based task analysis, modern digital technology, standardization and simplification, availability and reliability, and protection of investment. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs.

  15. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  16. Integrated evolutionary computation neural network quality controller for automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patro, S.; Kolarik, W.J. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    1999-06-01

    With increasing competition in the global market, more and more stringent quality standards and specifications are being demands at lower costs. Manufacturing applications of computing power are becoming more common. The application of neural networks to identification and control of dynamic processes has been discussed. The limitations of using neural networks for control purposes has been pointed out and a different technique, evolutionary computation, has been discussed. The results of identifying and controlling an unstable, dynamic process using evolutionary computation methods has been presented. A framework for an integrated system, using both neural networks and evolutionary computation, has been proposed to identify the process and then control the product quality, in a dynamic, multivariable system, in real-time.

  17. The strategy for intelligent integrated instrumentation and control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Shik

    1995-01-01

    All of the nuclear power plants in Korea are operating with analog instrumentation and control ( I and C) equipment which are increasingly faced with frequent troubles, obsolescence and high maintenance expenses. Electrical and computer technology has improved rapidly in recent years and has been applied to other industries. So it is strongly recommended we adopt modern digital and computer technology to improve plant safety and availability. The advanced I and C system, namely, Integrated Intelligent Instrumentation and Control System (I 3 Cs) will be developed for beyond the next generation nuclear power plant. I 3 CS consists of three major parts, the advanced compact workstation, distributed digital control and protection system including Automatic Start-up/Shutdown Intelligent Control System (ASICS) and the computer-based alarm processing and operator support system, namely, Diagnosis, Response, and operator Aid Management System (DREAMS)

  18. Getting the most out of parasitic helminth transcriptomes using HelmDB: implications for biology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D; Korhonen, Pasi; Mondal, Alinda; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Sternberg, Paul W; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Hall, Ross S; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    Compounded by a massive global food shortage, many parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on animal and human health and welfare worldwide. Parasitic helminths (worms) affect the health of billions of animals. Unlocking the systems biology of these neglected pathogens will underpin the design of new and improved interventions against them. Currently, the functional annotation of genomic and transcriptomic sequence data for socio-economically important parasitic worms relies almost exclusively on comparative bioinformatic analyses using model organism- and other databases. However, many genes and gene products of parasitic helminths (often >50%) cannot be annotated using this approach, because they are specific to parasites and/or do not have identifiable homologs in other organisms for which sequence data are available. This inability to fully annotate transcriptomes and predicted proteomes is a major challenge and constrains our understanding of the biology of parasites, interactions with their hosts and of parasitism and the pathogenesis of disease on a molecular level. In the present article, we compiled transcriptomic data sets of key, socioeconomically important parasitic helminths, and constructed and validated a curated database, called HelmDB (www.helmdb.org). We demonstrate how this database can be used effectively for the improvement of functional annotation by employing data integration and clustering. Importantly, HelmDB provides a practical and user-friendly toolkit for sequence browsing and comparative analyses among divergent helminth groups (including nematodes and trematodes), and should be readily adaptable and applicable to a wide range of other organisms. This web-based, integrative database should assist 'systems biology' studies of parasitic helminths, and the discovery and prioritization of novel drug and vaccine targets. This focus provides a pathway toward developing new and improved approaches for the treatment and control

  19. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Infection with ... of parasites can lead to unique consequences for women. Some examples are given below. Infection with Toxoplasma ...

  20. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  1. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  2. Pets and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good news is that this rarely happens. Most pet-to-people diseases can be avoided by following a few ... your doctor Can a parasite cause death in people and pets? Can human disease from a parasite be treated ...

  3. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  4. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  5. Integration of advanced teleoperation technologies for control of space robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Teleoperated robots require one or more humans to control actuators, mechanisms, and other robot equipment given feedback from onboard sensors. To accomplish this task, the human or humans require some form of control station. Desirable features of such a control station include operation by a single human, comfort, and natural human interfaces (visual, audio, motion, tactile, etc.). These interfaces should work to maximize performance of the human/robot system by streamlining the link between human brain and robot equipment. This paper describes development of a control station testbed with the characteristics described above. Initially, this testbed will be used to control two teleoperated robots. Features of the robots include anthropomorphic mechanisms, slaving to the testbed, and delivery of sensory feedback to the testbed. The testbed will make use of technologies such as helmet mounted displays, voice recognition, and exoskeleton masters. It will allow tor integration and testing of emerging telepresence technologies along with techniques for coping with control link time delays. Systems developed from this testbed could be applied to ground control of space based robots. During man-tended operations, the Space Station Freedom may benefit from ground control of IVA or EVA robots with science or maintenance tasks. Planetary exploration may also find advanced teleoperation systems to be very useful.

  6. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  7. Accelerometer method and apparatus for integral display and control functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    Vibration analysis has been used for years to provide a determination of the proper functioning of different types of machinery, including rotating machinery and rocket engines. A determination of a malfunction, if detected at a relatively early stage in its development, will allow changes in operating mode or a sequenced shutdown of the machinery prior to a total failure. Such preventative measures result in less extensive and/or less expensive repairs, and can also prevent a sometimes catastrophic failure of equipment. Standard vibration analyzers are generally rather complex, expensive, and of limited portability. They also usually result in displays and controls being located remotely from the machinery being monitored. Consequently, a need exists for improvements in accelerometer electronic display and control functions which are more suitable for operation directly on machines and which are not so expensive and complex. The invention includes methods and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto. The apparatus includes an accelerometer package having integral display and control functions. The accelerometer package is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine condition over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase over the selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated. The benefits of a vibration recording and monitoring system with controls and displays readily

  8. Integration of virtual control units in the total vehicle simulation; Integration virtueller Steuergeraete in die Gesamtfahrzeugsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppa, Andreas; Lund, Christoph [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In this article the simulation of information and energetics of vehicles with model-integration of electronic control units (ECU) in a simulation, based on the coupling of physical and control components of the total vehicle are investigated. For that simplified models of ECU's, simulating the functionally of the real ECU's, were used. The integration of virtual EUC's in models of full vehicles makes it possible to simulate the energetics for different driving cycles in a realistic way. By better simulation results an evaluation of physical components and the amount of functions are possible. In the area of the thermal management of vehicles by this analyses and optimizations of functions become possible. This article shows the advantages of embedding virtual ECU's in simulations of full vehicles. (orig.)

  9. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  10. Air Compressor Pressure Control System Based On Gearshift Integral PID Controller

    OpenAIRE

    PAN Chunyue

    2017-01-01

    The application of gearshift integral PID controller to air compressor pressure control system is introduced, Its kernel is single chip microcomputer PIC16F877.The design of hardware and solfware are introduced too. Practical application shows that this system has many advantages.

  11. Air Compressor Pressure Control System Based On Gearshift Integral PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Chunyue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of gearshift integral PID controller to air compressor pressure control system is introduced, Its kernel is single chip microcomputer PIC16F877.The design of hardware and solfware are introduced too. Practical application shows that this system has many advantages.

  12. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  13. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  14. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. IFNγ signaling endows DCs with the capacity to control type I inflammation during parasitic infection through promoting T-bet+ regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Mi Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IFNγ signaling drives dendritic cells (DCs to promote type I T cell (Th1 immunity. Here, we show that activation of DCs by IFNγ is equally crucial for the differentiation of a population of T-bet+ regulatory T (Treg cells specialized to inhibit Th1 immune responses. Conditional deletion of IFNγ receptor in DCs but not in Treg cells resulted in a severe defect in this specific Treg cell subset, leading to exacerbated immune pathology during parasitic infections. Mechanistically, IFNγ-unresponsive DCs failed to produce sufficient amount of IL-27, a cytokine required for optimal T-bet induction in Treg cells. Thus, IFNγ signalling endows DCs with the ability to efficiently control a specific type of T cell immunity through promoting a corresponding Treg cell population.

  16. Parasites as prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Parasites are usually considered to use their hosts as a resource for energy. However, there is increasing awareness that parasites can also become a resource themselves and serve as prey for other organisms. Here we describe various types of predation in which parasites act as prey for other

  17. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.

  18. Integrated Management System, Configuration and Document Control for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steynberg, B.J.; Bruyn, J.F. du

    2017-01-01

    An integrated management system is a single management framework establishing all the processes necessary for the organisation to address all its goals and objectives. Very often only quality, environment and health & safety goals are included when referred to an integrated management system. However, within the research reactor environment such system should include goals pertinent to economic, environmental, health, operational, quality, safeguards, safety, security, and social considerations. One of the important objectives of an integrated management is to create the environment for a healthy safety culture. Configuration management is a disciplined process that involves both management and technical direction to establish and document the design requirements and the physical configuration of the research reactor and to ensure that they remain consistent with each other and the documentation. Configuration is the combination of the physical, functional, and operational characteristics of the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) or parts of the research reactor, operation, or activity. The basic objectives and general principles of configuration management are the same for all research reactors. The objectives of configuration management are to: a) Establish consistency among design requirements, physical configuration, and documentation (including analyses, drawings, and procedures) for the research reactor; b) Maintain this consistency throughout the life of the research reactor, particularly as changes are being made; and c) Retain confidence in the safety of the research reactor. The key elements needed to manage the configuration of research reactors are design requirements, work control, change control, document control, and configuration management assessments. The objective of document control is to ensure that only the most recently approved versions of documents are used in the process of operating, maintaining, and modifying the research reactor

  19. Structural integrated sensor and actuator systems for active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Christian; Schwerter, Martin; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Wierach, Peter; Dietzel, Andreas; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    An adaptive flow separation control system is designed and implemented as an essential part of a novel high-lift device for future aircraft. The system consists of MEMS pressure sensors to determine the flow conditions and adaptive lips to regulate the mass flow and the velocity of a wall near stream over the internally blown Coanda flap. By the oscillating lip the mass flow in the blowing slot changes dynamically, consequently the momentum exchange of the boundary layer over a high lift flap required mass flow can be reduced. These new compact and highly integrated systems provide a real-time monitoring and manipulation of the flow conditions. In this context the integration of pressure sensors into flow sensing airfoils of composite material is investigated. Mechanical and electrical properties of the integrated sensors are investigated under mechanical loads during tensile tests. The sensors contain a reference pressure chamber isolated to the ambient by a deformable membrane with integrated piezoresistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge, which outputs voltage signals depending on the ambient pressure. The composite material in which the sensors are embedded consists of 22 individual layers of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) prepreg. The results of the experiments are used for adapting the design of the sensors and the layout of the laminate to ensure an optimized flux of force in highly loaded structures primarily for future aeronautical applications. It can be shown that the pressure sensor withstands the embedding process into fiber composites with full functional capability and predictable behavior under stress.

  20. Controle biológico de helmintos parasitos de animais: estágio atual e perspectivas futuras Biological control of helminth parasites of animals: current stage and future outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Mota

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico é um método desenvolvido para diminuir uma população de parasitas pela utilização de antagonista natural. A administração de fungos nematófagos aos animais domésticos é considerada uma promissora alternativa na profilaxia das helmintíases gastrintestinais parasitárias. Os fungos nematófagos desenvolvem estruturas em forma de armadilhas, responsáveis pela captura e destruição dos estágios infectantes dos nematóides. Os fungos dos gêneros Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia e Monacrosporium têm demonstrado eficácia em experimentos laboratoriais e no campo no controle de parasitos de bovinos, eqüinos, ovinos e suínos. Diversas formulações fúngicas têm sido avaliadas, no entanto, ainda não há nenhum produto comercial disponível. A associação dos grupos de pesquisa e o envolvimento das indústrias poderão colaborar para o sucesso na implementação desta forma de controle.Biological control is a non-chemical alternative method with its main goal to reduce the amount of parasite population using natural antagonists. The administration of nematophagous fungi to animals has been considered an alternative in gastrointestinal helminthiasis prophylaxis. The nematophagous fungi produce trap-shaped structures, which are responsible for capturing and destroying the free-living stages of nematodes. The genera Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia and Monacrosporium has been shown efficacy in laboratory and field experiments against cattle, equine, ovine and swine parasites. Several fungi formulations have been evaluated, but there is so far no commercial product available. The association of research groups with industry could improve the successful implementation of this control method.

  1. Quality control in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: integrated on-slide positive controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragoni, A; Gambella, A; Pigozzi, S; Grigolini, M; Fiocca, R; Mastracci, L; Grillo, F

    2017-11-01

    Standardization in immunohistochemistry is a priority in modern pathology and requires strict quality control. Cost containment has also become fundamental and auditing of all procedures must take into account both these principles. Positive controls must be routinely performed so that their positivity guarantees the appropriateness of the immunohistochemical procedure. The aim of this study is to develop a low cost (utilizing a punch biopsy-PB-tool) procedure to construct positive controls which can be integrated in the patient's tissue slide. Sixteen frequently used control blocks were selected and multiple cylindrical samples were obtained using a 5-mm diameter punch biopsy tool, separately re-embedding them in single blocks. For each diagnostic immunoreaction requiring a positive control, an integrated PB-control section (cut from the appropriate PB-control block) was added to the top right corner of the diagnostic slide before immunostaining. This integrated control technique permitted a saving of 4.75% in total direct lab costs and proved to be technically feasible and reliable. Our proposal is easy to perform and within the reach of all pathology labs, requires easily available tools, its application costs is less than using external paired controls and ensures that a specific control for each slide is always available.

  2. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Peng, Zhe

    2008-09-05

    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  3. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Peng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  4. Integrated Tools for Future Distributed Engine Control Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Turbine engines are highly complex mechanical systems that are becoming increasingly dependent on control technologies to achieve system performance and safety metrics. However, the contribution of controls to these measurable system objectives is difficult to quantify due to a lack of tools capable of informing the decision makers. This shortcoming hinders technology insertion in the engine design process. NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hardware-inthe- Loop (HIL) platform and analysis tool set that will serve as a focal point for new control technologies, especially those related to the hardware development and integration of distributed engine control. The HIL platform is intended to enable rapid and detailed evaluation of new engine control applications, from conceptual design through hardware development, in order to quantify their impact on engine systems. This paper discusses the complex interactions of the control system, within the context of the larger engine system, and how new control technologies are changing that paradigm. The conceptual design of the new HIL platform is then described as a primary tool to address those interactions and how it will help feed the insertion of new technologies into future engine systems.

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Brian R [Chicago, IL; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn [Albany, OR; Summers, Cathy Ann [Albany, OR; Oryshchyn, Danylo B [Philomath, OR; Turner, Paul Chandler [Independence, OR

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  6. Analog implementation of an integral resonant control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E; Moheimani, S O R; Aphale, S S

    2008-01-01

    Integral resonant control (IRC) has been introduced as a high performance controller design methodology for flexible structures with collocated actuator–sensor pairs. IRC has a simple structure and is capable of achieving significant damping, over several modes, while guaranteeing closed-loop stability of the system in the presence of unmodeled out-of-bandwidth dynamics. IRC can be an ideal controller for various industrial damping applications, if packaged in a simple easy-to-implement electronic module. This work proposes an analog implementation of the IRC scheme using a single Op-Amp circuit. The objective is to show that with simple analog realization of the modified IRC scheme, it is possible to damp a large number of vibration modes. A brief discussion about the modeling, circuit considerations, implementation and experimental results is presented in order to validate the usefulness and practicality of the proposed analog IRC implementation. (technical note)

  7. System integration and control strategy analysis of PEMFC car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.; Chen, Y.; Liu, Y.; Shi, P.

    2004-01-01

    A new fuel car was designed according to the prototype LN2000 hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car. The new prototype consists of a compact fuel cell engine with separated fuel cell stack, nickel metal hydride battery, a motor with power of 30Kw/100Kw and an inverter with high efficiency. With in the powertrain, a two-shift Planet gear transmission was employed. The power performance was greatly improved. New battery with EMS, new self-developed fuel cell engine, the motor propulsion system and electronic controlled transmission make it feasible to control the whole fuel car automatically and efficiently with optimization. The presents the system integration and the control strategy analysis of the fuel cell car prototype. The paper can be used for reference for engineers in the field of fuel cell vehicle. (author)

  8. Velocity control of servo systems using an integral retarded algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Adrián; Garrido, Rubén; Mondié, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a design technique for the delay-based controller called Integral Retarded (IR), and its applications to velocity control of servo systems. Using spectral analysis, the technique yields a tuning strategy for the IR by assigning a triple real dominant root for the closed-loop system. This result ultimately guarantees a desired exponential decay rate σ(d) while achieving the IR tuning as explicit function of σ(d) and system parameters. The intentional introduction of delay allows using noisy velocity measurements without additional filtering. The structure of the controller is also able to avoid velocity measurements by using instead position information. The IR is compared to a classical PI, both tested in a laboratory prototype. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  10. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durkee, Jr., Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  11. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  12. An Integrated Enterprise Accelerator Database for the SLC Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in the early 1980's, the SLC Control System has been driven by a highly structured memory-resident real-time database. While efficient, its rigid structure and file-based sources makes it difficult to maintain and extract relevant information. The goal of transforming the sources for this database into a relational form is to enable it to be part of a Control System Enterprise Database that is an integrated central repository for SLC accelerator device and Control System data with links to other associated databases. We have taken the concepts developed for the NLC Enterprise Database and used them to create and load a relational model of the online SLC Control System database. This database contains data and structure to allow querying and reporting on beamline devices, their associations and parameters. In the future this will be extended to allow generation of EPICS and SLC database files, setup of applications and links to other databases such as accelerator maintenance, archive data, financial and personnel records, cabling information, documentation etc. The database is implemented using Oracle 8i. In the short term it will be updated daily in batch from the online SLC database. In the longer term, it will serve as the primary source for Control System static data, an R and D platform for the NLC, and contribute to SLC Control System operations

  13. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  14. On Tuning PI Controllers for Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some analytical results concerning PI controller tuning based on integrator plus time delay models are worked out and presented. A method for obtaining PI controller parameters, Kp=alpha/(k*tau, and, Ti=beta*tau, which ensures a given prescribed maximum time delay error, dtau_max, to time delay, tau, ratio parameter delta=dau_max/tau, is presented. The corner stone in this method, is a method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. Analytical relations between the PI controller parameters, Ti, and, Kp, and the time delay error parameter, delta, is presented, and we propose the setting, beta=c/a*(delta+1, and, alpha=a/(delta+1, which gives, Ti=c/a*(delta+1*tau, and Kp=a/((delta+1*k*tau, where the parameter, a, is constant in the method product parameter, c=alpha*beta. It also turns out that the integral time, Ti, is linear in, delta, and the proportional gain, Kp, inversely proportional to, delta+1. For the original Ziegler Nichols (ZN method this parameter is approximately, c=2.38, and the presented method may e.g., be used to obtain new modified ZN parameters with increased robustness margins, also documented in the paper.

  15. Experiments on the use of some chloronitrobenzene and organic mercury compounds for the control of low-temperature parasitic fungi on winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Jamalainen

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause of damage from low-temperature parasitic fungi during overwintering was in the experiments with winter rye mainly Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces., in the experiments with winter wheat both F. nivale and the Typhula spp. fungi, T. itoana Imai and T. idahoensis Remsb. The pentachloronitrobenzene compounds PCNB and the organic mercury compounds phenylmercuryacetate (PMA and phenylmercurysalicylate (PMS were effective against both the Fusarium and the Typhula fungi in the experiments in which the treatments of the seedlings had been performed in November under weather conditions normal for South Finland. The effect of treatments performed correspondingly earlier in October was slighter. In experiments made in South Finland in the winter 1955—56 and in the winter 1957—58, when low-temperature parasitic fungi appeared in abundance, the increases in yield due to treatment of the seedlings with PCNB and with the mercury compounds PMA and PMS performed in November were very considerable; winter rye (7 tests 12—122 per cent, winter wheat (4 tests 31—735 per cent, and winter barley (one test 124 per cent. – In the experiments made in 1956—57 in South Finland no increase in yield was obtained through treatment of the seedlings because low-temperature fungi did not appear. The mercury compounds PMA and PMS when applied on the stands in autumn were more effective against low-temperature parasitic fungi on winter cereals than the PCNB preparations. The effect of zineb and hexachloronitrobenzene (HCNB preparations in controlling low-temperature parasitic fungi on winter cereals by treating the stands in autumn was found to be much slighter than the effect of PCNB and of the organic mercury fungicides. The amount of active ingredient in the PCNB preparations was in most experiments 5 kg per hectare. In the two PMA preparations used in the experiments the amount of active ingredient was 125 and 425 kg per hectare, the corresponding amounts of Hg

  16. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites. Key words: Prevalence, parasites, flotation method, Tehran.

  17. burden of intestinal parasites amongst hiv/aids patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Intestinal parasitic infections cause severe diarrhea especially in debilitated subjects with clinical ... Regional Hospital, Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites represented a common burden. .... Attempt was made to go through all the fields of ..... Control of Intestinal parasite Infections.

  18. Integrity Based Access Control Model for Multilevel XML Document

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Fan; FENG Xue-bin; HUANO Zhi; ZHENG Ming-hui

    2008-01-01

    XML's increasing popularity highlights the security demand for XML documents. A mandatory access control model for XML document is presented on the basis of investigation of the function dependency of XML documents and discussion of the integrity properties of multilevel XML document. Then, the algorithms for decomposition/recovery multilevel XML document into/from single level document are given, and the manipulation rules for typical operations of XQuery and XUpdate: QUERY, INSERT,UPDATE, and REMOVE, are elaborated. The multilevel XML document access model can meet the requirement of sensitive information processing application.

  19. Voltage margin control for offshore multi-use platform integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mier, V.; Casielles, P.G.; Koto, J.

    This paper discusses a multiterminal direct current (MTDC) connection proposed for integration of offshore multi-use platforms into continental grids. Voltage source converters (VSC) were selected for their suitability for multiterminal dc systems and for their flexibility in control. A five...... terminal VSC-MTDC which includes offshore generation, storage, loads and ac connection, was modeled and simulated in DigSILENT Power Factory software. Voltage margin method has been used for reliable operation of the MTDC system without the need of fast communication. Simulation results show......, sell or store energy attending to the price in the electricity market....

  20. Integrated gasification combined cycle for acid rain control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    The role of integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants in the abatement of emission of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ which lead to acid rain is discussed. The economics of this IGCC approach are assessed for a nominal 500 MW plant size. Phased construction of IGCC plants is recommended as a means of reducing SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions noting that high-sulfur coals could continue to be used. It is also noted that phased construction IGCC is the only acid rain control technology that greatly reduces NO/sub x/. 17 references.

  1. Parasitic nematode interactions with mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some nematicides, for environmental protection, pose significant obstacles for current and future prospects of effective parasite control. Due to marked differences in host species, research on animal and plant parasitic nematodes often proceeds independently. Despite the differences between animals and plants, basic cellular properties are shared among these host organisms. Some common properties may be important for mechanisms [homologous or convergent (homoplastic)] by which nematodes successfully infect these diverse hosts or by which animal and plant hosts resist infections by these pathogens. Here we compare host/parasite interactions between plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and animal parasitic nematodes, with an emphasis on mammalian hosts (MPN). Similarities and differences are considered in the context of progress on molecular dissection of these interactions. A comprehensive coverage is not possible in the space allotted. Instead, an illustrative approach is used to establish examples that, it is hoped, exemplify the value of the comparative approach.

  2. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  3. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  4. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) technology developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, David B.; Bechtel, Robert; Hockney, Richard; Oglevie, Ron; Olszewski, Mitch

    1990-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of storing electrical energy in flywheels and utilizing the resulting angular momentum for spacecraft attitude control. Such a system has been shown to have numerous attractive features relative to more contemporary technology, and is appropriate to many applications (including high-performance slewing actuators). Technology advances over the last two decades in composite rotors, motor/generator/electronics, and magnetic bearings are found to support the use of IPACS for increasingly sophisticated applications. It is concluded that the concept offers potential performance advantages as well as savings in mass and life-cycle cost. Viewgraphs and discussion on IPACS are included.

  6. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  7. Quality control of MC and A system and integrated safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    In the integrated safeguards regime, co-operation with SSAC is a vital element to achieve efficiency of safeguards implementation while maintaining the effectiveness. However, the degree of co-operation fully depends upon the credibility, technical capability and the transparency of SSAC. Since the credibility of SSAC (States' System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials) depends heavily on effectiveness of facility operator's Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) practice, some measures to provide continuous assurance of the function and effectiveness of the system such as quality assurance program including periodical system audit (diagnostic) function ought to be established. This paper discusses quality assurance program for facility level MC and A including audit (diagnostic) method to maintain continuous assurance of the effectiveness. (author)

  8. Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.

  9. Identification of BWR feedwater control system using autoregressive integrated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Shigeru; Andoh, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Idesawa, Masato; Itoh, Kazuo.

    1983-01-01

    With the view of contributing toward more reliable interpretation of noise behavior under normal operating conditions, which is essential for correct detection and/or diagnosis of incipient anomalies in nuclear power plants by noise analysis technique, studies has been undertaken of the noise behavior in a BWR feedwater control system, with use made of a multivariate autoregressive modeling technique. Noise propagation mechanisms as well as open- and closed-loop responses in the system are identified from noise data by a method in which an autoregressive integrated model is introduced. The closed-loop responses obtained with this method are compared with transient data from an actual test, and confirmed to be reliable in estimating semi-quantitative features. Other analyses performed with this model also yield results that appear most reasonable in their physical characteristics. These results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the noise analyses technique based on the autoregressive integrated model for evaluating and diagnosing the performance of feedwater control systems. (author)

  10. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  11. Chaos Control and Synchronization of a Hyperchaotic Zhou System by Integral Sliding Mode control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Toopchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive integral sliding mode control scheme is proposed for synchronization of hyperchaotic Zhou systems. In the proposed scheme, an integral sliding mode control is designed to stabilize a hyperchaotic Zhou system with known parameters to its unstable equilibrium at the origin. The control is then applied to the synchronization of two identical systems, i.e., a slave and a master hyperchaotic Zhou system with unknown parameters. The adaptive control mechanism introduced synchronizes the systems by estimating the unknown parameters. Simulation results have shown that the proposed method has an excellent convergence from both speed and accuracy points of view, and it outperforms Vaidyanathan’s scheme, which is a well-recognized scheme in this area.

  12. Parasitic diseases of camels in Iran (1931–2017 – a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazmand Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius and 100–300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017. Ten genera of Protozoa (Trypanosoma, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, Theileria, Babesia and Balantidium, 48 helminth species detected in the digestive system, including three species of Trematoda, four species of Cestoda, and 41 species of Nematoda, as well as helminths from other organs – Echinococcus spp., Dictyocaulus filaria, Thelazia leesei, Dipetalonema evansi and Onchocerca fasciata – have so far been described in Iranian camels. Furthermore, 13 species of hard ticks, mange mites, the myiasis flies Cephalopina titillator and Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and immature stages of the Pentastomida Linguatula serrata have also been reported from camels of Iran. Camel parasitic diseases are a major issue in Iran in terms of economics and public health. The present review offers information for an integrated control programme against economically relevant parasites of camels.

  13. (macro- Evolutionary ecology of parasite diversity: From determinants of parasite species richness to host diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Morand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarized the factors or determinants that may explain parasite diversity among host species and the consequences of this parasite diversity on the evolution of host-life history traits. As host–parasite interactions are asymmetrical exploited–exploiter relationships, ecological and epidemiological theories produce hypotheses to find the potential determinants of parasite species richness, while life-history theory helps for testing potential consequences on parasite diversity on the evolution of hosts. This review referred only to studies that have specifically controlled or took into account phylogenetic information illustrated with parasites of mammals. Several points needing more investigation were identified with a special emphasis to develop the metabolic theory of epidemiology.

  14. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  15. Regulation of Gene Expression in Protozoa Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  16. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  17. Integrating Usage Control with SIP-Based Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lakas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol used for establishing and maintaining communication sessions involving two or more participants. SIP was initially designed for voice over IP and multimedia conferencing, and then was extended to support other services such as instant messaging and presence management. Today, SIP is also adopted to be used with 3G wireless networks, thus it becomes an integral protocol for ubiquitous environment. SIP has various methods that support a variety of applications such as subscribing to a service, notification of an event, status update, and location and presence services. However, when it comes to security, the use of wireless and mobile communication technologies and the pervasive nature of this environment introduce higher risks to security than that of the old simple environment. In this paper, we introduce new architecture that implements a new type of access control called usage access control (UCON to control the access to the SIP-based communication at preconnection, during connection, and postconnection. This will enable prescribers of SIP services to control who can identify their locations to approve or disapprove their subsequent connections, and to also set some parameters to determine whether a certain communication can continue or should terminate.

  18. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  19. Effective use of proportional-integral controllers for stabilization and tuning of load-frequency control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Carlos Alberto D [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletronica

    1994-12-31

    In load-frequency control loops of electric power systems, the use of purely integral controllers to eliminate steady-state frequency deviations is a well established practice. However, the use of controllers which have only integral action always make transient behaviour worse, as compared to proportional controllers. Integral action for steady-state error elimination should be introduced in parallel with proportional action, thus forming a Proportional-Integral (PI) Controller. In this work a systematic procedure for including and setting of PI controllers in load-frequency control systems is suggested. An example is included, in which the procedure is illustrated, and a comparison between the result obtained with a PI controller and that obtained with a purely integral controller is made. It is verified that the PI controller, besides eliminating the steady-state frequency deviation, gives a better transient behaviour. (author) 5 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pmanagement practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integration of advanced feedback control techniques on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Basiuk, V.; Bucalossi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tore Supra tokamak plays an important role in development and optimisation of steady-state scenarios. Its real-time feedback control system is a key instrument to improve plasma performances. For this reason, new feedback control schemes have been recently put into operation and others are being developed. This work deals with the implementation in Tore Supra of these advanced algorithms, reports the technical details and shows the first positive results that have been achieved. For instance, encouraging results have been obtained in the field of profiles control. Controls of the full width at half maximum of the suprathermal electrons local emission profile at very low loop voltage and of the maximum of the thermal Larmor radius, normalised to the characteristic length of the electron temperature gradient, have been attained. While the first quantity can be directly associated to the current profile, the second one characterises the pressure profile. A new feedback control algorithm, employed to maximise a given quantity by means of a '' Search Optimisation '' technique, has been effectively tested too: the hard X-ray width has been maximised with simultaneous use of lower hybrid heating power and wave parallel index as actuators. These and other promising results, whose detailed description will be given in the article, have been obtained thanks to the real-time availability of several diagnostic systems. Using a shared memory network as communication layer, they send their measurements to a central computing unit that, in its turn, dispatches the necessary requirements to the actuators. A key issue is the possibility to integrate these controls in such a way as to cope with different requests at the same time. As an example, simultaneous control of the plasma current by means of the lower hybrid heating power, of the loop voltage by means of the poloidal field system and of the hard X-ray width through the lower hybrid heating phase shift has been successfully

  2. Power system integration and control of variable speed wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eek, Jarle

    2009-12-15

    A wind power plant is a highly dynamic system that dependent on the type of technology requires a number of automatic control loops. This research deals with modelling, control and analysis related to power system integration of variable speed, pitch controlled wind turbines. All turbine components have been modelled and implemented in the power system simulation program SIMPOW, and a description of the modelling approach for each component is given. The level of model detail relates to the classical modelling of power system components for power system stability studies, where low frequency oscillations are of special importance. The wind turbine model includes a simplified representation of the developed rotor torque and the thrust force based on C{sub p-} and C{sub t} characteristic curves. The mechanical system model represents the fundamental torsional mode and the first mode of blades and tower movements. Two generator technologies have been investigated. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the stator converter interfaced permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). A simplified model of a 2 level voltage source converter is used for both machine types. The generator converter controllers have been given special attention. All model components are linearized for the purpose of control system design and power system interaction related to small signal stability analysis. Different control strategies discussed in the literature have been investigated with regard to power system interaction aspects. All control parameters are identified using the internal model control approach. The analysis is focused on three main areas: 1. Identification of low damped oscillatory modes. This is carried out by the establishment and discussion of wind turbine modelling. 2. Interaction between control loops. A systematic approach is presented in order to analyse the influence of control loops used in variable speed wind turbines. 3.Impact on power system performance

  3. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  4. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated software environment dedicated for implementation of control systems based on PLC controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon SURMA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes’ control systems based on PLC controllers play today a very important role in all fields of transport, including also sea transport. Construction of control systems is the field of engineering, which has been continuously evolving towards maximum simplification of system design path. Up to now the time needed forthe system construction from the design to commissioning had to be divided into a few stages. A mistake made in an earlier stage caused that in most cases the next stages had to be restarted. Available debugging systems allows defect detection at an early stage of theproject implementation. The paper presents general characteristic of integrated software for implementation of complex control systems. The issues related to the software use for programming of the visualisation environment, control computer, selection oftransmission medium and transmission protocol as well as PLC controllers’ configuration, software and control have been analysed.

  6. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  7. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  8. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP{sub 3}–Ca{sup 2+} signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Wakako [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Enomoto, Masahiro [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, M5G1L7 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mossaad, Ehab [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Kawai, Satoru [Laboratory of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Dokkyo Medical University, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko [Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawazu, Shin-ichiro, E-mail: skawazu@obihiro.ac.jp [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca{sup 2+}- and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca{sup 2+} imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP{sub 3}–Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum.

  9. Deployment and Integration of Industrial Controls The Case of LHC Cryogenics Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gayet, P

    2003-01-01

    The new cryogenics controls for LHC (UNICOS) are implemented in an open architecture based on SCADA and PLC industrial components, with Ethernet as Fieldnetwork. Its development was outsourced to industry and since mid-2001 several applications have been produced and delivered for refrigerators in the accelerator and experiment domains. This has allowed to validatedetailed performance requirements in terms of communication and distributed architecture. The second phase of this project will involve its integration with the LHC accelerator controls, both at the information exchange level (alarms, data logging) and at the device configuration level. This phase takes advantage of the integrated design at PLC and SCADA level, leading to the use of configuration tools which can be easily connected to the generic device configuration model of the accelerator controls.

  10. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  11. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distribution Feeder Voltage Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Smarter Grid Solutions Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  12. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Grid-Edge Control Hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the OMNETRIC Group Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  13. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Michael [Acuity Brands Lighting, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Spindler, Jeff [OLEDWorks, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    For this DOE award, Acuity Brands Lighting developed a novel OLED luminaire system featuring panel-integrated drivers at each individual OLED panel. The luminaire has a base station that receives user commands and performs AC/DC conversion. A power line communication (PLC) protocol is used to provide both power and digital control to each panel. A 66-panel CanvisTM luminaire using state-of-art OLED panels based on this system was successfully constructed. This is a first demonstration of such a luminaire architecture. It is also the first known implementation of this number of independently addressable nodes with a PLC protocol. This luminaire system architecture has added benefits in the flexibility of using multiple panel vendors for a given product, forward compatibility with future panels, and reduced luminaire wiring complexity and assembly time.

  14. Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  15. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  16. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BAIRLEIN,Volker DIERSCHKE, Julia DELINGAT, Cas EIKENAAR, Ivan MAGGINI, Marc BULTE, Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights. Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration. Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors, such as food availability, weather, competitors, parasites or diseases, on the stopover behavior of migrants. However, an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration. The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies. It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska. All breeding populations overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans. It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance. Thus, young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing, route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration. By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed. At the same time, environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field. On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances, radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability. The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal

  17. Lighting control and dimensioning in integrated daylight systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halonen, L.; Eloholma, M.; Lehtovaara, J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research was to find out the subjective and individual requirements for lighting control in connection with daylight utilization in indoor lighting. There is a great potential to use daylight in indoor lighting. This sets demands for the integrated daylight control systems, so that the indoor lighting can be optimized and demands of the users can be fulfilled. Control strategies should also take into account individual light needs, luminance balance and visual comfort. New lighting control systems and strategies such as vertical/horizontal illuminance ratio were studied. The incoming daylight may radically change the luminance distribution of the visual field and the effects of daylight on luminances of vertical surfaces may become especially noticeable. When daylight is utilized in indoor lighting, special care has to be taken to maintain the quality of the lighting of the visual environment. The windows become a potential source of discomfort glare in offices in uncontrolled daylight conditions. With the present methods it is not possible to evaluate discomfort glare caused by high surface luminances or windows. The results of this research do not support the opinion that low vision people in offices need more light than the normally sighted or that the illumination levels should be raised for low vision people. The rise of lighting levels from the present practice (task illuminance level 500 lux) in office work does not improve the visual performance of low vision people. In planning the visual environment for the low vision people care has to be taken on the direction of light. (7 refs.)

  18. Biological control of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by means of the epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis and parasitism as a mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Aviva; Calderon, Claudia E; Harris, Raviv; Buxdorf, Kobi; Dafa-Berger, Avis; Zeilinger-Reichert, Einat; Levy, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis as mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.

  19. Biological control of the cucurbit powdery mildew pathogen Podosphaera xanthii by means of the epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis and parasitism as a mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eGafni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic yeasts, which colonize plant surfaces, may possess activity that can be harnessed to help plants defend themselves against various pathogens. Due to their unique characteristics, epiphytic yeasts belonging to the genus Pseudozyma hold great potential for use as biocontrol agents. We identified a unique, biologically active isolate of the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis that is capable of inhibiting Botrytis cinerea via a dual mode of action, namely induced resistance and antibiosis. Here, we show that strain L12 of P. aphidis can reduce the severity of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on cucumber plants with an efficacy of 75%. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy analyses demonstrated P. aphidis proliferation on infected tissue and its production of long hyphae that parasitize the powdery mildew hyphae and spores as an ectoparasite. We also show that crude extract of P. aphidis metabolites can inhibit P. xanthii spore germination in planta. Our results suggest that in addition to its antibiosis mode of action, P. aphidis may also act as an ectoparasite on P. xanthii. These results indicate that P. aphidis strain L12 has the potential to control powdery mildew.

  20. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Dunne, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Kuris, Armand M.; Marcogliese, David J.; Martinez, Neo D.; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mordecai, Eerin A.; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.

  1. Factors controlling nanoparticle pharmacokinetics: an integrated analysis and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, S M; Hunter, A C; Andresen, T L

    2012-01-01

    Intravenously injected nanoparticulate drug carriers provide a wide range of unique opportunities for site-specific targeting of therapeutic agents to many areas within the vasculature and beyond. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these carriers are controlled by a complex array of interrelated core and interfacial physicochemical and biological factors. Pertinent to realizing therapeutic goals, definitive maps that establish the interdependency of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface characteristics in relation to interfacial forces, biodistribution, controlled drug release, excretion, and adverse effects must be outlined. These concepts are critically evaluated and an integrated perspective is provided on the basis of the recent application of nanoscience approaches to nanocarrier design and engineering. The future of this exciting field is bright; some regulatory-approved products are already on the market and many are in late-phase clinical trials. With concomitant advances in extensive computational knowledge of the genomics and epigenomics of interindividual variations in drug responses, the boundaries toward development of personalized nanomedicines can be pushed further.

  2. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  3. Parasites from the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    will investigate how the diversity of food-borne parasitic infections has changed with cultural and dietary habits, hunting practice and intensity of animal husbandry. This is done by isolating and typing ancient DNA remains from parasite eggs found in archeological samples from across Denmark....

  4. Successes against insects and parasites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-15

    With more and more answers being found to intricate problems which have entailed years of research in many parts of the world, some successes can now be claimed in the fight to control insect threats to crops, animals and human beings. Nuclear techniques are playing an important part in world efforts, and recent reports show that they have been effective in pioneer work against crop pests as well as in finding an answer to some diseases caused by parasites

  5. Genetics of simple and complex host-parasite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Webster, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In nature a host plant can be viewed as a miniature replica of an ecological system where true and incidental parasites share the same habitat. Consequently, they influence each other's presence directly by interspecific interaction, and indirectly by inducing changes in the host's physiology and so form disease complexes. Since all physiological phenomena have their counterpart in the respective genetic systems of interacting organisms, valuable genetic information can be derived from the analysis of complex parasitic systems. Disease complexes may be classified according to the nature of interaction between various parasites on the same host. One parasite may nullify the host's resistance to another (e.g. Tomato - Meloidogyne incognita + Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici system). Conversely, a parasite may invoke resistance in the host against another parasite (e.g. Tomato - Fusarium oxysporum lycopersici + Verticillium albo atrum system). From the study of simple parasitic systems we know that resistance versus susceptibility against a single parasite is normally monogenically controlled. However, when more than one parasite interacts to invoke or nullify each other's responses on the same host plant, the genetic results suggest epistatic ratios. Nevertheless, epistatic ratios have been obtained also from simple parasitic systems owing to gene interaction. The epistatic ratios obtained from complex and simple parasitic systems are contrasted and compared. It is suggested that epistatic ratios obtained from simple parasitic systems may, in fact, be artifacts resulting from complex parasitic associations that often occur in nature. Polygenic inheritance and the longevity of a cultivar is also discussed briefly in relation to complex parasitic associations. Induced mutations can play a significant role in the study of complex parasitic associations, and thus can be very useful in controlling plant diseases

  6. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  7. Inevitability of Genetic Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Jaime; Puigbò, Pere; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Almost all cellular life forms are hosts to diverse genetic parasites with various levels of autonomy including plasmids, transposons and viruses. Theoretical modeling of the evolution of primordial replicators indicates that parasites (cheaters) necessarily evolve in such systems and can be kept at bay primarily via compartmentalization. Given the (near) ubiquity, abundance and diversity of genetic parasites, the question becomes pertinent: are such parasites intrinsic to life? At least in prokaryotes, the persistence of parasites is linked to the rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We mathematically derive the threshold value of the minimal transfer rate required for selfish element persistence, depending on the element duplication and loss rates as well as the cost to the host. Estimation of the characteristic gene duplication, loss and transfer rates for transposons, plasmids and virus-related elements in multiple groups of diverse bacteria and archaea indicates that most of these rates are compatible with the long term persistence of parasites. Notably, a small but non-zero rate of HGT is also required for the persistence of non-parasitic genes. We hypothesize that cells cannot tune their horizontal transfer rates to be below the threshold required for parasite persistence without experiencing highly detrimental side-effects. As a lower boundary to the minimum DNA transfer rate that a cell can withstand, we consider the process of genome degradation and mutational meltdown of populations through Muller’s ratchet. A numerical assessment of this hypothesis suggests that microbial populations cannot purge parasites while escaping Muller’s ratchet. Thus, genetic parasites appear to be virtually inevitable in cellular organisms. PMID:27503291

  8. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  9. Development of integrated control system for smart factory in the injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M. J.; Kim, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we proposed integrated control system for automation of injection molding process required for construction of smart factory. The injection molding process consists of heating, tool close, injection, cooling, tool open, and take-out. Take-out robot controller, image processing module, and process data acquisition interface module are developed and assembled to integrated control system. By adoption of integrated control system, the injection molding process can be simplified and the cost for construction of smart factory can be inexpensive.

  10. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  11. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-05

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  12. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  13. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  14. Integrated Weed Management Strategies for Control of Hydrilla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Linda S; Shearer, Judy F

    2009-01-01

    ...), and the fungal pathogen Mycoleptodiscus terrestris (Gerd.) Ostazeski, applied alone and in combination with one another, as an integrated weed management strategy against the nuisance aquatic plant, hydrilla...

  15. Enhanced Transmission of Drug-Resistant Parasites to Mosquitoes following Drug Treatment in Rodent Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew S.; Huijben, Silvie; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Sim, Derek G.; Chan, Brian H. K.; Nelson, William A.; Read, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasm...

  16. Economic Benefit from Progressive Integration of Scheduling and Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan D. R. Beal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance of integrated production scheduling and advanced process control with disturbances is summarized and reviewed with four progressive stages of scheduling and control integration and responsiveness to disturbances: open-loop segregated scheduling and control, closed-loop segregated scheduling and control, open-loop scheduling with consideration of process dynamics, and closed-loop integrated scheduling and control responsive to process disturbances and market fluctuations. Progressive economic benefit from dynamic rescheduling and integrating scheduling and control is shown on a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR benchmark application in closed-loop simulations over 24 h. A fixed horizon integrated scheduling and control formulation for multi-product, continuous chemical processes is utilized, in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and continuous-time scheduling are combined.

  17. Functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, J; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Kalinna, B H

    2012-01-01

    As research on parasitic helminths is moving into the post-genomic era, an enormous effort is directed towards deciphering gene function and to achieve gene annotation. The sequences that are available in public databases undoubtedly hold information that can be utilized for new interventions and control but the exploitation of these resources has until recently remained difficult. Only now, with the emergence of methods to genetically manipulate and transform parasitic worms will it be possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition, metabolism, developmental switches/maturation and interaction with the host immune system. This review focuses on functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths that are currently used, to highlight potential applications of these technologies in the areas of cell biology, systems biology and immunobiology of parasitic helminths. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Efeito do pastejo rotacionado e alternado com bovinos adultos no controle da verminose em ovelhas Effect of rotational and alternate grazing with adult cattle on the control of nematode parasites in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do pastejo alternado de ovinos e bovinos e do pastejo rotacionado sobre o controle da verminose em ovelhas. Utilizou-se uma área experimental composta por três módulos de 1,67ha cada. Os módulos foram subdivididos em oito piquetes. Vinte ovelhas foram colocadas no módulo 1 e quatro bovinos adultos no módulo 2. Os animais permaneceram em cada piquete do módulo por cinco dias, totalizando 40 dias de permanência em cada módulo. Ao final desse período, as ovelhas foram transferidas para o módulo onde estavam os bovinos e estes para o módulo onde estavam os ovinos, mantendo esse esquema até o final do experimento. Um grupo-controle de 20 ovelhas foi mantido, também em sistema rotacionado, em um terceiro módulo, sem compartilhar a pastagem. As ovelhas submetidas ao manejo com bovinos apresentaram o menor grau de infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais e os maiores valores de volume globular. O pastejo rotacionado de ovinos, sem a utilização de bovinos, não foi eficiente no controle da verminose das ovelhas. A utilização do pastejo rotacionado e alternado de ovinos e bovinos adultos exerceu efeito benéfico significativo no controle da verminose ovina.The effects of rotational and alternate grazing involving cattle and sheep on the control of nematode parasites in sheep were evaluated. Three areas with 1.67ha were subdivided into eight paddocks each. Twenty ewes and four cattle were allotted to areas 1 and 2, respectively. They grazed during five days in each of eight paddocks of each area. The sheep and cattle rotated in each area for 40 days. At the end of this period, ewes were transferred to the area where cattle were previously kept and these animals were transferred to the area where sheep had previously grazed. This arrangement was kept until the end of the experiment. A control group with 20 ewes rotated in the third area, also with eight paddocks. Ewes that alternately grazed with cattle showed

  19. In-vitro predatory activity of nematophagous fungi from Costa Rica with potential use for controlling sheep and goat parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Soto-Barrientos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are a main cause of losses in livestock productivity. The increased acquired resistence to anthelmintics by gastrointestinal nematodes, requires biological control be considered as a potential feasible and effective alternative. The most effective natural soil enemies of nematodes are nematophagous fungi. In order to collect and identify predator nematophagous fungi (PNF, samples were obtained from 51 farms distributed throughout the seven provinces of Costa Rica. The origin samples included: soil from different crops (potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, ornamental plants, squash and coffee; animal feces (cattle, sheep, goat and horse; soil and fallen leaves from forest; and plants with signs of nematode infection. Each sample was processed using three techniques for the extraction of fungi from soil: sprinkling technique, soil dilution and humidity chamber. Twenty four strains of nematophagous fungi were found in 19 farms; 83.3% of the fungi were isolated by sprinkling technique. The following fungi were idenified: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n=13; Candelabrella musiformis (n=9; and for the first time there was isolation of A. conoides (n=1 and A. dactyloides (n=1 in the country. Moreover, 16 strains from Trichoderma (n=13, Beauveria (n=1, Clonostachys (n=1 and Lecanicillium (n=1 were obtained. In addition, pH of each possible fungal isolation source was measured, and it varied from 5.2 to 9.9, however PNF isolates fell within the range of 5.6 to 7.5. The PNF strains were cultivated in four different media for the production of chhlamydospores: potato dextrose agar (PDA; corn meal agar (CMA; malt extract agar (MEA and potato carrot agar (PCA. Out of these cultures, 95.8% of the strains formed chlamydospores primarily in the PCA. Of these strains, the profilic spore producers were subjected to ruminant artificial gastrointestinal conditions. A total of 14 fungi were tested, out of which

  20. In-vitro predatory activity of nematophagous fungi from Costa Rica with potential use for controlling sheep and goat parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Barrientos, Natalia; de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Vega-Obando, Rommel; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; Vargas, Bernardo; Hernández-Gamboa, Jorge; Orozco-Solano, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are a main cause of losses in livestock productivity. The increased acquired resistence to anthelmintics by gastrointestinal nematodes, requires biological control be considered as a potential feasible and effective alternative. The most effective natural soil enemies of nematodes are nematophagous fungi. In order to collect and identify predator nematophagous fungi (PNF), samples were obtained from 51 farms distributed throughout the seven provinces of Costa Rica. The origin samples included: soil from different crops (potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, ornamental plants, squash and coffee); animal feces (cattle, sheep, goat and horse); soil and fallen leaves from forest; and plants with signs of nematode infection. Each sample was processed using three techniques for the extraction of fungi from soil: sprinkling technique, soil dilution and humidity chamber. Twenty four strains of nematophagous fungi were found in 19 farms; 83.3% of the fungi were isolated by sprinkling technique. The following fungi were identified: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n = 13); Candelabrella musiformis (n = 9); and for the first time there was isolation of A. conoides (n = 1) and A. dactyloides (n = 1) in the country. Moreover, 16 strains from Trichoderma (n=13), Beauveria (n = 1), Clonostachys (n = 1) and Lecanicillium (n = 1) were obtained. In addition, pH of each possible fungal isolation source was measured, and it varied from 5.2 to 9.9, however PNF isolates fell within the range of 5.6 to 7.5. The PNF strains were cultivated in four different media for the production of chhlamydospores: potato dextrose agar (PDA); corn meal agar (CMA); malt extract agar (MEA) and potato carrot agar (PCA). Out of these cultures, 95.8% of the strains formed chlamydospores primarily in the PCA. Of these strains, the profilic spore producers were subjected to ruminant artificial gastrointestinal conditions. A total of 14 fungi were tested, out

  1. Maintaining control while delegating trust: Integrity constraints in trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, S.; Winsborough, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust management-style authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then, we address the fact that not all participants in a

  2. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they disproportionately affect impoverished people. More on: Neglected Tropical Diseases Prevention One of the most important ways to help prevent these parasitic diseases is to teach children the importance of washing hands correctly with soap ...

  3. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... those conditions that are encountered in daily practice and to remind you of those ... care conditions. Parasitic infections can be solely confined to the skin, as seen ..... endemic areas or may become chronic and disseminate.

  4. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the leg. Endemic: A disease that is native to a particular geographic region. Epidemiology: The study ... parasites/glossary.html) T Telediagnosis: The transmission of digital images captured from a clinical specimen and sent ...

  5. Linking parasite populations in hosts to parasite populations in space through Taylor's law and the negative binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2017-01-03

    The spatial distribution of individuals of any species is a basic concern of ecology. The spatial distribution of parasites matters to control and conservation of parasites that affect human and nonhuman populations. This paper develops a quantitative theory to predict the spatial distribution of parasites based on the distribution of parasites in hosts and the spatial distribution of hosts. Four models are tested against observations of metazoan hosts and their parasites in littoral zones of four lakes in Otago, New Zealand. These models differ in two dichotomous assumptions, constituting a 2 × 2 theoretical design. One assumption specifies whether the variance function of the number of parasites per host individual is described by Taylor's law (TL) or the negative binomial distribution (NBD). The other assumption specifies whether the numbers of parasite individuals within each host in a square meter of habitat are independent or perfectly correlated among host individuals. We find empirically that the variance-mean relationship of the numbers of parasites per square meter is very well described by TL but is not well described by NBD. Two models that posit perfect correlation of the parasite loads of hosts in a square meter of habitat approximate observations much better than two models that posit independence of parasite loads of hosts in a square meter, regardless of whether the variance-mean relationship of parasites per host individual obeys TL or NBD. We infer that high local interhost correlations in parasite load strongly influence the spatial distribution of parasites. Local hotspots could influence control and conservation of parasites.

  6. Imaging of parasitic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Maurice C.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the imaging findings of parasitic diseases using modern imaging equipment. The chapters consist of short descriptions of causative pathogens, epidemiology, modes of transmission, pathology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, with illustrative examples of parasitic diseases that can affect various systems of the human body. Tables summarizing key diagnostic features and clinical data pertinent to diagnosis are also included. This book is intended for radiologists worldwide. (orig.)

  7. Imaging of parasitic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Maurice C. [American Univ. of Beirut Medical Center (Lebanon). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E. [Riyadh Military Hospital (Saudi Arabia). Radiology and Imaging Dept. 920W; Tamraz, Jean C. (eds.) [CHU Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2008-07-01

    This book provides an overview of the imaging findings of parasitic diseases using modern imaging equipment. The chapters consist of short descriptions of causative pathogens, epidemiology, modes of transmission, pathology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, with illustrative examples of parasitic diseases that can affect various systems of the human body. Tables summarizing key diagnostic features and clinical data pertinent to diagnosis are also included. This book is intended for radiologists worldwide. (orig.)

  8. Pathoecology of Chiribaya parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The excavations of Chiribaya culture sites in the Osmore drainage of southern Peru focused on the recovery of information about prehistoric disease, including parasitism. The archaeologists excavated human, dog, guinea pig, and llama mummies. These mummies were analyzed for internal and external parasites. The results of the analysis and reconstruction of prehistoric life from the excavations allows us to interpret the pathoecology of the Chiribaya culture.

  9. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  10. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  11. Integrating Controls Frameworks: Control Systems for NA62 LAV Detector Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Oliver; Golonka, Piotr; Gonzalez-Berges, Manuel; Milcent, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The detector control system for the NA62 experiment at CERN, to be ready for physics data-taking in 2014, is going to be built based on control technologies recommended by the CERN Engineering group. A rich portfolio of the technologies is planned to be showcased and deployed in the final application, and synergy between them is needed. In particular two approaches to building controls application need to play in harmony: the use of the high-level application framework called UNICOS, and a bottom-up approach of development based on the components of the JCOP Framework. The aim of combining the features provided by the two frameworks is to avoid duplication of functionality and minimize the maintenance and development effort for future controls applications. In the paper the result of the integration efforts obtained so far are presented; namely the control applications developed for beam-testing of NA62 detector prototypes. Even though the delivered applications are simple, significant conceptual and developm...

  12. INTEGRATING CONTROLS FRAMEWORKS: CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR NA62 LAV DETECTOR TEST BEAMS

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, O; Golonka, P; Gonzalez-Berges, M; Milcent, H

    2011-01-01

    The detector control system for the NA62 experiment at CERN, to be ready for physics data-taking in 2014, is going to be built based on control technologies recommended by the CERN Engineering group. A rich portfolio of the technologies is planned to be showcased and deployed in the final application, and synergy between them is needed. In particular two approaches to building controls application need to play in harmony: the use of the high-level application framework called UNICOS, and a bottom-up approach of development based on the components of the JCOP Framework. The aim of combining the features provided by the two frameworks is to avoid duplication of functionality and minimize the maintenance and development effort for future controls applications. In the paper the result of the integration efforts obtained so far are presented; namely the control applications developed for beam-testing of NA62 detector prototypes. Even though the delivered applications are simple, significant conceptual and developm...

  13. Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction....... The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes....

  14. Small Spacecraft Integrated Power System with Active Thermal Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop an integrated power generation and energy storage system with an active thermal management system. Carbon fiber solar panels will contain...

  15. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  16. Evaluation of structural integrity and controllability of main feed water control valve for APWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koji Tachibana; Toshikazu Maeda; Hideyuki Morita; Takaharu Hiroe; Koichiro Oketani

    2005-01-01

    In Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), the main feed water control valve always controls the mass flow rate of main feed water to maintain the water level of steam generator within the allowable range. For the main feed water control valve of PWR, we have used an air operated globe valve conventionally since it has large capacity and quick responsibility. On the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR) system conditions, the mass flow rate of main feed water increases compared with the conventional PWR system conditions as an increase of the generating power. So, it is expected that the fluid force will increase, and it could cause critical damage on internal parts of the valve, such as plug, stem, etc. and uncontrollability of the valve. In this study, we measured the stem strain in the fluid tests using scale model and test loop under the APWR feed water flow rate conditions. The stem strain gave the stem stress and the fluid force acting on the plug surface. We evaluated the stem integrity from the stem stress and confirmed the influence which the fluid force had on the valve controllability by simulating the feed water system considering the fluid force. (authors)

  17. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human-like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context-aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long-term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  18. Integrated Rudder/Fin Concise Control Based on Frequency Domain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    W. Guan; Z. J. Su; G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concise robust controller design of integrated rudder and fin control system in use of the closed loop gain shaping algorithm (CGSA) strategy. Compared with the arbitrary selection of weighting function in integrated rudder and fin H∞ mixed sensitivity control design procedures, the CGSA methods provided a relatively more straightforward and concise design method. Simulations were described that the overall performance of each CGSA rudder and fin control loop and the in...

  19. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products

  20. AC field effect flow control of EOF in complex microfluidic systems with integrated electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E.J.; Pennathur, S.; van den Berg, Albert; Locascio, L.E.; Gaitan, M.; Paegel, B.M.; Ross, D.J.; Vreeland, W.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that positive net flow can be induced and controlled with relatively low potential due to the parallel alignment of the integrated channel electrodes. Therefore, we present a novel method to exquisitely control Electro Osmotic Flow (EOF) by using integrated electrodes

  1. National Ignition Facility system design requirements NIF integrated computer controls SDR004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System. The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is covered in NIF WBS element 1.5. This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in the NIF Functional Requirements/Primary Criteria, and is supported by subsystem design requirements documents for each major ICCS Subsystem

  2. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Silva, R.A. da.

    1986-01-01

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    of electrical energy. A smart grid can also be dened as an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both - in order to eciently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. This thesis focuses...... of the ii market. To build a complete solution for integration of EVs into the distribution network, a price coordinated hierarchical scheduling system is proposed which can well characterize the involved actors in the smart grid. With this system, we demonstrate that it is possible to schedule the charging......Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar...

  4. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Pavon, Ignacio Lopez; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Velasco, Roman Blanco

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19%) of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62). Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22%) of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32%) in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95). Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18%) of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78). The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 to

  5. An integrated control-oriented modelling for HVAC performance benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satyavada, Harish; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in building heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment requires the development of accurate models for testing HVAC control strategies and corresponding energy consumption. In order to make the HVAC control synthesis computationally affordable, such

  6. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  7. An integration time adaptive control method for atmospheric composition detection of occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Hou, Shuai; Yu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Li, Chao; Zhe, Lin

    2018-01-01

    When sun is used as the light source for atmospheric composition detection, it is necessary to image sun for accurate identification and stable tracking. In the course of 180 second of the occultation, the magnitude of sun light intensity through the atmosphere changes greatly. It is nearly 1100 times illumination change between the maximum atmospheric and the minimum atmospheric. And the process of light change is so severe that 2.9 times per second of light change can be reached. Therefore, it is difficult to control the integration time of sun image camera. In this paper, a novel adaptive integration time control method for occultation is presented. In this method, with the distribution of gray value in the image as the reference variable, and the concepts of speed integral PID control, the integration time adaptive control problem of high frequency imaging. The large dynamic range integration time automatic control in the occultation can be achieved.

  8. Integration of analog and digital instrumentation and control systems in hybrid control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    he IAEA's activities in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management are aimed at increasing Member State capabilities in utilizing good engineering and management practices as developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports the improvement of nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational license renewal, and the modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of plants. The issue of the integration of analog and digital I and C systems in hybrid control rooms was suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) at its meetings in 2003 and 2005. The subject was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2006-2009. The purpose of this report is to help nuclear utilities in planning control room and other human system interface (HSI) changes, making appropriate use of modern technologies. These technologies would aid in managing ageing and obsolescence, and facilitate improvements in plant performance and safety. This report covers a broad spectrum of potential changes to the control room ranging from the replacement of a few obsolete components with newer digital devices to a fully computerized control room. New digital technologies offer significant opportunities to improve access to and presentation of information to the user, e.g. operators, maintenance staff and management. However, this technology should be used prudently. In some cases, modernization is undertaken to resolve ageing and obsolescence or to meet regulatory requirements for license renewal. The integration of new technologies during main control room (MCR) modernizations should be performed cautiously and all affected aspects of plant maintenance, and operation should be carefully considered, paying particular attention to the human factors elements of these aspects. This report describes a

  9. Integrated and Real-Time Anticipatory Control of Road Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taale, H.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic traffic management is an important approach to minimise the negative effects of increasing congestion. Measures such as ramp metering and route information, but also the traditional traffic signal control is used. The focus in designing traffic control plans has always been on local control.

  10. Integrating Attributes into Role-Based Access Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.; Krishnan, Ram

    2015-01-01

    of research recently. We propose an access control model that combines the two models in a novel way in order to unify their benefits. Our approach provides a fine-grained access control mechanism that takes into account the current contextual information while making the access control decisions....

  11. Developing Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a tool Mosquito Control Districts can use for integrated Aedes aegypti control

    Science.gov (United States)

    New tools are clearly needed for integrated mosquito management of Ae. aegypti. We describe the sterile insect technique (SIT) that we are developing as a method to control Ae. aegypti by partnering with two prominent Florida mosquito control districts (MCD) and the FAO/IAEA Insect Pest Control Sub...

  12. Integration and Control of a Battery Balancing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    VHSIC very high speed integrated circuit VHDL VHSIC hardware description language LED light emitting diode xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...our fossil fuel dependence is through the implementation of alternative energy sources. Although alternative energy solutions can be directly...of the primary ways of bolstering our energy redundancy and, thus, decreasing our fossil fuel dependence is through the implementation of alternative

  13. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  14. Warming accelerates termination of a phytoplankton spring bloom by fungal parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Thijs; Velthuis, M.; De Senerpont Domis, Lisette; Stephan, Susanne; Aben, Ralf Cornelis; Kosten, S.; van Donk, E.; Van de Waal, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to favour infectious diseases across ecosystems worldwide. In freshwater and marine environments, parasites play a crucial role in controlling plankton population dynamics. Infection of phytoplankton populations will cause a transfer of carbon and nutrients into parasites,

  15. Method of electronic beam steering for circular switched parasitic dipole arrays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available is controlled by open- and shortcircuiting the parasitic elements. By appropriately selecting correct combination of short- and opencircuited parasitic elements together with the active element, a set of radiation patterns is formed covering the horizontal plane...

  16. Robust Control of Underactuated Systems: Higher Order Integral Sliding Mode Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust control design for the class of underactuated uncertain nonlinear systems. Either the nonlinear model of the underactuated systems is transformed into an input output form and then an integral manifold is devised for the control design purpose or an integral manifold is defined directly for the concerned class. Having defined the integral manifolds discontinuous control laws are designed which are capable of maintaining sliding mode from the very beginning. The closed loop stability of these systems is presented in an impressive way. The effectiveness and demand of the designed control laws are verified via the simulation and experimental results of ball and beam system.

  17. Integrated controls pay-off. [for flight/propulsion aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Christiansen, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the integration of the propulsion and flight control systems for high performance aircraft can help reduce pilot workload while simultaneously increasing overall aircraft performance. Results of the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HiDEC) flight research program are presented to demonstrate the emerging payoffs of controls integration. Ways in which the performance of fighter aircraft can be improved through the use of propulsion for primary aircraft control are discussed. Research being conducted by NASA with the F-18 High Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle is described.

  18. Malaria parasites: the great escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Rénia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  19. A novel controller for bipedal locomotion integrating feed-forward and feedback mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Sartori, Massimo; Dosen, Strahinja; González-Vargas, José; Wörgötter, Florentin; Farina, Dario; Ibanez, J.; González-Vargas, J.; Azorin, J.M.; Akay, M.; Pons, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    It has been recognized that bipedal locomotion is controlled using feed-forward (e.g., patterned) and feedback (e.g., reflex) control schemes. However, most current controllers fail to integrate the two schemes to simplify speed control of bipedal locomotion. To solve this problem, we here propose a

  20. A Hierarchical Algorithm for Integrated Scheduling and Control With Applications to Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Dinesen, Peter Juhler; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of this paper is a hierarchical algorithm for integrated scheduling and control via model predictive control of hybrid systems. The controlled system is a linear system composed of continuous control, state, and output variables. Binary variables occur as scheduling decisions in ...