WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated optical transceiver

  1. Integrated optical transceiver with electronically controlled optical beamsteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; DeRose, Christopher; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2017-08-22

    A beam-steering optical transceiver is provided. The transceiver includes one or more modules, each comprising an antenna chip and a control chip bonded to the antenna chip. Each antenna chip has a feeder waveguide, a plurality of row waveguides that tap off from the feeder waveguide, and a plurality of metallic nanoantenna elements arranged in a two-dimensional array of rows and columns such that each row overlies one of the row waveguides. Each antenna chip also includes a plurality of independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters, each configured to produce a thermo-optical phase shift in a respective row. Each antenna chip also has, for each row, a row-wise heating circuit configured to produce a respective thermo-optic phase shift at each nanoantenna element along its row. The control chip includes controllable current sources for the independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters and the row-wise heating circuits.

  2. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM; Nordquist, Christopher D [Albuquerque, NM; Cich, Michael J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-09-25

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. A terahertz signal can be received by an antenna connected to the mixer, an end facet or sidewall of the laser, or through a separate active section that can amplify the incident signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  3. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM; Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-23

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. An antenna connected to the Schottky diode receives a terahertz signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  4. Spherical transceivers for ultrafast optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian; Hristovski, Blago A.; Collier, Christopher M.; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Born, Brandon; Holzman, Jonathan F.

    2016-02-01

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) offers the potential for high-speed and mobile operation in indoor networks. Such OWC systems often employ a fixed transmitter grid and mobile transceivers, with the mobile transceivers carrying out bi-directional communication via active downlinks (ideally with high-speed signal detection) and passive uplinks (ideally with broad angular retroreflection and high-speed modulation). It can be challenging to integrate all of these bidirectional communication capabilities within the mobile transceivers, however, as there is a simultaneous desire for compact packaging. With this in mind, the work presented here introduces a new form of transceiver for bi-directional OWC systems. The transceiver incorporates radial photoconductive switches (for high-speed signal detection) and a spherical retro-modulator (for broad angular retroreflection and high-speed all-optical modulation). All-optical retromodulation are investigated by way of theoretical models and experimental testing, for spherical retro-modulators comprised of three glasses, N-BK7, N-LASF9, and S-LAH79, having differing levels of refraction and nonlinearity. It is found that the spherical retro-modulator comprised of S-LAH79, with a refractive index of n ≍ 2 and a Kerr nonlinear index of n2 ≍ (1.8 ± 0.1) × 10-15 cm2/W, yields both broad angular retroreflection (over a solid angle of 2π steradians) and ultrafast modulation (over a duration of 120 fs). Such transceivers can become important elements for all-optical implementations in future bi-directional OWC systems.

  5. Transceiver optics for interplanetary communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. T.; Farr, W. H.; Rider, B.; Sampath, D.

    2017-11-01

    In-situ interplanetary science missions constantly push the spacecraft communications systems to support successively higher downlink rates. However, the highly restrictive mass and power constraints placed on interplanetary spacecraft significantly limit the desired bandwidth increases in going forward with current radio frequency (RF) technology. To overcome these limitations, we have evaluated the ability of free-space optical communications systems to make substantial gains in downlink bandwidth, while holding to the mass and power limits allocated to current state-of-the-art Ka-band communications systems. A primary component of such an optical communications system is the optical assembly, comprised of the optical support structure, optical elements, baffles and outer enclosure. We wish to estimate the total mass that such an optical assembly might require, and assess what form it might take. Finally, to ground this generalized study, we should produce a conceptual design, and use that to verify its ability to achieve the required downlink gain, estimate it's specific optical and opto-mechanical requirements, and evaluate the feasibility of producing the assembly.

  6. Discovery deep space optical communications (DSOC) transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. Thomas

    2017-02-01

    NASA's 22 cm diameter Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Transceiver is designed to provide a bidirectional optical link between a spacecraft in the inner solar system and an Earth-based optical ground station. This design, optimized for operation across a wide range of illumination conditions, is focused on minimizing blinding from stray light, and providing reliable, accurate attitude information to point its narrow communication beam accurately to the future location of the ground terminal. Though our transceiver will transmit in the 1550 nm waveband and receive in the 1064 nm waveband, the system design relies heavily on reflective optical elements, extending flexibility to be modified for use at different wavebands. The design makes use of common path propagation among transmit, receive and pointing verification optical channels to maintain precise alignment among its components, and to naturally correct for element misalignment resulting from launch or thermal element perturbations. This paper presents the results of trade studies showing the evolution of the design, unique operational characteristics of the design, elements that help to maintain minimal stray light contamination, and preliminary results from development and initial testing of a functional aluminum test model.

  7. Design and analysis study of a spacecraft optical transceiver package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed system level design of an Optical Transceiver Package (OPTRANSPAC) for a deep space vehicle whose mission is outer planet exploration is developed. In addition to the terminal design, this study provides estimates of the dynamic environments to be encountered by the transceiver throughout its mission life. Optical communication link analysis, optical thin lens design, electronic functional design and mechanical layout and packaging are employed in the terminal design. Results of the study describe an Optical Transceiver Package capable of communicating to an Earth Orbiting Relay Station at a distance of 10 Astronomical Units (AU) and data rates up to 100 KBPS. The transceiver is also capable of receiving 1 KBPS of command data from the Earth Relay. The physical dimensions of the terminal are contained within a 3.5' x 1.5' x 2.0' envelope and the transceiver weight and power are estimated at 52.2 Kg (115 pounds) and 57 watts, respectively.

  8. Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Tani, M.; Jiang, Zhiping; Zhang, X.-C.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the reciprocal behavior of the optical rectification and the electro-optic effect in a nonlinear optical crystal, an electro-optic transceiver can alternately transmit pulsed electromagnetic radiation (optical rectification) and detect the return signal (electro-optic effect) in the same crystal. However, the optimal condition of the electro-optic transceiver may be very different from that of the spatially separated emitter and receiver. We present a detailed description of the crystal-orientation dependence of the electro-optic terahertz devices (transmitter, receiver, and transceiver). It is found that for a (110) zinc-blende electro-optical crystal, the efficiency of the electro-optic transceiver will be optimized when the angle between the polarization of the optical pump beam and the crystallographic z axis [0,0,1] is 26 degree. Meanwhile, for a (111) crystal, the angle between the optical beam and the crystallographic direction [-1,-1,2] should be 23 degree. The experimental results from a (110) ZnTe transceiver verify theoretical calculations and demonstrate a direct way to optimize the working efficiency of an electro-optic terahertz transceiver. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  9. Fabrication of an electro-absorption transceiver with a monolithically integrated optical amplifier for fiber transmission of 40–60 GHz radio signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Andy Zhenzhong; Wang, Qin; Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Almqvist, Susanne; Karlsson, Stefan; Kjebon, Olle; Schatz, Richard; Chacinski, Marek; Thylén, Lars; Berggren, Jesper; Hammar, Mattias; Honecker, Jörg; Steffan, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a reflective electro-absorption transceiver (EAT) for 40–60 GHz radio-over-fiber applications. The EAT can either function as a transmitter (reflective modulator) or as a receiver (photodetector) depending on operation mode. The SOA and the EAT sections are based on different InGaAsP multiple quantum-well active layers connected by a butt joint. Benzocyclobutene is used to reduce the capacitance beside the ridge mesa. Devices are designed to have a peaked response at the operating frequency through the design of microwave waveguides on top of the devices. The packaged device exhibits at 0.1 mW optical input power an amplified DC responsivity of 18.5 mA mW −1 and a modulation efficiency of 0.67 mW V −1 . The estimated radio frequency loss at 40 GHz of an optical link consisting of two SOA–EAT devices was 23 dB using an unmodulated optical input carrier to the transmitter of 0.94 mW

  10. Passive and electro-optic polymer photonics and InP electronics integration for multi-flow terabit transceivers at edge SDN switches and data-center gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avramopoulos, Hercules; Katopodis, V.; Groumas, P.

    2014-01-01

    -chip. In this paper, we present the system level vision and the technical approach for the development of these modules, and we present the concept for a thin software layer that will control the parameters of the transceivers and will extend the SDN hierarchy down to the flexible optical transport layer....

  11. Fiber optic Ethernet transceiver for Joint STARS block I GSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatens, Dennis R.; Usberghi, Michael J.

    The authors discuss the use of FiberCom's DPT dual redundant counter-rotating ring Ethernet transceiver, and its use as an integral part of the Joint STARS (Surveillance Target Attack Radar System) surface-to-air battlefield information station called the ground station module (GSM). The Ethernet transceiver uses a dual counter-rotating fiber ring architecture. The operation of the unit enables the network to have fault-tolerant capability with no single point of failure. This results from the unit's ability to reconfigure around a network failure, creating a new working segment from the remaining portion. The medium attachment unit interface conforms to ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.3-1985, the IEEE Standard for Local Area Networks-Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications.

  12. Ultra-thin silicon (UTSi) on insulator CMOS transceiver and time-division multiplexed switch chips for smart pixel integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Sawchuk, Alexander A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and functionality of two different 0.5 micron CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) chips based on the Peregrine Semiconductor Ultra-Thin Silicon on insulator technology. The Peregrine UTSi silicon- on-sapphire (SOS) technology is a member of the silicon-on- insulator (SOI) family. The low-loss synthetic sapphire substrate is optically transparent and has good thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion properties, which meet the requirements for flip-chip bonding of VCSELs and other optoelectronic input-output components. One chip contains transceiver and network components, including four channel high-speed CMOS transceiver modules, pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) generators, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and other test circuits. The transceiver chips can operate in both self-testing mode and networking mode. An on- chip clock and true-single-phase-clock (TSPC) D-flip-flop have been designed to generate a PRBS at over 2.5 Gb/s for the high-speed transceiver arrays to operate in self-testing mode. In the networking mode, an even number of transceiver chips forms a ring network through free-space or fiber ribbon interconnections. The second chip contains four channel optical time-division multiplex (TDM) switches, optical transceiver arrays, an active pixel detector and additional test devices. The eventual applications of these chips will require monolithic OEICs with integrated optical input and output. After fabrication and testing, the CMOS transceiver array dies will be packaged with 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and metal-semiconductor- metal (MSM) or GaAs p-i-n detector die arrays to achieve high- speed optical interconnections. The hybrid technique could be either wire bonding or flip-chip bonding of the CMOS SOS smart-pixel arrays with arrays of VCSELs and photodetectors onto an optoelectronic chip carrier as a multi-chip module (MCM).

  13. Power-aware transceiver design for half-duplex bidirectional chip-to-chip optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangirov Jamshid; Ukaegbu Ikechi Augustine; Lee Tae-Woo; Park Hyo-Hoon; Sangirov Gulomjon

    2013-01-01

    A power-aware transceiver for half-duplex bidirectional chip-to-chip optical interconnects has been designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The transceiver can detect the presence and absence of received signals and saves 55% power in Rx enabled mode and 45% in Tx enabled mode. The chip occupies an area of 1.034 mm 2 and achieves a 3-dB bandwidth of 6 GHz and 7 GHz in Tx and Rx modes, respectively. The disabled outputs for the Tx and Rx modes are isolated with 180 dB and 139 dB, respectively, from the enabled outputs. Clear eye diagrams are obtained at 4.25 Gbps for both the Tx and Rx modes. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. A 3D Hybrid Integration Methodology for Terabit Transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    integration are described. An equivalent circuit model of the via-throughs connecting the RF circuitry to the modulator is proposed and its lumped element parameters are extracted. Wire bonding transitions between the driving and RF circuitry were designed and simulated. An optimized 3D interposer design......This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid integration methodology for terabit transceivers. The simulation methodology for multi-conductor structures are explained. The effect of ground vias on the RF circuitry and the preferred interposer substrate material for large bandwidth 3D hybrid...

  15. Integrated VCOs for Medical Implant Transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 402–405 MHz medical implant communication service (MICS band has recently been allocated by the US Federal Communication Commission (FCC with the potential to replace the low-frequency inductive coupling techniques in implantable devices. This band was particularly chosen to provide full-integration, low-power, faster data transfer, and longer communication range. This paper investigates the design of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO that will be an essential building block of such wireless implantable devices operating in the MICS service band. Three different integrated quadrature VCOs that meet the requirements of the MICS standard are designed in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS process to propose an optimum choice. Their performances in terms of power consumption, die area, linearity, and phase noise are compared. The fabricated VCOs are a four-stage differential ring VCO, an LC tank VCO directly loaded with a poly-phase filter, and an 800 MHz LC tank VCO with a high-frequency master-slave divider. All three architectures target a VCO gain of Kvco = 15 MHz/V with 3 calibration control and 2 frequency-shift keying (FSK control signals and are designed for 1.5 V supply voltage in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process.

  16. Design of free space optical omnidirectional transceivers for indoor applications using non-imaging optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Navik; Davis, Christopher C.

    2008-08-01

    Omnidirectional free space optical communication receivers can employ multiple non-imaging collectors, such as compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs), in an array-like fashion to increase the amount of possible light collection. CPCs can effectively channel light collected over a large aperture to a small area photodiode. The aperture to length ratio of such devices can increase the overall size of the transceiver unit, which may limit the practicality of such systems, especially when small size is desired. New non-imaging collector designs with smaller sizes, larger field of view (FOV), and comparable transmission curves to CPCs, offer alternative transceiver designs. This paper examines how transceiver performance is affected by the use of different non-imaging collector shapes that are designed for wide FOV with reduced efficiency compared with shapes such as the CPC that are designed for small FOV with optimal efficiency. Theoretical results provide evidence indicating that array-like transceiver designs using various non-imaging collector shapes with less efficient transmission curves, but a larger FOV will be an effective means for the design of omnidirectional optical transceiver units. The results also incorporate the effects of Fresnel loss at the collector exit aperture-photodiode interface, which is an important consideration for indoor omnidirectional FSO systems.

  17. Finite element simulation and experimental analysis of thermal distribution of optical transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, ZHANG; Lei, NIE; Kai, JIANG Chuan

    2018-01-01

    In order to optimize the heat dissipation design, the finite element simulation and temperature measurement experiment were used to research the optical transceiver temperature distribution. The results indicated that the shield cage impaired the convective heat transfer efficiency of the photoelectric conversion chip in the optical transceiver. Thus the heat dissipation of the device was weakened. The optimization method was put forward to introduce the external ducts by improving the structure design of the shield cage. The simulation showed the effectiveness of this method which could improve the heat dissipation efficiency of optical transceiver products.

  18. An integrated CMOS high data rate transceiver for video applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yaping; Sun Lingling; Che Dazhi; Liang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a 5 GHz CMOS radio frequency (RF) transceiver built with 0.18 μm RF-CMOS technology by using a proprietary protocol, which combines the new IEEE 802.11n features such as multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO) technology with other wireless technologies to provide high data rate robust real-time high definition television (HDTV) distribution within a home environment. The RF frequencies cover from 4.9 to 5.9 GHz: the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Each RF channel bandwidth is 20 MHz. The transceiver utilizes a direct up transmitter and low-IF receiver architecture. A dual-quadrature direct up conversion mixer is used that achieves better than 35 dB image rejection without any on chip calibration. The measurement shows a 6 dB typical receiver noise figure and a better than 33 dB transmitter error vector magnitude (EVM) at −3 dBm output power. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Ultra-Wideband Transceiver for Integrated Communication and Relative Navigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop an innovative way of using Time Modulated Ultra Wideband (TM-UWB) transceivers (radios) to provide high performance integrated...

  20. Throughput and latency programmable optical transceiver by using DSP and FEC control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Takahito; Hoshida, Takeshi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Shigeki; Suzuki, Makoto; Morikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-concept of a programmable optical transceiver that enables simultaneous optimization of multiple programmable parameters (modulation format, symbol rate, power allocation, and FEC) for satisfying throughput, signal quality, and latency requirements. The proposed optical transceiver also accommodates multiple sub-channels that can transport different optical signals with different requirements. Multi-degree-of-freedom of the parameters often leads to difficulty in finding the optimum combination among the parameters due to an explosion of the number of combinations. The proposed optical transceiver reduces the number of combinations and finds feasible sets of programmable parameters by using constraints of the parameters combined with a precise analytical model. For precise BER prediction with the specified set of parameters, we model the sub-channel BER as a function of OSNR, modulation formats, symbol rates, and power difference between sub-channels. Next, we formulate simple constraints of the parameters and combine the constraints with the analytical model to seek feasible sets of programmable parameters. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the end-to-end operation of the proposed optical transceiver with offline manner including low-density parity-check (LDPC) FEC encoding and decoding under a specific use case with latency-sensitive application and 40-km transmission.

  1. Optical Network Virtualisation Using Multitechnology Monitoring and SDN-Enabled Optical Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yanni; Davis, Matthew; Aguado, Alejandro; Meng, Fanchao; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the real-time multi-technology transport layer monitoring to facilitate the coordinated virtualisation of optical and Ethernet networks supported by optical virtualise-able transceivers (V-BVT). A monitoring and network resource configuration scheme is proposed to include the hardware monitoring in both Ethernet and Optical layers. The scheme depicts the data and control interactions among multiple network layers under the software defined network (SDN) background, as well as the application that analyses the monitored data obtained from the database. We also present a re-configuration algorithm to adaptively modify the composition of virtual optical networks based on two criteria. The proposed monitoring scheme is experimentally demonstrated with OpenFlow (OF) extensions for a holistic (re-)configuration across both layers in Ethernet switches and V-BVTs.

  2. The miniature optical transmitter and transceiver for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C; Zhao, X; Deng, B; Gong, D; Guo, D; Li, X; Liang, F; Liu, G; Liu, T; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Chen, J; Huang, D; Hou, S; Teng, P-K

    2013-01-01

    We present the design and test results of the Miniature optical Transmitter (MTx) and Transceiver (MTRx) for the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments. MTx and MTRx are Transmitter Optical Subassembly (TOSA) and Receiver Optical Subassembly (ROSA) based. There are two major developments: the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) driver ASIC LOCld and the mechanical latch that provides the connection to fibers. In this paper, we concentrate on the justification of this work, the design of the latch and the test results of these two modules with a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) VCSEL driver

  3. Radio over fiber transceiver employing phase modulation of an optical broadband source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-10-11

    This paper proposes a low-cost RoF transceiver for multichannel SCM/WDM signal distribution suitable for future broadband access networks. The transceiver is based on the phase modulation of an optical broadband source centered at third transmission window. Prior to phase modulation the optical broadband source output signal is launched into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, as key device enabling radio signals propagation over the optical link. Furthermore, an optical CWDM is employed to create a multichannel scenario by performing the spectral slicing of the modulated optical signal into a number of channels each one conveying the information from the central office to different base stations. The operation range is up to 20 GHz with a modulation bandwidth around of 500 MHz. Experimental results of the transmission of SCM QPSK and 64-QAM data through 20 Km of SMF exhibit good EVM results in the operative range determined by the phase-to-intensity conversion process. The proposed approach shows a great suitability for WDM networks based on RoF signal transport and also represents a cost-effective solution for passive optical networks.

  4. PFGA based, full-duplex, multi-channel, optical gigabit, synchronous data transceiver for TESLA technology LLRF control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Jalmuzna, W.; Olowski, K.; Perkuszewski, K.; Zielinski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Electronic Systems; Kierzkowski, K. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics

    2005-07-01

    It may be predicted now, even assuming very conservative approach, that the next generation of the Low Level RF control systems for future accelerators will use extensively such technologies like: very fast programmable circuits equipped with DSP, embedded PC and optical communication I/O functionalities, as well as multi-gigabit optical transmission of measurement data and control signals. The paper presents the idea and realization of a gigabit synchronous data distributor designed to work in the LLRF control system of TESLA technology based X-ray FEL. The design bases on a relatively simple and cheap FPGA chip Cyclone. Commercially available SERDES (serializer/deserializer) and optical transceiver chips were applied. The optoelectronic module is embedded on the main LLRF BMB (backbone mother board). The MB provides communication with the outside computer control system, programmable chip configuration, integration with other functional modules and power supply. The hardware implementation is here described and the used software for BER (bit-error-rate) testing of the multi-gigabit optical link. The measurement results are presented. The appendix contains a comparison between the available protocols of serial data transmission for FPGA technology. This TESLA Technology Report is a partial contribution to the next version of the SIMCON system which is expected to be released this year. The SIMCON, ver 3. will contain 8 channels and multi-gigabit optical transmission capability. (orig.)

  5. Integrated Transceivers for Millimeter Wave and Cellular Communication

    OpenAIRE

    TIRED, TOBIAS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract:This doctoral thesis is addresses two topics in integrated circuit design: multiband direct conversion cellular receivers for cellular frequencies and beam steering transmitters for millimeter wave communication for the cellular backhaul. The trend towards cellular terminals supporting ever more different frequency bands has resulted in complex radio frontends with a large number of RF inputs. Common receivers have, for performance reasons, in the past used differential RF inputs. Ho...

  6. A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingchao; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua

    2009-01-01

    A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications is implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. The transceiver contains an OOK modulator and a power amplifier in the transmitter chain, an IQ direct-down converter, variable-gain amplifiers, channel-select filters and a 10-bit ADC in the receiver chain. The measured output P 1DB power of the transmitter is 17.6 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -70 dBm. The on-chip integer N synthesizer achieves a frequency resolution of 200 kHz with a phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz frequency offset and -120.83 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The transmitter, the receiver and the frequency synthesizer consume 201.34, 25.3 and 54 mW, respectively. The chip has a die area of 4 x 2.5 mm 2 including pads.

  7. A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingchao; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Ziqiang; Li Fule; Wang Zhihua, E-mail: wangjc@gmail.co [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A low cost integrated transceiver for mobile UHF passive RFID reader applications is implemented in a 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process. The transceiver contains an OOK modulator and a power amplifier in the transmitter chain, an IQ direct-down converter, variable-gain amplifiers, channel-select filters and a 10-bit ADC in the receiver chain. The measured output P{sub 1DB} power of the transmitter is 17.6 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -70 dBm. The on-chip integer N synthesizer achieves a frequency resolution of 200 kHz with a phase noise of -104 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz frequency offset and -120.83 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The transmitter, the receiver and the frequency synthesizer consume 201.34, 25.3 and 54 mW, respectively. The chip has a die area of 4 x 2.5 mm{sup 2} including pads.

  8. WDM hybrid microoptical transceiver with Bragg volume grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Vitezslav; Armas, Julio; Mareš, David; Prajzler, Václav

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents the design, simulation and construction results of the wavelength division multiplex bidirectional transceiver module (WDM transceiver) for the passive optical network (PON) of a fiber to the home (FTTH) topology network. WDM transceiver uses a microoptical hybrid integration technology with volume holographic Bragg grating triplex filter -VHGT and a collimation lenses imagine system for wavelength multiplexing/ demultiplexing. This transmission type VHGT filter has high diffraction angle, very low insertion loses and optical crosstalk, which guide to very good technical parameters of transceiver module. WDM transceiver has been constructed using system of a four micromodules in the new circle topology. The optical micromodule with VHGT filter and collimation and decollimation lenses, two optoelectronics microwave receiver micromodules for receiving download information (internet and digital TV signals) and optoelectronic transmitter micromodule for transmitting upload information. In the paper is presented the optical analysis of the optical imagine system by ray-transfer matrix. We compute and measure VHGT characteristics such as diffraction angle, diffraction efficiency and diffraction crosstalk of the optical system for 1310, 1490 and 1550 nm wavelength radiation. For the design of optoelectronic receiver micromodule was used the low signal electrical equivalent circuit for the dynamic performance signal analysis. In the paper is presented the planar form WDM transceiver with polymer optical waveguides and two stage interference demultiplexing optical filter as well.

  9. Self-Calibration Method Based on Surface Micromaching of Light Transceiver Focal Plane for Optical Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In remote sensing photogrammetric applications, inner orientation parameter (IOP calibration of remote sensing camera is a prerequisite for determining image position. However, achieving such a calibration without temporal and spatial limitations remains a crucial but unresolved issue to date. The accuracy of IOP calibration methods of a remote sensing camera determines the performance of image positioning. In this paper, we propose a high-accuracy self-calibration method without temporal and spatial limitations for remote sensing cameras. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a surface micromachining (SM point-source focal plane. The proposed method can autonomously complete IOP calibration without the need of outside reference targets. The SM procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point sources, a splitter, and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter, splitter, and SM point-source focal plane are integrated into a camera to perform an integrated self-calibration. Experimental measurements confirm the effectiveness and convenience of the proposed method. Moreover, the method can achieve micrometer-level precision and can satisfactorily complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations.

  10. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  11. The Study and Implementation of Electrically Small Printed Antennas for an Integrated Transceiver Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, Pete [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2009-04-28

    decrease the number of design iterations needed for future implementation of products requiring integration of small printed antennas. In the past, several design iterations have been needed to fine tune antenna dimensions and achieve acceptable levels of performance. This process consumes a large amount of time and material resources leading to costly development of transceiver designs. Typically, this occurs because matching components and antenna geometries are almost never correct on the first design. This work hopes to determine the limitations associated with antenna miniaturization and provide well known antenna examples that can be easily used in future work.

  12. Doubly differential star-16-QAM for fast wavelength switching coherent optical packet transceiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Lin, Yi; Walsh, Anthony J; Yu, Yonglin; Barry, Liam P

    2018-04-02

    A coherent optical packet transceiver based on doubly differential star 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DD-star-16-QAM) is presented for spectrally and energy efficient reconfigurable networks. The coding and decoding processes for this new modulation format are presented, simulations and experiments are then performed to investigate the performance of the DD-star-16-QAM in static and dynamic scenarios. The static results show that the influence of frequency offset (FO) can be cancelled out by doubly differential (DD) coding and the correction range is only limited by the electronic bandwidth of the receivers. In the dynamic scenario with a time-varying FO and linewidth, the DD-star-16-QAM can overcome the time-varying FO, and the switching time of around 70 ns is determined by the time it takes the dynamic linewidth to reach the requisite level. This format can thus achieve a shorter waiting time after switching tunable lasers than the commonly used square-16-QAM, in which the transmission performance is limited by the frequency transients after the wavelength switch.

  13. Optical transceiver ICs based on 3D die-stacking of opto-electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, P.; Raz, O.; Smalbrugge, B.E.; Plassche, van de K.L.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wafer scale fabrication of the 3D stacked transceivers is discussed. Uniform open eye patterns at 10 Gb/s/channel of both 3D stacked transmitter and receiver ICs indicates that the interconnection technology is robust.

  14. Single Mode Fiber Optic Transceiver Using Short Wavelength Active Devices In Long Wavelength Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Frederick J.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Corke, Michael; Stowe, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, single mode optical fiber technology is being utilized in systems to supply telephone service to the subscriber. However, in an attempt to be competitive with copper based systems, there are many development programs underway to determine the most cost effective solution while still providing a service that will either satisfy or be upgradeable to satisfy the demands of the consumer for the next 10 to 20 years. One such approach is to combine low cost laser transmitters and silicon receivers, which have been developed for the "compact disc" industry, with fiber that operates in the single mode regime at 1300 nm. In this paper, an optical transceiver will be presented, consisting of a compact disc laser, a silicon detector and a single mode coupler at 1300 nm. A possible system layout is presented which operates at 780 nm bi-directionally for POTS and upgradeable to 1300 nm for video services. There are several important design criteria that have to be considered in the development of such a system which will be addressed. These include: 1. Optimization of coupled power from laser to fiber while maintaining stable launched conditions over a wide range of environmental conditions. 2. Consideration of the multimode operation of the 1300 nm single mode fiber while operating in the 780 nm wavelength region. 3. Development of a low cost pseudo-wavelength division multiplexer for 1300 nm single mode/780 nm multimode operation and a low cost dual mode 50/50, 780 nm splitter using 1300 nm fiber. Details will be given of the design criteria and solution in terms of optimized design. Results of the performance of several prototype devices will be given with indications of the merits of this approach and where further development effort should be applied.

  15. Silicon photonics fiber-to-the-home transceiver array based on transfer-printing-based integration of III-V photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; De Groote, Andreas; Abbasi, Amin; Loi, Ruggero; O'Callaghan, James; Corbett, Brian; Trindade, António José; Bower, Christopher A; Roelkens, Gunther

    2017-06-26

    A 4-channel silicon photonics transceiver array for Point-to-Point (P2P) fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) optical networks at the central office (CO) side is demonstrated. A III-V O-band photodetector array was integrated onto the silicon photonic transmitter through transfer printing technology, showing a polarization-independent responsivity of 0.39 - 0.49 A/W in the O-band. The integrated PDs (30 × 40 μm 2 mesa) have a 3 dB bandwidth of 11.5 GHz at -3 V bias. Together with high-speed C-band silicon ring modulators whose bandwidth is up to 15 GHz, operation of the transceiver array at 10 Gbit/s is demonstrated. The use of transfer printing for the integration of the III-V photodetectors allows for an efficient use of III-V material and enables the scalable integration of III-V devices on silicon photonics wafers, thereby reducing their cost.

  16. Towards Bandwidth Scalable Transceiver Technology for Optical Metro-Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spolitis, Sandis; Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs; Wagner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    sliceable transceiver for 1 Gbit/s non-return to zero (NRZ) signal sliced into two slices is presented. Digital signal processing (DSP) power consumption and latency values for proposed sliceable transceiver technique are also discussed. In this research post FEC with 7% overhead error free transmission has......Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment is creating a challenge for telecommunications network operators: exponential increase of the power consumption at the central offices and a never ending quest for equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. In this paper, we report on flexible...... signal slicing technique, which allows transmission of high-bandwidth signals via low bandwidth electrical and optoelectrical equipment. The presented signal slicing technique is highly scalable in terms of bandwidth which is determined by the number of slices used. In this paper performance of scalable...

  17. Co-integration of an RF engergy harverster into a 2.4 GHz transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuch, J.; Delgado-Restituto, M.; Milosevic, D.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an RF energy harvester embedded in a low-power transceiver (TRX) front-end. Both the harvester and the TRX use the same antenna and operate at the same frequency of 2.4 GHz. To decouple the harvester from the TRX, different concepts are proposed regarding the transmitter (TX) and

  18. 10Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver for PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liow, T. Y.; Lo, G. Q.; Kwong, D. L.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a new passive optical network (PON) configuration and a novel silicon photonic transceiver architecture for optical network unit (ONU), eliminating the need for an internal laser source in ONU. We adopt dual fiber network configuration. The internal light source in each of the ONUs is eliminated. Instead, an extra seed laser source in the optical line termination (OLT) operates in continuous wave mode to serve the ONUs in the PON as a shared and centralized laser source. λ1 from OLT Tx and λ2 from the seed laser are combined by using a WDM combiner and connected to serve the multiple ONUs through the downstream fibers. The ONUs receive the data in λ1. Meanwhile, the ONUs encode and transmit data in λ2, which are sent back to OLT. The monolithic ONU transceiver contains a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter component, a silicon modulator and a Ge photo-detector. The WDM in ONU selectively guides λ1 to the Ge-PD where the data in λ1 are detected and converted to electrical signals, and λ2 to the transmitter where the light is modulated by upstream data. The modulated optical signals in λ2 from ONUs are connected back to OLT through upstream fibers. The monolithic ONU transceiver chip size is only 2mm by 4mm. The crosstalk between the Tx and Rx is measured to be less than -20dB. The transceiver chip is integrated on a SFP+ transceiver board. Both Tx and Rx demonstrated data rate capabilities of up to 10Gbps. By implementing this scheme, the ONU transceiver size can be significantly reduced and the assembly processes will be greatly simplified. The results demonstrate the feasibility of mass manufacturing monolithic silicon ONU transceivers via low cost

  19. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  20. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M

    1994-01-01

    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  1. Combined Optical and Electrical Spectrum Shaping for High-Baud-Rate Nyquist-WDM Transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Borkowski, Robert; Preussler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    bandwidth is related to the optical comb parameters 25 and the pulse shaping of the modulating waveforms in the electrical domain. Such de- 26 pendence may result in broadening of the modulated spectra, which can degrade the 27 performance of Nyquist-WDM systems due to interchannel crosstalk penalties....... To investigate the benefits of the proposed approach, we demonstrate 32 the first WDM Nyquist-OTDM signal generation based on the periodic train of sinc pulses 33 and electrical spectrum shaping. Straight line transmission of five 112.5-Gbd Nyquist- 34 OTDM dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK......We discuss the benefits and limitations of optical time-division multiplexing 22 (OTDM) techniques based on the optical generation of a periodic train of sinc pulses for 23 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission at high baud rates. It is shown 24 how the modulated OTDM spectrum...

  2. Non-Mechanical Beam Steering in Free-Space Optical Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Kevin

    Free-space optical communications systems are a rapidly growing field as they carry many of the advantages of traditional fibre-based communications systems without the added investment of installing complex infrastructure. Moreover, these systems are finding key niches in mobile platforms in order to take advantage of the increased bandwidth over traditional RF systems. Of course, the inevitable problem of tracking arises when dealing with mobile stations. To compound the problem in the case of communications to low Earth or geosynchronous orbits, FSOC systems typically operate with tightly confined beams over great distances often requiring pointing accuracies on the order of micro-radians or smaller. Mechanisms such as gimbal mounts and fine-steering mirrors are the usual candidates for platform stabilization, however, these clearly have substantial power requirements and inflate the mass of the system. Spatial light modulators (also known as optical phased arrays), on the other hand, offer a suitable alternative for beam-pointing stabilization. Some of the advantages of spatial light modulators over fine-steering mirrors include programmable multiple simultaneous beams, dynamic focus/defocus and moderate to excellent optical power handling capability. This thesis serves as an investigation into the implementation of spatial light modulators as a replacement for traditional fine-steering mirrors in the fine-pointing subsystem. In particular, pointing accuracy and scanning ability will be highlighted as performance metrics in the context of a variety of communication scenarios. Keywords: Free-space optical communications, beam steering, fine-steering mirror, spatial light modulator, optical phased array.

  3. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An RF-to-DC energy harvester for co-integration in a low-power 2.4 GHz transceiver frontend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuch, J.; Delgado-Restituto, M.; Milosevic, D.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    A 2.4 GHz energy harvester for co-integration into a low-power transceiver (TRx) operating at the same frequency is presented. An RF switch decouples the harvester from the TRx and keeps the performance degradation of the TRx low, i.e. 0.2 dB reduced output power in Tx-mode and 0.4 dB reduced

  5. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  6. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  7. An RF energy harvester with supply manangement for co-integration into a 2.4 GHz transceiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuch, J.; Delgado-Restituto, M.; Milosevic, D.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an RF energy harvester embedded in a low-power transceiver (TRX) front-end. Both the harvester and the TRX use the same antenna and operate at the same frequency of 2.4 GHz using a new topology with a start-up rectifier and exploiting the nonlinear impedance of the RF-DC

  8. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  9. Preliminary Opto-Mechanical Design for the X2000 Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Page, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary optical design and mechanical conceptual design for a 30 cm aperture transceiver are described. A common aperture is used for both transmit and receive. Special attention was given to off-axis and scattered light rejection and isolation of the receive channel from the transmit channel. Requirements, details of the design and preliminary performance analysis of the transceiver are provided.

  10. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  11. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  12. Integrated Optical Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    applications in optical disk memory systems [91. This device is constructed in a glass /SiO2/Si waveguide. The choice of a Si substrate allows for the...contact mask) were formed in the photoresist deposited on all of the samples, we covered the unwanted gratings on each sample with cover glass slides...processing, let us consider TeO2 (v, = 620 m/s) as a potential substrate for applications requiring large time delays. This con- sideration is despite

  13. Kramers-Kronig PAM Transceiver and Two-Sided Polarization-Multiplexed Kramers-Kronig Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Cristian; Mecozzi, Antonio; Shtaif, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We propose two transceiver schemes based on Kramers Kronig (KK) detection. One targets low-cost high-throughput applications and uses PAM transmission in combination with direct detection and digital reconstruction of the optical phase. This scheme allows digital compensation of chromatic dispersion and provides a significant improvement in terms of spectral efficiency, compared to conventional PAM transmission. The second scheme targets high-channel-count coherent systems with the aim of simplifying the receiver complexity by reducing the optical components count.

  14. Advanced Silicon Photonic Transceivers - the Case of a Wavelength Division and Polarization Multiplexed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Receiver for Terabit/s Optical Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    formats by the co- integration of a passive 90 degree optical hybrid, highspeed balanced Ge photodetectors and a high-speed two-channel transimpedance...40 Gbaud and can handle advanced modulation formats by the co-integration of a passive 90 degree optical hybrid, high- speed balanced Ge...reached at an OSNR of 12.4 dB. The hard -decision FEC (HD-FEC) threshold (BER of 3.8 × 10-3 for 7% overhead) requires 14 dB OSNR. For 16-QAM this requires

  15. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  16. Integrated optics theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hunsperger, Robert G

    1984-01-01

    Our intent in producing this book was to provide a text that would be comprehensive enough for an introductory course in integrated optics, yet concise enough in its mathematical derivations to be easily readable by a practicing engineer who desires an overview of the field. The response to the first edition has indeed been gratifying; unusually strong demand has caused it to be sold out during the initial year of publication, thus providing us with an early opportunity to produce this updated and improved second edition. This development is fortunate, because integrated optics is a very rapidly progressing field, with significant new research being regularly reported. Hence, a new chapter (Chap. 17) has been added to review recent progress and to provide numerous additional references to the relevant technical literature. Also, thirty-five new problems for practice have been included to supplement those at the ends of chapters in the first edition. Chapters I through 16 are essentially unchanged, except for ...

  17. Cost and Performance Comparison of an Earth-Orbiting Optical Communication Relay Transceiver and a Ground-Based Optical Receiver Subnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Wright, M.; Cesarone, R.; Ceniceros, J.; Shea, K.

    2003-01-01

    Optical communications can provide high-data-rate telemetry from deep-space probes with subsystems that have lower mass, consume less power, and are smaller than their radio frequency (RF) counterparts. However, because optical communication is more affected by weather than is RF communication, it requires ground station site diversity to mitigate the adverse effects of inclement weather on the link. An optical relay satellite is not affected by weather and can provide 24-hour coverage of deep-space probes. Using such a relay satellite for the deep-space link and an 8.4-GHz (X-band) link to a ground station would support high-data-rate links from small deep-space probes with very little link loss due to inclement weather. We have reviewed past JPL-funded work on RF and optical relay satellites, and on proposed clustered and linearly dispersed optical subnets. Cost comparisons show that the life cycle costs of a 7-m optical relay station based on the heritage of the Next Generation Space Telescope is comparable to that of an 8-station subnet of 10-m optical ground stations. This makes the relay link an attractive option vis-a-vis a ground station network.

  18. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  19. A global standardization trend for high-speed client and line side transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    Seeing the recent vast data increase in information industry, IT society will move into the new era of Zettabyte in a few years. Under these circumstances, high-speed and high-capacity optical communication systems have been deployed in the industry. Especially high speed optical transceivers are key devices to realize high-speed systems, and the practical development is accelerated. In order to develop these leading edge products timely, the global standard criteria are strongly required in the industry. Based on these backgrounds, the forum standardization bodies such as OIF PLLWG/ IEEE802.3 are energetically creating the de-fact standards. With regard to 100G/400G standardization activities, IEEE802.3 leads the client side, and OIF PLL-WG leads the line side, and both of them play important roles in the industry. In the previous Photonics West conferences, the activities of these standardization bodies till 2013 were reported. In 2014, the discussions of 400G client side transceiver projects have made some progress in IEEE802.3, whose baseline technologies are about to be fixed. Also 100G transceiver projects for metro applications in the line side, whose target profile is CFP2 form factor, have been discussed in OIF PLL-WG. In this paper, these high-end standardization topics are introduced and the future products direction is also discussed from the technical point of view. In order to realize these small form factor and cost effective transceivers, the device integration technologies, the low power device/electrical circuit technologies, and the development of high speed electrical interface such as 25G/50G are key factors.

  20. Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Cornelius, Harold; Hickling, Ron; Brooks, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Emerging test instrumentation and test scenarios increasingly require network communication to manage complexity. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. A fundamental requirement for a software-definable radio system is independence from carrier frequencies, one of the radio components that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate the viability of a promising chipset that performs conversion of radio frequency (RF) signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit the size of a commodity disk drive, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.

  1. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  2. FSO tracking and auto-alignment transceiver system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cap, Gabriel A.; Refai, Hakki H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) technology utilizes a modulated light beam to transmit information through the atmosphere. Due to reduced size and cost, and higher data rates, FSO can be more effective than wireless communication. Although atmospheric conditions can affect FSO communication, a line-of-sight connection between FSO transceivers is a necessary condition to maintain continuous exchange of data, voice, and video information. To date, the primary concentration of mobile FSO research and development has been toward accurate alignment between two transceivers. This study introduces a fully automatic, advanced alignment system that will maintain a line of sight connection for any FSO transceiver system. A complete transceiver system includes a position-sensing detector (PSD) to receive the signal, a laser to transmit the signal, a gimbal to move the transceiver to maintain alignment, and a computer to coordinate the necessary movements during motion. The FSO system was tested for mobility by employing one gimbal as a mobile unit and establishing another as a base station. Tests were performed to establish that alignment between two transceivers could be maintained during a given period of experiments and to determine the maximum speeds tolerated by the system. Implementation of the transceiver system can be realized in many ways, including vehicle-to-base station communication or vehicle-to-vehicle communication. This study is especially promising in that it suggests such a system is able to provide high-speed data in many applications where current wireless technology may not be effective. This phenomenon, coupled with the ability to maintain an autonomously realigned connection, opens the possibility of endless applications for both military and civilian use.

  3. Integrable models of quantum optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudson Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an overview of exactly solvable many-body models of quantum optics. Among them is a system of two-level atoms which interact with photons propagating in a one-dimensional (1D chiral waveguide; exact eigenstates of this system can be explicitly constructed. This approach is used also for a system of closely located atoms in the usual (non-chiral waveguide or in 3D space. Moreover, it is shown that for an arbitrary atomic system with a cascade spontaneous radiative decay, the fluorescence spectrum can be described by an exact analytic expression which accounts for interference of emitted photons. Open questions related with broken integrability are discussed.

  4. Indium phosphide (InP) for optical interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebby, M.; Ristic, S.; Calabretta, N.; Stabile, R.; Tekin, T.; Pitwon, R.; Håkansson, A.; Pleros, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present InP as the incumbent technology for data center transceiver and switching optics. We review the most popular InP monolithic integration approaches in light of photonic integration being recognized as an increasingly important technology for data center optics. We present Multi-Guide

  5. The Design of Polymer Planar Optical Triplexer with MMI Filter and Directional Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jerabek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical bidirectional WDM transceiver is a key component of the Passive Optical Network of the Fiber to the Home topology. Essential parts of such transceivers are filters that combine multiplexing and demultiplexing function of optical signal (triplexing filters. In this paper we report about a design of a new planar optical multi-wavelength selective system triplexing filter, which combines a multimode interference filter with directional coupler based on the epoxy polymer SU-8 on Si/SiO2 substrate. The optical triplexing filter was designed using the Beam Propagation Method. The aim of this project was to optimize the triplexing filter optical parameters and to minimize the planar optical wavelength selective system dimensions. The multimode interference filter was used for separation of downstream optical signal in designed optoelectronic integrated WDM transceiver. The directional coupler was used for adding of upstream optical signal.

  6. Integrated optical circuit comprising a polarization convertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated optical circuit includes a first device and a second device, which devices are connected by a polarization convertor. The polarization convertor includes a curved section of a waveguide, integrated in the optical circuit. The curved section may have several differently curved

  7. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering For Optical Fiber Gyrocopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; We, Albert C.; Keur, M.; Lukas, Greg; Ott, Daniel M...; Sriram, S.

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes are of interest for low-cost, high performance rotation sensors. Integrated optical implementations of the processing optics offer the hope of mass-production, and associated cost reductions. The development of a suitable integrated optical system has been reported by other authors at a wavelength of 850nm [1]. Despite strong technical advantages at 1.3μm wavelength [2], no results have yet appeared. This wavelength is preferred for telecommunications applications applications, thus significantly reduced fiber costs may be realized. Lithium niobate is relatively immune from the photorefractive effect at this wavelength, whereas it is not at at 850nm [3].

  8. Wireless transceiver circuits system perspectives and design aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Woogeun

    2015-01-01

    This cutting-edge work contains comprehensive coverage of integrated circuit (IC) design for modern transceiver circuits and wireless systems. Ranging in scope from system perspectives to practical circuit design for emerging wireless applications, the book includes detailed discussions of transceiver architectures and system parameters, mm-wave circuits, ultra-low-power radios for biomedical and sensor applications, and the latest circuit techniques. Written by renowned international experts in IC industry and academia, the text is an ideal reference for engineers and researchers in the area

  9. Ultra-compact coherent receiver with serial interface for pluggable transceiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Fumito; Ohno, Tetsuichiro; Yamanaka, Shogo; Soma, Shunichi; Saida, Takashi; Nosaka, Hideyuki; Murata, Koichi

    2014-09-22

    An ultra-compact integrated coherent receiver with a volume of 1.3 cc using a quad-channel transimpedance amplifier (TIA)-IC chip with a serial peripheral interface (SPI) is demonstrated for the first time. The TIA with the SPI and photodiode (PD) bias circuits, a miniature dual polarization optical hybrid, an octal-PD and small optical coupling system enabled the realization of the compact receiver. Measured transmission performance with 32 Gbaud dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying signal is equivalent to that of the conventional multi-source agreement-based integrated coherent receiver with dual channel TIA-ICs. By comparing the bit-error rate (BER) performance with that under continuous SPI access, we also confirmed that there is no BER degradation caused by SPI interface access. Such an ultra-compact receiver is promising for realizing a new generation of pluggable transceivers.

  10. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  11. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  12. A low-latency optical switch architecture using integrated μm SOI-based contention resolution and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgias-Alexandris, G.; Moralis-Pegios, M.; Terzenidis, N.; Cherchi, M.; Harjanne, M.; Aalto, T.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.

    2018-02-01

    The urgent need for high-bandwidth and high-port connectivity in Data Centers has boosted the deployment of optoelectronic packet switches towards bringing high data-rate optics closer to the ASIC, realizing optical transceiver functions directly at the ASIC package for high-rate, low-energy and low-latency interconnects. Even though optics can offer a broad range of low-energy integrated switch fabrics for replacing electronic switches and seamlessly interface with the optical I/Os, the use of energy- and latency-consuming electronic SerDes continues to be a necessity, mainly dictated by the absence of integrated and reliable optical buffering solutions. SerDes undertakes the role of optimally synergizing the lower-speed electronic buffers with the incoming and outgoing optical streams, suggesting that a SerDes-released chip-scale optical switch fabric can be only realized in case all necessary functions including contention resolution and switching can be implemented on a common photonic integration platform. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally a hybrid Broadcast-and-Select (BS) / wavelength routed optical switch that performs both the optical buffering and switching functions with μm-scale Silicon-integrated building blocks. Optical buffering is carried out in a silicon-integrated variable delay line bank with a record-high on-chip delay/footprint efficiency of 2.6ns/mm2 and up to 17.2 nsec delay capability, while switching is executed via a BS design and a silicon-integrated echelle grating, assisted by SOA-MZI wavelength conversion stages and controlled by a FPGA header processing module. The switch has been experimentally validated in a 3x3 arrangement with 10Gb/s NRZ optical data packets, demonstrating error-free switching operation with a power penalty of <5dB.

  13. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  14. Generation of optical vortices in an integrated optical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Rebeca; Kusko, Mihai; Kusko, Cristian

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the generation of optical vortices in an optical integrated circuit is numerically demonstrated. The optical vortices with topological charge m = ±1 are obtained by the coherent superposition of the first order modes present in a waveguide with a rectangular cross section, where the phase delay between these two propagating modes is Δφ = ±π/2. The optical integrated circuit consists of an input waveguide continued with a y-splitter. The left and the right arms of the splitter form two coupling regions K1 and K2 with a multimode output waveguide. In each coupling region, the fundamental modes present in the arms of the splitter are selectively coupled into the output waveguide horizontal and vertical first order modes, respectively. We showed by employing the beam propagation method simulations that the fine tuning of the geometrical parameters of the optical circuit makes possible the generation of optical vortices in both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. Also, we demonstrated that by placing a thermo-optical element on one of the y-splitter arms, it is possible to switch the topological charge of the generated vortex from m = 1 to m = -1.

  15. Boson sampling with integrated optical circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentivegna, M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating the evolution of non-interacting bosons through a linear transformation acting on the system’s Fock state is strongly believed to be hard for a classical computer. This is commonly known as the Boson Sampling problem, and has recently got attention as the first possible way to demonstrate the superior computational power of quantum devices over classical ones. In this paper we describe the quantum optics approach to this problem, highlighting the role of integrated optical circuits.

  16. Optical electronics self-organized integration and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionFrom Electronics to Optical ElectronicsAnalysis Tools for Optical CircuitsSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Theoretical AnalysisSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Experimental DemonstrationsOptical Waveguide Films with Vertical Mirrors 3-D Optical Circuits with Stacked Waveguide Films Heterogeneous Thin-Film Device IntegrationOptical Switches OE Hardware Built by Optical ElectronicsIntegrated Solar Energy Conversion SystemsFuture Challenges.

  17. Fibre Optic Gyroscope Developments Using Integrated Optic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.; DePaula, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The sensing of rotation using counterpropagating optical beams in a fiber loop (the SAGNAC effect) has gone through extensive developments and demonstrations since first proved feasible by Vali and Shorthilll in 1976. The interferometric fiber gyroscope minimum configuration2 which uses a common input-output port and single-mode filter was developed to provide the extreme high stability necessary to reach the sensitivities at low rotation rates attainable with current state-of-the-art detectors. The simplicity and performance of this configuration has led to its acceptance and wide-spread use. In order to increase the mechanical stability of this system, all single-mode fiber components are employed and a further advancement to integrated optics has enabled most of the optical functions to be placed on a single mass-producible substrate. Recent improvements in the components (eg polarization maintaining fiber and low coherence sources) have further enhanced the performance of the minimum configuration gyro. This presentation focused on the impact of LiNbO3 integrated optic components on gyroscope developments. The use of Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide optical circuits in interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes has taken two directions: to utilize only the phase modulator, or to combine many of the minimum configuration optical functions on the electro-optic substrate. The high-bandwidth phase modulator is the driving force for using LiNbO3 waveguide devices. This device allows both biasing the gyro for maximum sensitivity and closing the loop via frequency shifting, for example, thus increasing the dynamic range of the gyro and the linearity of the scale factor. Efforts to implement most of the minimum configuration optical functions onto a single LiNbO3 substrate have been led by Thomson CSF.3 They have demonstrated an interferometric gyroscope with excellent performance using a LiNbO3 optical circuit containing a Y-splitter, phase modulator, and surface

  18. Pigtailing of integrated optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenth, Karin

    2001-01-01

    , but also a silicon motherboard for laser diode pigtailing and a Variable Optical Attenuator have been realized. The pigtailing method consists of three major parts: a waveguide chip with alignment trenches, a fiber array with alignment trenches, and a top plate with alignment rails. The top plate aligns....... The fiber array carrier and the top plate are fabricated by potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching. A method to align the mask pattern to the crystal orientation of the silicon substrate has been implemented. The impact of the etch of the nitride layer, used as an etch mask in KOH, on the line widths...... of the critical structures has been studied. The influence of the process parameters of a RIE etch process has been investigated with respect to the etch rate uniformity. After processing the variation of the line widths of the critical structures on the fiber array carrier and the top plate is determined...

  19. Photonics in wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, A.; Ghelfi, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last few years, the cross-fertilization between photonics and radio systems has been helping to overcome some major limitations of the classical radio technologies, setting new paradigms, and promising improved performance and new applications with strong benefits for public communications and safety. In particular, photonics-based wireless systems, albeit still at research level, are moving toward a new generation of multifunctional systems able to manage the wireless communication with several different frequencies and protocols, even simultaneously while also realizing surveillance operations. Photonics matches the new requirements of flexibility for software-defined architectures, thanks to its ultra-wide bandwidths and ease of tunability, and guarantees low footprint and weight, thanks to integrated photonic technologies. Moreover, photonics also allows increased resolution and sensitivity by means of the inherent low phase noise of lasers. (author)

  20. Low-Cost Transceiver Architectures for 60 GHz Ultra Wideband WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Tatu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave multiport transceiver architectures dedicated to 60 GHz UWB short-range communications are proposed in this paper. Multi-port circuits based on 90° hybrid couplers are intensively used for phased antenna array, millimeter-wave modulation and down-conversion, as a low-cost alternative to the conventional architecture. This allows complete integration of circuits including antennas, in planar technology, on the same substrate, improving the overall transceiver performances.

  1. Photonic-Based RF Transceiver for UWB Multi-Carrier Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Scotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an all-optical system exploitable as the core structure for a photonic-based RF transceiver is presented. The proposed scheme is able to simultaneously perform either up- or down-conversion of multiple frequency Ultra-Wide Band (UWB RF signals, employing a single Mode-Locking Laser (MLL. The system has been experimentally demonstrated and tested by up- and down-converting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM signals over a bandwidth of about 4 GHz. The scheme’s performance has been validated by measuring the error vector magnitude (EVM of the OFDM signals over the whole considered RF spectrum (from 5 GHz to 26.5 GHz, both in up-conversion and in down-conversion. The measurements show negligible power penalties, lower than 0.5 dB. Since the proposed scheme can act either as an up- or down-converter, and it is composed by easily integratable devices, two identical structures can be combined on a single integrated platform, sharing a single MLL, to build a compact and efficient UWB transceiver.

  2. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  3. Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a rapidly growing interest in integrated optical (IO) sensors, expecially because many of them principally allow for sensitive, real time, label-free-on-site measurements of the concentration of (bio-)chemical species. This review aims at giving an overview of

  4. Progress in high index contrast integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baets, R.G.F.; Bienstman, P.; Bogaerts, W.; Brouckaert, J.; De Backere, P.; Dumon, P.; Roelkens, G.; Scheerlinck, S.; Smit, M.K.; Taillaert, D.; Van Campenhout, J.; Van Laere, F.; Thourhout, Van D.

    2007-01-01

    A large fraction of the recent innovation in integrated optics is enabled by the use of high index contrast structures and devices. The strong confinement achievable in such devices allows for dramatic performance benefits and downscaling. In this paper the progress in this field is reviewed.

  5. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  6. Materials and integration schemes for above-IC integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; Rangarajan, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on silicon oxynitride material for waveguides and germanium-silicon alloys for p-i-n diodes. The materials are manufactured at low, CMOS-backend compatible temperatures, targeting the integration of optical functions on top of CMOS chips. Low-temperature germanium-silicon

  7. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  8. Dual-polarization multi-band optical OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500 Gb/s uncompensated long-haul links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoumidis, E; Jarajreh, M A; Sygletos, S; Le, S T; Farjady, F; Tsokanos, A; Hamié, A; Pincemin, E; Jaouën, Y; Ellis, A D; Doran, N J

    2014-05-05

    A number of critical issues for dual-polarization single- and multi-band optical orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (DP-SB/MB-OFDM) signals are analyzed in dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)-free long-haul links. For the first time, different DP crosstalk removal techniques are compared, the maximum transmission-reach is investigated, and the impact of subcarrier number and high-level modulation formats are explored thoroughly. It is shown, for a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10(-3), 2000 km of quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) DP-MB-OFDM transmission is feasible. At high launched optical powers (LOP), maximum-likelihood decoding can extend the LOP of 40 Gb/s QPSK DP-SB-OFDM at 2000 km by 1.5 dB compared to zero-forcing. For a 100 Gb/s DP-MB-OFDM system, a high number of subcarriers contribute to improved BER but at the cost of digital signal processing computational complexity, whilst by adapting the cyclic prefix length the BER can be improved for a low number of subcarriers. In addition, when 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is employed the digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital converter (DAC/ADC) bandwidth is relaxed with a degraded BER; while the 'circular' 8QAM is slightly superior to its 'rectangular' form. Finally, the transmission of wavelength-division multiplexing DP-MB-OFDM and single-carrier DP-QPSK is experimentally compared for up to 500 Gb/s showing great potential and similar performance at 1000 km DCF-free G.652 line.

  9. Modular initiator with integrated optical diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Kathleen [Cedar Crest, NM; Schmitt, Randal L [Tijeras, NM; Welle, Eric J [Niceville, FL; Madden, Sean P [Arlington, MA

    2011-05-17

    A slapper detonator which integrally incorporates an optical wavequide structure for determining whether there has been degradation of the explosive in the explosive device that is to be initiated by the detonator. Embodiments of this invention take advantage of the barrel-like character of a typical slapper detonator design. The barrel assembly, being in direct contact with the energetic material, incorporates an optical diagnostic device into the barrel assembly whereby one can monitor the state of the explosive material. Such monitoring can be beneficial because the chemical degradation of the explosive plays an important in achieving proper functioning of a detonator/initiator device.

  10. Integrated optical interrogation of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, III, Boyd M.; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Rajic, Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    The invention is an integrated optical sensing element for detecting and measuring changes in position or deflection. A deflectable member, such as a microcantilever, is configured to receive a light beam. A waveguide, such as an optical waveguide or an optical fiber, is positioned to redirect light towards the deflectable member. The waveguide can be incorporated into the deflectable member or disposed adjacent to the deflectable member. Means for measuring the extent of position change or deflection of the deflectable member by receiving the light beam from the deflectable member, such as a photodetector or interferometer, receives the reflected light beam from the deflectable member. Changes in the light beam are correlated to the changes in position or deflection of the deflectable member. A plurality of deflectable members can be arranged in a matrix or an array to provide one or two-dimensional imaging or sensing capabilities.

  11. Transceiver Optimization for Multi-Antenna Deviceto-Device Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daohua Zhu; Yajuan Guo; Lei Wei; Chaoyang Zhu; Biyao Huang; Wei Xu; Chunming Zhao

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communication in cellular systems can provide better support for local services.However,improper design of the hybrid system may cause severe interference between cellular and D2D links.In this paper,we consider transceiver design for the system employing multiple antennas to mitigate the interference.The precoder and decoder matrices are optimized in terms of sum mean squared error (MSE) and capacity,respectively.For the MSE minimization problem,we present an alternative transceiver optimization algorithm.While for the non-convex capacity maximization problem,we decompose the primal problem into a sequence of standard convex quadratic programs for efficient optimization.The evaluation of our proposed algorithms for performance enhancement of the entire D2D integrated cellular system is carried out through simulations.

  12. A monolithic RF transceiver for DC-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunfeng; Li Wei; Fu Haipeng; Gao Ting; Chen Danfeng; Zhou Feng; Cai Deyun; Li Dan; Niu Yangyang; Zhou Hanchao; Zhu Ning; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first monolithic RF transceiver for DC-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed direct-conversion transceiver integrates all the building blocks including two receiver (Rx) cores, two transmitter (Tx) cores and a dual-carrier frequency synthesizer (DC-FS) as well as a 3-wire serial peripheral interface (SPI) to set the operating status of the transceiver. The ESD-protected chip is fabricated by a TSMC 0.13-μm RF CMOS process with a die size of 4.5 × 3.6 mm 2 . The measurement results show that the wideband Rx achieves an NF of 5–6.2 dB, a max gain of 76–84 dB with 64-dB variable gain, an in-/out-of-band IIP3 of −6/+4 dBm and an input loss S 11 of < −10 in all bands. The Tx achieves an LOLRR/IMGRR of −34/-33 dBc, a typical OIP3 of +6 dBm and a maximum output power of −5 dBm. The DC-FS outputs two separate carriers simultaneously with an inter-band hopping time of < 1.2 ns. The full chip consumes a maximum current of 420 mA under a 1.2-V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...... wavelength from temperature and refractive index changes in the surroundings is investigated, pointing towards the use of the described fabrication method for on-chip polymer sensor systems....

  14. Interferometric interrogation concepts for integrated electro-optical sensor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, Teunis Jan

    1998-01-01

    Integrated optical sensors have a high potential in the measurement of a large variety of measurands. Research on integrated optical sensors enjoys increasing interest. In order to reach accurate performance and to facilitate the use of integrated optical sensors, electronic functions for sensor

  15. Ultra-Wideband Transceiver Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Ashutosh

    The technology landscape has quickly changed over the last few years. Developments in personal area networks, IC technology, DSP processing and bio-medical devices have enabled the integration of short range communication into low cost personal health care solutions. Newer technologies and solutions are being developed to cater to the personal operating space(POS) and body area networks(BAN). Health care is driving towards using multiple sensor and therapeutic nodes inside the POS. Technology has enabled remote patient care where the patient has low cost on-body wearables that allow the patient/physician to access vital signs without the patient physically visiting the clinic. Big semiconductor giants want to move into the wearable health monitor space. Along with the developments in fitness based health wearables, there has been a lot of interest towards developing BAN devices catering to the 'mission-critical' wearables and implants. Hearing aids, EKG monitors, neurostimulators are some examples. This work explores the use of the 802.15 ulta wideband (UWB) standard for designing a radio to operate in the a wireless sensor network in the BAN. The specific application targeted is a hearing aid. However, the design in this work is capable of working in a low power low range application with the ability to have multiple data rates ranging from a few kHz to 10's of MHz. The first radio designed by Marconi using spark-gap transmitters was an impulse radio (IR). The IR UWB technology boasts of low power, low cost, high data rates, multiple channels, simultaneous networking, the ability to carry information through obstacles that more limited bandwidths cannot, and also potentially lower complexity hardware design. The inherent timing accuracy associated with the technology gives UWB transmissions immunity to multipath fading and are hence make them more suitable for a cluttered indoor environment. The key difference with the traditional narrowband transceiver is that

  16. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  17. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...... with the integrated control scheme so as to maximize overall network throughput in the integrated network architecture. To the best of our knowledge no load balancing mechanisms, especially based on the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP) defined in the IEEE 802.3ah, have been proposed so far. The major research...... issues are outlined and a cost function based optimization model is developed for power management. In particularly, two alternative feedback schemes are proposed to report wireless network status. Simulation results show that our proposed load balancing mechanism improves network performances....

  18. Transceiver Design for Multiband OFDM UWB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenaerts DMW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB is an emerging broadband wireless technology enabling data rates up to Mbps. This paper provides an overview of recent design approaches for several circuit functions that are required for the implementation of multiband OFDM UWB transceivers. A number of transceiver and synthesizer architectures that have been proposed in literature will be reviewed. Although the technology focus will be on CMOS, also some design techniques implemented in BiCMOS technologies will be presented.

  19. Integrated optical circuits for numerical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verber, C. M.; Kenan, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated optical circuits (IOC) for numerical-computation applications is reviewed, with a focus on the use of systolic architectures. The basic architecture criteria for optical processors are shown to be the same as those proposed by Kung (1982) for VLSI design, and the advantages of IOCs over bulk techniques are indicated. The operation and fabrication of electrooptic grating structures are outlined, and the application of IOCs of this type to an existing 32-bit, 32-Mbit/sec digital correlator, a proposed matrix multiplier, and a proposed pipeline processor for polynomial evaluation is discussed. The problems arising from the inherent nonlinearity of electrooptic gratings are considered. Diagrams and drawings of the application concepts are provided.

  20. Integrated Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    acoustooptic cell was employed to input each radar return into a time-and-space integrating optical architecture comprised of several lenses, a CCD area array...acoustooptic cell and parallel rib waveguide structure. During the course of the literature survey, we became aware of an elegant and poten- tially profound...wave.) scatterer at (f , A(t) is the far-field pattern of the antenna. From the geometry of Si. 1. R can be written as [I-2R,/c - nT1 r(t) = A(nT) rectj

  1. Integrating optical, mechanical, and test software (with applications to freeform optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor; Michels, Gregory; Myer, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Optical systems must perform under environmental conditions including thermal and mechanical loading. To predict the performance in the field, integrated analysis combining optical and mechanical software is required. Freeform and conformal optics offer many new opportunities for optical design. The unconventional geometries can lead to unconventional, and therefore unintuitive, mechanical behavior. Finite element (FE) analysis offers the ability to predict the deformations of freeform optics under various environments and load conditions. To understand the impact on optical performance, the deformations must be brought into optical analysis codes. This paper discusses several issues related to the integrated optomechanical analysis of freeform optics.

  2. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  3. Transceiver design for MSD indoor free-space laser links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkova, S.; Hristov, Boian A.

    2004-06-01

    In Multi-Spot Diffusing (MSD) configuration, the communication channel can be considered virtually ideal at data rates of hundreds of Mbps. Thus, the main concern is power efficiency. We propose transceiver optical designs that allow for a reconfigurable transmitter output and independent communication channels. Transmitter employs multiple light sources that can be turned on and off independently. This way, optical signal is provided only where it is needed, which optimizes power usage. Receiver utilizes an imaging optical system and segmented photodetector, thus performing direction diversity reception. We show that when maximum ratio combining is employed for the electric signals processing and power efficient modulation schemes like L-PPM are used significant power savings can be obtained.

  4. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  5. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  6. Stripline kicker for integrable optics test accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey A.; Didenko, Alexander; Lebedev, Valeri; Valishev, Alexander

    2016-06-30

    We present a design of a stripline kicker for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). For its experimental program IOTA needs two full-aperture kickers, capable to create an arbitrary controllable kick in 2D. For that reason their strengths are variable in a wide range of amplitudes up to 16 mrad, and the pulse length 100 ns is less than a revolution period for electrons. In addition, the kicker should have a physical aperture of 40 mm for a proposed operation with proton beam, and an outer size of 70 mm to fit inside existing quadrupole magnets to save space in the ring. Computer simulations using CST Microwave Studio show high field uniformity and wave impedance close to 50 {\\Omega}.

  7. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  8. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  9. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  10. Digital transceiver implementation for wavelet packet modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Alan R.; Dill, Jeffrey C.

    1998-03-01

    Current transceiver designs for wavelet-based communication systems are typically reliant on analog waveform synthesis, however, digital processing is an important part of the eventual success of these techniques. In this paper, a transceiver implementation is introduced for the recently introduced wavelet packet modulation scheme which moves the analog processing as far as possible toward the antenna. The transceiver is based on the discrete wavelet packet transform which incorporates level and node parameters for generalized computation of wavelet packets. In this transform no particular structure is imposed on the filter bank save dyadic branching, and a maximum level which is specified a priori and dependent mainly on speed and/or cost considerations. The transmitter/receiver structure takes a binary sequence as input and, based on the desired time- frequency partitioning, processes the signal through demultiplexing, synthesis, analysis, multiplexing and data determination completely in the digital domain - with exception of conversion in and out of the analog domain for transmission.

  11. Reduced-Complexity Wireless Transceiver Architectures and Techniques for Space-Time Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation sheds light on the performance gains of multi-antenna systems when the antenna aspects and the associated signal processing and coding aspects are integrated together in a multidisciplinary approach, addressing a variety of challenging tasks pertaining to the joint design of smart...... wireless transceivers and communication techniques. These tasks are at the intersection of different scientific disciplines including signal processing, communications, antennas and propagation. Specifically, the thesis deals with reduced-complexity space-time wireless transceiver architectures...... and associated communication techniques for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and cognitive radio (CR) systems as well as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The low-complexity architectures are obtained by equipping the wireless transceiver with passive control ports which require the minimum amount of RF hardware...

  12. Development of an acoustic transceiver for the KM3NeT positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larosa, G., E-mail: giula@doctor.upv.es [Universitat Politèctnica de València, Institut d’Investigació per a la Gestiò Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC), C/Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia, València (Spain); Ardid, M.; Llorens, C.D.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Adrián-Martínez, S. [Universitat Politèctnica de València, Institut d’Investigació per a la Gestiò Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC), C/Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia, València (Spain)

    2013-10-11

    In this paper we describe an acoustic transceiver developed for the KM3NeT positioning system. The acoustic transceiver is composed of a commercial free flooded transducer, which works mainly in the 20–40 kHz frequency range and withstands high pressures (up to 500 bars). A sound emission board was developed that is adapted to the characteristics of the transducer and meets all requirements: low power consumption, high intensity of emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring the receiving signals with very good timing precision. The results of the different tests made with the transceiver in the laboratory and shallow sea water are described, as well as, the activities for its integration in the Instrumentation Line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope and in a NEMO tower for the in situ tests.

  13. Characterization of hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Seoane, J.; Kehayas, E.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Martinez, J.M.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Ramos, F.; Marti, J.; Avramopoulos, H.; Jeppesen, P.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Poustie, A.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fully-packaged, hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop with separate optical set and reset operation. The flip-flop can control a wavelength converter to route 40 Gb/s data packets all-optically. The experimental results are given

  14. Characterisation of hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Seoane, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We present a fully-packaged, hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop with separate optical set and reset operation. The flip-flop can control a wavelength converter to route 40 Gb/s data packets all-optically. The experimental results are given....

  15. Editorial European conference on integrated optics (ECIO'10)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue contains a selection of extended papers from the Fifteenth European Conference on Integrated Optics held on 7-9 April 2010. The First European Conference on Integrated Optics in the series was held in London, UK thirty years ago, and the conference has been held biannually across

  16. Low-cost millimeter-wave transceiver module using SMD packaged MMICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Gauthier, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  17. Low-Cost Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Module using SMD packaged MMICs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  18. Silicon CMOS photonics platform for enabling high-speed DQPSK transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchis, P.; Aamer, M.; Brimont, A.; Gutierrez, A.M.; Sotiropoulos, N.; Waardt, de H.; Thomson, D.J.; Gardes, F.Y.; Reed, G.T.; Ribaud, K.; Grosse, P.; Hartmann, J. M.; Fedeli, J.M.; Marris-Morini, D.; Cassan, E.; Vivien, L.; Vermeulen, D.; Roelkens, G.; Hakansson, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we review the results obtained under the framework of FP7-HELIOS project for integrated DQPSK transceivers in silicon photonics. A differential DQPSK receiver with balanced zero biased Germanium photodiodes has been demonstrated at 10Gbit/s with an error floor around 10-15. Furthermore,

  19. Low cost low power 24 GHz FMCW radar transceiver for indoor presence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, E.M.; Bolt, R.J.; Wanum, M. van; Heijningen, M. van; Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a first time right 24 GHz FMCW radar transceiver is presented. The MMIC has a low power consumption of 86 mW and an output power of -10 dBm. Due to the integrated IF amplifier, the conversion gain of the receiver is 51 dB and the base band signals are directly processed with an ADC.

  20. Theory of absorption integrated optical sensor of gaseous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The eigen and noneigen (leaky) modes of a three-layer planar integrated optical waveguide are described. The dispersion relation of a three-layer planar waveguide and other dependences are derived, and the cutoff conditions are analyzed. The diagram of propagation constants of the guided and radiation modes of an irregular asymmetric three-layer waveguide and the dependence of the electric field amplitudes of radiation modes of substrate on vertical coordinate in a tantalum integrated optical waveguide are presented. The operating principles of an absorption integrated optical waveguide sensor are investigated. The dependences of sensitivity of an integrated optical waveguide sensor on the sensory cell length, the coupling efficiency of the laser radiation into the waveguide, the absorption cross-section of the studied material, and the level of additive statistical noise are investigated. Some of the prospective areas of application of integrated-optical waveguide sensors are outlined.

  1. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  2. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pei Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  3. 100G Flexible IM-DD 850 nm VCSEL Transceiver with Fractional Bit Rate Using Eight-Dimensional PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Chorchos, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance.......We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance....

  4. Towards THz integrated photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The demonstration of an integrated terahertz transceiver featuring a quantum cascade laser and a Schottky diode mixer promises new applications for compact and convenient terahertz photonic instrumentation.

  5. Development of the multiwavelength monolithic integrated fiber optics terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, C. R.; Bryan, D. A.; Powers, J. K.; Rice, R. R.; Nettle, V. H.; Dalke, E. A.; Reed, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber Optic Terminal (MMIFOT) for the NASA Johnson Space Center. The program objective is to utilize guided wave optical technology to develop wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing units, using a single mode optical fiber for transmission between terminals. Intensity modulated injection laser diodes, chirped diffraction gratings and thin film lenses are used to achieve the wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing. The video and audio data transmission test of an integrated optical unit with a Luneburg collimation lens, waveguide diffraction grating and step index condensing lens is described.

  6. All-optical temporal integration of ultrafast pulse waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Ahn, Tae-Jung; Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2008-10-27

    An ultrafast all-optical temporal integrator is experimentally demonstrated. The demonstrated integrator is based on a very simple and practical solution only requiring the use of a widely available all-fiber passive component, namely a reflection uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This design allows overcoming the severe speed (bandwidth) limitations of the previously demonstrated photonic integrator designs. We demonstrate temporal integration of a variety of ultrafast optical waveforms, including Gaussian, odd-symmetry Hermite Gaussian, and (odd-)symmetry double pulses, with temporal features as fast as ~6-ps, which is about one order of magnitude faster than in previous photonic integration demonstrations. The developed device is potentially interesting for a multitude of applications in all-optical computing and information processing, ultrahigh-speed optical communications, ultrafast pulse (de-)coding, shaping and metrology.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  8. A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Shinada, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Takaya; Harai, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Wataru; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Koji; Toyozumi, Tatuya; Wada, Naoya

    2012-12-17

    We newly developed a 3 × 3 integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node. Optical buffers and burst-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with the gain flatness are installed in the 3 × 3 switch-node. The optical buffer can prevent packet collisions and decrease packet loss. We constructed a multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network testbed connecting two single-ring networks and a client network by the 3 × 3 switch-node. For the first time, we demonstrated 244 km fiber transmission and 5-node hopping of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10 Gigabit Ethernet frames on the testbed. Error-free (frame error rate optical packets of various packet lengths. In addition, successful avoidance of packet collisions by optical buffers was confirmed.

  9. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  10. Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Harai, Hiroaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Shinada, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Wataru; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We developed novel integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node equipment. Compared with our previous equipment, a polarization-independent 4 × 4 semiconductor optical amplifier switch subsystem, gain-controlled optical amplifiers, and one 100 Gbps optical packet transponder and seven 10 Gbps optical path transponders with 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) client-interfaces were newly installed in the present system. The switch and amplifiers can provide more stable operation without equipment adjustments for the frequent polarization-rotations and dynamic packet-rate changes of optical packets. We constructed an optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed consisting of two switch nodes for accelerating network development, and we demonstrated 66 km fiber transmission and switching operation of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10GbE frames. Error-free (frame error rate optical packets of various packet lengths and packet rates, and stable operation of the network testbed was confirmed. In addition, 4K uncompressed video streaming over OPS links was successfully demonstrated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Space Based Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the tool chain, methodology, and initial results of a study to provide a thorough, objective, and quantitative analysis of the design alternatives for space Software Defined Radio (SDR) transceivers. The approach taken was to develop a set of models and tools for describing communications requirements, the algorithm resource requirements, the available hardware, and the alternative software architectures, and generate analysis data necessary to compare alternative designs. The Space Transceiver Analysis Tool (STAT) was developed to help users identify and select representative designs, calculate the analysis data, and perform a comparative analysis of the representative designs. The tool allows the design space to be searched quickly while permitting incremental refinement in regions of higher payoff.

  12. Crosstalk performance of integrated optical cross-connects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herben, C.G.P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Maat, D.H.P.; Blok, H.; Smit, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Crosstalk performance of monolithically integrated multiwavelength optical cross-connects (OXC's) depends strongly on their architecture. In this paper, a semiquantitative analysis of crosstalk in 11 different architectures is presented. Two architectures are analyzed numerically in more detail and

  13. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.; Povazay, B.; Chang, Lantian; Alex, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, Markus

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated

  14. Compact integrated optical devices for optical sensor and switching applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of compact optical devices for sensing and switching applications. Our focus has been to realize the devices using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. Particularly the silicon photonics fabrication platform, ePIXfab, has been

  15. Transceiver and system design for digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth edition of this successful professional reference book on transceiver design, the device that both sends and receives signals, and its place within the wireless communication system. It gives engineers and others a good intuitive understanding of wireless systems and spread spectrum. New topics covered include cognitive radio, systems, networks, and commercial communications. In addition, many items have been extensively updated to improve the flow of the book and enhance comprehension.

  16. Evaluation of polymer based third order nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Blom, F.C.; Horst, F.; Horst, F.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; Lambeck, Paul; Popma, T.J.A.; Diemeer, Mart

    Nonlinear polymers are promising materials for high speed active integrated optics devices. In this paper we evaluate the perspectives polymer based nonlinear optical devices can offer. Special attention is directed to the materials aspects. In our experimental work we applied mainly Akzo Nobel DANS

  17. A Miniaturized Optical Sensor with Integrated Gas Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.; Ghaderi, M.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a highly integrated optical gas sensor is presented. The gas cell takes up most of the space in a microspectrometer and is the only component that has so far not been miniaturized. Using the tapered resonator cavity of a linear variable optical filter

  18. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  19. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  20. Optical amplification in photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The recent results in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in doped hard crystalline materials, specifically in Ti-doped sapphire and Yb-doped $KY(WO_4)_2$, are reviewed.

  1. How complex can integrated optical circuits become?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Hill, M.T.; Baets, R.G.F.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Karouta, F.; Koenraad, P.M.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Nötzel, R.; Oei, Y.S.; Waardt, de H.; Tol, van der J.J.G.M.; Khoe, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    The integration scale in Photonic Integrated Circuits will be pushed to VLSI-level in the coming decade. This will bring major changes in both application and manufacturing. In this paper developments in Photonic Integration are reviewed and the limits for reduction of device demensions are

  2. Versatile Link PLUS transceiver development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soós, C.; Détraz, S.; Olanterä, L.; Sigaud, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Zeiler, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Versatile Link PLUS project targets the phase II upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. It will develop a radiation resistant optical link, operating at up to 10 Gb/s in the upstream and up to 5 Gb/s in the downstream directions with a smaller footprint and higher channel count than its predecessor. A low-profile package is being developed that allows volume production at reduced costs, but which nevertheless can be configured to suit the individual channel count needs of different detectors. This paper describes the development strategies and summarizes the status of the feasibility demonstration phase of the project.

  3. Integrated resource management for Hybrid Optical Wireless (HOW) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Yu, Hao; Wessing, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Efficient utilization of available bandwidth over hybrid optical wireless networks is a critical issue, especially for multimedia applications with high data rates and stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we propose an integrated resource management including an enhanced...... resource sharing scheme and an integrated admission control scheme for the hybrid optical wireless networks. It provides QoS guarantees for connections through both optical and wireless domain. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme improves QoS performances in terms of high throughput and low...

  4. Compressive sensing in a photonic link with optical integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Chi, Hao

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a novel structure to realize photonics-assisted compressive sensing (CS) with optical integration. In the system, a spectrally sparse signal modulates a multiwavelength continuous-wave light and then is mixed with a random sequence in optical domain. The optical signal......, which is equivalent to the function of integration required in CS. A proof-of-concept experiment with four wavelengths, corresponding to a compression factor of 4, is demonstrated. More simulation results are also given to show the potential of the technique....

  5. 100G Flexible IM-DD 850 nm VCSEL Transceiver with Fractional Bit Rate Using Eight-Dimensional PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Chorchos, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical transceiver scheme with a net flexible bit rate up to 100Gbit/s with 5 Gbit/s granularity, using an eight-dimensional modulation format family, and investigate its performance on capacity, reach, and power tolerance....

  6. Integrated optical isolators based on two-mode interference couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yiling; Zhou, Haifeng; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Hao, Yinlei; Yang, Jianyi; Wang, Minghua

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optical waveguide isolator based on two-mode interference (TMI) couplers, by utilizing the magneto-optical nonreciprocal phase shift (NPS). The operating principle of this device is to utilize the difference between the nonreciprocal phase shifts of the two lowest-order modes. A two-dimensional (2D) semi-vectorial finite difference method is used to calculate the difference between the nonreciprocal phase shifts of the two lowest-order modes and optimize the parameters. The proposed device may play an important role in integrated optical devices and optical communication systems

  7. All-optically integrated photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All-optically integrated photoacoustic (PA and optical coherence tomography (OCT dual-mode imaging technology that could offer comprehensive pathological information for accurate diagnosis in clinic has gradually become a promising imaging technology in the aspect of biomedical imaging during the recent years. This review refers to the technology aspects of all-optical PA detection and system evolution of optically integrated PA and OCT, including Michelson interferometer dual-mode imaging system, Fabry–Perot (FP interferometer dual-mode imaging system and Mach–Zehnder interferometer dual-mode imaging system. It is believed that the optically integrated PA and OCT has great potential applications in biomedical imaging.

  8. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All

  9. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Wu, Dengshan; Shi, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology and the promotion of many local wars in the world, altitude optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle is more widely applied in the airborne remote sensing, measurement and detection. In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 138.2 nm, which is under PV ≤1 4λ . The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  10. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , Pauline; Lorrain , Nathalie; Poffo , Luiz; Guendouz , Mohammed; Lemaitre , Jonathan; Carré , Christiane; Gadonna , Michel; Bosc , Dominique; Vignaud , Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as cor...

  11. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  12. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  13. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  14. Characterization methods of integrated optics for mid-infrared interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Lucas; Kern, Pierre Y.; Schanen-Duport, Isabelle; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    his article deals with one of the important instrumentation challenges of the stellar interferometry mission IRSI-Darwin of the European Space Agency: the necessity to have a reliable and performant system for beam combination has enlightened the advantages of an integrated optics solution, which is already in use for ground-base interferometry in the near infrared. Integrated optics provides also interesting features in terms of filtering, which is a main issue for the deep null to be reached by Darwin. However, Darwin will operate in the mid infrared range from 4 microns to 20 microns where no integrated optics functions are available on-the-shelf. This requires extending the integrated optics concept and the undergoing technology in this spectral range. This work has started with the IODA project (Integrated Optics for Darwin) under ESA contract and aims to provide a first component for interferometry. In this paper are presented the guidelines of the characterization work that is implemented to test and validate the performances of a component at each step of the development phase. We present also an example of characterization experiment used within the frame of this work, is theoretical approach and some results.

  15. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-07-15

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10{sup -15}. The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  16. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-05-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10 -15 . The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  17. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  18. Transceiver and system design for digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Now in a 3rd edition, this successful book provides an intuitive approach to transceiver design, allowing a broad spectrum of readers to understand the topics clearly. It covers a wide range of data link communication design techniques, including link budgets, dynamic range and system analysis of receivers and transmitters used in data link communications, digital modulation and demodulation techniques of phase-shift keyed and frequency hopped spread spectrum systems using phase diagrams, multipath, gain control, an intuitive approach to probability, jamming reduction method using various adap

  19. Optical Characteristics of a Multichannel Hybrid Integrated Light Source for Ultra-High-Bandwidth Optical Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shimizu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of a multi-channel hybrid integrated light source were described for an optical interconnection with a bandwidth of over 10 Tbit/s. The power uniformity of the relative intensity of a 1000-channel light source was shown, and the minimum standard deviation s of the optical power of the 200 output ports at each 25-channel laser diode (LD array was estimated to be 0.49 dB. This hybrid integrated light source is expected to be easily adaptable to a photonics-electronics convergence system for ultra-high-bandwidth interchip interconnections.

  20. Silicon-based optical integrated circuits for terabit communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svidzinsky, K K

    2003-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the development of silicon-based optical integrated circuits used as components in modern all-optical communication networks with the terabit-per-second transmission capacity. The designs and technologies for manufacturing these circuits are described and the problems related to their development and application in WDM communication systems are considered. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  1. INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Velikanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  2. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  3. Integrated Micro-Optical Fluorescence Detection System for Microfluidic Electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; ARNOLD, DON W.; ASBILL, RANDOLPH E.; BAILEY, CHRISTOPHER G.; CARTER, TONY RAY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; SAMORA, SALLY; SWEATT, WILLIAM C.; WARREN, MIAL E.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the design and microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary-channel electrochromatograph with laser induced fluorescence detection. The optical design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. The optical system includes a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array, two high performance microlenses and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate with a 6 mm separation between the VCSEL and photodetector. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own module and the source to detector length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The systems are designed for indirect fluorescence detection using infrared dyes. The first generation design has been tested with a 750 nm VCSEL exciting a 10(sup -4) M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and meets the system sensitivity requirements

  4. Integrated all optical transmodulator circuits with non-linear gain elements and tunable optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, P.I.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Zantvoort, van J.H.C.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize integrated InP circuits for high speed ‘all-optical’ signal processing. Single chip circuits act as optical transistors. Transmodulation is performed by non-linear gain sections. Integrated tunable filters give signal equalization in time domain.

  5. Development of a Novel, Ultra-Low SWAP, RAD-Tolerant, Multi-Channel, Reprogrammable Photonic Integrated Circuit Optical Transceiver Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — According to Topic O1, titled Space Communications, "NASA's communications capability is based on the premise that communications shall enable and not constrain...

  6. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  7. Size-selective detection in integrated optical interferometric biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Harmen K P; Ymeti, Aurel; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new size-selective detection method for integrated optical interferometric biosensors that can strongly enhance their performance. We demonstrate that by launching multiple wavelengths into a Young interferometer waveguide sensor it is feasible to derive refractive index changes from

  8. Uni- and omnidirectional simulation tools for integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffer, Remco

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents several improvements on simulation methods in integrated optics, as well as some new methods. Both uni- and omnidirectional tools are presented; for the unidirectional methods, the emphasis is on higher-order accuracy; for the omnidirectional methods, the boundary conditions are

  9. Designing neutral-atom nanotraps with integrated optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, James P. Jr.; Chu, S.-T.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Williams, C.J.; Julienne, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated optical structures offer the intriguing potential of compact, reproducible waveguide arrays, rings, Y junctions, etc., that could be used to design evanescent field traps to transport, store, and interact atoms in networks as complicated as any integrated optical waveguide circuit. We theoretically investigate three approaches to trapping atoms above linear integrated optical waveguides. A two-color scheme balances the decaying evanescent fields of red- and blue-detuned light to produce a potential minimum above the guide. A one-color surface trap proposal uses blue-detuned light and the attractive surface interaction to provide a potential minimum. A third proposal uses blue-detuned light in two guides positioned above and below one another. The atoms are confined to the 'dark' spot in the vacuum gap between the guides. We find that all three approaches can be used to trap atoms in two or three dimensions with approximately 100 mW of laser power. We show that the dark spot guide is robust to light scatter and provides the most viable approach for constructing integrated optical circuits that could be used to transport and manipulate atoms in a controlled manner

  10. Optical dichroism: E1-M1 integral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, Ivan; Carra, Paolo; Bertoni, C M

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses optical dichroism in noncentrosymmetric systems. The cases of circular and linear polarizations are considered. Integrated spectra are interpreted using effective two-electron operators, which are derived within a localized (atomic) model. As a consequence, our theory is not suitable for quantitative predictions; nevertheless, it identifies microscopic origins of natural, nonreciprocal and Jones' dichroisms

  11. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  12. Preserving Simplecticity in the Numerical Integration of Linear Beam Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Presented are mathematical tools and methods for the development of numerical integration techniques that preserve the symplectic condition inherent to mechanics. The intended audience is for beam physicists with backgrounds in numerical modeling and simulation with particular attention to beam optics applications. The paper focuses on Lie methods that are inherently symplectic regardless of the integration accuracy order. Section 2 provides the mathematically tools used in the sequel and necessary for the reader to extend the covered techniques. Section 3 places those tools in the context of charged-particle beam optics; in particular linear beam optics is presented in terms of a Lie algebraic matrix representation. Section 4 presents numerical stepping techniques with particular emphasis on a third-order leapfrog method. Section 5 discusses the modeling of field imperfections with particular attention to the fringe fields of quadrupole focusing magnets. The direct computation of a third order transfer matrix for a fringe field is shown.

  13. Performing derivative and integral operations for optical waves with optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Cun-Li [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Lin [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); Yang, Hong-Wei, E-mail: phd_hwyang@njau.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The graded refractive index waveguides can perform Fourier transform for an optical wave. According to this characteristic, simpler optical metamaterials with three waveguides are theoretically proposed, in which all of the waveguides are materials with a positive refractive index. By selecting the appropriate refractive index and structure size, the theory and simulations demonstrated that these metamaterials can perform mathematical operations for the outline of incident optical waves, including the first-order derivative, second-order derivative and the integral. - Highlights: • The derivative and integral operations of optical waves are achieved with a simpler model. • Both negative and positive refractive index boast the same functions. • The mathematical operations can be implemented only by changing the refractive index of the intermediate material. • The results will greatly expand the possible applications, including photon computers, picture processing, video displays and data storage.

  14. Integrating nanophotonic concepts and topics into optics curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, Gregory J.

    2007-06-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged as a new and important field of study, not only in research, but also in undergraduate optics and photonics education and training. Beyond the study of classical and quantum optics, it is important for students to learn about how the flow of light can be manipulated on a nanoscale level, and used in applications such as telecommunications, imaging, and medicine. This paper reports on our work to integrate basic nanophotonic concepts and topics into existing optics and optical electronics courses, as well as independent study projects, at the undergraduate level. Through classroom lectures, topical readings, computer modeling exercises, and laboratory experiments, students are introduced to nanophotonic concepts subsequent to a study of physical and geometrical optics. A compare and contrast methodology is employed to help students identify similarities and differences that exist in the optical behavior of bulk and nanostructured media. Training is further developed through engineering design and simulation exercises that use advanced, vector-diffraction-based, modeling software for simulating the performance of various materials and structures. To date, the addition of a nanophotonics component to the optics curriculum has proven successful, been enthusiastically received by students, and should serve as a basis for further course development efforts that emphasize the combined capabilities of nanotechnology and photonics.

  15. Ray and wave optics of integrable and stochastic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1979-07-01

    The generalization of WKB methods to more than one dimension is discussed in terms of the integrability or non-integrability of the geometrical optics (ray Hamiltonian) system derived in the short-wave approximation. In the two-dimensional case the ray trajectories are either regular or stochastic, and the qualitative differences between these types of motion are manifested in the characteristics of the spectra and eigenfunctions. These are examined for a model system which may be integrable or stochastic, depending on a single parameter

  16. Complete achromatic and robustness electro-optic switch between two integrated optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kyoseva, Elica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of electro-optic modulator and optical switching device, based on current integrated optics technique. The advantages of our optical switching device are broadband of input light wavelength, robustness against varying device length and operation voltages, with reference to previous design. Conforming to our results of previous paper [Huang et al, phys. lett. a, 90, 053837], the coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape. while detuning has a sign flip at maximum coupling, we called it as with a sign flip of phase mismatch model. The a sign flip of phase mismatch model can produce complete robust population transfer. In this paper, we enhance this device to switch light intensity controllable, by tuning external electric field based on electro-optic effect.

  17. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    The next generation of broadband access networks is expected to be heterogeneous. Multiple wired and wireless systems can be integrated, in order to simultaneously provide seamless access with an appropriate Quality of Service (QoS). Wireless networks support ubiquitous connectivity yet low data...... rates, whereas optical networks can offer much higher data rates but only provide fixed connection structures. Their complementary characteristics make the integration of the two networks a promising trend for next generation networks. With combined strengths, the converged network will provide both...... the complementary characteristics of the optical networks and the wireless networks, addresses motivations for their interworking, discusses the current progress in hybrid network architectures as well as the functionalities of a control system, and identifies the achieved research contributions in the integrated...

  18. Co-design of on-chip antennas and circuits for a UNII band monolithic transceiver

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2012-07-28

    The surge of highly integrated and multifunction wireless devices has necessitated the designers to think outside the box for solutions that are unconventional. The new trends have provided the impetus for low cost and compact RF System-on-Chip (SoC) approaches [1]. The major advantages of SoC are miniaturization and cost reduction. A major bottleneck to the true realization of monolithic RF SoC transceivers is the implementation of on-chip antennas with circuitry. Though complete integrated transceivers with on-chip antennas have been demonstrated, these designs are generally for high frequencies. Moreover, they either use non-standard CMOS processes or additional fabrication steps to enhance the antenna efficiency, which in turn adds to the cost of the system [2-3]. Another challenge related to the on-chip antennas is the characterization of their radiation properties. Most of the recently reported work (summarized in Table I) shows that very few on-chip antennas are characterized. Our previous work [4], demonstrated a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) based transmitter (TX) with an on-chip antenna. However, the radiation from the on-chip antenna experienced strong interference due to 1) some active circuitry on one side of the chip and 2) the PCB used to mount the chip in the anechoic chamber. This paper presents, for the first time, a complete 5.2 GHz (UNII band) transceiver with separate TX and receiver (RX) antennas. To the author\\'s best knowledge, its size of 3 mm2 is the smallest reported for a UNII band transceiver with two on-chip antennas. Both antennas are characterized for their radiation properties through an on-wafer custom measurement setup. The strategy to co-design on-chip antennas with circuits, resultant trade-offs and measurement challenges have also been discussed. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  20. Radiation-induced attenuation in integrated optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that three materials commonly employed in opto-electronic integrated circuits evaluated for radiation-induced optical attenuation in the range 300 nm to 3000 nm. These include optically clear epoxy and crystalline lithium niobate after Co-60 exposure and crystalline tellurium dioxide after mixed gamma/fast-neutron exposure. In all these materials, however, induced loss was restricted to shorter wavelengths; attenuation induced at the telecommunications windows near 850, 1300 and 1550 nm was <0.1 dB/cm

  1. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  2. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  3. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  4. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  5. Small Satellite Transceiver for Launch Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NAL Research Corporation proposes to develop a small, light-weight, low-cost transceivers capable of establishing satellite communications links for telemetry and...

  6. A low power 2.4 GHz transceiver for ZigBee applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiyang; Chen Jingjing; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a low power 2.4 GHz transceiver for ZigBee applications. This transceiver adopts low power system architecture with a low-IF receiver and a direct-conversion transmitter. The receiver consists of a new low noise amplifier (LNA) with a noise cancellation function, a new inverter-based variable gain complex filter (VGCF) for image rejection, a passive quadrature mixer, and a decibel linear programmable gain amplifier (PGA). The transmitter adopts a quadrature mixer and a class-B mode variable gain power amplifier (PA) to reduce power consumption. This transceiver is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The receiver achieves −95 dBm of sensitivity, 28 dBc of image rejection, and −8 dBm of third-order input intercept point (IIP3). The transmitter can deliver a maximum of +3 dBm output power with PA efficiency of 30%. The whole chip area is less than 4.32 mm 2 . It only consumes 12.63 mW in receiving mode and 14.22 mW in transmitting mode, respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Integrated Quantum Optics: Experiments towards integrated quantum-light sources and quantum-enhanced sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk

    The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimental application and generation of continuous variable quantum correlated states of light in integrated dielectric structures. Squeezed states are among the most exploited continuous variable optical states for free-space quantum-enhanced se...... is presented and an optimized device design is proposed. The devices have been fabricated and tested optically and preliminary interrogations of the output quantum noise have been performed....

  8. Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Baggio, J.; Meunier, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

  9. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  10. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  11. A COTS RF Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RFOptical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  12. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  13. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  14. Universal discrete Fourier optics RF photonic integrated circuit architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Trevor J; Hasan, Mehedi

    2016-04-04

    This paper describes a coherent electro-optic circuit architecture that generates a frequency comb consisting of N spatially separated orders using a generalised Mach-Zenhder interferometer (MZI) with its N × 1 combiner replaced by an optical N × N Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Advantage may be taken of the tight optical path-length control, component and circuit symmetries and emerging trimming algorithms offered by photonic integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO3, silicon, III-V or hybrid technology. The circuit architecture subsumes all MZI-based RF photonic circuit architectures in the prior art given an appropriate choice of output port(s) and dimension N although the principal application envisaged is phase correlated subcarrier generation for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. Implementation is found to be practical.

  15. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, Gene [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  16. An integrated nonlinear optical loop mirror in silicon photonics for all-optical signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifei Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM has been studied for several decades and has attracted considerable attention for applications in high data rate optical communications and all-optical signal processing. The majority of NOLM research has focused on silica fiber-based implementations. While various fiber designs have been considered to increase the nonlinearity and manage dispersion, several meters to hundreds of meters of fiber are still required. On the other hand, there is increasing interest in developing photonic integrated circuits for realizing signal processing functions. In this paper, we realize the first-ever passive integrated NOLM in silicon photonics and demonstrate its application for all-optical signal processing. In particular, we show wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK signals over a wavelength range of 30 nm with error-free operation and a power penalty of less than 2.5 dB, we achieve error-free nonreturn to zero (NRZ-to-RZ modulation format conversion at 10 Gb/s also with a power penalty of less than 2.8 dB, and we obtain error-free all-optical time-division demultiplexing of a 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal into its 10 Gb/s tributary channels with a maximum power penalty of 3.5 dB.

  17. Ka-Band, Multi-Gigabit-Per-Second Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Smith, Francis J.; Harris, Johnny M.; Landon, David G.; Haddadin, Osama S.; McIntire, William K.; Sun, June Y.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-Gigabit-per-second, Ka-band transceiver with a software-defined modem (SDM) capable of digitally encoding/decoding data and compensating for linear and nonlinear distortions in the end-to-end system, including the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA). This innovation can increase data rates of space-to-ground communication links, and has potential application to NASA s future spacebased Earth observation system. The SDM incorporates an extended version of the industry-standard DVB-S2, and LDPC rate 9/10 FEC codec. The SDM supports a suite of waveforms, including QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32- APSK, 64-APSK, and 128-QAM. The Ka-band and TWTA deliver an output power on the order of 200 W with efficiency greater than 60%, and a passband of at least 3 GHz. The modem and the TWTA together enable a data rate of 20 Gbps with a low bit error rate (BER). The payload data rates for spacecraft in NASA s integrated space communications network can be increased by an order of magnitude (>10 ) over current state-of-practice. This innovation enhances the data rate by using bandwidth-efficient modulation techniques, which transmit a higher number of bits per Hertz of bandwidth than the currently used quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) waveforms.

  18. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roqan, Iman S.

    2017-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  19. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2017-11-22

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  20. Integrated optical circuit engineering IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.; Sriram, S.

    The design and implementation of integrated optical circuits are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include lithium niobate devices, silicon integrated optics, waveguide phenomena, coupling considerations, processing technology, nonlinear guided-wave optics, integrated optics for fiber systems, and systems considerations and applications. Also included are eight papers and a panel discussion from an SPIE conference on the processing of guided-wave optoelectronic materials (held in Los Angeles, CA, on January 21-22, 1986).

  1. All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Stefania; Duval, Daphné; Sepúlveda, Borja; González-Guerrero, Ana Belen; Sendra, José Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-03-26

    We present the theoretical and the experimental implementation of an all-optical phase modulation system in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers to solve the drawbacks related to the periodic nature of the interferometric signal. Sensor phase is tuned by modulating the emission wavelength of low-cost commercial laser diodes by changing their output power. FFT deconvolution of the signal allows for direct phase readout, immune to sensitivity variations and to light intensity fluctuations. This simple phase modulation scheme increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements in one order of magnitude, rendering in a sensor with a detection limit of 1.9·10⁻⁷ RIU. The viability of the all-optical modulation approach is demonstrated with an immunoassay detection as a biosensing proof of concept.

  2. Integration and application of optical chemical sensors in microbioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Pia; Marques, Marco P C; Szita, Nicolas; Mayr, Torsten

    2017-08-08

    The quantification of key variables such as oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, glucose, and temperature provides essential information for biological and biotechnological applications and their development. Microfluidic devices offer an opportunity to accelerate research and development in these areas due to their small scale, and the fine control over the microenvironment, provided that these key variables can be measured. Optical sensors are well-suited for this task. They offer non-invasive and non-destructive monitoring of the mentioned variables, and the establishment of time-course profiles without the need for sampling from the microfluidic devices. They can also be implemented in larger systems, facilitating cross-scale comparison of analytical data. This tutorial review presents an overview of the optical sensors and their technology, with a view to support current and potential new users in microfluidics and biotechnology in the implementation of such sensors. It introduces the benefits and challenges of sensor integration, including, their application for microbioreactors. Sensor formats, integration methods, device bonding options, and monitoring options are explained. Luminescent sensors for oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, glucose and temperature are showcased. Areas where further development is needed are highlighted with the intent to guide future development efforts towards analytes for which reliable, stable, or easily integrated detection methods are not yet available.

  3. Survivable integrated grooming in multi-granularity optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjing; Guo, Lei; Wei, Xuetao; Liu, Yejun

    2012-05-01

    Survivability is an important issue to ensure the service continuity in optical network. At the same time, with the granularity of traffic demands ranging from sub-wavelength-level to wavelength-level, traffic demands need to be aggregated and carried over the network in order to utilize resources effectively. Therefore, multi-granularity grooming is proposed to save the cost and reduce the number of switching ports in Optical-Cross Connects (OXCs). However, current works mostly addressed the survivable wavelength or waveband grooming. Therefore, in this paper, we propose three heuristic algorithms called Multi-granularity Dedicated Protection Grooming (MDPG), Multi-granularity Shared Protection Grooming (MSPG) and Multi-granularity Mixed Protection Grooming (MMPG), respectively. All of them are performed based on the Survivable Multi-granularity Integrated Auxiliary Graph (SMIAG) that includes one Wavelength Integrated Auxiliary Graph (WIAG) for wavelength protection and one waveBand Integrated Auxiliary Graph (BIAG) for waveband protection. Numerical results show that MMPG has the lowest average port-cost, the best resource utilization ratio and the lowest blocking probability among these three algorithms. Compared with MDPG, MSPG has lower average port-cost, better resource utilization ratio and lower blocking probability.

  4. Optical stretching of giant unilamellar vesicles with an integrated dual-beam optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Mehmet E; Biswas, Roshni; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Thompson, James R; Mejia, Camilo A; Malmstadt, Noah; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-10-01

    We have integrated a dual-beam optical trap into a microfluidic platform and used it to study membrane mechanics in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). We demonstrate the trapping and stretching of GUVs and characterize the membrane response to a step stress. We then measure area strain as a function of applied stress to extract the bending modulus of the lipid bilayer in the low-tension regime.

  5. IDENTIFICATIONS OF FIVE INTEGRAL SOURCES VIA OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Suzanne C.; Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Heras, Juan A. Zurita; Rodriguez, Jerome; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Oezbey, Mehtap

    2009-01-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is discovering hundreds of new hard X-ray sources, many of which remain unidentified. We report on optical spectroscopy of five such sources for which X-ray observations at lower energies (∼0.5-10 keV) and higher angular resolutions than INTEGRAL have allowed for unique optical counterparts to be located. We find that INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray (IGR) J16426+6536 and IGR J22292+6647 are Type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (with IGR J16426+6536 further classified as a Seyfert 1.5) which have redshifts of z = 0.323 and z = 0.113, respectively. IGR J18308-1232 is identified as a cataclysmic variable (CV), and we confirm a previous identification of IGR J19267+1325 as a magnetic CV. IGR J18214-1318 is identified as an obscured high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), which are systems thought to have a compact object embedded in the stellar wind of a massive star. We combine Chandra fluxes with distances based on the optical observations to calculate X-ray luminosities of the HMXB and CVs, finding L 0.3-10keV = 5 x 10 36 erg s -1 for IGR J18214-1318, L 0.3-10keV = 1.3 x 10 32 erg s -1 for IGR J18308-1232, and L 0.3-10keV = 6.7 x 10 32 erg s -1 for IGR J19267+1325.

  6. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  7. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  8. Integrated optoelectronic materials and circuits for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high speed silicon and GaAs based technologies. In recent years clock speeds and on-chip density for VLSI/VHSIC technology has made packaging these high speed chips extremely difficult. A strong case can be made for using optical interconnects for on-chip/on-wafer, chip-to-chip and board-to-board high speed communications. GaAs integrated optoelectronic circuits (IOC's) are being developed in a number of laboratories for performing Input/Output functions at all levels. In this paper integrated optoelectronic materials, electronics and optoelectronic devices are presented. IOC's are examined from the standpoint of what it takes to fabricate the devices and what performance can be expected

  9. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  10. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pasquale, G; De Pasquale, D; Kim, SG

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%. (paper)

  11. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, G.; Kim, SG; De Pasquale, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%.

  12. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.; Bakapoulos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Petrantonakis, D.; Stampoulidis, L.; Poustie, A.; McDougall, R.; Maxwell, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Seoane, J.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Jeppesen, P.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be

  13. Semiclassical Path Integral Calculation of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provazza, Justin; Segatta, Francesco; Garavelli, Marco; Coker, David F

    2018-02-13

    Computation of nonlinear optical response functions allows for an in-depth connection between theory and experiment. Experimentally recorded spectra provide a high density of information, but to objectively disentangle overlapping signals and to reach a detailed and reliable understanding of the system dynamics, measurements must be integrated with theoretical approaches. Here, we present a new, highly accurate and efficient trajectory-based semiclassical path integral method for computing higher order nonlinear optical response functions for non-Markovian open quantum systems. The approach is, in principle, applicable to general Hamiltonians and does not require any restrictions on the form of the intrasystem or system-bath couplings. This method is systematically improvable and is shown to be valid in parameter regimes where perturbation theory-based methods qualitatively breakdown. As a test of the methodology presented here, we study a system-bath model for a coupled dimer for which we compare against numerically exact results and standard approximate perturbation theory-based calculations. Additionally, we study a monomer with discrete vibronic states that serves as the starting point for future investigation of vibronic signatures in nonlinear electronic spectroscopy.

  14. International Conference on Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering, 1st, Cambridge, MA, October 23-25, 1984, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, D. B.; Sriram, S.

    Aspects of waveguide technology are explored, taking into account waveguide fabrication techniques in GaAs/GaAlAs, the design and fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs phase couplers for optical integrated circuit applications, ion implanted GaAs integrated optics fabrication technology, a direct writing electron beam lithography based process for the realization of optoelectronic integrated circuits, and advances in the development of semiconductor integrated optical circuits for telecommunications. Other subjects examined are related to optical signal processing, optical switching, and questions of optical bistability and logic. Attention is given to acousto-optic techniques in integrated optics, acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in proton exchanged waveguides, optical threshold logic architectures for hybrid binary/residue processors, integrated optical modulation and switching, all-optic logic devices for waveguide optics, optoelectronic switching, high-speed photodetector switching, and a mechanical optical switch.

  15. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  16. 47 CFR 80.271 - Technical requirements for portable survival craft radiotelephone transceivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... craft radiotelephone transceivers. 80.271 Section 80.271 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.271 Technical requirements for portable survival craft radiotelephone transceivers. (a) Portable survival craft radiotelephone transceivers must comply with the following: (1) The...

  17. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Carré, Christiane; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique; Vignaud, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core layer and PMATRIFE polymer as lower cladding layer. The refractive index of the polymers and of the waveguide structure as a function of the wavelength is presented. Using these results, a theoretical study of the coupling between ring and straight waveguides has been undertaken in order to define the MR design. Sub-micronic gaps of 0.5 μm to 1 μm between the ring and the straight waveguides have been successfully achieved with UV (i-lines) photolithography. Different superstrates such as air, water, and aqueous solutions with glucose at different concentrations have been studied. First results show a good normalized transmission contrast of 0.98, a resonator quality factor around 1.5 × 104 corresponding to a coupling ratio of 14.7%, and ring propagation losses around 5 dB/cm. Preliminary sensing experiments have been performed for different concentrations of glucose; a sensitivity of 115 ± 8 nm/RIU at 1550 nm has been obtained with this couple of polymers.

  18. System-Level Model for OFDM WiMAX Transceiver in Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Alim, O.; Elboghdadly, N.; Ashour, M.M.; Elaskary, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    WiMAX (Worldwide Inter operability for Microwave Access), an evolving standard for point-to-multipoint wireless networking, works for the l ast mile c onnections for replacing optical fiber technology network but with no need for adding more infra structure within crowded areas. Optical fiber technology is seriously considered for communication and monitoring applications in space and around nuclear reactors. Space and nuclear environments are characterized, in particular, by the presence of ionizing radiation fields. Therefore the influence of radiation on such networks needs to be investigated. This paper has the objective of building a System level model for a WiMAX OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) based transceiver. Modeling irradiation noise as an external effect added to the Additive White Gaussian noise (AWGN). Then analyze, discuss the results based on qualitatively performance evaluation using BER calculations for radiation environment

  19. Design and implementation of pan-tilt FSO transceiver gimbals for real-time compensation of platform disturbances using a secondary control network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzasa, John; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2011-09-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) systems are known for providing data rates much higher than RF based systems, however their narrow beams require a method to keep the transceivers precisely aligned. To date, most systems have used a combination of coarse pointing platforms and fast steering mirrors tied to a feedback loop based on received optical power to accomplish this. This method can encounter problems if the alignment of one of the transceivers is disrupted or obstructed. In this paper, we present an approach to mitigating this problem using a low data-rate, omni-directional RF network that disseminates pointing commands to all platforms in the network, thereby if the main FSO channels are disrupted, the network can recover faster than a purely received signal strength (RSS) based approach. Utilizing custommade high precision direct drive servo pan-tilt platforms coupled with position and orientation sensors, we can calculate the appropriate pointing angles for all the transceiver platforms, which are then relayed over the control network. We present theoretical calculations regarding the required performance specifications of the control network and pan-tiltplatforms. Experimental results are then presented for a link where one transceiver is mounted on a coarse vibration platform to simulate disturbances in a real network.

  20. An ultra-low-power RF transceiver for WBANs in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Wu Nanjian; Kuang Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    A 2.4 GHz ultra-low-power RF transceiver with a 900 MHz auxiliary wake-up link for wireless body area networks (WBANs) in medical applications is presented. The RF transceiver with an asymmetric architecture is proposed to achieve high energy efficiency according to the asymmetric communication in WBANs. The transceiver consists of a main receiver (RX) with an ultra-low-power free-running ring oscillator and a high speed main transmitter (TX) with fast lock-in PLL. A passive wake-up receiver (WuRx) for wake-up function with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) CMOS rectifier is designed to offer the sensor node the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. The chip is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Its core area is 1.6 mm 2 . The main RX achieves a sensitivity of -55 dBm at a 100 kbps OOK data rate while consuming just 210 μA current from the 1 V power supply. The main TX achieves +3 dBm output power with a 4 Mbps/500 kbps/200 kbps data rate for OOK/4 FSK/2 FSK modulation and dissipates 3.25 mA/6.5 mA/6.5 mA current from a 1.8 V power supply. The minimum detectable RF input energy for the wake-up RX is -15 dBm and the PCE is more than 25%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. An ultra-low-power RF transceiver for WBANs in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qi; Wu Nanjian [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Kuang Xiaofei, E-mail: nanjian@semi.ac.cn [College of Electronic Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A 2.4 GHz ultra-low-power RF transceiver with a 900 MHz auxiliary wake-up link for wireless body area networks (WBANs) in medical applications is presented. The RF transceiver with an asymmetric architecture is proposed to achieve high energy efficiency according to the asymmetric communication in WBANs. The transceiver consists of a main receiver (RX) with an ultra-low-power free-running ring oscillator and a high speed main transmitter (TX) with fast lock-in PLL. A passive wake-up receiver (WuRx) for wake-up function with a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) CMOS rectifier is designed to offer the sensor node the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. The chip is implemented in a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. Its core area is 1.6 mm{sup 2}. The main RX achieves a sensitivity of -55 dBm at a 100 kbps OOK data rate while consuming just 210 {mu}A current from the 1 V power supply. The main TX achieves +3 dBm output power with a 4 Mbps/500 kbps/200 kbps data rate for OOK/4 FSK/2 FSK modulation and dissipates 3.25 mA/6.5 mA/6.5 mA current from a 1.8 V power supply. The minimum detectable RF input energy for the wake-up RX is -15 dBm and the PCE is more than 25%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ivanov, I.C. [Charles Evans & Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  3. All-Optical Network Subsystems Using Integrated SOA-Based Optical Gates and Flip-Flops for Label-Swapped Netorks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Kehayas, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that all-optical network subsystems, offering intelligence in the optical layer, can be constructed by functional integration of integrated all-optical logic gates and flip-flops. In this context, we show 10-Gb/s all-optical 2-bit label address recognition......-level advantages of these all-optical subsystems combined with their realization with compact integrated devices, suggest that they are strong candidates for future packet/label switched optical networks....... by interconnecting two optical gates that perform xor operation on incoming optical labels. We also demonstrate 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength-switching through an optically controlled wavelength converter, consisting of an integrated flip-flop prototype device driven by an integrated optical gate. The system...

  4. Study of the optical properties of solid tissue phantoms using single and double integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monem, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere...

  5. Integrated optical 3D digital imaging based on DSP scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2008-03-01

    We present a scheme of integrated optical 3-D digital imaging (IO3DI) based on digital signal processor (DSP), which can acquire range images independently without PC support. This scheme is based on a parallel hardware structure with aid of DSP and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize 3-D imaging. In this integrated scheme of 3-D imaging, the phase measurement profilometry is adopted. To realize the pipeline processing of the fringe projection, image acquisition and fringe pattern analysis, we present a multi-threads application program that is developed under the environment of DSP/BIOS RTOS (real-time operating system). Since RTOS provides a preemptive kernel and powerful configuration tool, with which we are able to achieve a real-time scheduling and synchronization. To accelerate automatic fringe analysis and phase unwrapping, we make use of the technique of software optimization. The proposed scheme can reach a performance of 39.5 f/s (frames per second), so it may well fit into real-time fringe-pattern analysis and can implement fast 3-D imaging. Experiment results are also presented to show the validity of proposed scheme.

  6. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Jonathan M; Hinz, Wolfgang; Rearick, Todd M; Schultz, Jonathan; Mileski, William; Davey, Mel; Leamon, John H; Johnson, Kim; Milgrew, Mark J; Edwards, Matthew; Hoon, Jeremy; Simons, Jan F; Marran, David; Myers, Jason W; Davidson, John F; Branting, Annika; Nobile, John R; Puc, Bernard P; Light, David; Clark, Travis A; Huber, Martin; Branciforte, Jeffrey T; Stoner, Isaac B; Cawley, Simon E; Lyons, Michael; Fu, Yutao; Homer, Nils; Sedova, Marina; Miao, Xin; Reed, Brian; Sabina, Jeffrey; Feierstein, Erika; Schorn, Michelle; Alanjary, Mohammad; Dimalanta, Eileen; Dressman, Devin; Kasinskas, Rachel; Sokolsky, Tanya; Fidanza, Jacqueline A; Namsaraev, Eugeni; McKernan, Kevin J; Williams, Alan; Roth, G Thomas; Bustillo, James

    2011-07-20

    The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome.

  7. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  8. Optical wireless communications for micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dominic C.; Yuan, Wei Wen; Liu, Jing Jing; Faulkner, Grahame E.; Elston, Steve J.; Collins, Steve; Parry-Jones, Lesley A.

    2006-08-01

    A key challenge for wireless sensor networks is minimizing the energy required for network nodes to communicate with each other, and this becomes acute for self-powered devices such as 'smart dust'. Optical communications is a potentially attractive solution for such devices. The University of Oxford is currently involved in a project to build optical wireless links to smart dust. Retro-reflectors combined with liquid crystal modulators can be integrated with the micro-machine to create a low power transceiver. When illuminated from a base station a modulated beam is returned, transmitting data. Data from the base station can be transmitted using modulation of the illuminating beam and a receiver at the micro-machine. In this paper we outline the energy consumption and link budget considerations in the design of such micro-machines, and report preliminary experimental results.

  9. Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Poustie, A.

    2006-01-01

    A fully-packaged hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop, where InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers are assembled onto a planar silica waveguide board, is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the flip-flop can dynamically toggle between its two states by injecting 150 ps optical

  10. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  11. A Low-power CMOS BFSK Transceiver for Health Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Lepkowski, William; Wilk, Seth J; Thornton, Trevor J; Bakkaloglu, Bertan

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS low-power transceiver for implantable and external health monitoring devices operating in the MICS band is presented. The LNA core has an integrated mixer in a folded configuration to reuse the bias current, allowing high linearity with a low power supply levels. The baseband strip consists of a pseudo differential MOS-C band-pass filter achieving demodulation of 150kHz-offset BFSK signals. An all digital frequency-locked loop is used for LO generation in the RX mode and for driving a class AB power amplifier in the TX mode. The MICS transceiver is designed and fabricated in a 0.18μm 1-poly, 6-metal CMOS process. The sensitivities of -70dBm and -98dBm were achieved with NF of 40dB and 11dB at the data rate of 100kb/s while consuming only 600μW and 1.5mW at 1.2V and 1.8V, respectively. The BERs are less than 10 -3 at the input powers of -70dBm at 1.2V and -98dBm at 1.8V at the data rate of 100kb/s. Finally, the output power of the transmitter is 0dBm for a power consumption of 1.8mW.

  12. Integrated model-based retargeting and optical proximity correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Kanak B.; Banerjee, Shayak

    2011-04-01

    Conventional resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are becoming increasingly inadequate at addressing the challenges of subwavelength lithography. In particular, features show high sensitivity to process variation in low-k1 lithography. Process variation aware RETs such as process-window OPC are becoming increasingly important to guarantee high lithographic yield, but such techniques suffer from high runtime impact. An alternative to PWOPC is to perform retargeting, which is a rule-assisted modification of target layout shapes to improve their process window. However, rule-based retargeting is not a scalable technique since rules cannot cover the entire search space of two-dimensional shape configurations, especially with technology scaling. In this paper, we propose to integrate the processes of retargeting and optical proximity correction (OPC). We utilize the normalized image log slope (NILS) metric, which is available at no extra computational cost during OPC. We use NILS to guide dynamic target modification between iterations of OPC. We utilize the NILS tagging capabilities of Calibre TCL scripting to identify fragments with low NILS. We then perform NILS binning to assign different magnitude of retargeting to different NILS bins. NILS is determined both for width, to identify regions of pinching, and space, to locate regions of potential bridging. We develop an integrated flow for 1x metal lines (M1) which exhibits lesser lithographic hotspots compared to a flow with just OPC and no retargeting. We also observe cases where hotspots that existed in the rule-based retargeting flow are fixed using our methodology. We finally also demonstrate that such a retargeting methodology does not significantly alter design properties by electrically simulating a latch layout before and after retargeting. We observe less than 1% impact on latch Clk-Q and D-Q delays post-retargeting, which makes this methodology an attractive one for use in improving shape process windows

  13. Proposal of a uniform fiber Bragg grating as an ultrafast all-optical integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaña, José

    2008-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) working in the linear regime inherently behaves as an optical temporal integrator over a limited time window. Specifically, the reflected temporal waveform from a weak-coupling uniform FBG is proportional to the time integral of an (arbitrary) optical pulse launched at the component input. This integration extends over a time window fixed by the duration of the squarelike temporal impulse response of the FBG. Ultrafast all-optical integrators capable of accurate operation over nanosecond time windows can be implemented using readily feasible FBGs. The introduced concepts are demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  14. Design of integrated optics all-optical label swappers for spectral amplitude code label swapping optical packet networks on active/passive InP technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, C.; Munoz, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Chen, Lawrence; Smit, M.K.; Capmany, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the designs of optical label swapper devices, for spectral amplitude coded labels, monolithically integrated on InP active/passive technology are pre sented. The devices are based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Multi-wavelength operation is enabled by

  15. Optical integration and verification of LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ventas, J.; Baumeister, H.; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, P.; Briegel, F.; Greggio, D.; Kittmann, F.; Marafatto, L.; Mohr, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Schray, H.

    2014-07-01

    The LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) located in Mount Graham near Tucson/Arizona at an altitude of about 3200m, is an innovative project being undertaken by institutions from Europe and USA. The structure of the telescope incorporates two 8.4-meter telescopes on a 14.4 center-to-center common mount. This configuration provides the equivalent collecting area of a 12m single-dish telescope. LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument to combine the light from both LBT primary mirrors in an imaging Fizeau interferometer. Many requirements must be fulfilled in order to get a good interferometric combination of the beams, being among the most important plane wavefronts, parallel input beams, homotheticity and zero optical path difference (OPD) required for interferometry. The philosophy is to have an internally aligned instrument first, and then align the telescope to match the instrument. The sum of different subsystems leads to a quite ambitious system, which requires a well-defined strategy for alignment and testing. In this paper I introduce and describe the followed strategy, as well as the different solutions, procedures and tools used during integration. Results are presented at every step.

  16. On the Achievable Rate of Hardware-Impaired Transceiver Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah; Amin, Osama; Ikki, Salama S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately model the transceiver hardware impairments (HWIs) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems considering different HWI stages at transmitter and receiver. The proposed novel statistical model shows that transceiver HWIs transform the transmitted symmetric signal to asymmetric one. Moreover, it shows that the aggregate self-interference has asymmetric characteristics. Therefore, we propose improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) for transmission in order to improve the achievable rate performance. IGS is considered as a general signaling scheme which includes the proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) as a special case. Thus, IGS has additional design parameters which enable it to mitigate the HWI self-interference. As a case study, we analyze the achievable rate performance of single-input multiple-output systems with linear and selection combiner. Furthermore, we optimize the IGS statistical characteristics for interference alignment. This improves the achievable rate performance as compared to the PGS, which is validated through numerical results.

  17. On the Achievable Rate of Hardware-Impaired Transceiver Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we accurately model the transceiver hardware impairments (HWIs) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems considering different HWI stages at transmitter and receiver. The proposed novel statistical model shows that transceiver HWIs transform the transmitted symmetric signal to asymmetric one. Moreover, it shows that the aggregate self-interference has asymmetric characteristics. Therefore, we propose improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) for transmission in order to improve the achievable rate performance. IGS is considered as a general signaling scheme which includes the proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) as a special case. Thus, IGS has additional design parameters which enable it to mitigate the HWI self-interference. As a case study, we analyze the achievable rate performance of single-input multiple-output systems with linear and selection combiner. Furthermore, we optimize the IGS statistical characteristics for interference alignment. This improves the achievable rate performance as compared to the PGS, which is validated through numerical results.

  18. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  19. The Signal and Noise Analysis of Direct Conversion EHM Transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayegh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct conversion modulator-demodulator with even harmonic mixers with emphasis on noise analysis is presented. The circuits consist of even harmonic mixers (EHMs realized with antiparallel diode pairs (APDPs. We evaluate the different levels of I/Q imbalances and DC offsets and use signal space concepts to analyze the bit error rate (BER of the proposed transceiver using M-ary QAM schemes. Moreover, the simultaneous analysis of the signal and noise has been presented.

  20. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  1. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  2. Three-axis orthogonal transceiver coil for eddy current sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D.; Zavyalova, K.; Goncharik, M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose the new structure of three-axis transceiver magnetic-induction coil for eddy current probing. Due to the orientation of the coils, the direct signal from the transmitting coil to the receiving coil is minimized, which provided a high dynamic range. Sensitivity in all directions is provided by combining coils of different orientations. Numerical simulation and experimental studies of such a system have been carried out and confirmed the applicability of the proposed method and the mathematical model.

  3. Simulation and Emulation of MIMO Wireless Baseband Transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Burg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of state-of-the-art wireless communication transceivers in semiconductor technology is a challenging process due to complexity and stringent requirements of modern communication standards such as IEEE 802.11n. This tutorial paper describes a complete design, verification, and performance characterization methodology that is tailored to the needs of the development of state-of-the-art wireless baseband transceivers for both research and industrial products. Compared to the methods widely used for the development of communication research testbeds, the described design flow focuses on the evolution of a given system specification to a final ASIC implementation through multiple design representations. The corresponding verification and characterization environment supports rapid floating-point and fixed-point performance characterization and ensures consistency across the entire design process and across all design representations. This framework has been successfully employed for the development and verification of an industrial-grade, fully standard compliant, 4-stream IEEE 802.11n MIMO-OFDM baseband transceiver.

  4. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  5. QKD-Based Secured Burst Integrity Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2016-03-01

    The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. It is quite evident that people prefer optical communication when it comes to large amount of data involving its transmission. The concept of switching in networks has matured enormously with several researches, architecture to implement and methods starting with Optical circuit switching to Optical Burst Switching. Optical burst switching is regarded as viable solution for switching bursts over networks but has several security vulnerabilities. However, this work exploited the security issues associated with Optical Burst Switching with respect to integrity of burst. This proposed Quantum Key based Secure Hash Algorithm (QKBSHA-512) with enhanced compression function design provides better avalanche effect over the conventional integrity algorithms.

  6. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  7. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-04-13

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.

  8. Integrated-optic current sensors with a multimode interference waveguide device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Moon; Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sang-Guk; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2016-04-04

    Optical current sensors based on polarization-rotated reflection interferometry are demonstrated using polymeric integrated optics and various functional optical waveguide devices. Interferometric sensors normally require bias feedback control for maintaining the operating point, which increases the cost. In order to resolve this constraint of feedback control, a multimode interference (MMI) waveguide device is integrated onto the current-sensor optical chip in this work. From the multiple outputs of the MMI, a 90° phase-shifted transfer function is obtained. Using passive quadrature demodulation, we demonstrate that the sensor could maintain the output signal regardless of the drift in the operating bias-point.

  9. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  10. Optical and vision: to the training more integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.; Sandoval, J.

    1997-01-01

    Engineering students answers wich show difficulties to explain , in very simple optical systems, the relationships between. a) perceived image and the curvature of the wavefront reaching the eye. b) optical system dimensions and the regions from wich complete image can be observed, are analyzed. Possible reasons for these difficulties are considered. The inclusion of the observer eye as well as an elemental model for vision when optical systems are studied is suggested. (Author) 16 refs

  11. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  12. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  13. A COTS RF/Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RF/Optical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  14. Ultrafast all-optical integrator based on a fiber Bragg grating: proposal and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2008-06-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for the implementation of an all-optical integrator based on a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in reflection that is designed to present a decreasing exponential impulse response. The proposed FBG integrator is readily feasible and can perform close to ideal integration of few-picosecond and subpicosecond pulses.

  15. Integrated optics and optoelectronics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 17-19, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka-Kha

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on integrated optics and optoelectronics discusses proton- and ion-exchange technologies, radiation effects on GaAs optical system FET devices and on the dynamical behavior of LiNbO3 switching devices, advanced lightwave components and concepts, advanced optical interconnects concepts, advanced aircraft and engine control, IOCs for fiber-optic gyroscopes, and commercial integrated optical devices. Attention is given to integrated optical devices for high-data-rate serial-to-parallel conversion, the design of novel integrated optic devices using depressed index waveguides, and a low-loss L-band microwave fiber-optic link for control of a T/R module. Topics addressed include the temperature and modulation dependence of spectral linewidth in distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes, length-minimization design considerations in photonic integrated circuits incorporating directional couplers, and the photochemical formation of polymeric optical waveguides and devices for optical interconnection applications

  16. Integrated manufacture of a freeform off-axis multi-reflective imaging system without optical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Zhu, Linlin; Yan, Ning

    2018-03-19

    Multi-reflective imaging systems find wide applications in optical imaging and space detection. However, it is faced with difficulties in adjusting the freeform mirrors with high accuracy to guarantee the optical function. Motivated by this, an alignment-free manufacture approach is proposed to machine the optical system. The direct optical performance-guided manufacture route is established without measuring the form error of freeform optics. An analytical model is established to investigate the effects of machine errors to serve the error identification and compensation in machining. Based on the integrated manufactured system, an ingenious self-designed testing configuration is constructed to evaluate the optical performance by directly measuring the wavefront aberration. Experiments are carried out to manufacture a three-mirror anastigmat, surface topographical details and optical performance shows agreement to the designed expectation. The final system works as an off-axis infrared imaging system. Results validate the feasibility of the proposed method to achieve excellent optical application.

  17. Optically controlled phased array antenna concepts using GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The desire for rapid beam reconfigurability and steering has led to the exploration of new techniques. Optical techniques have been suggested as potential candidates for implementing these needs. Candidates generally fall into one of two areas: those using fiber optic Beam Forming Networks (BFNs) and those using optically processed BFNs. Both techniques utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) in the BFN, but the role of the MMIC for providing phase and amplitude variations is largely eliminated by some new optical processing techniques. This paper discusses these two types of optical BFN designs and provides conceptual designs of both systems.

  18. Fiber-optic Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) integration with PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  19. Integrated optical circuit engineering V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-20, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.

    Recent advances in the theoretical and practical design and applications of optoelectronic devices and optical circuits are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include system and market considerations, guided-wave phenomena, waveguide devices, processing technology, lithium niobate devices, and coupling problems. Consideration is given to testing and measurement, integrated optics for fiber-optic systems, optical interconnect technology, and optical computing.

  20. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  1. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jin; Zhou Liguo; Yao Heng; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin; Fang Zhi

    2014-01-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Hybrid graphene/silicon integrated optical isolators with photonic spin–orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingwen; Sun, Xiankai; Xi, Xiang; Yu, Zejie

    2016-01-01

    Optical isolators are an important building block in photonic computation and communication. In traditional optics, isolators are realized with magneto-optical garnets. However, it remains challenging to incorporate such materials on an integrated platform because of the difficulty in material growth and bulky device footprint. Here, we propose an ultracompact integrated isolator by exploiting graphene's magneto-optical property on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The photonic nonreciprocity is achieved because the cyclotrons in graphene experiencing different optical spins exhibit different responses to counterpropagating light. Taking advantage of cavity resonance effects, we have numerically optimized a device design, which shows excellent isolation performance with the extinction ratio over 45 dB and the insertion loss around 12 dB at a wavelength near 1.55 μm. Featuring graphene's CMOS compatibility and substantially reduced device footprint, our proposal sheds light on monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices.

  3. All-optical 40 Gbit/s compact integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    An interferometric Michelson wavelength converter is presented that combines a speed-optimized semiconductor optical amplifier technology with the benefits of the integrated interferometer showing 40-Gbit/s wavelength conversion. The optimized wavelength converter demonstrates noninverted converted...

  4. Stechiometric neodymium compounds as new materials for light sources in integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Short review of physico-chemical properties of stechiometric neodymium compounds has been presented. Several constructions of minilasers as promising light sources for integrated optics devices have been described. (author)

  5. Integrated optical switch circuit operating under FPGA control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabile, R.; Zal, M.; Williams, K.A.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are enabling an abrupt step change in networking systems providing massive bandwidth and record transmission. The increasing complexity of high connectivity photonic integrated switches requires sophisticated control planes and more intimate high speed electronics. Here

  6. Integrated optics nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes for picoliter volume refractometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an integrated optics refractometric nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes in sapphire microspheres. A measurand fluid is injected in a micromachined reservoir defined in between the microsphere and an optical waveguide. The wavelength shift

  7. Integrated optical readout for miniaturization of cantilever-based sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and characterization of an integrated optical readout scheme based on single-mode waveguides for cantilever-based sensors. The cantilever bending is read out by monitoring changes in the optical intensity of light transmitted through the cantilever that also acts...

  8. Integrating sphere-based setup as an accurate system for optical properties measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdalmonem, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optical properties of solid and liquid samples has great importance. Since the integrating sphere-based setup is used to measure the amount of reflected and transmitted light by the examined samples, optical properties could...

  9. Flexible optical network components based on densely integrated microring resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design, realization and characterization of reconfigurable optical network components based on multiple microring resonators. Since thermally tunable microring resonators can be used as wavelength selective space switches, very compact devices with high complexity and

  10. A comparison of integrated and fiber optic responses in the presence of nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.W.; Wilson, V.R.; Sanchez, A.D.; Coughenour, M.; Chapman, S.

    1988-01-01

    A short survey of past experimental results is presented along with new investigative data, mathematical and physical response models and a comparison of the nuclear effects compatibility of fiber and integrated optic guided wave structures. The disparity in radiation resistance between optical fibers and guided wave structures is discussed and predictions are offered on the impact that these differences may have on influencing the eventual development of totally integrated radiation resistant structures

  11. Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , Pauline; Lemaitre , Jonathan; Guendouz , Mohammed; Lorrain , Nathalie; Poffo , Luiz; Gadonna , Michel; Bosc , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Research on sensors has experienced a noticeable development over the last decades especially in label free optical biosensors. However, compact sensors without markers for rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection of various substances induces a significant research of new technological solutions. The context of this work is the development of a sensor based on easily integrated and inexpensive micro-resonator (MR) component in integrated optics, highly sensitive and ...

  12. An ultra-efficient nonlinear planar integrated platform for optical signal processing and generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recently developed integrated platform: AlGaAs-oninsulator and its broad range of nonlinear applications. Recent demonstrations of broadband optical signal processing and efficient frequency comb generations in this platform will be reviewed.......This paper will discuss the recently developed integrated platform: AlGaAs-oninsulator and its broad range of nonlinear applications. Recent demonstrations of broadband optical signal processing and efficient frequency comb generations in this platform will be reviewed....

  13. Thin Film Magnetless Faraday Rotators for Compact Heterogeneous Integrated Optical Isolators (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0348 THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL ISOLATORS (POSTPRINT) Dolendra Karki...Interim 9 May 2016 – 1 December 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL...transfer of ultra-compact thin-film magnetless Faraday rotators to silicon photonic substrates. Thin films of magnetization latching bismuth

  14. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  15. Software-Programmed Optical Networking with Integrated NFV Service Provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Wang, Xi; Basu, Shrutarshi

    2017-01-01

    We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS).......We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS)....

  16. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  17. Robust Transceiver Design for Multiuser MIMO Downlink with Channel Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wei; Li, Yunzhou; Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Shidong; Wang, Jing

    This letter addresses the problem of robust transceiver design for the multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) downlink where the channel state information at the base station (BS) is imperfect. A stochastic approach which minimizes the expectation of the total mean square error (MSE) of the downlink conditioned on the channel estimates under a total transmit power constraint is adopted. The iterative algorithm reported in [2] is improved to handle the proposed robust optimization problem. Simulation results show that our proposed robust scheme effectively reduces the performance loss due to channel uncertainties and outperforms existing methods, especially when the channel errors of the users are different.

  18. A 10 Gb/s passive-components-based WDM-TDM reconfigurable optical access network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.C.; Jung, H.D.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective, reconfigurable optical access network by employing passive components in the remote node and dual conventional optical transceivers in ONUs. The architecture is demonstrated with bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s.

  19. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng, E-mail: xxd@tju.edu.c [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 {mu}m EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10{sup -9}. The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10 -9 . The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  2. Choosing optimum noise figure and data rate in wireless sensor network radio transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, R.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the energy consumption in wireless sensor network transceivers, we propose an approach which combines two tradeoffs. The first tradeoff is between the receiver sensitivity and transmitter output power. The second one is the duty cycle and data rate of the transceiver. The combined approach

  3. Optical propagators in vector and spinor theories by path integral formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of an extended parabolic (wide-angle) vector and spinor wave theory is presented. For that, optical propagators in monochromatic vector light optics and monoenergetic spinor electron optics are evaluated by the path integral formalism. The auxiliary parameter method introduced by Fock and the Feynman-Dyson perturbative series are used. The proposed theory supplies, by a generalized Fermat's principle, the Mukunda-Simon-Sudarshan transformation for the passage from scalar to vector light (or spinor electron) optics in an asymptotic approximation. (author). 19 refs

  4. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  5. Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.

  6. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-09-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for very bright guide star AO with substantial increase of enclosed energy. Over the last two years PALAO was upgraded to PALM-3000: an extreme, high-order adaptive optics system with two deformable mirrors with more than 3000 actuators, promising diffraction limited performance in SWIFT's wavelength range. In order to take advantage of this increased spatial resolution we upgraded SWIFT with new pre-optics allowing us to spatially Nyquist sample the diffraction limited PALM-3000 point spread function with 16 mas resolution, reducing the spaxel scale by another factor of 5×. We designed, manufactured, integrated and tested the new pre-optics in the first half of 2011 and commissioned it in December 2011. Here we present the opto-mechanical design and assembly of the new scale changing optics, as well as laboratory and on-sky commissioning results. In optimal observing conditions we achieve substantial Strehl ratios, delivering the near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the I and z bands.

  7. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  8. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    An exact line integral representation is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The positions of source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. Numerical examples...... are presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation....

  9. Integration of multiwavelength lasers with fast electro-optical modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) are of key importance in Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks because of their reduced volume and packaging costs compared to discrete components. The research described in this thesis was focussed on the integration of WDM-lasers and Radio-Frequency

  10. ZnO processing for integrated optic sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Winfried H.G.

    1986-01-01

    ZnO thin films were sputter deposited onto oxidized silicon wafers. The film quality increased with increasing applied r.f. power. Characterization of the films was performed by measurements of the attenuation of the transverse electric TE0 optical guided mode. For an applied r.f. power of 2000 W,

  11. Integrated synchronous receiver channel for optical instrumentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benten, Harold G. P. H.; Ruotsalainen, Tarmo; Maekynen, Anssi J.; Rahkonen, Timo E.; Kopola, Harri K.

    1997-09-01

    A two-channel synchronous receiver circuit for optical instrumentation applications has been designed and implemented. Each receiver channel comprises a.o. transimpedance preamplifier, voltage amplifiers, programmable feedback networks, and a synchronous detector. The function of the channel is to extract the slowly varying information carrying signal from a modulated carrier which is accompanied by relatively high levels of noise. As a whole, the channel can be characterized as a narrow band filter around the frequency of interest. Medical applications include arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurement and dental pulp vitality measurement. In both cases, two optical signals with different frequencies are received by a single photodiode. The measured performance of the optical receiver shows its suitability for the above mentioned applications. Therefore the circuit will be used in a small sized, battery-operated sensor prototype to test the sensing method in a clinical environment. Other applications include the signal processing of optical position-sensitive detectors. A summary of measured receiver channel performance: input reduced noise current spectral density between 0.20 and 0.30 pA/(root)Hz at all relevant frequencies, total programmable channel transimpedance between 7 M(Omega) and 500 M(Omega) , lower -3 dB frequency of at least 50 Hz, upper -3 dB frequency of 40 kHz, maximum voltage swing at the demodulator output of 2.4 V.

  12. Combined nanoimprint and photolithography of integrated polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    are defined in SU-8 resist, doped with Rhodamine 6G laser dye, shaped as planar slab waveguides on a Fused Silica buffer substrate, and with a lst-order DFB surface corrugation forming the laser resonator. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength range 560 nm -600 nm, determined...

  13. Generalized BICM-T transceivers: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2013-09-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the performance of bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) using convolutional codes in nonfading channels can be significantly improved if the coded bits are not interleaved at all. This particular BICM design is referred to as BICM trivial (BICM-T) and is shown to be asymptotically as good as Ungerboeck\\'s one dimensional (1D) trellis coded modulation (TCM). This BICM-T design and analysis considered a simple case of rate 1/2 channel encoder with equally spaced 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation where the code rate matches with the modulation order as required in TCM transmission. In this paper, we consider and analyze a new BICM-T design that uses a non equally spaced signal constellation in conjunction with a bit level multiplexer. With this design and analysis, one can not only exploit the full benefit of BICM-T design by jointly optimizing different transceiver\\'s modules but also enjoys the same design flexibility as the traditional BICM to independently choose the code rate and the modulation order. The presented numerical results for 64-ary QAM with rate 1/3 code shows that the considered design can offer gains up to 2.5 dB over the traditional optimal BICM design for a target bit error rate (BER) of 10-6. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  15. ISOGA: Integrated Services Optical Grid Architecture for Emerging E-Science Collaborative Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver Yu

    2008-11-28

    This final report describes the accomplishments in the ISOGA (Integrated Services Optical Grid Architecture) project. ISOGA enables efficient deployment of existing and emerging collaborative grid applications with increasingly diverse multimedia communication requirements over a wide-area multi-domain optical network grid; and enables collaborative scientists with fast retrieval and seamless browsing of distributed scientific multimedia datasets over a wide-area optical network grid. The project focuses on research and development in the following areas: the polymorphic optical network control planes to enable multiple switching and communication services simultaneously; the intelligent optical grid user-network interface to enable user-centric network control and monitoring; and the seamless optical grid dataset browsing interface to enable fast retrieval of local/remote dataset for visualization and manipulation.

  16. Integrated-optics heralded controlled-NOT gate for polarization-encoded qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Jonas; Sharma, Aditya N.; Tillmann, Max; Heilmann, René; Gräfe, Markus; Moqanaki, Amir; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Recent progress in integrated-optics technology has made photonics a promising platform for quantum networks and quantum computation protocols. Integrated optical circuits are characterized by small device footprints and unrivalled intrinsic interferometric stability. Here, we take advantage of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides' ability to process polarization-encoded qubits and present an implementation of a heralded controlled-NOT gate on chip. We evaluate the gate performance in the computational basis and a superposition basis, showing that the gate can create polarization entanglement between two photons. Transmission through the integrated device is optimized using thermally expanded core fibers and adiabatically reduced mode-field diameters at the waveguide facets. This demonstration underlines the feasibility of integrated quantum gates for all-optical quantum networks and quantum repeaters.

  17. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  18. Silicon photonics integrated circuits: a manufacturing platform for high density, low power optical I/O's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, Philippe P; Verheyen, Peter; De Heyn, Peter; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Lepage, Guy; De Coster, Jeroen; Van Campenhout, Joris

    2015-04-06

    Silicon photonics integrated circuits are considered to enable future computing systems with optical input-outputs co-packaged with CMOS chips to circumvent the limitations of electrical interfaces. In this paper we present the recent progress made to enable dense multiplexing by exploiting the integration advantage of silicon photonics integrated circuits. We also discuss the manufacturability of such circuits, a key factor for a wide adoption of this technology.

  19. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  20. Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, K; Schneebeli, L; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2012-03-26

    We have developed a novel integrated platform for liquid photonics based on liquid core optical fiber (LCOF). The platform is created by fusion splicing liquid core optical fiber to standard single-mode optical fiber making it fully integrated and practical - a major challenge that has greatly hindered progress in liquid-photonic applications. As an example, we report here the realization of ultralow threshold Raman generation using an integrated CS₂ filled LCOF pumped with sub-nanosecond pulses at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The measured energy threshold for the Stokes generation is 1nJ, about three orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values in the literature for hydrogen gas, a popular Raman medium. The integrated LCOF platform opens up new possibilities for ultralow power nonlinear optics such as efficient white light generation for displays, mid-IR generation, slow light generation, parametric amplification, all-optical switching and wavelength conversion using liquids that have orders of magnitude larger optical nonlinearities compared with silica glass.

  1. Integrated design course of applied optics focusing on operating and maintaining abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongjie; Ning, Yu; Jiang, Tian; Cheng, Xiangai

    2017-08-01

    The abilities of operating and maintaining optical instruments are crucial in modern society. Besides the basic knowledge in optics, the optics courses in the National University of Defense Technology also focus on the training on handling typical optical equipment. As the link between classroom courses on applied optics and the field trips, the integrated design course of applied optics aims to give the students a better understanding on several instantly used optical equipment, such as hand-held telescope and periscope, etc. The basic concepts of optical system design are also emphasized as well. The course is arranged rightly after the classroom course of applied optics and composed of experimental and design tasks. The experimental tasks include the measurements of aberrations and major parameters of a primitive telescope, while in the design parts, the students are asked to design a Keplerian telescope. The whole course gives a deepened understandings on the concepts, assembling, and operating of telescopes. The students are also encouraged to extend their interests on other typical optical instruments.

  2. Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy W. Lowry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used here is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose.

  3. Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Troy W.; Prommapan, Plengchart; Rainer, Quinn; Van Winkle, David; Lenhert, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone) in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used here is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose. PMID:26308001

  4. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-01-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  5. Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Ding, Yunhong

    2018-01-01

    -dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimension up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon-photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources. We verify the high precision, generality......The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is key for the investigation of fundamental science and for the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control and analyze high...

  6. Discovery Channel Telescope active optics system early integration and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetiou, Alexander J.; Bida, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.3-meter telescope with a thin meniscus primary mirror (M1) and a honeycomb secondary mirror (M2). The optical design is an f/6.1 Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) with an unvignetted 0.5° Field of View (FoV) at the Cassegrain focus. We describe the design, implementation and performance of the DCT active optics system (AOS). The DCT AOS maintains collimation and controls the figure of the mirror to provide seeing-limited images across the focal plane. To minimize observing overhead, rapid settling times are achieved using a combination of feed-forward and low-bandwidth feedback control using a wavefront sensing system. In 2011, we mounted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the prime focus of M1, the Prime Focus Test Assembly (PFTA), to test the AOS with the wavefront sensor, and the feedback loop. The incoming wavefront is decomposed using Zernike polynomials, and the mirror figure is corrected with a set of bending modes. Components of the system that we tested and tuned included the Zernike to Bending Mode transformations. We also started open-loop feed-forward coefficients determination. In early 2012, the PFTA was replaced by M2, and the wavefront sensor moved to its normal location on the Cassegrain instrument assembly. We present early open loop wavefront test results with the full optical system and instrument cube, along with refinements to the overall control loop operating at RC Cassegrain focus.

  7. Cylindrical integrated optical microresonators: modeling by 3-D vectorial coupled mode theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoffer, R.; Hiremath, K. R.; Hammer, M.; Prkna, Ladislav; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 256, 1/3 (2005), s. 46-67 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0987 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) IST-2000-28018 NAIS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : integrated optics * optical waveguide theory * modelling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2005

  8. Stable integrated hyper-parametric oscillator based on coupled optical microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Andrea; Feron, Patrice; Dumeige, Yannick

    2015-12-01

    We propose a flexible scheme based on three coupled optical microcavities that permits us to achieve stable oscillations in the microwave range, the frequency of which depends only on the cavity coupling rates. We find that the different dynamical regimes (soft and hard excitation) affect the oscillation intensity, but not their periods. This configuration may permit us to implement compact hyper-parametric sources on an integrated optical circuit with interesting applications in communications, sensing, and metrology.

  9. Performance degradation of integrated optical modulators due to electrical crosstalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator arrays based on n-doped InP substrate and show that it can be the cause for transmitter performance degradations. In particular, a common ground return path between adjacent modulators can cause high coupling

  10. Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Roger; Hofrichter, Jens; Horst, Folkert; Jubin, Daniel; La Porta, Antonio; Meier, Norbert; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Weiss, Jonas; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2015-02-23

    To satisfy the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of future data centers and high-performance computers, low-cost low-power high-throughput optical interconnects will become a key enabling technology. To tightly integrate optics with the computing hardware, particularly in the context of CMOS-compatible silicon photonics, optical printed circuit boards using polymer waveguides are considered as a formidable platform. IBM Research has already demonstrated the essential silicon photonics and interconnection building blocks. A remaining challenge is electro-optical packaging, i.e., the connection of the silicon photonics chips with the system. In this paper, we present a new single-mode polymer waveguide technology and a scalable method for building the optical interface between silicon photonics chips and single-mode polymer waveguides.

  11. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-13

    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.

  12. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  13. Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    . The waveguides on the device were connected to optical fibers, which enabled alignment free operation due to the absence of free-space optics. A 750 mum long U-shaped detection cell was used to facilitate longitudinal absorption detection. To minimize geometrically induced band broadening at the turn in the U......The fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic separation chip with integrated of optical waveguides for absorption detection is presented. The device was fabricated on a silicon substrate by standard microfabrication techniques with the use of two photolithographic mask steps...

  14. Chip-integrated ultrawide-band all-optical logic comparator in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuicui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-27

    Optical computing opens up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic comparator is one of the indispensable core components of optical computing systems. Unfortunately, up to now, no any nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications has been realized experimentally. Here, we report a subtle and effective technical solution to circumvent the obstacles of inherent Ohmic losses of metal and limited propagation length of SPPs. A nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications is realized in plasmonic circuits directly. The incident single-bit (or dual-bit) logic signals can be compared and the comparison results are endowed with different logic encodings. An ultrabroad operating wavelength range from 700 to 1000 nm, and an ultrahigh output logic-state contrast-ratio of more than 25 dB are realized experimentally. No high power requirement is needed. Though nanoscale SPP light source and the logic comparator device are integrated into the same plasmonic chip, an ultrasmall feature size is maintained. This work not only paves a way for the realization of complex logic device such as adders and multiplier, but also opens up the possibility for realizing quantum solid chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  15. Towards a fully integrated optical gyroscope using whispering gallery modes resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrane, T.; Jager, J.-B.; Jager, T.; Calvo, V.; Léger, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    Since the developments of lasers and the optical fibers in the 70s, the optical gyroscopes have been subject to an intensive research to improve both their resolution and stability performances. However the best optical gyroscopes currently on the market, the ring laser gyroscope and the interferometer fiber optic gyroscope are still macroscopic devices and cannot address specific applications where size and weight constraints are critical. One solution to overcome these limitations could be to use an integrated resonator as a sensitive part to build a fully Integrated Optical Resonant Gyroscope (IORG). To keep a high rotation sensitivity, which is usually degraded when downsizing this kind of optical sensors based on the Sagnac effect, the resonator has to exhibit a very high quality factor (Q): as detailed in equation (1) where the minimum rotation rate resolution for an IORG is given as a function of the resonator characteristics (Q and diameter D) and of the global system optical system characteristics (i.e. SNR and bandwidth B), the higher the Q×D product, the lower the resolution.

  16. Optimalisasi Kapasitas Trafik Dengan Transceiver Group Synchronization Di PT Xl Axiata Tbk Purwokerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfin Hikmaturokhman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth of consumer of peripatetic telecommunications of cellular GSM claims the existence of optimal capacities of traffic to be including maximum customer. One of the improving capacities of traffic by Transceiver Group Synchronization that is merger two Radio Bases of Station or more become one Site. Conducted by Transceiver Group Synchronization will improve capacities of Traffic Channel (TCH Availability, TCH Traffic, Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH, degrading TCH Assignment Drop Call and of TCH Congestion Ratio. Herewith will improve Handover Success Ratio (HOSR and of saving usage of Transceiver Unit (TRU.

  17. Nonintrusive transceiver and method for characterizing temperature and velocity fields in a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko

    2017-09-05

    An acoustic transceiver is implemented for measuring acoustic properties of a gas in a turbine engine combustor. The transceiver housing defines a measurement chamber and has an opening adapted for attachment to a turbine engine combustor wall. The opening permits propagation of acoustic signals between the gas in the turbine engine combustor and gas in the measurement chamber. An acoustic sensor mounted to the housing receives acoustic signals propagating in the measurement chamber, and an acoustic transmitter mounted to the housing creates acoustic signals within the measurement chamber. An acoustic measurement system includes at least two such transceivers attached to a turbine engine combustor wall and connected to a controller.

  18. Cognitive Radio Transceivers: RF, Spectrum Sensing, and Learning Algorithms Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Safatly

    2014-01-01

    reconfigurable radio frequency (RF parts, enhanced spectrum sensing algorithms, and sophisticated machine learning techniques. In this paper, we present a review of the recent advances in CR transceivers hardware design and algorithms. For the RF part, three types of antennas are presented: UWB antennas, frequency-reconfigurable/tunable antennas, and UWB antennas with reconfigurable band notches. The main challenges faced by the design of the other RF blocks are also discussed. Sophisticated spectrum sensing algorithms that overcome main sensing challenges such as model uncertainty, hardware impairments, and wideband sensing are highlighted. The cognitive engine features are discussed. Moreover, we study unsupervised classification algorithms and a reinforcement learning (RL algorithm that has been proposed to perform decision-making in CR networks.

  19. Adaptive suppression of passive intermodulation in digital satellite transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu TIAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For the performance issues of satellite transceivers suffering passive intermodulation interference, a novel and effective digital suppression algorithm is presented in this paper. In contrast to analog approaches, digital passive intermodulation (PIM suppression approaches can be easily reconfigured and therefore are highly attractive for future satellite communication systems. A simplified model of nonlinear distortion from passive microwave devices is established in consideration of the memory effect. The multiple high-order PIM products falling into the receiving band can be described as a bilinear predictor function. A suppression algorithm based on a bilinear polynomial decorrelated adaptive filter is proposed for baseband digital signal processing. In consideration of the time-varying characteristics of passive intermodulation, this algorithm can achieve the rapidness of online interference estimation and low complexity with less consumption of resources. Numerical simulation results show that the algorithm can effectively compensate the passive intermodulation interference, and achieve a high signal-to-interference ratio gain.

  20. Design and Radiation Assessment of Optoelectronic Transceiver Circuits for ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Leroux, P; Van Uffelen, M; Steyaert, M

    2008-01-01

    The presented work describes the design and characterization results of different electronic building blocks for a MGy gamma radiation tolerant optoelectronic transceiver aiming at ITER applications. The circuits are implemented using the 70GHz fT SiGe HBT in a 0.35μm BiCMOS technology. A VCSEL driver circuit has been designed and measured up to a TID of 1.6 MGy and up to a bit rate of 622Mbps. No significant degradation is seen in the eye opening of the output signal. On the receiver side, both a 1GHz, 3kΩ transimpedance and a 5GHz Cherry-Hooper amplifier with over 20dB voltage gain have been designed.

  1. Optical device terahertz integration in a two-dimensional-three-dimensional heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhifang; Lin, Jie; Feng, Shuai

    2018-01-10

    The transmission properties of an off-planar integrated circuit including two wavelength division demultiplexers are designed, simulated, and analyzed in detail by the finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that the wavelength selection for different ports (0.404[c/a] at B 2 port, 0.389[c/a] at B 3 port, and 0.394[c/a] at B 4 port) can be realized by adjusting the parameters. It is especially important that the off-planar integration between two complex devices is also realized. These simulated results give valuable promotions in the all-optical integrated circuit, especially in compact integration.

  2. Cantilever-based sensor with integrated optical read-out using single mode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication and mechanical characterisation of an integrated optical read-out scheme for cantilever-based biosensors. A cantilever can be used as a biosensor by monitoring its bending caused by the surface stress generated due to chemical reactions occurring on its...... surface. Here, we present a novel integrated optical read-out scheme based on single-mode waveguides that enables the fabrication of a compact system. The complete system is fabricated in the polymer SU-8. This manuscript shows the principle of operation and the design well as the fabrication...

  3. Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Ding, Yunhong; Santagati, Raffaele; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salavrakos, Alexia; Tura, Jordi; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Mančinska, Laura; Bacco, Davide; Bonneau, Damien; Silverstone, Joshua W; Gong, Qihuang; Acín, Antonio; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif K; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony; Thompson, Mark G

    2018-04-20

    The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is central to the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control, and analyze high-dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimensions up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources. We verify the high precision, generality, and controllability of our multidimensional technology, and further exploit these abilities to demonstrate previously unexplored quantum applications, such as quantum randomness expansion and self-testing on multidimensional states. Our work provides an experimental platform for the development of multidimensional quantum technologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Synchronous OEIC Integrating Receiver for Optically Reconfigurable Gate Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez-Azqueta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A monolithically integrated optoelectronic receiver with a low-capacitance on-chip pin photodiode is presented. The receiver is fabricated in a 0.35 μm opto-CMOS process fed at 3.3 V and due to the highly effective integrated pin photodiode it operates at μW. A regenerative latch acting as a sense amplifier leads in addition to a low electrical power consumption. At 400 Mbit/s, sensitivities of −26.0 dBm and −25.5 dBm are achieved, respectively, for λ = 635 nm and λ = 675 nm (BER = 10−9 with an energy efficiency of 2 pJ/bit.

  5. Optical gain of LaF3:Nd nanoparticle doped polymers for active integrated optical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, J.W.; Klunder, D.J.W.; Borreman, A.; Diemeer, Mart; Worhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, A.; de Ridder, R.M.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Altena, G.; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R; Dekker, R.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rare earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA and SU-8 photosensitive polymers. We observed optical gain after we applied these materials for waveguides. Experimental results on various samples will be discussed. We theoretically discuss the improvements that can be obtained and

  6. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration...... circuits at the receiver interface, though VCOs are also found in the transmitter where a multitude of independent sources have to be mutually synchronized before multiplexing. The circuits are based on an InP DHBT process (VIP-2) supplied by Vitesse and made publicly available as MPW. The VIP-2 process...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  7. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  8. A 24 GHz integrated SiGe BiCMOS vital signs detection radar front-end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Johansen, Tom K.; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a 24 GHz integrated front-end transceiver for vital signs detection (VSD) radars is described. The heterodyne radar transceiver integrates LO buffering and quadrature splitting circuits, up- and down-conversion SSB mixers and two cascaded receiver LNA's. The chip has been manufactured...

  9. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  10. Evaluation of the optical conductivity tensor in terms of contour integrations

    OpenAIRE

    Szunyogh, Laszlo; Weinberger, Peter

    2000-01-01

    For the case of finite life-time broadening the standard Kubo-formula for the optical conductivity tensor is rederived in terms of Green's functions by using contour integrations, whereby finite temperatures are accounted for by using the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. For zero life-time broadening, the present formalism is related to expressions well-known in the literature. Numerical aspects of how to calculate the corresponding contour integrals are also outlined.

  11. One- and two-dimensional antenna arrays for microwave wireless power transfer (MWPT) systems and dual-antenna transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yo-Sheng; Hu, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chi-Ho; Tsao, Ping-Chang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate novel one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) antenna arrays for both microwave wireless power transfer (MWPT) systems and dual-antenna transceivers. The antenna array can be used as the MWPT receiving antenna of an integrated MWPT and Bluetooth (BLE) communication module (MWPT-BLE module) for smart CNC (computer numerical control) spindle incorporated with the cloud computing system SkyMars. The 2D antenna array has n rows of 1 × m 1D array, and each array is composed of multiple (m) differential feeding antenna elements. Each differential feeding antenna element is a differential feeding structure with a microstrip antenna stripe. The stripe length is shorter than one wavelength to minimise the antenna area and to prevent being excited to a high-order mode. That is, the differential feeding antenna element can suppress the even mode. The mutual coupling between the antenna elements can be suppressed, and the isolation between the receiver and the transmitter can be enhanced. An inclination angle of the main beam aligns with the broadside, and the main beam is further concentrated and shrunk at the elevation direction. Moreover, if more differential feeding antenna elements are used, antenna gain and isolation can be further enhanced. The excellent performance of the proposed antenna arrays indicates that they are suitable for both MWPT systems and dual-antenna transceivers.

  12. A 11 mW 2.4 GHz 0.18 µm CMOS Transceivers for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bing; Chen, Hua; Wang, Zhiyu; Mo, Jiongjiong; Chen, Junli; Yu, Faxin; Wang, Wenbo

    2017-01-24

    In this paper, a low power transceiver for wireless sensor networks (WSN) is proposed. The system is designed with fully functional blocks including a receiver, a fractional-N frequency synthesizer, and a class-E transmitter, and it is optimized with a good balance among output power, sensitivity, power consumption, and silicon area. A transmitter and receiver (TX-RX) shared input-output matching network is used so that only one off-chip inductor is needed in the system. The power and area efficiency-oriented, fully-integrated frequency synthesizer is able to provide programmable output frequencies in the 2.4 GHz range while occupying a small silicon area. Implemented in a standard 0.18 μm RF Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the whole transceiver occupies a chip area of 0.5 mm² (1.2 mm² including bonding pads for a QFN package). Measurement results suggest that the design is able to work at amplitude shift keying (ASK)/on-off-keying (OOK) and FSK modes with up to 500 kbps data rate. With an input sensitivity of -60 dBm and an output power of 3 dBm, the receiver, transmitter and frequency synthesizer consumes 2.3 mW, 4.8 mW, and 3.9 mW from a 1.8 V supply voltage, respectively.

  13. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zheng; Chu Xiaojie; Shi Yin; Lei Qianqian; Lin Min

    2012-01-01

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm 2 is presented. The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters(LPFs), transmit (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops, and on-chip output buffers. The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of −11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50–30.2 nV/√Hz input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to −41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (IIP3). The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11b/g/n requirements. The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from −1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches. By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array, the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Optical technologies for data communication in large parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M B; Vlasov, Y; Kash, J A; Benner, A

    2011-01-01

    Large, parallel systems have greatly aided scientific computation and data collection, but performance scaling now relies on chip and system-level parallelism. This has happened because power density limits have caused processor frequency growth to stagnate, driving the new multi-core architecture paradigm, which would seem to provide generations of performance increases as transistors scale. However, this paradigm will be constrained by electrical I/O bandwidth limits; first off the processor card, then off the processor module itself. We will present best-estimates of these limits, then show how optical technologies can help provide more bandwidth to allow continued system scaling. We will describe the current status of optical transceiver technology which is already being used to exceed off-board electrical bandwidth limits, then present work on silicon nanophotonic transceivers and 3D integration technologies which, taken together, promise to allow further increases in off-module and off-card bandwidth. Finally, we will show estimated limits of nanophotonic links and discuss breakthroughs that are needed for further progress, and will speculate on whether we will reach Exascale-class machine performance at affordable powers.

  15. High-speed VCSEL-based optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih S.

    2001-11-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have made significant inroads into commercial realization especially in the area of data communications. Single VCSEL devices are key components in Gb Ethernet Transceivers. A multi-element VCSEL array is the key enabling technology for high-speed multi Gb/s parallel optical interconnect modules. In 1996, several companies introduced a new generation of fiber optic products based VCSEL technology such as multimode fiber transceivers for the ANSI Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards. VCSELs offer unique advantages over its edge-emitting counterparts in several areas. These include low-cost (LED-like) manufacturability, low current operation and array integrability. As data rates continue to increase, VCSELs offer the advantage of being able to provide the highest modulation bandwidth per milliamp of modulation current. Currently, most of the VCSEL-based products use short (780 - 980 nm) wavelength lasers. However, significant research efforts are taking place at universities and industrial research labs around the world to develop reliable, manufacturable and high-power long (1300 - 1550 nm) wavelength VCSELs. These lasers will allow longer (several km) transmission distances and will help alleviate some of the eye-safety issues. Perhaps, the most important advantage of VCSELs is the ability to form two-dimensional arrays much easier than in the case of edge-emitting lasers. These arrays (single and two-dimensional) will allow a whole new family of applications, specifically in very high-speed computer and switch interconnects.

  16. Optical technologies for data communication in large parallel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M B; Vlasov, Y; Kash, J A [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Benner, A, E-mail: mritter@us.ibm.com [IBM Poughkeepsie, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Large, parallel systems have greatly aided scientific computation and data collection, but performance scaling now relies on chip and system-level parallelism. This has happened because power density limits have caused processor frequency growth to stagnate, driving the new multi-core architecture paradigm, which would seem to provide generations of performance increases as transistors scale. However, this paradigm will be constrained by electrical I/O bandwidth limits; first off the processor card, then off the processor module itself. We will present best-estimates of these limits, then show how optical technologies can help provide more bandwidth to allow continued system scaling. We will describe the current status of optical transceiver technology which is already being used to exceed off-board electrical bandwidth limits, then present work on silicon nanophotonic transceivers and 3D integration technologies which, taken together, promise to allow further increases in off-module and off-card bandwidth. Finally, we will show estimated limits of nanophotonic links and discuss breakthroughs that are needed for further progress, and will speculate on whether we will reach Exascale-class machine performance at affordable powers.

  17. Manufacturing a Micro-model with Integrated Fibre Optic Pressure Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarikos, I.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.; van Oordt, Wim

    The measurement of fluid pressure inside pores is a major challenge in experimental studies of two-phase flow in porous media. In this paper, we describe the manufacturing procedure of a micro-model with integrated fibre optic pressure sensors. They have a circular measurement window with a diameter

  18. Online analysis of oxygen inside silicon-glass microreactors with integrated optical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehgartner, Josef; Sulzer, Philipp; Burger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    A powerful online analysis set-up for oxygen measurements within microfluidic devices is presented. It features integration of optical oxygen sensors into microreactors, which enables contactless, accurate and inexpensive readout using commercially available oxygen meters via luminescent lifetime...... monitoring of enzyme transformations, including d-alanine or d-phenylalanine oxidation by d-amino acid oxidase, and glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase....

  19. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  20. Integrated optical devices for wavelength division multiplexing using PECVD and direct UV writing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Leistiko, Otto

    1999-01-01

    channel waveguides are presented: a conventional method and direct UV writing. It is shown that an optimized three layer glass structure yields directly UV written waveguides with low insertion losses. Integrated optical structures have been designed and fabricated. The impact of process variations...

  1. Integration of Optically Generated Impulse Radio UWB Signals into Baseband WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Yu, Xianbin; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compact integration system to simultaneously provide wireline and wireless (baseband and ultra-wide band (UWB)) services to end-users in a WDM-PON. A 1-Gbps UWB signal is optically generated and shares the same wavelength with the baseband signal. Error-free performance was achieved...

  2. Integrated optical serializer designed and fabricated in a generic InP based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents design and characterization results of an optical pulse serializer, realized as an Application Specific Photonic Integrated Circuit (ASPIC) in a novel, generic InPbased technology and fabricated in a multi-project wafer run. The measurement results show high-speed (32 Gbit/s)

  3. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Habib, C.; Chen, L.R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Robbins, D.J.; Capmany, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in

  4. InP monolithically integrated label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Sancho, J.C.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a label swapping device, for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks, fully integrated using InP technology is presented. Compared to previous demonstrations using discrete component assembly, the device footprint is reduced by a factor of 105 and the operation speed is

  5. IOTA (Integrable Optics Test Accelerator): facility and experimental beam physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Edstrom, D.; Harms, E.; Lebedev, V.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Park, C. S.; Piekarz, H.; Piot, P.; Prebys, E.; Romanov, A.; Ruan, J.; Sen, T.; Stancari, G.; Thangaraj, C.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Valishev, A.; Shiltsev, V.

    2017-03-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is a storage ring for advanced beam physics research currently being built and commissioned at Fermilab. It will operate with protons and electrons using injectors with momenta of 70 and 150 MeV/c, respectively. The research program includes the study of nonlinear focusing integrable optical beam lattices based on special magnets and electron lenses, beam dynamics of space-charge effects and their compensation, optical stochastic cooling, and several other experiments. In this article, we present the design and main parameters of the facility, outline progress to date and provide the timeline of the construction, commissioning and research. The physical principles, design, and hardware implementation plans for the major IOTA experiments are also discussed.

  6. IOTA (Integrable Optics Test Accelerator): Facility and experimental beam physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Sergei; Broemmelsiek, Daniel; Bruhwiler, David; Edstrom, Dean; Harms, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is a storage ring for advanced beam physics research currently being built and commissioned at Fermilab. It will operate with protons and electrons using injectors with momenta of 70 and 150 MeV/c, respectively. The research program includes the study of nonlinear focusing integrable optical beam lattices based on special magnets and electron lenses, beam dynamics of space-charge effects and their compensation, optical stochastic cooling, and several other experiments. In this article, we present the design and main parameters of the facility, outline progress to date and provide the timeline of the construction, commissioning and research. Finally, the physical principles, design, and hardware implementation plans for the major IOTA experiments are also discussed.

  7. Solitonic guide and multiphoton absorption processes in photopolymerizable materials for optical integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephane; Barsella, Alberto; Acker, D.; Sutter, C.; Beyer, N.; Andraud, Chantal; Fort, Alain F.; Dorkenoo, Kokou D.

    2004-09-01

    Up to now, most of the optical integrated devices are realized on glass or III-V substrates and the waveguides are usually obtained by photolithography techniques. We present here a new approach based on the use of photopolymerizable compounds. The conditions of self-written channel creation by solitonic propagation inside the bulk of these photopolymerizable formulations are analyzed. Both experimental and theoretical results of the various stages of self-written guide propagation are presented. A further step has been achieved by using a two-photon absorption process for the polymerization via a confocal microscopy technique. Combined with the solitonic guide creation, this technique allows to draw 3D optical circuits. Finally, by doping the photopolymerizable mixtures with push-pull chromophores having a controlled orientation, it will be possible to create active optical integrated devices.

  8. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  9. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen......A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d......B/mm at a wavelength of λ = 808 nm. An optimized bead tracking algorithm is implemented, allowing for determination of the optical forces acting on the particles. The algorithm features a spatio-temporal mapping of coordinates for uniting partial trajectories, without increased processing time. With an external laser...

  10. Optimalisasi Kinerja (Internet Protocol) Ip Clock Pada Jaringan Base Transceiver Station (Bts)

    OpenAIRE

    Budiyanto, Setiyo; Saputra, Apipi

    2016-01-01

    Pada sistem komunikasi GSM (Global System for Mobile), BTS (Base Transceiver Station) merupakan jantung dari sebuah cell site layanan telekomunikasi. BTS merupakan perangkat pemancar dan penerima yang menangani akses radio dan berinteraksi langsung dengan Mobile Station (MS) melalui air interface. Sebuah optimasi kinerja ip clock pada base transceiver station (BTS) metode untuk sinkronisasi jaringan untuk jam global yang berasal dari jam GPS diakuisisi oleh sejumlah BTS. IP clock didistribusi...

  11. Robust Transceiver with Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding for Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen; Xia, Minghua; Gao, Feifei; Wu, Yik-Chung

    2012-01-01

    forwarding matrices at relays and linear equalizer at destination is proposed. With novel applications of elegant characteristics of multiplicative convexity and matrix-monotone functions, the optimal structure of the nonlinear transceiver is first derived. Based on the derived structure, the transceiver design problem reduces to a much simpler one with only scalar variables which can be efficiently solved. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust design over non-robust design is demonstrated by simulation results.

  12. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-01-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for ver...

  13. An integrated instrumental setup for the combination of atomic force microscopy with optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R J; Heyes, C D; Knebel, D; Röcker, C; Nienhaus, G U

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, the study of single biomolecules using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has resulted in a plethora of new information regarding the physics underlying these complex biological systems. It is especially advantageous to be able to measure the optical, topographical, and mechanical properties of single molecules simultaneously. Here an AFM is used that is especially designed for integration with an inverted optical microscope and that has a near-infrared light source (850 nm) to eliminate interference between the optical experiment and the AFM operation. The Tip Assisted Optics (TAO) system consists of an additional 100 x 100-microm(2) X-Y scanner for the sample, which can be independently and simultaneously used with the AFM scanner. This allows the offset to be removed between the confocal optical image obtained with the sample scanner and the simultaneously acquired AFM topography image. The tip can be positioned exactly into the optical focus while the user can still navigate within the AFM image for imaging or manipulation of the sample. Thus the tip-enhancement effect can be maximized and it becomes possible to perform single molecule manipulation experiments within the focus of a confocal optical image. Here this is applied to simultaneous measurement of single quantum dot fluorescence and topography with high spatial resolution. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Menadione degrades the optical quality and mitochondrial integrity of bovine crystalline lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kenneth W; Bantseev, Vladimir; Choh, Vivan

    2011-01-26

    The crystalline lens is a unique cellular organ that performs metabolic processes while maintaining transparency for optical functionality. Mitochondria play a role in providing cells with aerobic respiration necessary for these metabolic processes. Using menadione, a mitochondria-specific inhibitor of the quinone family, and bovine lenses in vitro, this study was undertaken to determine whether a relationship exists between mitochondrial function and optical function. Bovine lenses were treated with 50 μM, 200 μM, 600 μM, and 1,000 μM menadione and lens optical function, assessed as optical quality, was observed over 9 days. Confocal micrographs of mitochondria in superficial secondary fiber cells were also analyzed in 50 μM, 200 μM, and 600 μM menadione-treated lenses over 48 h. A decrease in lens optical quality was observed in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h for the 200 µM- (p=0.0422), 600 µM- (pmenadione. The data show that menadione has a detrimental effect on mitochondrial integrity and this change is associated with degradation of optical quality, suggesting a possible link between mitochondrial function and optical function.

  15. Integrated fiber optical and thermal sensor for noninvasive monitoring of blood and human tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Schiffner, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    A novel concept of noninvasive monitoring of human tissue and blood based on optical diffuse reflective spectroscopy combined with metabolic heat measurements has been under development. A compact integrated fiber optical and thermal sensor has been developed. The idea of the method was to evaluate by optical spectroscopy haemoglobin and derivative concentrations and supplement with data associated with the oxidative metabolism of glucose. Body heat generated by glucose oxidation is based on the balance of capillary glucose and oxygen supply to the cells. The variation in glucose concentration is followed also by a difference from a distance (or depth) of scattered through the body radiation. So, blood glucose can be estimated by measuring the body heat and the oxygen supply. The sensor pickup contains of halogen lamp and LEDs combined with fiber optical bundle to deliver optical radiation inside and through the patient body, optical and thermal detectors. Fiber optical probe allows diffuse scattering measurement down to a depth of 2.5 mm in the skin including vascular system, which contributes to the control of the body temperature. The sensor pickup measures thermal generation, heat balance, blood flow rate, haemoglobin and derivative concentrations, environmental conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to convert various signals from the sensor pickup into physicochemical variables. By comparing the values from the noninvasive measurement with the venous plasma result, analytical functions for patient were obtained. Cluster analysis of patient groups was used to simplify a calibration procedure. Clinical testing of developed sensor is being performed.

  16. Development of a switched integrator amplifier for high-accuracy optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, John; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Smid, Marek; Smid, Radislav

    2008-01-01

    In the field of low flux optical measurements, the development and use of large area silicon detectors is becoming more frequent. The current/voltage conversion of their photocurrent presents a set of problems for traditional transimpedance amplifiers. The switched integration principle overcomes these limitations. We describe the development of a fully characterized current-voltage amplifier using the switched integrator technique. Two distinct systems have been developed in parallel at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) laboratories. We present the circuit theory and best practice in the design and construction of switched integrators. In conclusion the results achieved and future developments are discussed

  17. Development of a switched integrator amplifier for high-accuracy optical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, John; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Smid, Marek; Smid, Radislav

    2008-11-01

    In the field of low flux optical measurements, the development and use of large area silicon detectors is becoming more frequent. The current/voltage conversion of their photocurrent presents a set of problems for traditional transimpedance amplifiers. The switched integration principle overcomes these limitations. We describe the development of a fully characterized current-voltage amplifier using the switched integrator technique. Two distinct systems have been developed in parallel at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) laboratories. We present the circuit theory and best practice in the design and construction of switched integrators. In conclusion the results achieved and future developments are discussed.

  18. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yidong, E-mail: yidongyang@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I. [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Patterson, Michael S. [Juravinski Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4K1 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has been developed for focal tumor irradiation, allowing laboratory researchers to test basic biological hypotheses that can modify radiotherapy outcomes in ways that were not feasible previously. CBCT provides excellent bone to soft tissue contrast, but is incapable of differentiating tumors from surrounding soft tissue. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT), in contrast, allows direct visualization of even subpalpable tumors and quantitative evaluation of tumor response. Integration of BLT with CBCT offers complementary image information, with CBCT delineating anatomic structures and BLT differentiating luminescent tumors. This study is to develop a systematic method to calibrate an integrated CBCT and BLT imaging system which can be adopted onboard the SARRP to guide focal tumor irradiation. Methods: The integrated imaging system consists of CBCT, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and BLT. The anatomy acquired from CBCT and optical properties acquired from DOT serve as a priori information for the subsequent BLT reconstruction. Phantoms were designed and procedures were developed to calibrate the CBCT, DOT/BLT, and the entire integrated system. Geometrical calibration was performed to calibrate the CBCT system. Flat field correction was performed to correct the nonuniform response of the optical imaging system. Absolute emittance calibration was performed to convert the camera readout to the emittance at the phantom or animal surface, which enabled the direct reconstruction of the bioluminescence source strength. Phantom and mouse imaging were performed to validate the calibration. Results: All calibration procedures were successfully performed. Both CBCT of a thin wire and a euthanized mouse revealed no spatial artifact, validating the accuracy of the CBCT calibration. The absolute emittance calibration was validated with a 650 nm laser source, resulting in a 3

  19. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W.; Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has been developed for focal tumor irradiation, allowing laboratory researchers to test basic biological hypotheses that can modify radiotherapy outcomes in ways that were not feasible previously. CBCT provides excellent bone to soft tissue contrast, but is incapable of differentiating tumors from surrounding soft tissue. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT), in contrast, allows direct visualization of even subpalpable tumors and quantitative evaluation of tumor response. Integration of BLT with CBCT offers complementary image information, with CBCT delineating anatomic structures and BLT differentiating luminescent tumors. This study is to develop a systematic method to calibrate an integrated CBCT and BLT imaging system which can be adopted onboard the SARRP to guide focal tumor irradiation. Methods: The integrated imaging system consists of CBCT, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and BLT. The anatomy acquired from CBCT and optical properties acquired from DOT serve as a priori information for the subsequent BLT reconstruction. Phantoms were designed and procedures were developed to calibrate the CBCT, DOT/BLT, and the entire integrated system. Geometrical calibration was performed to calibrate the CBCT system. Flat field correction was performed to correct the nonuniform response of the optical imaging system. Absolute emittance calibration was performed to convert the camera readout to the emittance at the phantom or animal surface, which enabled the direct reconstruction of the bioluminescence source strength. Phantom and mouse imaging were performed to validate the calibration. Results: All calibration procedures were successfully performed. Both CBCT of a thin wire and a euthanized mouse revealed no spatial artifact, validating the accuracy of the CBCT calibration. The absolute emittance calibration was validated with a 650 nm laser source, resulting in a 3

  20. An in-fiber integrated optofluidic device based on an optical fiber with an inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Tingting; Teng, Pingping; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Entao; Zhao, Enming; Tong, Chengguo; Yuan, Libo

    2014-06-21

    A new kind of optofluidic in-fiber integrated device based on a specially designed hollow optical fiber with an inner core is designed. The inlets and outlets are built by etching the surface of the optical fiber without damaging the inner core. A reaction region between the end of the fiber and a solid point obtained after melting is constructed. By injecting samples into the fiber, the liquids can form steady microflows and react in the region. Simultaneously, the emission from the chemiluminescence reaction can be detected from the remote end of the optical fiber through evanescent field coupling. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA or vitamin C, Vc) is determined by the emission intensity of the reaction of Vc, H2O2, luminol, and K3Fe(CN)6 in the optical fiber. A linear sensing range of 0.1-3.0 mmol L(-1) for Vc is obtained. The emission intensity can be determined within 2 s at a total flow rate of 150 μL min(-1). Significantly, this work presents information for the in-fiber integrated optofluidic devices without spatial optical coupling.

  1. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  2. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Simone Fohrmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  3. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART CANDIDATES OF FOUR INTEGRAL SOURCES LOCALIZED WITH CHANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özbey Arabacı, Mehtap; Kalemci, Emrah; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Halpern, Jules; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-01-01

    We report on the optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of the candidate counterparts to four INTEGRAL sources: IGR J04069+5042, IGR J06552–1146, IGR J21188+4901, and IGR J22014+6034. The candidate counterparts were determined with Chandra, and the optical observations were performed with 1.5 m RTT-150 telescope (TÜBİTAK National Observatory, Antalya, Turkey) and 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope (MDM Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona). Our spectroscopic results show that one of the two candidates of IGR J04069+5042 and the one observed for IGR J06552–1146 could be active late-type stars in RS CVn systems. However, according to the likelihood analysis based on Chandra and INTEGRAL, two optically weaker sources in the INTEGRAL error circle of IGR J06552–1146 have higher probabilities to be the actual counterpart. The candidate counterparts of IGR J21188+4901 are classified as an active M-type star and a late-type star. Among the optical spectra of four candidates of IGR J22014+6034, two show Hα emission lines, one is a late-type star, and the other is an M type. The likelihood analysis favors a candidate with no distinguishing features in the optical spectrum. Two of the candidates classified as M-type dwarfs, are similar to some IGR candidates claimed to be symbiotic stars. However, some of the prominent features of symbiotic systems are missing in our spectra, and their NIR colors are not consistent with those expected for giants. We consider the IR colors of all IGR candidates claimed to be symbiotic systems and find that low-resolution optical spectrum may not be enough for conclusive identification.

  5. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Hybrid DS/FFH Spread-Spectrum Radio Transceiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Killough, Stephen M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Carroll, Thomas E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct-sequence modulation with "fast" frequency-hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. In this paper, we present the efforts carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum radio transceiver using a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA allows the various subsystems to quickly communicate with each other and thereby maintain tight synchronization. We also investigate various hopping sequences against robustness to interference and jamming. Experimental results are presented that show the receiver sensitivity, radio data-rate/bit-error evaluations, and jamming and interference rejection capabilities of the implemented hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum system under widely varying design parameters.

  6. A CMOS high resolution, process/temperature variation tolerant RSSI for WIA-PA transceiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Jiang Yu; Li Jie; Guo Jiangfei; Chen Hua; Han Jingyu; Guo Guiliang; Yan Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high resolution, process/temperature variation tolerant received signal strength indicator (RSSI) for wireless networks for industrial automation process automation (WIA-PA) transceiver fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The active area of the RSSI is 0.24 mm 2 . Measurement results show that the proposed RSSI has a dynamic range more than 70 dB and the linearity error is within ±0.5 dB for an input power from −70 to 0 dBm (dBm to 50 Ω), the corresponding output voltage is from 0.81 to 1.657 V and the RSSI slope is 12.1 mV/dB while consuming all of 2 mA from a 1.8 V power supply. Furthermore, by the help of the integrated compensation circuit, the proposed RSSI shows the temperature error within ±1.5 dB from −40 to 85 °C, and process variation error within ±0.25 dB, which exhibits good temperature-independence and excellent robustness against process variation characteristics. (paper)

  7. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gong; Xiaojie, Chu; Qianqian, Lei; Min, Lin; Yin, Shi

    2012-11-01

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm2 is presented. The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters(LPFs), transmit (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops, and on-chip output buffers. The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of -11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50-30.2 nV/√Hz input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to -41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (IIP3). The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11b/g/n requirements. The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from -1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches. By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array, the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply.

  8. A direct-conversion WLAN transceiver baseband with DC offset compensation and carrier leakage reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang; Yan Jun; Ma Heping; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Foster, Dai Fa, E-mail: fyuan@sci-inc.com.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A dual-band direct-conversion WLAN transceiver baseband compliant with the IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards is described. Several critical techniques for receiver DC offset compensation and transmitter carrier leakage rejection calibration are presented that enable the direct-conversion architecture to meet all WLAN specifications. The receiver baseband VGA provides 62 dB gain range with steps of 2 dB and a DC offset cancellation circuit is introduced to remove the offset from layout and self-mixing. The calibration loop achieves constant high-pass pole when gain changes; and a fast response time by programming the pole to 1 MHz during preamble and to 30 kHz during receiving data. The transmitter baseband employs an auto-calibration loop with on-chip AD and DA to suppress the carrier leakage, and AD can be powered down after calibration to save power consumption. The chip consumes 17.52 mA for RX baseband VGA and DCOC, and 8.3 mA for TX carrier leakage calibration (5.88 mA after calibration) from 2.85 V supply. Implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m SiGe technology, they occupy 0.68 mm{sup 2} and 0.18 mm{sup 2} die size respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Norfolk, Mark; Wenning, Justin; Sheridan, John; Leser, Paul; Leser, Patrick; Newman, John A.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, a rather new three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. This low temperature attribute of the process enables integration of temperature sensitive components, such as fiber optic strain sensors, directly into metal structures. This may be an enabling technology for Digital Twin applications, i.e., virtual model interaction and feedback with live load data. This study evaluates the consolidation quality, interface robustness, and load sensing limits of commercially available fiber optic strain sensors embedded into aluminum alloy 6061. Lastly, an outlook on the technology and its applications is described.

  10. Performance evaluation of a burst-mode EDFA in an optical packet and circuit integrated network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Masaki; Awaji, Yoshinari; Furukawa, Hideaki; Shinada, Satoshi; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Wada, Naoya

    2013-12-30

    We experimentally investigate the performance of burst-mode EDFA in an optical packet and circuit integrated system. In such networks, packets and light paths can be dynamically assigned to the same fibers, resulting in gain transients in EDFAs throughout the network that can limit network performance. Here, we compare the performance of a 'burst-mode' EDFA (BM-EDFA), employing transient suppression techniques and optical feedback, with conventional EDFAs, and those using automatic gain control and previous BM-EDFA implementations. We first measure gain transients and other impairments in a simplified set-up before making frame error-rate measurements in a network demonstration.

  11. INTRASURGICAL MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-ASSISTED MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner-Radler, Christiane I; Glittenberg, Carl; Gabriel, Max; Binder, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microscope-integrated intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography during macular surgery in a prospective monocenter study. Before pars plana vitrectomy and before, during, and after membrane peeling, 512 × 128 macular cube scans were performed using a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus high-definition OCT system adapted to the optical pathway of a Zeiss OPMI VISU 200 surgical microscope and compared with retinal staining. The study included 51 patients with epiretinal membranes, with 8 of those having additional lamellar macular holes, 11 patients with vitreomacular traction, and 8 patients with full-thickness macular holes. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography allowed performing membrane peeling without using retinal dyes in 40% of cases (28 of 70 patients). No residual membranes were found in 94.3% of patients (66 of 70 patients) in intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography and subsequent (re)staining. In patients with vitreomacular traction, intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans facilitated decisions on the need for an intraocular tamponade after membrane peeling. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was comparable with retinal dyes in confirming success after membrane peeling. However, the visualization of flat membranes was better after staining.

  12. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Yitzhak; Efron, Uzi

    2008-07-25

    The Image Transceiver Device (ITD) design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, "deep p-well" ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  13. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Efron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Image Transceiver Device (ITD design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, “deep p-well” ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  14. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo" MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  15. Demonstration of glass-based photonic interposer for mid-board-optical engines and electrical-optical circuit board (EOCB) integration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H.; Neitz, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.

    2018-02-01

    Due to its optical transparency and superior dielectric properties glass is regarded as a promising candidate for advanced applications as active photonic interposer for mid-board-optics and optical PCB waveguide integration. The concepts for multi-mode and single-mode photonic system integration are discussed and related demonstration project results will be presented. A hybrid integrated photonic glass body interposer with integrated optical lenses for multi-mode data communication wavelength of 850 nm have been realized. The paper summarizes process developments which allow cost efficient metallization of TGV. Electro-optical elements like photodiodes and VCSELs can be directly flip-chip mounted on the glass substrate according to the desired lens positions. Furthermore results for a silicon photonic based single-mode active interposer integration onto a single mode glass made EOCB will be compared in terms of packaging challenges. The board level integration strategy for both of these technological approaches and general next generation board level integration concepts for photonic interposer will be introductorily discussed.

  16. Experimental integration of quantum key distribution and gigabit-capable passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Liu-Jun; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Mao, Yingqiu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Bi-Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) ensures information-theoretic security for the distribution of random bits between two remote parties. To extend QKD applications to fiber-to-the-home optical communications, such as gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs), an effective method is the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. However, the Raman scattering noise from intensive classical traffic and the huge loss introduced by the beam splitter in a GPON severely limits the performance of QKD. Here, we demonstrate the integration of QKD and a commercial GPON system with fiber lengths up to 14 km, in which the maximum splitting ratio of the beam splitter reaches 1:64. By placing the QKD transmitter on the optical line terminal side, we reduce the Raman noise collected at the QKD receiver. Using a bypass structure, the loss of the beam splitter is circumvented effectively. Our results pave the way to extending the applications of QKD to last-mile communications.

  17. 3D silicon neural probe with integrated optical fibers for optogenetic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric G R; Tu, Hongen; Luo, Hao; Liu, Bin; Bao, Shaowen; Zhang, Jinsheng; Xu, Yong

    2015-07-21

    Optogenetics is a powerful modality for neural modulation that can be useful for a wide array of biomedical studies. Penetrating microelectrode arrays provide a means of recording neural signals with high spatial resolution. It is highly desirable to integrate optics with neural probes to allow for functional study of neural tissue by optogenetics. In this paper, we report the development of a novel 3D neural probe coupled simply and robustly to optical fibers using a hollow parylene tube structure. The device shanks are hollow tubes with rigid silicon tips, allowing the insertion and encasement of optical fibers within the shanks. The position of the fiber tip can be precisely controlled relative to the electrodes on the shank by inherent design features. Preliminary in vivo rat studies indicate that these devices are capable of optogenetic modulation simultaneously with 3D neural signal recording.

  18. Four distributed feedback laser array integrated with multimode-interference and semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Zhu Hong-Liang; Liang Song; Zhao Ling-Juan; Chen Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic integration of four 1.55-μm-range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using varied ridge width with a 4 × 1-multimode-interference (MMI) optical combiner and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is demonstrated. The average output power and the threshold current are 1.8 mW and 35 mA, respectively, when the injection current of the SOA is 100 mA, with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. The four channels have a 1-nm average channel spacing and can operate separately or simultaneously. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. A full-duplex working integrated optoelectronic device for optical interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Fan, Huize; Huang, Yongqing; Duan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qi; Ren, Xiaomin; Wei, Qi; Cai, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a full-duplex working integrated optoelectronic device is proposed. It is constructed by integrating a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) unit above a resonant cavity enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) unit. Analysis shows that, the VCSEL unit has a threshold current of 1 mA and a slop efficiency of 0.66 W/A at 849.7 nm, the RCE-PD unit obtains its maximal absorption quantum efficiency of 90.24% at 811 nm with a FWHM of 4 nm. Moreover, the two units of the proposed integrated device can work independently from each other. So that the proposed integrated optoelectronic device can work full-duplex. It can be applied for single fiber bidirectional optical interconnects system.

  20. A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Silin; Ma Heping; Shi Yin

    2010-01-01

    A sixth-order Butterworth Gm-C low-pass filter (LPF) with a continuous tuning architecture has been implemented for a wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. An interior node scaling technique has been applied directly to the LPF to improve the dynamic range and the structure of the LPF has been optimized to reduce both the die size and the current consumption. Measurement results show that the filter has 77.5 dB dynamic range, 16.3 ns group delay variation, better than 3% cutoff frequency accuracy, and 0 dBm passband IIP3. The whole LPF with the tuning circuit dissipates only 1.42 mA (5 MHz cutoff frequency) or 2.81 mA (10 MHz cutoff frequency) from 2.85 V supply voltage, and only occupies 0.175 mm 2 die size. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Design and implementation of an IEEE 802.11 baseband OFDM transceiver in 0.18 μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Zhou Yumei; Zhu Yongxu; Zhang Zhengdong; Cai Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    An SISO IEEE 802.11 baseband OFDM transceiver ASIC is implemented. The chip can support all of the SISO IEEE 802.11 work modes by optimizing the key module and sharing the module between the transmitter and receiver. The area and power are decreased greatly compared with other designs. The baseband prototype has been verified under the WLAN baseband test equipment and through transferring the video. The 0.18 μm 1P/6M CMOS technology layout is finished and the chip is fabricated in SMIC, which occupies a 2.6 x 2.6 mm 2 area and consumes 83 mW under typical work modes. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Silin; Ma Heping; Shi Yin, E-mail: slliu@semi.ac.c [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A sixth-order Butterworth Gm-C low-pass filter (LPF) with a continuous tuning architecture has been implemented for a wireless LAN (WLAN) transceiver in 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. An interior node scaling technique has been applied directly to the LPF to improve the dynamic range and the structure of the LPF has been optimized to reduce both the die size and the current consumption. Measurement results show that the filter has 77.5 dB dynamic range, 16.3 ns group delay variation, better than 3% cutoff frequency accuracy, and 0 dBm passband IIP3. The whole LPF with the tuning circuit dissipates only 1.42 mA (5 MHz cutoff frequency) or 2.81 mA (10 MHz cutoff frequency) from 2.85 V supply voltage, and only occupies 0.175 mm{sup 2} die size. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Design and implementation of an IEEE 802.11 baseband OFDM transceiver in 0.18 {mu}m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Bin; Zhou Yumei; Zhu Yongxu; Zhang Zhengdong; Cai Jingjing, E-mail: wubin@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-05-15

    An SISO IEEE 802.11 baseband OFDM transceiver ASIC is implemented. The chip can support all of the SISO IEEE 802.11 work modes by optimizing the key module and sharing the module between the transmitter and receiver. The area and power are decreased greatly compared with other designs. The baseband prototype has been verified under the WLAN baseband test equipment and through transferring the video. The 0.18 {mu}m 1P/6M CMOS technology layout is finished and the chip is fabricated in SMIC, which occupies a 2.6 x 2.6 mm{sup 2} area and consumes 83 mW under typical work modes. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Integration of Curved D-Type Optical Fiber Sensor with Microfluidic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Li, Chang-Jyun; Hsu, Jin-Cherng

    2016-12-30

    A curved D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS) combined with a microfluidic chip is proposed. This OFS, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Kretchmann's configuration, is applied as a biosensor to measure the concentrations of different bio-liquids such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose solutions. The SPR phenomenon is attained by using the optical fiber to guide the light source to reach the side-polished, gold-coated region. Integrating this OFS with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic chip, the SPR spectra for liquids with different refractive indices are recorded. Experimentally, the sensitivity of the current biosensor was calculated to be in the order of 10 -5 RIU. This microfluidic chip-integrated OFS could be valuable for monitoring subtle changes in biological samples such as blood sugar, allergen, and biomolecular interactions.

  5. Integration of Curved D-Type Optical Fiber Sensor with Microfluidic Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A curved D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS combined with a microfluidic chip is proposed. This OFS, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Kretchmann’s configuration, is applied as a biosensor to measure the concentrations of different bio-liquids such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose solutions. The SPR phenomenon is attained by using the optical fiber to guide the light source to reach the side-polished, gold-coated region. Integrating this OFS with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-based microfluidic chip, the SPR spectra for liquids with different refractive indices are recorded. Experimentally, the sensitivity of the current biosensor was calculated to be in the order of 10−5 RIU. This microfluidic chip-integrated OFS could be valuable for monitoring subtle changes in biological samples such as blood sugar, allergen, and biomolecular interactions.

  6. Optical superimposed vortex beams generated by integrated holographic plates with blazed grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Dong; Su, Ya-Hui; Ni, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Zhong-Yu; Wang, Yu-Long; Wang, Chao-Wei; Ren, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Zhen; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Li, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Yan-Lei; Li, Jia-Wen; Wu, Dong; Chu, Jia-Ru

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the superposition of two vortex beams with controlled topological charges can be realized by integrating two holographic plates with blazed grating. First, the holographic plate with blazed grating was designed and fabricated by laser direct writing for generating well-separated vortex beam. Then, the relationship between the periods of blazed grating and the discrete angles of vortex beams was systemically investigated. Finally, through setting the discrete angle and different revolving direction of the holographic plates, the composite fork-shaped field was realized by the superposition of two vortex beams in a particular position. The topological charges of composite fork-shaped field (l = 1, 0, 3, and 4) depend on the topological charges of compositional vortex beams, which are well agreed with the theoretical simulation. The method opens up a wide range of opportunities and possibilities for applying in optical communication, optical manipulations, and photonic integrated circuits.

  7. In vivo integrated photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hao F.; Wei, Qing; Cao, Wenwu

    2012-12-01

    The physiological and pathological properties of retina are closely associated with various optical contrasts. Hence, integrating different ophthalmic imaging technologies is more beneficial in both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of several blinding diseases. Recently, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) was developed for in vivo retinal imaging in small animals, which demonstrated the capability of imaging retinal vascular networks and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at high sensitivity. We combined PAOM with traditional imaging modalities, such as fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and auto-fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AF-SLO), for imaging rats and mice. The multimodal imaging system provided more comprehensive evaluation of the retina based on the complementary imaging contrast mechanisms. The high-quality retinal images show that the integrated ophthalmic imaging system has great potential in the investigation of blinding disorders.

  8. Localization and Imaging of Integrated Circuit Defect Using Simple Optical Feedback Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Julius Cemine

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available High-contrast microscopy of semiconductor and metal edifices in integrated circuits is demonstrated by combining laser-scanning confocal reflectance microscopy, one-photon optical-beam-induced current (1P-OBIC imaging, and optical feedback detection via a commercially available semiconductor laser that also serves as the excitation source. The confocal microscope has a compact in-line arrangement with no external photodetector. Confocal and 1P-OBIC images are obtained simultaneously from the same focused beam that is scanned across the sample plane. Image pairs are processed to generate exclusive high-contrast distributions of the semiconductor, metal, and dielectric sites in a GaAs photodiode array sample. The method is then utilized to demonstrate defect localization and imaging in an integrated circuit.

  9. A Review on Radio-Over-Fiber Technology-Based Integrated (Optical/Wireless) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shivika; Goyal, Rakesh

    2017-06-01

    In the present paper, radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology has been proposed, which is the integration of the optical and radio networks. With a high transmission capacity, comparatively low cost and low attenuation, optical fiber provides an ideal solution for accomplishing the interconnections. In addition, a radio system enables the significant mobility, flexibility and easy access. Therefore, the system integration can meet the increasing demands of subscribers for voice, data and multimedia services that require the access network to support high data rates at any time and any place inexpensively. RoF has the potentiality to the backbone of the wireless access network and it has gained significant momentum in the last decade as a potential last-mile access scheme. This paper gives the comprehensive review of RoF technology used in the communication system. Concept, applications, advantages and limitations of RoF technology are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Static and dynamic pile testing of reinforced concrete piles with structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kohlhoff, Harald; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Baeßler, Matthias; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Georgi, Steven; Herten, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Static and dynamic pile tests are carried out to determine the load bearing capacity and the quality of reinforced concrete piles. As part of a round robin test to evaluate dynamic load tests, structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors were used to receive more detailed information about the strains along the pile length compared to conventional measurements at the pile head. This paper shows the instrumentation of the pile with extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers sensors and fibre Bragg gratings sensors together with the results of the conducted static load test as well as the dynamic load tests and pile integrity tests.

  11. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-04

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster.

  12. Integration of optical fibers in mega-joule class laser environments: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.P.; Baggio, J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in the radiative environment associated with Megajoule class lasers as Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in France or National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the USA. Optical fibers present numerous advantages, like their electromagnetic immunity, for integration in these facilities devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement studies. Despite these advantages, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation, limiting their transmission capability. We studied the major mechanisms governing the amplitude of this degradation, focusing our discussion on the transient radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) phenomena that is often the limiting factor for LMJ applications. The amplitude and growth and decay kinetics of RIA are affected by different parameters related to the fibers themselves but also depend on the application and irradiation characteristics. We particularly investigated the fiber transient radiation responses when the optical links have to operate during the pulsed and mixed environment associated with ignition shots. Our study shows that, if the same parameters affect the fiber sensitivity for steady state and transient irradiations, the radiation tolerances of the different classes of waveguides strongly differ, implying dedicated experiments for LMJ facility needs. (authors)

  13. Cartilage microindentation using cylindrical and spherical optical fiber indenters with integrated Bragg gratings as force sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, G.; Canti, O.; Baier, V.; Micallef, W.; Hartmann, B.; Alberton, P.; Aszodi, A.; Clausen-Schaumann, H.; Roths, J.

    2018-02-01

    Fiber optic microindentation sensors that have the potential to be integrated into arthroscopic instruments and to allow localizing degraded articular cartilage are presented in this paper. The indenters consist of optical fibers with integrated Bragg gratings as force sensors. In a basic configuration, the tip of the fiber optic indenter consists of a cleaved fiber end, forming a cylindrical flat punch indenter geometry. When using this indenter geometry, high stresses at the edges of the cylinder are present, which can disrupt the tissue structure. This is avoided with an improved version of the indenter. A spherical indenter tip that is formed by melting the end of the glass fiber. The spherical fiber tip shows the additional advantage of strongly reducing reflections from the fiber end. This allows a reduction of the length of the fiber optic sensor element from 65 mm of the flat punch type to 27 mm of the spherical punch. In order to compare the performance of both indenter types, in vitro stress-relaxation indentation experiments were performed on bovine articular cartilage with both indenter types, to assess biomechanical properties of bovine articular cartilage. For indentation depths between 60 μm and 300 μm, the measurements with both indenter types agreed very well with each other. This shows that both indenter geometries are suitable for microindentation measuremnts . The spherical indenter however has the additional advantage that it minimizes the risk to damage the surface of the tissue and has less than half dimensions than the flat indenter.

  14. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    An integrated optics chemical sensor based on a ring resonator with an ethyl cellulose polymer coating has been demonstrated. The measured sensitivity to isopropanol in air is 50 ppm-the level immediately useful for health-related air quality monitoring. The resonator was fabricated using SiO2 and SixNy materials. The signal readout is based on tracking the wavelength of a resonance peak. The resonator layout optimisation for sensing applications is discussed.

  15. Integration of adaptive optics into highEnergy laser modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    contain hundreds of actuators with high control bandwidths and low hysteresis, all of which are ideal parameters for accurate reconstruction of higher... Available : https://web.archive.org/web/20110111093235/http: //csis.org/blog/missile-defense-umbrella [10] C. Kopp, “ High energy laser directed energy...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS INTEGRATION OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS INTO HIGH ENERGY LASER MODELING AND SIMULATION by Donald Puent

  16. Single integrated device for optical CDMA code processing in dual-code environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Greiner, Christoph M; Iazkov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W; Wang, Ting; Prucnal, Paul R

    2007-06-11

    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a matching integrated optical CDMA encoder-decoder pair based on holographic Bragg reflector technology. Simultaneous encoding/decoding operation of two multiple wavelength-hopping time-spreading codes was successfully demonstrated and shown to support two error-free OCDMA links at OC-24. A double-pass scheme was employed in the devices to enable the use of longer code length.

  17. Optical Sensitivity of a Monolithic Integrated InP PIN-HEMT-HBT Transimpedance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Matiss, A.; Janssen, G.; Bertenburg, R. M.; Brockerhoff, W.; Tegude, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    To improve sensitivity of optical receivers, a special integration concept is chosen that includes a pinphotodiode, high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) on a single substrate. This work focuses on the optimization of the amplifier design to achieve lowest input noise currents of a transimpedance amplifier, and thus highest receiver sensitivity. The respective advantages of the components used are investigated with respect...

  18. Four-dimensional Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography to Visualize Suture Depth in Strabismus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Neel D; Bhullar, Paramjit K; Shieh, Christine; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A; Freedman, Sharon F; Kuo, Anthony N

    2017-02-14

    The authors report the use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT), capable of live four-dimensional (three-dimensional across time) intraoperative imaging, to directly visualize suture depth during lateral rectus resection. Key surgical steps visualized in this report included needle depth during partial and full-thickness muscle passes along with scleral passes. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e1-e5.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Optical displacement measurement with GaAs/AlGaAs-based monolithically integrated Michelson interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Dändliker, René

    2008-01-01

    Two monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system are reported. These single-chip microsystems are configured as Michelson interferometers and comprise a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, photodetectors, phase shifters, and waveguide couplers. While the use of a single Michelson interferometer allows measurement of displacement magnitude only, a double Michelson interferometer with two interferometer signals in phase quadrature als...

  20. Assessing the consistency of optical properties measured in four integrating spheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Homolová, Lucie; Navrátil, M.; Hanuš, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 13 (2017), s. 3817-3830 ISSN 0143-1161 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Artificial material * Canopy radiative transfer * Directional hemispherical reflectances * Integrating spheres * Leaf optical property * Measurement protocol * Standard deviation * Statistically significant difference Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  1. Selected area growth integrated wavelength converter based on PD-EAM optical logic gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Bin; Zhou Daibing; Zhang Can; Liang Song; Lu Dan; Zhao Lingjuan; Wang Wei; Qiu Jifang; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    A selected area growth wavelength converter based on a PD-EAM optical logic gate for WDM application is presented, integrating an EML transmitter and a SOA-PD receiver. The design, fabrication, and DC characters were analyzed. A 2 Gb/s NRZ signal based on the C-band wavelength converted to 1555 nm with the highest extinction ratio of 7 dB was achieved and wavelength converted eye diagrams with eyes opened were presented. (semiconductor devices)

  2. Structure of modes of smoothly irregular three-dimensional integrated optical four-layer waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.A.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Sevast'yanov, A.L.; Sevast'yanov, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a method of research of an integrated optical multilayer waveguide, satisfying the condition of smooth modification of the shape of the studied three-dimensional structure, an asymptotic method is used. Three-dimensional fields of smoothly deforming modes of the integrated optical waveguide are circumscribed analytically. An evident dependence of the contributions of the first order of smallness in the amplitudes of the electrical and magnetic fields of the quasi-waveguide modes is obtained. The canonical type of the equations circumscribing propagation of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes in the smoothly irregular part of a four-layer integrated optical waveguide is represented for an asymptotic method. With the help of the method of coupled waves and perturbation theory method, the shifts of complex propagation constants for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes are obtained in an explicit form. The elaborated theory is applicable for the analysis of similar structures of dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials in a sufficiently broad band of electromagnetic wavelengths

  3. Integrated optical waveguides and inertial focussing microfluidics in silica for microflow cytometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butement, Jonathan T; Rowe, David J; Sessions, Neil P; Hua, Ping; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Clark, Owain; Chad, John E; Hunt, Hamish C

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of a microflow cytometry platform is the integration of the optical components with the fluidics as this requires compatible micro-optical and microfluidic technologies. In this work a microflow cytometry platform is presented comprising monolithically integrated waveguides and deep microfluidics in a rugged silica chip. Integrated waveguides are used to deliver excitation light to an etched microfluidic channel and also collect transmitted light. The fluidics are designed to employ inertial focussing, a particle positioning technique, to reduce signal variation by bringing the flowing particles onto the same plane as the excitation light beam. A fabrication process is described which exploits microelectronics mass production techniques including: sputtering, ICP etching and PECVD. Example devices were fabricated and the effectiveness of inertial focussing of 5.6 µ m fluorescent beads was studied showing lateral and vertical confinement of flowing beads within the microfluidic channel. The fluorescence signals from flowing calibration beads were quantified demonstrating a CV of 26%. Finally the potential of this type of device for measuring the variation in optical transmission from input to output waveguide as beads flowed through the beam was evaluated. (paper)

  4. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Cataract Surgery: Uses and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Kummelil, Mathew Kurian; Kharbanda, Varun; Arora, Vishal; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-05-01

    To demonstrate the uses and applications of a microscope integrated intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Micro Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS) and Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS). Intraoperative real time imaging using the RESCAN™ 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) was done for patients undergoing MICS as well as FLACS. The OCT videos were reviewed at each step of the procedure and the findings were noted and analyzed. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography was found to be beneficial during all the critical steps of cataract surgery. We were able to qualitatively assess wound morphology in clear corneal incisions, in terms of subclinical Descemet's detachments, tears in the inner or outer wound lips, wound gaping at the end of surgery and in identifying the adequacy of stromal hydration, for both FLACS as well as MICS. It also enabled us to segregate true posterior polar cataracts from suspected cases intraoperatively. Deciding the adequate depth of trenching was made simpler with direct visualization. The final position of the intraocular lens in the capsular bag and the lack of bioadhesivity of hydrophobic acrylic lenses were also observed. Even though Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography is in its early stages for its application in cataract surgery, this initial assessment does show a very promising role for this technology in the future for cataract surgery both in intraoperative decision making as well as for training purposes.

  5. Design of an optical temporal integrator based on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Ngo, Nam

    2007-10-15

    We present a theoretical study of a new application of a simple pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PSFBG) in transmission mode as a high-speed optical temporal integrator. The PSFBG consists of two concatenated identical uniform FBGs with a pi phase shift between them. When the reflectivities of the FBGs are extremely close to 100%, the transmissive PSFBG can perform the time integral of the complex envelope of an arbitrary input optical signal with high accuracy. As an example, the integrator is numerically shown to be able to convert an input Gaussian pulse into an optical step signal.

  6. Optically Driven Mobile Integrated Micro-Tools for a Lab-on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jui Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an optically driven complex micromachine with an Archimedes microscrew as the mechanical power, a sphere as a coupler, and three knives as the mechanical tools. The micromachine is fabricated by two-photon polymerization and is portably driven by optical tweezers. Because the microscrew can be optically trapped and rotates spontaneously, it provides driving power for the complex micro-tools. In other words, when a laser beam focuses on the micromachine, the microscrew is trapped toward the focus point and simultaneously rotates. A demonstration showed that the integrated micromachines are grasped by the optical tweezers and rotated by the Archimedes screw. The rotation efficiencies of the microrotors with and without knives are 1.9 rpm/mW and 13.5 rpm/mW, respectively. The micromachine can also be portably dragged along planed routes. Such Archimedes screw-based optically driven complex mechanical micro-tools enable rotation similar to moving machines or mixers, which could contribute to applications for a biological microfluidic chip or a lab-on-a-chip.

  7. Measuring In-Home Walking Speed using Wall-Mounted RF Transceiver Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Peter G.; Wan, Eric A.; Schafermeer, Erich; Adenwala, Fatema; Paul, Anindya S.; Preiser, Nick; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for passively measuring walking speed using a small array of radio transceivers positioned on the walls of a hallway within a home. As a person walks between a radio transmitter and a receiver, the received signal strength (RSS) detected by the receiver changes in a repeatable pattern that may be used to estimate walking speed without the need for the person to wear any monitoring device. The transceivers are arranged as an array of 4 with a known distance between the array elements. Walking past the first pair of transceivers will cause a peak followed by a second peak when the person passes the second pair of transceivers. The time difference between these peaks is used to estimate walking speed directly. We further show that it is possible to estimate the walking speed by correlating the shape of the signal using a single pair of transceivers positioned across from each other in a hallway or doorframe. RMSE performance was less than 15 cm/s using a 2-element array, and less than 8 cm/s using a 4-element array relative to a gait mat used for ground truth. PMID:25570108

  8. Optical coherence tomography-enhanced microlaryngoscopy: preliminary report of a noncontact optical coherence tomography system integrated with a surgical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokes, David E; Jackson, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Perez, Jorge A; Su, Jianping; Ridgway, James M; Armstrong, William B; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging modality that uses near-infrared light to produce cross-sectional images of tissue with a resolution approaching that of light microscopy. We have previously reported use of OCT imaging of the vocal folds (VFs) during direct laryngoscopy with a probe held in contact or near-contact with the VFs. This aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel OCT system integrated with a surgical microscope to allow hands-free OCT imaging of the VFs, which could be performed simultaneously with microscopic visualization. We performed a prospective evaluation of a new method of acquiring OCT images of the VFs. An OCT system was successfully integrated with a surgical microscope to permit noncontact OCT imaging of the VFs of 10 patients. With this novel device we were able to identify VF epithelium and lamina propria; however, the resolution was reduced compared to that achieved with the standard contact or near-contact OCT. Optical coherence tomography is able to produce high-resolution images of vocal fold mucosa to a maximum depth of 1.6 mm. It may be used in the diagnosis of VF lesions, particularly early squamous cell carcinoma, in which OCT can show disruption of the basement membrane. Mounting the OCT device directly onto the operating microscope allows hands-free noncontact OCT imaging and simultaneous conventional microscopic visualization of the VFs. However, the lateral resolution of the OCT microscope system is 50 microm, in contrast to the conventional handheld probe system (10 microm). Although such images at this resolution are still useful clinically, improved resolution would enhance the system's performance, potentially enabling real-time OCT-guided microsurgery of the larynx.

  9. Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique is a well-known optical method that can be used to measure the refractive index of organic nano-layers adsorbed on a thin metal film. Although there are many configurations for measuring biomolecular interactions, SPR-based techniques play a central role in many current biosensing experiments, since they are the most suited for sensitive and quantitative kinetic measurements. Here we give some results from the analysis and numerical elaboration of SPR data from integrated optics experiments in a particular borosilicate glass, chosen for its composition offering the rather low refractive index of 1.4701 at 633 nm wavelength. These data regard the flow over the sensing region (metal window of different solutions with refractive indexes in the range of interest (1.3÷1.5 for the detection of contaminants in aqueous solutions. After a discussion of the principles of SPR, of the metal window design optimization by means of optical interaction numerical modeling, and of waveguide fabrication techniques, we give a description of system setup and experimental results. Optimum gold film window thickness and width in this guided-wave configuration has been for the first time derived and implemented on an integrated optic prototype device. Its characterization is given by means of the real time waveguide output intensity measurements, which correspond to the interaction between the sensing gold thin film window and the flowing analyte. The SPR curve was subsequently inferred. Finally, a modified version of the device is reported, with channel waveguides arranged in a Y-junction optical circuit, so that laser source stability requirements are lowered by a factor of 85 dB, making possible the use of low cost sources in practical applications.

  10. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  11. Robust Transceiver with Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding for Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Chengwen

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, robust transceiver design with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for multi-hop amplifyand-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying systems is investigated. At source node, THP is adopted to mitigate the spatial intersymbol interference. However, due to its nonlinear nature, THP is very sensitive to channel estimationerrors. In order to reduce the effects of channel estimation errors, a joint Bayesian robust design of THP at source, linear forwarding matrices at relays and linear equalizer at destination is proposed. With novel applications of elegant characteristics of multiplicative convexity and matrix-monotone functions, the optimal structure of the nonlinear transceiver is first derived. Based on the derived structure, the transceiver design problem reduces to a much simpler one with only scalar variables which can be efficiently solved. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust design over non-robust design is demonstrated by simulation results.

  12. Design and testing of a low impedance transceiver circuit for nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A low impedance transceiver circuit consisting of a transmit-receive switch circuit, a class-D amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was newly designed and tested for a nitrogen-14 NQR. An NQR signal at 1.37MHz from imidazole was successfully observed with the dead time of ~85µs under the high Q transmission (Q~120) and reception (Q~140). The noise performance of the low impedance TIA with an NQR probe was comparable with a commercial low noise 50Ω amplifier (voltage input noise: 0.25 nV/Hz) which was also connected to the probe. The protection voltage for the pre-amplifier using the low impedance transceiver was ~10 times smaller than that for the pre-amplifier using a 50Ω conventional transceiver, which is suitable for NQR remote sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A low-cost biomedical signal transceiver based on a Bluetooth wireless system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Pauls, Mark; Slawinski, David

    2007-01-01

    Most current wireless biomedical signal transceivers use range-limiting communication. This work presents a low-cost biomedical signal transceiver that uses Bluetooth wireless technology. The design is implemented in a modular form to be adaptable to different types of biomedical signals. The signal front end obtains and processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a microcontroller and wireless module. Near real-time receive software in LabVIEW was developed to demonstrate the system capability. The completed transmitter prototype successfully transmits ECG signals, and is able to simultaneously send multiple signals. The sampling rate of the transmitter is fast enough to send up to thirteen ECG signals simultaneously, with an error rate below 0.1% for transmission exceeding 65 meters. A low-cost wireless biomedical transceiver has many applications, such as real-time monitoring of patients with a known condition in non-clinical settings.

  14. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  15. The exploration and practice of integrated innovation teaching mode in the Applied Optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhao, Huifu; Fu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the Ministry of Education of China attaches great importance to the reform of higher education quality. As an important link in the reform of higher education, curriculum development is bound to promote the development of "quality-centered connotative education". Zhejiang University, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Southern Airlines University and other colleges and universities carried out a full range of close cooperation, proposed integrated innovation teaching mode of the course based on network technology. Based on this model, the course of "Applied Optics" has been practiced for two years. The results show that the integrated innovation teaching mode can fully realize the integration amplification effect among multiple colleges and universities and the depth sharing all types of resources. Based on the principle of co-building and sharing, mutual help, comprehensively improve the teaching quality of domestic related courses and promote the comprehensive development of the curriculum to meet the needs of learning society.

  16. Ray optics for diffraction: a useful paradox in a path integral context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Geometrical diffraction theory uses ray tracing techniques to calculate diffraction and other properties of the electromagnetic field generally considered characteristically wave like. The author studies this dualism of the classical electromagnetic field so as to distinguish those aspects of quantum dualism that arise simply as properties of oscillatory integrals and those that may have deeper origins. By a series of transformations the solutions of certain optics problems are reduced to the evaluation of a Feynman path integral and the known semiclassical approximations for the path integral provide a justification for the geometrical diffraction theory. Particular attention is paid to the problem of edge diffraction and for a half plane barrier a closed form solution is obtained. A classical variational principle for barrier penetration is also presented. (Auth.)

  17. Design of energy efficient optical networks with software enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    energy consumption by proposing a new integrated control plane structure utilising Software Defined Networking technologies. The integrated control plane increases the efficiencies of exchanging control information across different network domains, while introducing new possibilities to the routing...... methods and the control over quality of service (QoS). The structure is defined as an overlay generalised multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) control model. With the defined structure, the integrated control plane is able to gather information from different domains (i.e. optical core network......'s) routing behaviours. With the flexibility of the routing structure, results show that the energy efficiency of the network can be improved without compromising the QoS for delay/blocking sensitive services....

  18. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, I; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Bromberger, B; Weierganz, M

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the E n = 1–10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system

  19. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  20. Electromagnetic modeling and characterization of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifterin GaAs integrated technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Faci, S.; Deshours, F.; Algani, C.; Alquié, G.; Formont, S.; Chazelas, J.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art of the modeling of microwave photoswitching devices is exposed. A new 3 D electromagnetic modeling allows the design of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifter microwave starting from the traditional circuit of a microwave photoswitch. Measurements of the parameters S of this optically-controlled microwave phase shifter attests the function of this circuit by optical way and highlights the interest of the integration of this new type of microwave phase shifters in ...

  1. Butt-joint integration of active optical components based on InP/AlInGaAsP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface was determi...

  2. A bit-rate flexible and power efficient all-optical demultiplexer realised by monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm

    1996-01-01

    A novel bit-rate flexible and very power efficient all-optical demultiplexer using differential optical control of a monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer with MQW SOAs is demonstrated at 40 to 10 Gbit/s. Gain switched DFB lasers provide ultra stable data and control signals....

  3. Integrated mechano-optical hydrogen gas sensor using cantilever bending readout with a Si3N4 grated waveguide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We demonstrate a proof of concept of a novel and compact integrated mechano-optical sensor for H2 detection based on a microcantilever suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide. The fabricated devices are mechanically and optically modeled and characterized. Sensing operation of the sensor is

  4. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminnated by Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles. The source and observation points can take on almost arbitrary positions. To illustrate the exactness and efficiency of the new line integral, numerical comparisons with the conventional surface radiation integral are carried out....

  5. A Low Cost Bluetooth Low Energy Transceiver for Wireless Sensor Network Applications with a Front-end Receiver-Matching Network-Reusing Power Amplifier Load Inductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Li, Bin; Huang, Mo; Zheng, Yanqi; Ye, Hui; Xu, Ken; Deng, Fangming

    2017-04-19

    In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX)-matching network-reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa. This allows the TRX-switch/matching network integration without significant performance degradation. The RX adopted a low-IF structure and integrated a single-ended low noise amplifier (LNA), a current bleeding mixer, a 4th complex filter and a delta-sigma continuous time (CT) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TX employed a two-point PLL-based architecture with a non-linear PA. The RX achieved a sensitivity of -93 dBm and consumes 9.7 mW, while the TX achieved a 2.97% error vector magnitude (EVM) with 9.4 mW at 0 dBm output power. This design was fabricated in a 0.11 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and the front-end circuit only occupies 0.24 mm². The measurement results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed BLE transceiver for WSN applications.

  6. A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Renliang; Jiang Xudong; Yao Wang; Yang Guang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Jianqin; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2010-01-01

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-μm RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm 2 and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P 1dB better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Renliang; Jiang Xudong; Yao Wang; Yang Guang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Jianqin; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-{mu}m RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm{sup 2} and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P{sub 1dB} better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Distributed strain measurement with polymer optical fibers integrated into multifunctional geotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Sascha; Lenke, Philipp; Krebber, Katerina; Seeger, Monika; Thiele, Elke; Metschies, Heike; Gebreselassie, Berhane; Münich, Johannes Christian; Stempniewski, Lothar

    2008-04-01

    Fiber optic sensors based on polymer optical fibers (POF) have the advantage of being very elastic and robust at the same time. Unlike silica fibers, standard PMMA POF fibers can be strained to more than 40% while fully maintaining their light guiding properties. We investigated POF as a distributed strain sensor by analysing the backscatter increase at the strained section using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique. This sensing ability together with its high robustness and break-down strain makes POF well-suited for integration into technical textiles for structural health monitoring purposes. Within the European research project POLYTECT (Polyfunctional textiles against natural hazards) technical textiles with integrated POF sensors, among others sensors are being developed for online structural health monitoring of geotechnical structures. Mechanical deformation in slopes, dams, dikes, embankments and retrofitted masonry structures is to be detected before critical damage occurs. In this paper we present the POF strain sensor properties, reactions to disturbing influences as temperature and bends as well as the results of the different model tests we conducted within POLYTECT. We further show the potential of perfluorinated graded-index POF for distributed strain sensing with increased spatial resolution and measurement lengths.

  9. Integrated optics for nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared: progress and recent achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, M.; Barthelemy, E.; Bastard, L.; Broquin, J.-E.; Hawkins, G.; Kirschner, V.; Ménard, S.; Parent, G.; Poinsot, C.; Pradel, A.; Vigreux, C.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X.

    2017-11-01

    The search for Earth-like exoplanets, orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than our Sun and showing biological activity, is one of the most exciting and challenging quests of the present time. Nulling interferometry from space, in the thermal infrared, appears as a promising candidate technique for the task of directly observing extra-solar planets. It has been studied for about 10 years by ESA and NASA in the framework of the Darwin and TPF-I missions respectively [1]. Nevertheless, nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared remains a technological challenge at several levels. Among them, the development of the "modal filter" function is mandatory for the filtering of the wavefronts in adequacy with the objective of rejecting the central star flux to an efficiency of about 105. Modal filtering [2] takes benefit of the capability of single-mode waveguides to transmit a single amplitude function, to eliminate virtually any perturbation of the interfering wavefronts, thus making very high rejection ratios possible. The modal filter may either be based on single-mode Integrated Optics (IO) and/or Fiber Optics. In this paper, we focus on IO, and more specifically on the progress of the on-going "Integrated Optics" activity of the European Space Agency.

  10. Optimization of an integrated optic broadband duplexer for 0.8/1.3-micrometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibaudo, Elise; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel; Benech, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    These last years, the growth of data traffic has increased the interest for broadband integrated optic devices. Their applications include, for example, the fiber communications on a single fiber by adding the transmission capacity of two optical telecommunication windows for Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) or by combining pump and signal wavelenghts in rare earth doped intergrated optical amplifiers. A promising technology to realize those devices is ion-exchange on glass. Indeed, it allows the integration of different functions in a glass substrate with efficient results and a better compatibility in fiber systems with a low cost. We propose in this paper an original broadband duplexer based on a leaky structure. First, the physical principle of the component is explained. The core of the structure is a leaky zone which involves a non-resonant coupling and ensures a broadband spectral behavior to the component. Then, the broadband duplexer is presented and the focus is specially made on the improvement of the outputs crosstalk through the suppression of parasitical back reflections. Theoretical optimization and validation by simulations are presented. Finally, perspectives of this work are proposed.

  11. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  12. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes.

  13. Modeling and Characterization of VCOs with MOS Varactors for RF Transceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Chris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As more broadband wireless standards are introduced and ratified, the complexity of wireless communication systems increases, which necessitates extra care and vigilance in their design. In this paper, various aspects of popular voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs as key components in RF transceivers are discussed. The importance of phase noise of these key blocks in the overall performance of RF transceivers is highlighted. Varactors are identified as an important component of LC-based oscillators. A new model for accumulation-mode MOS varactors is introduced. The model is experimentally verified through measurements on LC-based VCOs designed in a standard m CMOS process.

  14. Mathematics, commonness and integral pedagogy: offering trends from a humanist integral optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Elena Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the educative institutions, numerous difficulties still are being perceived to teach Mathematics as it is circumscribed in a traditional pedagogy, th educative, cultural and social context is still being planned in an hegemonic way. Using a hermeneutical methodology in this qualitative research, offerer tendencies are given on the triad: Mathematics-daily life experiences-integral pedagogy, to provide a swerve to the teaching of science and to present it with an improved, active and liberating pedagogy; tending to change the perspective of the teaching of science. Among such tendencies we can find: the contribution to educate a honorable, supportive and humanist individual; the preparation on the intellectual, moral and spiritual levels; and authentic education, taking into account the scholar’s potentialities and an individual educated on mind, body and heart. To do so, the teacher must be skilled on history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, semiotics among other categories; and they must be ethical, critics on their own praxis, opened to the changes and innovations individuals.

  15. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  16. Advanced RF and microwave functions based on an integrated optical frequency comb source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Jiayang; Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2018-02-05

    We demonstrate advanced transversal radio frequency (RF) and microwave functions based on a Kerr optical comb source generated by an integrated micro-ring resonator. We achieve extremely high performance for an optical true time delay aimed at tunable phased array antenna applications, as well as reconfigurable microwave photonic filters. Our results agree well with theory. We show that our true time delay would yield a phased array antenna with features that include high angular resolution and a wide range of beam steering angles, while the microwave photonic filters feature high Q factors, wideband tunability, and highly reconfigurable filtering shapes. These results show that our approach is a competitive solution to implementing reconfigurable, high performance and potentially low cost RF and microwave signal processing functions for applications including radar and communication systems.

  17. Integrated optics nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes for picoliter volume refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2013-01-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an integrated optics refractometric nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes in sapphire microspheres. A measurand fluid is injected in a micromachined reservoir defined in between the microsphere and an optical waveguide. The wavelength shift due to changes in the refractive index of the measurand fluid are studied for a set of different configurations by the finite element method and a high sensitivity versus fluid volume is found. The proposed device can be tailored to work with a minimum fluid volume of 1 pl and a sensitivity up of 2000 nm/(RIU·nl). We introduce a figure of merit which quantifies the amplifying effect on the sensitivity of high quality factor resonators and allows us to compare different devices. (paper)

  18. Integration of Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns to Augment Clinical Data Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S.; Patel, N.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W.; Otto, C.; Samuels, B.; Koslovsky, M.; Schaefer, C.; Taiym, W.; Wear, M.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration spaceflight astronauts has led Space Medicine at NASA to adopt a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented at NASA, including on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to increase the fidelity of the current OCT data set by integrating the traditional circumpapillary OCT image with radial and horizontal block images at the optic nerve head. The retinal nerve fiber layer was segmented by two experienced individuals. Intra-rater (N=4 subjects and 70 images) and inter-rater (N=4 subjects and 221 images) agreement was performed. The results of this analysis and the potential benefits will be presented.

  19. Machine integrated optical measurement of honed surfaces in presence of cooling lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R; Koenig, N; Zheng, H

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of honed surfaces is one of the most important tasks in tribology. Although many established techniques exist for texture characterization, such as SEM, tactile stylus or white-light interferometry, none of them is suited for a machine integrated measurement. Harsh conditions such as the presence of cooling lubricant or vibrations prohibit the use of commercial sensors inside a honing machine. Instead, machined engine blocks need time-consuming cleaning and preparation while taken out of the production line for inspection. A full inspection of all produced parts is hardly possible this way. Within this paper, an approach for a machine-integrated measurement is presented, which makes use of optical sensors for texture profiling. The cooling lubricant here serves as immersion medium. The results of test measurements with a chromatic-confocal sensor and a fiber-optical low-coherence interferometer show the potential of both measuring principles for our approach. Cooling lubricant temperature and flow, scanning speed and measurement frequency have been varied in the tests. The sensor with best performance will later be chosen for machine integration.

  20. Bio-optical data integration based on a 4 D database system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, N. N.; Shimabukuro, M. H.; Carmo, A. F. C.; Alcantara, E. H.; Rodrigues, T. W. P.; Watanabe, F. S. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Bio-optical characterization of water bodies requires spatio-temporal data about Inherent Optical Properties and Apparent Optical Properties which allow the comprehension of underwater light field aiming at the development of models for monitoring water quality. Measurements are taken to represent optical properties along a column of water, and then the spectral data must be related to depth. However, the spatial positions of measurement may differ since collecting instruments vary. In addition, the records should not refer to the same wavelengths. Additional difficulty is that distinct instruments store data in different formats. A data integration approach is needed to make these large and multi source data sets suitable for analysis. Thus, it becomes possible, even automatically, semi-empirical models evaluation, preceded by preliminary tasks of quality control. In this work it is presented a solution, in the stated scenario, based on spatial - geographic - database approach with the adoption of an object relational Database Management System - DBMS - due to the possibilities to represent all data collected in the field, in conjunction with data obtained by laboratory analysis and Remote Sensing images that have been taken at the time of field data collection. This data integration approach leads to a 4D representation since that its coordinate system includes 3D spatial coordinates - planimetric and depth - and the time when each data was taken. It was adopted PostgreSQL DBMS extended by PostGIS module to provide abilities to manage spatial/geospatial data. It was developed a prototype which has the mainly tools an analyst needs to prepare the data sets for analysis.

  1. Alternative Measurement Configurations for Extracting Bulk Optical Properties Using an Integrating Sphere Setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thennadil, Suresh N; Chen, Yi-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    The usual approach for estimating bulk optical properties using an integrating sphere measurement setup is by acquiring spectra from three measurement modes namely collimated transmittance (T c ), total transmittance (T d ), and total diffuse reflectance (R d ), followed by the inversion of these measurements using the adding-doubling method. At high scattering levels, accurate acquisition of T c becomes problematic due to the presence of significant amounts of forward-scattered light in this measurement which is supposed to contain only unscattered light. In this paper, we propose and investigate the effectiveness of using alternative sets of integrating sphere measurements that avoid the use of T c and could potentially increase the upper limit of concentrations of suspensions at which bulk optical property measurements can be obtained in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) region of the spectrum. We examine the possibility of replacing T c with one or more reflectance measurements at different sample thicknesses. We also examine the possibility of replacing both the collimated (T c ) and total transmittance (T d ) measurements with reflectance measurements taken from different sample thicknesses. The analysis presented here indicates that replacing T c with a reflectance measurement can reduce the errors in the bulk scattering properties when scattering levels are high. When only multiple reflectance measurements are used, good estimates of the bulk optical properties can be obtained when the absorption levels are low. In addition, we examine whether there is any advantage in using three measurements instead of two to obtain the reduced bulk scattering coefficient and the bulk absorption coefficient. This investigation is made in the context of chemical and biological suspensions which have a much larger range of optical properties compared to those encountered with tissue.

  2. Proposal for arbitrary-order temporal integration of ultrafast optical signals using a single uniform-period fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Azaña, José

    2008-07-01

    A simple and practical all-fiber design for implementing arbitrary-order temporal integration of ultrafast optical waveforms is proposed and numerically investigated. We demonstrate that an ultrafast photonics integrator of any desired integration order can be implemented using a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a properly designed amplitude-only grating apodization profile. In particular, the grating coupling strength must vary according to the (N-1) power of the fiber distance for implementing an Nth-order photonics integrator (N=1,2,...). This approach requires the same level of practical difficulty for realizing any given integration order. The proposed integration devices operate over a limited time window, which is approximately fixed by the round-trip propagation time in the FBG. Ultrafast arbitrary-order all-optical integrators capable of accurate operation over nanosecond time windows can be implemented using readily feasible FBGs.

  3. A 55 nm CMOS ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for WLAN transceivers with low noise filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingyi; Chu Xiaojie; Yu Peng; Yan Jun; Shi Yin

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer fabricated in a 55 nm CMOS technology is presented for the application of IEEE 802.11b/g wireless local area network (WLAN) transceivers. A low noise filter, occupying a small die area, whose power supply is given by a high PSRR and low noise LDO regulator, is integrated on chip. The proposed synthesizer needs no off-chip components and occupies an area of 0.72 mm 2 excluding PAD. Measurement results show that in all channels, the phase noise of the synthesizer achieves −99 dBc/Hz and −119 dBc/Hz in band and out of band respectively with a reference frequency of 40 MHz and a loop bandwidth of 200 kHz. The integrated RMS phase error is no more than 0.6°. The proposed synthesizer consumes a total power of 15.6 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  5. Simplified Monolithic Flow Cytometer Chip With Three-Dimensional Hydrodyanmic Focusing And Integrated Fiber-Free Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motosuke, Masahiro; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Zhuang, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized flow cytometry incorporating both fluidic and optical systems has a great possibility for portable biochemical sensing or point-of-care diagnostics. This paper presents a simple microfluidic flow cytometer combining reliable 3D hydrodynamic focusing and optical detection without...... optical fibers in a monolithic architecture fabricated by a single photolithographic process. The vertical flow focusing is achieved by the optimized inlet geometry in a PDMS lid onto the substrate with detection channel and integrated optics. The simplified approach indicates the possibility...

  6. Wave-optics simulation of the double-pass beam propagation in modulating retro-reflector FSO systems using a corner cube reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; You, Shengzui; Bi, Meihua; Fan, Bing; Lu, Yang; Zhou, Xuefang; Li, Jing; Geng, Hujun; Wang, Tianshu

    2017-09-10

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication utilizing a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) is an innovative way to convey information between the traditional optical transceiver and the semi-passive MRR unit that reflects optical signals. The reflected signals experience turbulence-induced fading in the double-pass channel, which is very different from that in the traditional single-pass FSO channel. In this paper, we consider the corner cube reflector (CCR) as the retro-reflective device in the MRR. A general geometrical model of the CCR is established based on the ray tracing method to describe the ray trajectory inside the CCR. This ray tracing model could treat the general case that the optical beam is obliquely incident on the hypotenuse surface of the CCR with the dihedral angle error and surface nonflatness. Then, we integrate this general CCR model into the wave-optics (WO) simulation to construct the double-pass beam propagation simulation. This double-pass simulation contains the forward propagation from the transceiver to the MRR through the atmosphere, the retro-reflection of the CCR, and the backward propagation from the MRR to the transceiver, which can be realized by a single-pass WO simulation, the ray tracing CCR model, and another single-pass WO simulation, respectively. To verify the proposed CCR model and double-pass WO simulation, the effective reflection area, the incremental phase, and the reflected beam spot on the transceiver plane of the CCR are analyzed, and the numerical results are in agreement with the previously published results. Finally, we use the double-pass WO simulation to investigate the double-pass channel in the MRR FSO systems. The histograms of the turbulence-induced fading in the forward and backward channels are obtained from the simulation data and are fitted by gamma-gamma (ΓΓ) distributions. As the two opposite channels are highly correlated, we model the double-pass channel fading by the product of two correlated

  7. Transceivers and receivers for quantum key distribution and methods pertaining thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Christopher; Sarovar, Mohan; Soh, Daniel B.S.; Lentine, Anthony; Davids, Paul; Camacho, Ryan

    2018-02-27

    Various technologies for performing continuous-variable (CV) and discrete-variable (DV) quantum key distribution (QKD) with integrated electro-optical circuits are described herein. An integrated DV-QKD system uses Mach-Zehnder modulators to modulate a polarization of photons at a transmitter and select a photon polarization measurement basis at a receiver. An integrated CV-QKD system uses wavelength division multiplexing to send and receive amplitude-modulated and phase-modulated optical signals with a local oscillator signal while maintaining phase coherence between the modulated signals and the local oscillator signal.

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  9. Gigabit Access Passive Optical Network Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing—GigaWaM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Suhr, Lau; Prince, Kamau

    2014-01-01

    passive optical network (WDM-PON) architecture that can deliver symmetric 1 Gb/s to 64 users over 20 km standard single mode fiber using the L and C bands for down and upstream, respectively. During the course of the project, a number of key enabling technologies were developed including tunable......This paper summarizes the research and technical achievements done under the EU project GigaWaM. The goal of this project was to develop a cost-effective solution that can meet the increasing bandwidth demands in access networks. The approach was to use a novel wavelength division multiplexing...... transceivers, athermal 50 GHz spaced arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer devices, novel hybridization technologies for integration of passive and active electro-optic devices, and system-level algorithms that ensure the quality of service. The outcome of the project proved a reliable, cost...

  10. Integrated tunable quantum-dot laser for optical coherence tomography in the 1.7 μm wavelength region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilma, B.W.; Jiao, Y.; Kotani, J.; Smalbrugge, B.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated tunable laser for optical coherence tomography in medicine. This laser is the first monolithic photonic integrated circuit containing quantum-dot amplifiers, phase modulators and passive components. We

  11. Dual-Source Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Reconstructed on Integrated Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-source swept-source optical coherence tomography (DS-SSOCT has two individual sources with different central wavelengths, linewidth, and bandwidths. Because of the difference between the two sources, the individually reconstructed tomograms from each source have different aspect ratio, which makes the comparison and integration difficult. We report a method to merge two sets of DS-SSOCT raw data in a common spectrum, on which both data have the same spectrum density and a correct separation. The reconstructed tomographic image can seamlessly integrate the two bands of OCT data together. The final image has higher axial resolution and richer spectroscopic information than any of the individually reconstructed tomography image.

  12. Design and optical performance of a nonimaging Fresnel transmissive concentrator for building integration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemisana, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.chemisana@macs.udl.cat [Applied Physics Section of the Polytechnic School (EPS), University of Lleida, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Ignasi Rosell, Joan [Applied Physics Section of the Polytechnic School (EPS), University of Lleida, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The designed concentrator has an important potential for building integration. {yields} The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver. {yields} Tracking performed by a single driver, representing an important mechanical advantage. {yields} The system reaches a global optical efficiency value of 56.38%. - Abstract: A transmissive Fresnel reflector is designed to match the needs of building integration for concentrating photovoltaic (PV), thermal (T) or hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) generation. The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver by means of an array of reflectors which rotate collectively. All rotation axes are coplanar and parallel. A deep analytical ray tracing study has been made of the design characteristics and concentrator performance, thus determining the configuration which optimises efficiency. Numerous ray tracing numerical simulations have been performed which contrast and support the analytical results.

  13. Design and optical performance of a nonimaging Fresnel transmissive concentrator for building integration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, Daniel; Ignasi Rosell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The designed concentrator has an important potential for building integration. → The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver. → Tracking performed by a single driver, representing an important mechanical advantage. → The system reaches a global optical efficiency value of 56.38%. - Abstract: A transmissive Fresnel reflector is designed to match the needs of building integration for concentrating photovoltaic (PV), thermal (T) or hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) generation. The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver by means of an array of reflectors which rotate collectively. All rotation axes are coplanar and parallel. A deep analytical ray tracing study has been made of the design characteristics and concentrator performance, thus determining the configuration which optimises efficiency. Numerous ray tracing numerical simulations have been performed which contrast and support the analytical results.

  14. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits

  15. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  16. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  17. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Youn, J.S.; Park, K.Y.; Choi, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche

  18. Optimum noise figure and data rate for energy efficient wireless sensor network transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, R.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most applications of wireless sensor networks desire an ultra-low power radio to extend the battery life of a sensor node. With power reducation of processors and semiconductor memories due to advanced CMOS scaling, radio transceiver in the bottleneck to extend battery lifetime of sensor nodes.

  19. Coplanar transitions based on aluminum nitride interposer substrate for terabit transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two types of coplanar transitions based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate for interposer designs of terabit transceivers. The designs of coupled coplanar waveguide (CCPW), coupled line, coplanar waveguide (CPW), and coplanar stripline (CPS) based on AlN substrate are explained...

  20. Feasibility study on analogue cancellation of local interference in multimode transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, H.; Zamanifekri, A.; Janssen, E.J.G.; Wu, Y.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Bergmans, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In multimode transceivers, the transmitter for one communication standard induces a strong local interference in the receiver for another standard. Such strong interference can severely affect the receiver, if it is not suppressed at an early stage of the receiver. A widely explored method to cancel

  1. Design and characterization of high-speed CMOS pseudo-LVDS transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratenko, S V

    2016-01-01

    High-speed transceiver for on-board systems of data collection and processing need to meet additional requirements, such as low power consumption and increased radiation hardness. It is therefore necessary to compare and search for alternative variants of transceivers on the physical layer, where high transfer speed is not achieved at the cost of a significant increase in power consumption or a limitation of transmission distance by the size of a printed circuit board. For on-board applications, it is also necessary to solve the problem of increasing the radiation hardness without going to expensive types of technology. In this paper, we studied some variants of implementation of pseudo-LVDS transceivers and analyzed their achievable quantitative characteristics. According to the results of calculations and analysis of the literature, specialized transceivers of this type, intended for the manufacture or manufactured according to the bulk CMOS technology processes in the range of 250-80 nm, can provide data speeds up to 6 Gbps at a specific power consumption of less than 4 mW/Gbps. (paper)

  2. Design and characterization of high-speed CMOS pseudo-LVDS transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    High-speed transceiver for on-board systems of data collection and processing need to meet additional requirements, such as low power consumption and increased radiation hardness. It is therefore necessary to compare and search for alternative variants of transceivers on the physical layer, where high transfer speed is not achieved at the cost of a significant increase in power consumption or a limitation of transmission distance by the size of a printed circuit board. For on-board applications, it is also necessary to solve the problem of increasing the radiation hardness without going to expensive types of technology. In this paper, we studied some variants of implementation of pseudo-LVDS transceivers and analyzed their achievable quantitative characteristics. According to the results of calculations and analysis of the literature, specialized transceivers of this type, intended for the manufacture or manufactured according to the bulk CMOS technology processes in the range of 250-80 nm, can provide data speeds up to 6 Gbps at a specific power consumption of less than 4 mW/Gbps.

  3. A 2.4GHz ULP OOK single-chip transceiver for healthcare applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidojkovic, M.; Huang, X.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Rampu, S.; Zhou, C.; Huang, Li; Molengraft, van de J.; Imamura, K.; Büsze, B.; Bouwens, F.; Konijnenburg, M.; Santana, J.; Breeschoten, A.; Huisken, J.; Philips, K.; Dolmans, G.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-low power (ULP) single chip transceiver for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications. It supports on-off keying (OOK) modulation, and it operates in the 2.36–2.4 GHz medical BAN and 2.4–2.485 GHz ISM bands. It is implemented in 90 nm CMOS technology. The direct

  4. A 16-channel combined loop-dipole transceiver array for 7 Tesla body MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; Raaijmakers, Alexander J.E.; Adriany, Gregor; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Metzger, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a 16-channel transceive body imaging array at 7.0 T with improved transmit, receive, and specific absorption rate (SAR) performance by combining both loop and dipole elements and using their respective and complementary near and far field characteristics. Methods: A 16-channel

  5. On-chip photonic microsystem for optical signal processing based on silicon and silicon nitride platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Jiachen; Yu, Hongchen; Yu, Hai; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Sigang; Chen, Minghua

    2018-04-01

    The explosive growth of data centers, cloud computing and various smart devices is limited by the current state of microelectronics, both in terms of speed and heat generation. Benefiting from the large bandwidth, promising low power consumption and passive calculation capability, experts believe that the integrated photonics-based signal processing and transmission technologies can break the bottleneck of microelectronics technology. In recent years, integrated photonics has become increasingly reliable and access to the advanced fabrication process has been offered by various foundries. In this paper, we review our recent works on the integrated optical signal processing system. We study three different kinds of on-chip signal processors and use these devices to build microsystems for the fields of microwave photonics, optical communications and spectrum sensing. The microwave photonics front receiver was demonstrated with a signal processing range of a full-band (L-band to W-band). A fully integrated microwave photonics transceiver without the on-chip laser was realized on silicon photonics covering the signal frequency of up 10 GHz. An all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) de-multiplier was also demonstrated and used for an OFDM communication system with the rate of 64 Gbps. Finally, we show our work on the monolithic integrated spectrometer with a high resolution of about 20 pm at the central wavelength of 1550 nm. These proposed on-chip signal processing systems potential applications in the fields of radar, 5G wireless communication, wearable devices and optical access networks.

  6. In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, J. F.; Blokland, P.; Posthumus, P.; Aalders, M.; Pickering, J. W.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.

    1997-11-01

    The optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor) were measured in vitro for cartilage, liver, lung, muscle, myocardium, skin, and tumour (colon adenocarcinoma CC 531) at 630, 632.8, 790, 850 and 1064 nm. Rabbits, rats, piglets, goats, and dogs were used to obtain the tissues. A double-integrating-sphere setup with an intervening sample was used to determine the reflectance, and the diffuse and collimated transmittances of the sample. The inverse adding - doubling algorithm was used to determine the optical properties from the measurements. The overall results were comparable to those available in the literature, although only limited data are available at 790 - 850 nm. The results were reproducible for a specific sample at a specific wavelength. However, when comparing the results of different samples of the same tissue or different lasers with approximately the same wavelength (e.g. argon dye laser at 630 nm and HeNe laser at 632.8 nm) variations are large. We believe these variations in optical properties should be explained by biological variations of the tissues. In conclusion, we report on an extensive set of in vitro absorption and scattering properties of tissues measured with the same equipment and software, and by the same group. Although the accuracy of the method requires further improvement, it is highly likely that the other existing data in the literature have a similar level of accuracy.

  7. Electro-optic routing of photons from a single quantum dot in photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midolo, Leonardo; Hansen, Sofie L.; Zhang, Weili; Papon, Camille; Schott, Rüdiger; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2017-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in solid-state photonic quantum technologies enable generating and detecting single photons with near-unity efficiency as required for a range of photonic quantum technologies. The lack of methods to simultaneously generate and control photons within the same chip, however, has formed a main obstacle to achieving efficient multi-qubit gates and to harness the advantages of chip-scale quantum photonics. Here we propose and demonstrate an integrated voltage-controlled phase shifter based on the electro-optic effect in suspended photonic waveguides with embedded quantum emitters. The phase control allows building a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer with two orthogonal arms, taking advantage of the anisotropic electro-optic response in gallium arsenide. Photons emitted by single self-assembled quantum dots can be actively routed into the two outputs of the interferometer. These results, together with the observed sub-microsecond response time, constitute a significant step towards chip-scale single-photon-source de-multiplexing, fiber-loop boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.

  8. Fiber in access technologies and network convergence: an opportunity for optical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiggino, Pierpaolo C.

    2008-11-01

    Broadband networks are among the fastest growing segment in telecom. The initial and still very significant push originated with xDSL technologies and indeed a significant amount of research and development is still occurring in this field with impressive results and allowing for a remarkable use of the installed copper infrastructure way beyond its originally planned bandwidth capabilities. However it is clear that ultimately a more suitable fiber based infrastructure will be needed in order to reduce both operational and network technology costs. Such cost reduction in inevitable as the added value to end users is only related to services and these cannot be priced outside a sensible window, whilst the related bandwidth increase is much more dramatic and its huge variability must be met with little or no cost impact by the network and its operation. Fiber in access has indeed the potential to cope with a huge bandwidth demand for many years to come as its inherent bandwidth capabilities are only just tapped by current service requirements. However the whole technology supply chain must follow in line. In particular optical technology must brace itself to cope with the required much larger deployment and greater cost effectiveness, whilst at the same time deliver performance suitable to the bandwidth increase offered in the longer term by the fiber medium. This paper looks at this issues and debates the opportunities for a new class of optical devices making use of the progress in optical integration

  9. An electro-magnetic micromachined actuator monolithically integrated with a vertical shutter for variable optical attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Shao Hsuan; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; John Su, Guo-Dung

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication and test results of an electromagnetic-actuated micromachined variable optical attenuator (VOA) are reported in this paper. Optical attenuation is achieved by moving a shutter into the light path between a pair of single mode fiber collimators. The shutter, consisting of a 500 µm × 1200 µm vertical micromirror, is monolithically integrated with an actuation flap. The micromirror was made by tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) anisotropic wet etching with a sharp edge and a smooth reflecting surface. By arranging fiber collimators in different configurations, the reported VOA can be used as either normally-on or normally-off modes due to its relatively large shutter surface. The insertion loss of the VOA is 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB for normally-on and normally-off modes, respectively. Both optical and mechanical simulation models of the device were discussed, and the theoretical calculations based on these models offered an efficient way to predict the performance of the shutter-type VOA. The controllable attenuation range is approximately 40 dB with a driving voltage less than 0.5 V, and the driving power is less than 2 mW. A response time of 5 ms is achieved by applying proper driving waveform

  10. Miniaturized Integrated Platform for Electrical and Optical Monitoring of Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Brasoveanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the design and functions of a miniaturized integrated platform for optical and electrical monitoring of cell cultures and the necessary steps in the fabrication and testing of a silicon microchip Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS-based technology for cell data recording, monitoring and stimulation. The silicon microchip consists of a MEMS machined device containing a shank of 240 μm width, 3 mm long and 50 μm thick and an enlarged area of 5 mm × 5 mm hosting the pads for electrical connections. Ten platinum electrodes and five sensors are placed on the shank and are connected with the external electronics through the pads. The sensors aim to monitor the pH, the temperature and the impedance of the cell culture. The electrodes are bidirectional and can be used both for electrical potential recording and stimulation of cells. The fabrication steps are presented, along with the electrical and optical characterization of the system. The target of the research is to develop a new and reconfigurable platform according to the particular applications needs, as a tool for the biologist, chemists and medical doctors working is the field of cell culture monitoring in terms of growth, maintenance conditions, reaction to electrical or chemical stimulation (drugs, toxicants, etc.. HaCaT (Immortalised Human Keratinocyte cell culture has been used for demonstration purposes in order to provide information on the platform electrical and optical functions.

  11. High Efficiency Optical MEMS by the Integration of Photonic Lattices with Surface MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLEMING, JAMES G.; LIN, SHAWN-YU; MANI, SEETHAMBAL S.; RODGERS, M. STEVEN; DAGEL, DARYL J.

    2002-11-01

    This report outlines our work on the integration of high efficiency photonic lattice structures with MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems). The simplest of these structures were based on 1-D mirror structures. These were integrated into a variety of devices, movable mirrors, switchable cavities and finally into Bragg fiber structures which enable the control of light in at least 2 dimensions. Of these devices, the most complex were the Bragg fibers. Bragg fibers consist of hollow tubes in which light is guided in a low index media (air) and confined by surrounding Bragg mirror stacks. In this work, structures with internal diameters from 5 to 30 microns have been fabricated and much larger structures should also be possible. We have demonstrated the fabrication of these structures with short wavelength band edges ranging from 400 to 1600nm. There may be potential applications for such structures in the fields of integrated optics and BioMEMS. We have also looked at the possibility of waveguiding in 3 dimensions by integrating defects into 3-dimensional photonic lattice structures. Eventually it may be possible to tune such structures by mechanically modulating the defects.

  12. Organic Optical Sensor Based on Monolithic Integration of Organic Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Lam Tam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic optical sensor that integrates a front organic light-emitting diode (OLED and an organic photodiode (OPD is demonstrated. The stripe-shaped cathode is used in the OLED components to create light signals, while the space between the stripe-shaped cathodes serves as the detection window for integrated OPD units. A MoO3 (5 nm/Ag (15 nm bi-layer inter-electrode is interposed between the vertically stacked OLED and OPD units, serving simultaneously as the cathode for the front OLED and an anode for the upper OPD units in the sensor. In the integrated sensor, the emission of the OLED units is confined by the area of the opaque stripe-shaped cathodes, optimized to maximize the reflected light passing through the window space for detection by the OPD components. This can ensure high OLED emission output, increasing the signal/noise ratio. The design and fabrication flexibility of an integrated OLED/OPD device also has low cost benefits, and is light weight and ultra-thin, making it possible for application in wearable units, finger print identification, image sensors, smart light sources, and compact information systems.

  13. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  14. Experimental study of structural and optical properties of integrated MOCVD GaAs/Si(001) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredin, P. V.; Lenshin, A. S.; Zolotukhin, D. S.; Arsentyev, I. N.; Nikolaev, D. N.; Zhabotinskiy, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    This is the first report of the control of the structural and optical functional characteristics of integrated GaAs/Si(001) heterostructures due to the use of misoriented Si(001) substrates with protoporous sublayer. The growth of the epitaxial GaAs layer on silicon substrates without formation of the antiphase domains can be performed on substrates deviating less than 4°-6° from the singular (001) plane or without the use of a transition layer of GaAs nano-columns. Preliminary etching of the silicon substrate with protoporous Si sublayer formation facilitated the acquisition of an epitaxial GaAs film in a single-crystalline state with a considerably less residual strain factor using MOCVD, which has a positive effect on the structural quality of the film. These data are in a good agreement with the results of IR reflection spectroscopy as well as PL and UV spectroscopy. The optical properties of the integrated GaAs/Si (001) heterostructures in the IR and UV spectral regions were also determined by the residual strain value.

  15. Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Research on sensors has experienced a noticeable development over the last decades especially in label free optical biosensors. However, compact sensors without markers for rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection of various substances induce a significant research of new technological solutions. The context of this work is the development of a sensor based on easily integrated and inexpensive micro-resonator (MR) component in integrated optics, highly sensitive and selective mainly in the areas of health and food. In this work, we take advantage of our previous studies on filters based on micro-resonators (MR) to experiment a new couple of polymers in the objective to use MR as a sensing function. MRs have been fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core and PMATRIFE polymer as cladding layer of the waveguide. The refractive index contrast reaches 0.16 @ 1550 nm. Sub-micronic ring waveguides gaps from 0.5 to 1 μm have been successfully achieved with UV (i-line) photolithography. This work confirms our forecasts, published earlier, about the resolution that can be achieved. First results show a good extinction coefficient of ~17 dB, a quality factor around 104 and a finesse of 12. These results are in concordance with the theoretical study and they allow us to validate our technology with this couple of polymers. Work is going on with others lower cladding materials that will be used to further increase refractive index contrast for sensing applications.

  16. Towards an integrated strategy for monitoring wetland inundation with virtual constellations of optical and radar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, B.; Huang, W.; Huang, C.; Jones, J. W.; Lang, M. W.; Creed, I. F.; Carroll, M.

    2017-12-01

    The function of wetlandscapes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles is largely governed by surface inundation, with small wetlands that experience periodic inundation playing a disproportionately large role in these processes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of inundation in these wetland systems are still poorly understood, resulting in large uncertainties in global water, carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. Satellite imagery provides synoptic and repeat views of the Earth's surface and presents opportunities to fill this knowledge gap. Despite the proliferation of Earth Observation satellite missions in the past decade, no single satellite sensor can simultaneously provide the spatial and temporal detail needed to adequately characterize inundation in small, dynamic wetland systems. Surface water data products must therefore integrate observations from multiple satellite sensors in order to address this objective, requiring the development of improved and coordinated algorithms to generate consistent estimates of surface inundation. We present a suite of algorithms designed to detect surface inundation in wetlands using data from a virtual constellation of optical and radar sensors comprising the Landsat and Sentinel missions (DeVries et al., 2017). Both optical and radar algorithms were able to detect inundation in wetlands without the need for external training data, allowing for high-efficiency monitoring of wetland inundation at large spatial and temporal scales. Applying these algorithms across a gradient of wetlands in North America, preliminary findings suggest that while these fully automated algorithms can detect wetland inundation at higher spatial and temporal resolutions than currently available surface water data products, limitations specific to the satellite sensors and their acquisition strategies are responsible for uncertainties in inundation estimates. Further research is needed to investigate strategies for

  17. Robust THP Transceiver Designs for Multiuser MIMO Downlink with Imperfect CSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ubaidulla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present robust joint nonlinear transceiver designs for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO downlink in the presence of imperfections in the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT. The base station (BS is equipped with multiple transmit antennas, and each user terminal is equipped with one or more receive antennas. The BS employs Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP for interuser interference precancellation at the transmitter. We consider robust transceiver designs that jointly optimize the transmit THP filters and receive filter for two models of CSIT errors. The first model is a stochastic error (SE model, where the CSIT error is Gaussian-distributed. This model is applicable when the CSIT error is dominated by channel estimation error. In this case, the proposed robust transceiver design seeks to minimize a stochastic function of the sum mean square error (SMSE under a constraint on the total BS transmit power. We propose an iterative algorithm to solve this problem. The other model we consider is a norm-bounded error (NBE model, where the CSIT error can be specified by an uncertainty set. This model is applicable when the CSIT error is dominated by quantization errors. In this case, we consider a worst-case design. For this model, we consider robust (i minimum SMSE, (ii MSE-constrained, and (iii MSE-balancing transceiver designs. We propose iterative algorithms to solve these problems, wherein each iteration involves a pair of semidefinite programs (SDPs. Further, we consider an extension of the proposed algorithm to the case with per-antenna power constraints. We evaluate the robustness of the proposed algorithms to imperfections in CSIT through simulation, and show that the proposed robust designs outperform nonrobust designs as well as robust linear transceiver designs reported in the recent literature.

  18. Robust THP Transceiver Designs for Multiuser MIMO Downlink with Imperfect CSIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidulla, P.; Chockalingam, A.

    2009-12-01

    We present robust joint nonlinear transceiver designs for multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink in the presence of imperfections in the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). The base station (BS) is equipped with multiple transmit antennas, and each user terminal is equipped with one or more receive antennas. The BS employs Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for interuser interference precancellation at the transmitter. We consider robust transceiver designs that jointly optimize the transmit THP filters and receive filter for two models of CSIT errors. The first model is a stochastic error (SE) model, where the CSIT error is Gaussian-distributed. This model is applicable when the CSIT error is dominated by channel estimation error. In this case, the proposed robust transceiver design seeks to minimize a stochastic function of the sum mean square error (SMSE) under a constraint on the total BS transmit power. We propose an iterative algorithm to solve this problem. The other model we consider is a norm-bounded error (NBE) model, where the CSIT error can be specified by an uncertainty set. This model is applicable when the CSIT error is dominated by quantization errors. In this case, we consider a worst-case design. For this model, we consider robust (i) minimum SMSE, (ii) MSE-constrained, and (iii) MSE-balancing transceiver designs. We propose iterative algorithms to solve these problems, wherein each iteration involves a pair of semidefinite programs (SDPs). Further, we consider an extension of the proposed algorithm to the case with per-antenna power constraints. We evaluate the robustness of the proposed algorithms to imperfections in CSIT through simulation, and show that the proposed robust designs outperform nonrobust designs as well as robust linear transceiver designs reported in the recent literature.

  19. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    and compressive strains in the lamina cribrosa of 42 and 43, respectively (Fig. 2). The corresponding changes in the optic nerve strains were 17 and 39, while in the PLNT they were 47 and 43. These magnitudes of relative elevations in peak strains may induce a phenotypic response in resident mechano-responsive resident cells [2]. This approach may be expanded to investigate other environmental changes (e.g. parabolic flight). Through our VIIP SCHOLAR project, we will validate and improve these integrated models by measuring patient-specific changes in optic nerve sheath geometry in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension before and after lumbar puncture and CSF removal.

  20. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  2. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  3. Optical wireless communication in data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    In the last decade data centers have become a crucial element in modern human society. However, to keep pace with internet data rate growth, new technologies supporting data center should develop. Integration of optical wireless communication (OWC) in data centers is one of the proposed technologies as augmented technology to the fiber network. One implementation of the OWC technology is deployment of optical wireless transceiver on top of the existing cable/fiber network as extension to the top of rack (TOR) switch; in this way, a dynamic and flexible network is created. Optical wireless communication could reduce energy consumption, increase the data rate, reduce the communication latency, increase flexibility and scalability, and reduce maintenance time and cost, in comparison to extra fiber network deployment. In this paper we review up to date literature in the field, propose an implementation scheme of OWC network, discuss ways to reduce energy consumption by parallel link communication and report preliminary measurement result of university data center environment.

  4. High-frequency acoustic spectrum analyzer based on polymer integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Araz

    This dissertation presents an acoustic spectrum analyzer based on nonlinear polymer-integrated optics. The device is used in a scanning heterodyne geometry by zero biasing a Michelson interferometer. It is capable of detecting vibrations from DC to the GHz range. Initial low frequency experiments show that the device is an effective tool for analyzing an acoustic spectrum even in noisy environments. Three generations of integrated sensors are presented, starting with a very lossy (86 dB total insertion loss) initial device that detects vibrations as low as λ/10, and second and third generation improvements with a final device of 44 dB total insertion loss. The sensor was further tested for detecting a pulsed laser-excited vibration and resonances due to the structure of the sample. The data are compared to the acoustic spectrum measured using a low loss passive fiber interferometer detection scheme which utilizes a high speed detector. The peaks present in the passive detection scheme are clearly visible with our sensor data, which have a lower noise floor. Hybrid integration of GHz electronics is also investigated in this dissertation. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is integrated on a polymer device using a new approach. The VCO is shown to operate as specified by the manufacturer, and the RF signal is efficiently launched onto the micro-strip line used for EO modulation. In the future this technology can be used in conjunction with the presented sensor to produce a fully integrated device containing high frequency drive electronics controlled by low DC voltage. Issues related to device fabrication, loss analysis, RF power delivery to drive circuitry, efficient poling of large area samples, and optimizing poling conditions are also discussed throughout the text.

  5. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  6. A fully integrated optical detector with a-Si:H based color photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watty, Krystian; Merfort, Christian; Seibel, Konstantin; Schoeler, Lars; Boehm, Markus [Institute for Microsystem Technologies (IMT), University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstr. 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The fabrication of an electrophoresis separation microchip with monolithic integrated excitation light source and variospectral photodiodes for absorption detection is presented in this paper. Microchip based separation techniques are essential elements in the development of fully integrated micro-total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS). An integrated microfluidic device, like an application specific lab-on-microchip (ALM) (Seibel et al., in: MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, USA, 2005 1), includes all components, necessary to perform a chemical analysis on chip and it can be used as a stand-alone unit directly at the point of sampling. Variospectral diodes based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) technology allow for advanced optical detection schemes, because the spectral sensitivity of the devices can be tailored to fit the emission of specific fluorescent markers. Important features of a-Si:H variospectral photodiodes are a high dynamic range, a bias-tunable spectral sensitivity and a very good linearity for the separation of mixed color signals. Principle of ALM device. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Signal and noise analysis in TRION-Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Fast Neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartsky, D; Feldman, G; Mor, I; Goldberg, M B; Bar, D; Dangendorf, V

    2009-01-01

    TRION is a sub-mm spatial resolution fast neutron imaging detector, which employs an integrative optical time-of-flight technique. The detector was developed for fast neutron resonance radiography, a method capable of detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives. In this study we have analyzed in detail, using Monte-Carlo calculations and experimentally determined parameters, all the processes that influence the signal and noise in the TRION detector. In contrast to event-counting detectors where the signal-to-noise ratio is dependent only on the number of detected events (quantum noise), in an energy-integrating detector additional factors, such as the fluctuations in imparted energy, number of photoelectrons, system gain and other factors will contribute to the noise. The excess noise factor (over the quantum noise) due to these processes was 4.3, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9 and 1.9 for incident neutron energies of 2, 4, 7.5, 10 and 14 MeV, respectively. It is shown that, even under ideal light collection conditions, a fast neutron detection system operating in an integrative mode cannot be quantum-noise-limited due to the relatively large variance in the imparted proton energy and the resulting scintillation light distributions.

  8. Definition, analysis and development of an optical data distribution network for integrated avionics and control systems. Part 2: Component development and system integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H. W.; Morrison, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic transmission is emerging as an attractive concept in data distribution onboard civil aircraft. Development of an Optical Data Distribution Network for Integrated Avionics and Control Systems for commercial aircraft will provide a data distribution network that gives freedom from EMI-RFI and ground loop problems, eliminates crosstalk and short circuits, provides protection and immunity from lightning induced transients and give a large bandwidth data transmission capability. In addition there is a potential for significantly reducing the weight and increasing the reliability over conventional data distribution networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a candidate method for data communication between the various avionic subsystems. With WDM all systems could conceptually communicate with each other without time sharing and requiring complicated coding schemes for each computer and subsystem to recognize a message. However, the state of the art of optical technology limits the application of fiber optics in advanced integrated avionics and control systems. Therefore, it is necessary to address the architecture for a fiber optics data distribution system for integrated avionics and control systems as well as develop prototype components and systems.

  9. Optical integrated circuit of a 40-channel electrooptical LiNbO/sub 3/ modulator for data-processing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukreev, I.N.; Venediktov, V.V.; Gorbatovskii, M.V.; Demina, T.P.; Kashintsev, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    An optical integrated circuit for a 40-channel electrooptical phase modulator has been developed. The channel waveguides are prepared through Ti thermal diffusion into a Y-cut LiNbO/sub 3/ substrate. The half-wave voltage for each channel is 1.6 V at a modulating frequency bandwidth of 0-290 MHz. Results are presented from an experiment concerning the use of the modulator as an input device for the optical processing of radio signals.

  10. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  11. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  12. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Jiang, Peng; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-11-08

    Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO₂ -δ , Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO 3- δ , as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti 0.2 Ga 0.4 Fe 0.4 )O 3- δ and polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 /silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  13. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  14. A 0.13 μm CMOS ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for WLAN transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Xiaojie; Jia Hailong; Lin Min; Shi Yin; Foster, Dai Fa

    2011-01-01

    A fractional-N frequency synthesizer fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology is presented for the application of IEEE 802.11 b/g wireless local area network (WLAN) transceivers. A monolithic LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is implemented with an on-chip symmetric inductor. The fractional-N frequency divider consists of a pulse swallow frequency divider and a 3rd-order multistage noise shaping (MASH) ΔΣ modulator with noise-shaped dithering techniques. Measurement results show that in all channels, phase noise of the synthesizer achieves −93 dBc/Hz and −118 dBc/Hz in band and out of band respectively with a phase-frequency detector (PFD) frequency of 20 MHz and a loop bandwidth of 100 kHz. The integrated RMS phase error is no more than 0.8°. The proposed synthesizer consumes 8.4 mW from a 1.2 V supply and occupies an area of 0.86 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. An emerging network storage management standard: Media error monitoring and reporting information (MEMRI) - to determine optical tape data integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don

    1998-01-01

    Sophisticated network storage management applications are rapidly evolving to satisfy a market demand for highly reliable data storage systems with large data storage capacities and performance requirements. To preserve a high degree of data integrity, these applications must rely on intelligent data storage devices that can provide reliable indicators of data degradation. Error correction activity generally occurs within storage devices without notification to the host. Early indicators of degradation and media error monitoring 333 and reporting (MEMR) techniques implemented in data storage devices allow network storage management applications to notify system administrators of these events and to take appropriate corrective actions before catastrophic errors occur. Although MEMR techniques have been implemented in data storage devices for many years, until 1996 no MEMR standards existed. In 1996 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved the only known (world-wide) industry standard specifying MEMR techniques to verify stored data on optical disks. This industry standard was developed under the auspices of the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM). A recently formed AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee initiated the development of another data integrity standard specifying a set of media error monitoring tools and media error monitoring information (MEMRI) to verify stored data on optical tape media. This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks, and the content of the MEMRI standard being developed by the AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee.

  16. Performance of an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam implemented with a specific photodetection integrated circuit and a diffractive optical element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintián, Fernando Perez; Calarco, Nicolás; Lutenberg, Ariel; Lipovetzky, José

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the incremental signal produced by an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam (NDB). The NDB is generated by means of a diffractive optical element (DOE). The detection system is composed by an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) sensor. The sensor consists of an array of eight concentric annular photodiodes, each one provided with a programmable gain amplifier. In this way, the system is able to synthesize a nonuniform detectivity. The contrast, amplitude, and harmonic content of the sinusoidal output signal are analyzed. The influence of the cross talk among the annular photodiodes is placed in evidence through the dependence of the signal contrast on the wavelength.

  17. Integrated monitoring of multi-domain backbone connections Operational experience in the LHC optical private network

    CERN Document Server

    Marcu, Patricia; Fritz, Wolfgang; Yampolskiy, Mark; Hommel, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Novel large scale research projects often require cooperation between various different project partners that are spread among the entire world. They do not only need huge computing resources, but also a reliable network to operate on. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a representative example for such a project. Its experiments result in a vast amount of data, which is interesting for researchers around the world. For transporting the data from CERN to 11 data processing and storage sites, an optical private network (OPN) has been constructed. As the experiment data is highly valuable, LHC defines very high requirements to the underlying network infrastructure. In order to fulfil those requirements, the connections have to be managed and monitored permanently. In this paper, we present the integrated monitoring solution developed for the LHCOPN. We first outline the requirements and show how they are met on the single network layers. After that, we describe, how those single measurements can be comb...

  18. Integrated-Optics Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a new class of components for integrated optics, based on the propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in a dielectric. These novel components can provide guiding of light as well as coupling and splitting from/into a number...... with experimental results is obtained. The interaction of LR-SPPs with photonic crystals (PCs) is also studied. The PC structures are formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film. The LR-SPP transmission through...... of channels with good performance. Guiding of LR-SPPs along nm-thin and µm-wide gold stripes embedded in polymer is investigated in the wavelength range of 1250 – 1650 nm. LR-SPP guiding properties, such as the propagation loss and mode field diameter, are studied for different stripe widths and thicknesses...

  19. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography: A new surgical tool in vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadev, Chaitra; Dabir, Supriya; Vinekar, Anand; Shah, Urmil; Vaid, Tania; Yadav, Naresh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized imaging of ocular structures and various disease conditions. Though it has been used in the clinic for some decades, the OCT has only recently found its way into the operating theater. Early attempts at intraoperative OCT, hand-held and microscope mounted, have already improved our understanding of the surgical pathology and the role it might play in surgical decision-making. The microscope-integrated OCT now allows seamless, high-resolution, real-time imaging of surgical maneuvers from the incision to wound closure. Visualization of instruments and intraoperative tissue manipulation are possible with this in vivo modality and, therefore, help improve the outcome of surgery. In this article, we describe the advantages it offers during various vitreoretinal procedures.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Wireless WIT2410 Radio Frequency Transceiver used in AMIGO (Autonomous Microsystems for Ground Observation)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comeau, D; Laou, P; Durand, L

    2005-01-01

    .... Two of the major components in AMIGO are the RF transceiver and antennas for wireless communication that must provide reliable connectivity between the base station and each remote unit in any battlefield conditions...