WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated optical processors

  1. Integrated Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    acoustooptic cell was employed to input each radar return into a time-and-space integrating optical architecture comprised of several lenses, a CCD area array...acoustooptic cell and parallel rib waveguide structure. During the course of the literature survey, we became aware of an elegant and poten- tially profound...wave.) scatterer at (f , A(t) is the far-field pattern of the antenna. From the geometry of Si. 1. R can be written as [I-2R,/c - nT1 r(t) = A(nT) rectj

  2. Optical Array Processor: Laboratory Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Jackson, James; Vaerewyck, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) is described and laboratory results on its performance in several practical engineering problems are presented. The applications include its use in the solution of a nonlinear matrix equation for optimal control and a parabolic Partial Differential Equation (PDE), the transient diffusion equation with two spatial variables. Frequency-multiplexed, analog and high accuracy non-base-two data encoding are used and discussed. A multi-processor OLAP architecture is described and partitioning and data flow issues are addressed.

  3. Integrated fuel processor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed

  4. Optical Finite Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.

    1986-01-01

    A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.

  5. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  6. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  7. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  8. CMOS optical centroid processor for an integrated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Pui, Boon Hean

    2004-01-01

    A Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to detect the distortion of light in an optical wavefront. It does this by sampling the wavefront with an array of lenslets and measuring the displacement of focused spots from reference positions. These displacements are linearly related to the local wavefront tilts from which the entire wavefront can be reconstructed. In most Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors, a CCD is used to sample the entire wavefront, typically at a rate of 25 to 60 Hz, and a who...

  9. Optical backplane interconnect switch for data processors and computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.; Benz, Harry F.; Hammer, Jacob M.

    1989-01-01

    An optoelectronic integrated device design is reported which can be used to implement an all-optical backplane interconnect switch. The switch is sized to accommodate an array of processors and memories suitable for direct replacement into the basic avionic multiprocessor backplane. The optical backplane interconnect switch is also suitable for direct replacement of the PI bus traffic switch and at the same time, suitable for supporting pipelining of the processor and memory. The 32 bidirectional switchable interconnects are configured with broadcast capability for controls, reconfiguration, and messages. The approach described here can handle a serial interconnection of data processors or a line-to-link interconnection of data processors. An optical fiber demonstration of this approach is presented.

  10. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  11. Noise limitations in optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, S G; Jong, T L; Walkup, J F; Krile, T F

    1990-05-10

    A general statistical noise model is presented for optical linear algebra processors. A statistical analysis which includes device noise, the multiplication process, and the addition operation is undertaken. We focus on those processes which are architecturally independent. Finally, experimental results which verify the analytical predictions are also presented.

  12. Recursive Matrix Inverse Update On An Optical Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David P.; Baranoski, Edward J.

    1988-02-01

    A high accuracy optical linear algebraic processor (OLAP) using the digital multiplication by analog convolution (DMAC) algorithm is described for use in an efficient matrix inverse update algorithm with speed and accuracy advantages. The solution of the parameters in the algorithm are addressed and the advantages of optical over digital linear algebraic processors are advanced.

  13. Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the pin processor which receives metal alloy pins cast from recycled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel and prepares them for assembly into new IFR fuel elements. Either full length as-cast or precut pins are fed to the machine from a magazine, cut if necessary, and measured for length, weight, diameter and deviation from straightness. Accepted pins are loaded into cladding jackets located in a magazine, while rejects and cutting scraps are separated into trays. The magazines, trays, and the individual modules that perform the different machine functions are assembled and removed using remote manipulators and master-slaves

  14. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  15. Optical Associative Processors For Visual Perception"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Telfer, Brian

    1988-05-01

    We consider various associative processor modifications required to allow these systems to be used for visual perception, scene analysis, and object recognition. For these applications, decisions on the class of the objects present in the input image are required and thus heteroassociative memories are necessary (rather than the autoassociative memories that have been given most attention). We analyze the performance of both associative processors and note that there is considerable difference between heteroassociative and autoassociative memories. We describe associative processors suitable for realizing functions such as: distortion invariance (using linear discriminant function memory synthesis techniques), noise and image processing performance (using autoassociative memories in cascade with with a heteroassociative processor and with a finite number of autoassociative memory iterations employed), shift invariance (achieved through the use of associative processors operating on feature space data), and the analysis of multiple objects in high noise (which is achieved using associative processing of the output from symbolic correlators). We detail and provide initial demonstrations of the use of associative processors operating on iconic, feature space and symbolic data, as well as adaptive associative processors.

  16. Ring-array processor distribution topology for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ha, Berlin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Sunyu; Katz, A.; Lu, X. J.; Kanterakis, E.

    1992-01-01

    The existing linear and rectangular processor distribution topologies for optical interconnects, although promising in many respects, cannot solve problems such as clock skews, the lack of supporting elements for efficient optical implementation, etc. The use of a ring-array processor distribution topology, however, can overcome these problems. Here, a study of the ring-array topology is conducted with an aim of implementing various fast clock rate, high-performance, compact optical networks for digital electronic multiprocessor computers. Practical design issues are addressed. Some proof-of-principle experimental results are included.

  17. A CNN-Specific Integrated Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Malki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Processors (IP are algorithm-specific cores that either by programming or by configuration can be re-used within many microelectronic systems. This paper looks at Cellular Neural Networks (CNN to become realized as IP. First current digital implementations are reviewed, and the memoryprocessor bandwidth issues are analyzed. Then a generic view is taken on the structure of the network, and a new intra-communication protocol based on rotating wheels is proposed. It is shown that this provides for guaranteed high-performance with a minimal network interface. The resulting node is small and supports multi-level CNN designs, giving the system a 30-fold increase in capacity compared to classical designs. As it facilitates multiple operations on a single image, and single operations on multiple images, with minimal access to the external image memory, balancing the internal and external data transfer requirements optimizes the system operation. In conventional digital CNN designs, the treatment of boundary nodes requires additional logic to handle the CNN value propagation scheme. In the new architecture, only a slight modification of the existing cells is necessary to model the boundary effect. A typical prototype for visual pattern recognition will house 4096 CNN cells with a 2% overhead for making it an IP.

  18. Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Paparao, P

    1987-07-15

    Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.

  19. Parallel Processor for 3D Recovery from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D recovery from motion has received a major effort in computer vision systems in the recent years. The main problem lies in the number of operations and memory accesses to be performed by the majority of the existing techniques when translated to hardware or software implementations. This paper proposes a parallel processor for 3D recovery from optical flow. Its main feature is the maximum reuse of data and the low number of clock cycles to calculate the optical flow, along with the precision with which 3D recovery is achieved. The results of the proposed architecture as well as those from processor synthesis are presented.

  20. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.

  1. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  2. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  3. Novel Optical Processor for Phased Array Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-20

    parallel glass slide into the signal beam optical loop. The parallel glass acts like a variable phase shifter to the signal beam simulating phase drift...A list of possible designs are given as follows , _ _ Velocity fa (100dB/cm) Lumit Wavelength I M2I1 TeO2 Longi 4.2 /m/ns about 3 GHz 1.4 4m 34 Fast...subject to achievable acoustic frequency, the preferred materials are the slow shear wave in TeO2 , the fast shear wave in TeO2 or the shear waves in

  4. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  5. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  6. MULTI-CORE AND OPTICAL PROCESSOR RELATED APPLICATIONS RESEARCH AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; ST Charles, Jesse Lee [ORNL; Buckner, Mark A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    High-speed parallelization of common tasks holds great promise as a low-risk approach to achieving the significant increases in signal processing and computational performance required for next generation innovations in reconfigurable radio systems. Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working on exploiting the parallelization offered by this emerging technology and applying it to a variety of problems. This paper will highlight recent experience with four different parallel processors applied to signal processing tasks that are directly relevant to signal processing required for SDR/CR waveforms. The first is the EnLight Optical Core Processor applied to matched filter (MF) correlation processing via fast Fourier transform (FFT) of broadband Dopplersensitive waveforms (DSW) using active sonar arrays for target tracking. The second is the IBM CELL Broadband Engine applied to 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) kernel for image processing and frequency domain processing. And the third is the NVIDIA graphical processor applied to document feature clustering. EnLight Optical Core Processor. Optical processing is inherently capable of high-parallelism that can be translated to very high performance, low power dissipation computing. The EnLight 256 is a small form factor signal processing chip (5x5 cm2) with a digital optical core that is being developed by an Israeli startup company. As part of its evaluation of foreign technology, ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) had access to a precursor EnLight 64 Alpha hardware for a preliminary assessment of capabilities in terms of large Fourier transforms for matched filter banks and on applications related to Doppler-sensitive waveforms. This processor is optimized for array operations, which it performs in fixed-point arithmetic at the rate of 16 TeraOPS at 8-bit precision. This is approximately 1000 times faster than the fastest DSP available today. The optical core

  7. MULTI-CORE AND OPTICAL PROCESSOR RELATED APPLICATIONS RESEARCH AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Kerekes, Ryan A.; St Charles, Jesse Lee; Buckner, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed parallelization of common tasks holds great promise as a low-risk approach to achieving the significant increases in signal processing and computational performance required for next generation innovations in reconfigurable radio systems. Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working on exploiting the parallelization offered by this emerging technology and applying it to a variety of problems. This paper will highlight recent experience with four different parallel processors applied to signal processing tasks that are directly relevant to signal processing required for SDR/CR waveforms. The first is the EnLight Optical Core Processor applied to matched filter (MF) correlation processing via fast Fourier transform (FFT) of broadband Dopplersensitive waveforms (DSW) using active sonar arrays for target tracking. The second is the IBM CELL Broadband Engine applied to 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) kernel for image processing and frequency domain processing. And the third is the NVIDIA graphical processor applied to document feature clustering. EnLight Optical Core Processor. Optical processing is inherently capable of high-parallelism that can be translated to very high performance, low power dissipation computing. The EnLight 256 is a small form factor signal processing chip (5x5 cm2) with a digital optical core that is being developed by an Israeli startup company. As part of its evaluation of foreign technology, ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) had access to a precursor EnLight 64 Alpha hardware for a preliminary assessment of capabilities in terms of large Fourier transforms for matched filter banks and on applications related to Doppler-sensitive waveforms. This processor is optimized for array operations, which it performs in fixed-point arithmetic at the rate of 16 TeraOPS at 8-bit precision. This is approximately 1000 times faster than the fastest DSP available today. The optical core

  8. An integrated processor for photonic quantum states using a broadband light–matter interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglamyurek, E; Sinclair, N; Slater, J A; Heshami, K; Oblak, D; Tittel, W

    2014-01-01

    Faithful storage and coherent manipulation of quantum optical pulses are key for long distance quantum communications and quantum computing. Combining these functions in a light–matter interface that can be integrated on-chip with other photonic quantum technologies, e.g. sources of entangled photons, is an important step towards these applications. To date there have only been a few demonstrations of coherent pulse manipulation utilizing optical storage devices compatible with quantum states, and that only in atomic gas media (making integration difficult) and with limited capabilities. Here we describe how a broadband waveguide quantum memory based on the atomic frequency comb (AFC) protocol can be used as a programmable processor for essentially arbitrary spectral and temporal manipulations of individual quantum optical pulses. Using weak coherent optical pulses at the few photon level, we experimentally demonstrate sequencing, time-to-frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing, splitting, interfering, temporal and spectral filtering, compressing and stretching as well as selective delaying. Our integrated light–matter interface offers high-rate, robust and easily configurable manipulation of quantum optical pulses and brings fully practical optical quantum devices one step closer to reality. Furthermore, as the AFC protocol is suitable for storage of intense light pulses, our processor may also find applications in classical communications. (paper)

  9. Compact optical processor for Hough and frequency domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Shape recognition is necessary in a broad band of applications such as traffic sign or work piece recognition. It requires not only neighborhood processing of the input image pixels but global interconnection of them. The Hough transform (HT) performs such a global operation and it is well suited in the preprocessing stage of a shape recognition system. Translation invariant features can be easily calculated form the Hough domain. We have implemented on the computer a neural network shape recognition system which contains a HT, a feature extraction, and a classification layer. The advantage of this approach is that the total system can be optimized with well-known learning techniques and that it can explore the parallelism of the algorithms. However, the HT is a time consuming operation. Parallel, optical processing is therefore advantageous. Several systems have been proposed, based on space multiplexing with arrays of holograms and CGH's or time multiplexing with acousto-optic processors or by image rotation with incoherent and coherent astigmatic optical processors. We took up the last mentioned approach because 2D array detectors are read out line by line, so a 2D detector can achieve the same speed and is easier to implement. Coherent processing can allow the implementation of tilers in the frequency domain. Features based on wedge/ring, Gabor, or wavelet filters have been proven to show good discrimination capabilities for texture and shape recognition. The astigmatic lens system which is derived form the mathematical formulation of the HT is long and contains a non-standard, astigmatic element. By methods of lens transformation s for coherent applications we map the original design to a shorter lens with a smaller number of well separated standard elements and with the same coherent system response. The final lens design still contains the frequency plane for filtering and ray-tracing shows diffraction limited performance. Image rotation can be done

  10. Performance evaluation of integrated fuel processor for residential PEMFCs application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Taek Seo; Dong Joo Seo; Young-Seog Seo; Hyun-Seog Roh; Wang Lai Yoon; Jin Hyeok Jeong

    2006-01-01

    KIER has been developing the natural gas fuel processor to produce hydrogen rich gas for residential PEMFCs system. To realize a compact and high efficiency, the unit processes of steam reforming, water gas shift, and preferential oxidation are chemically and physically integrated in a package. Current fuel processor designed for 1 kW class PEMFCs shows thermal efficiency of 78% as a HHV basis with methane conversion of 90% at rated load operation. CO concentration below 10 ppm in the produced gas is achieved with preferential oxidation unit using Pt and Ru based catalyst under the condition of [O 2 ]/[CO]=2.0. The partial load operation have been carried out to test the performance of fuel processor from 40% to 80% load, showing stable methane conversion and CO concentration below 10 ppm. The durability test for the daily start-stop and 8 hr operation procedure is under investigation and shows no deterioration of its performance after 40 start-stop cycles. (authors)

  11. Programmable optical processor chips: toward photonic RF filters with DSP-level flexibility and MHz-band selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yiwei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated optical signal processors have been identified as a powerful engine for optical processing of microwave signals. They enable wideband and stable signal processing operations on miniaturized chips with ultimate control precision. As a promising application, such processors enables photonic implementations of reconfigurable radio frequency (RF filters with wide design flexibility, large bandwidth, and high-frequency selectivity. This is a key technology for photonic-assisted RF front ends that opens a path to overcoming the bandwidth limitation of current digital electronics. Here, the recent progress of integrated optical signal processors for implementing such RF filters is reviewed. We highlight the use of a low-loss, high-index-contrast stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguide which promises to serve as a practical material platform for realizing high-performance optical signal processors and points toward photonic RF filters with digital signal processing (DSP-level flexibility, hundreds-GHz bandwidth, MHz-band frequency selectivity, and full system integration on a chip scale.

  12. Space and frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor - Fabrication and initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Jackson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new optical linear algebra processor architecture is described. Space and frequency-multiplexing are used to accommodate bipolar and complex-valued data. A fabricated laboratory version of this processor is described, the electronic support system used is discussed, and initial test data obtained on it are presented.

  13. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  14. A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.

  15. Rational calculation accuracy in acousto-optical matrix-vector processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, V. V.; Tigin, Dmitry V.

    1994-01-01

    The high speed of parallel computations for a comparatively small-size processor and acceptable power consumption makes the usage of acousto-optic matrix-vector multiplier (AOMVM) attractive for processing of large amounts of information in real time. The limited accuracy of computations is an essential disadvantage of such a processor. The reduced accuracy requirements allow for considerable simplification of the AOMVM architecture and the reduction of the demands on its components.

  16. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M

    1994-01-01

    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  17. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Integrated optical circuits for numerical computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verber, C. M.; Kenan, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated optical circuits (IOC) for numerical-computation applications is reviewed, with a focus on the use of systolic architectures. The basic architecture criteria for optical processors are shown to be the same as those proposed by Kung (1982) for VLSI design, and the advantages of IOCs over bulk techniques are indicated. The operation and fabrication of electrooptic grating structures are outlined, and the application of IOCs of this type to an existing 32-bit, 32-Mbit/sec digital correlator, a proposed matrix multiplier, and a proposed pipeline processor for polynomial evaluation is discussed. The problems arising from the inherent nonlinearity of electrooptic gratings are considered. Diagrams and drawings of the application concepts are provided.

  19. Simple example of track finding by Fourier transform and possibilities for vector or optical processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.

    1986-01-01

    Simple examples of finding tracks by Fourier transform with filter or correlation function are presented. Possibilities for using this method in more complicated real situations and the processing times which might be achieved are discussed. The method imitates the simplest examples in the literature on optical pattern recognition and optical processing. The possible benefits of the method are in speed of processing in the optical Fourier transform wherein an entire picture is processed simultaneously. The speed of a computer vector processor may be competitive with present electro-optical devices. 2 refs., 6 figs

  20. Trinary optical logic processors using shadow casting with polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.; Basuray, A.

    1990-10-01

    An optical implementation is proposed of the modified trinary number (MTN) system (Datta et al., 1989) in which any binary number can have arithmetic operations performed on it in parallel without the need for carry and borrow steps. The present method extends the lensless shadow-casting technique of Tanida and Ichioka (1983, 1985). Three kinds of spatial coding are used for encoding the trinary input states, whereas in the decoding plane three states are identified by no light and light with two orthogonal states of polarization.

  1. Design and Analysis of an Optical Interface Message Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Device 16 2.2.15 Microchannel Spatial Light Modulator (MSLM) 16 2.2.16 Si/PLST Modulator 16 2.2.17 Deformable Mirror Device ( DMD ) 17 2.2.18 Charged...wavelength of UV light, ’n this process, is the minimum image which can be developed. X-Ray lithography wil’ reduce the image size to the 1000 Angstrom...resonance of laser wavelength. This is due to a change in the index of refraction which results in an optical path allowing constructive interference

  2. Reducing adaptive optics latency using Xeon Phi many-core processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Basden, Alastair; Dipper, Nigel; Schwartz, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) for astronomy will rely heavily on the performance of their adaptive optics (AO) systems. Real-time control is at the heart of the critical technologies that will enable telescopes to deliver the best possible science and will require a very significant extrapolation from current AO hardware existing for 4-10 m telescopes. Investigating novel real-time computing architectures and testing their eligibility against anticipated challenges is one of the main priorities of technology development for the ELTs. This paper investigates the suitability of the Intel Xeon Phi, which is a commercial off-the-shelf hardware accelerator. We focus on wavefront reconstruction performance, implementing a straightforward matrix-vector multiplication (MVM) algorithm. We present benchmarking results of the Xeon Phi on a real-time Linux platform, both as a standalone processor and integrated into an existing real-time controller (RTC). Performance of single and multiple Xeon Phis are investigated. We show that this technology has the potential of greatly reducing the mean latency and variations in execution time (jitter) of large AO systems. We present both a detailed performance analysis of the Xeon Phi for a typical E-ELT first-light instrument along with a more general approach that enables us to extend to any AO system size. We show that systematic and detailed performance analysis is an essential part of testing novel real-time control hardware to guarantee optimal science results.

  3. Microlens array processor with programmable weight mask and direct optical input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Volker R.; Lueder, Ernst H.; Bader, Gerhard; Maier, Gert; Siegordner, Jochen

    1999-03-01

    We present an optical feature extraction system with a microlens array processor. The system is suitable for online implementation of a variety of transforms such as the Walsh transform and DCT. Operating with incoherent light, our processor accepts direct optical input. Employing a sandwich- like architecture, we obtain a very compact design of the optical system. The key elements of the microlens array processor are a square array of 15 X 15 spherical microlenses on acrylic substrate and a spatial light modulator as transmissive mask. The light distribution behind the mask is imaged onto the pixels of a customized a-Si image sensor with adjustable gain. We obtain one output sample for each microlens image and its corresponding weight mask area as summation of the transmitted intensity within one sensor pixel. The resulting architecture is very compact and robust like a conventional camera lens while incorporating a high degree of parallelism. We successfully demonstrate a Walsh transform into the spatial frequency domain as well as the implementation of a discrete cosine transform with digitized gray values. We provide results showing the transformation performance for both synthetic image patterns and images of natural texture samples. The extracted frequency features are suitable for neural classification of the input image. Other transforms and correlations can be implemented in real-time allowing adaptive optical signal processing.

  4. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  5. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  6. Realization of preconditioned Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms on optical linear algebra processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A

    1988-08-01

    Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are important in computational linear algebra. In this paper, a parallel pipelined realization of these algorithms on a ring of optical linear algebra processors is described. The flow of data is designed to minimize the idle times of the optical multiprocessor and the redundancy of computations. The effects of optical round-off errors on the solutions obtained by the optical Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are analyzed, and it is shown that optical preconditioning can improve the accuracy of these algorithms substantially. Algorithms for optical preconditioning and results of numerical experiments on solving linear systems of equations arising from partial differential equations are discussed. Since the Lanczos algorithm is used mostly with sparse matrices, a folded storage scheme to represent sparse matrices on spatial light modulators is also described.

  7. Performance of direct and iterative algorithms on an optical systolic processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A. K.; Casasent, D.; Neuman, C. P.

    1985-11-01

    The frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) is treated in detail with attention to its performance in the solution of systems of linear algebraic equations (LAEs). General guidelines suitable for most OLAPs, including digital-optical processors, are advanced concerning system and component error source models, guidelines for appropriate use of direct and iterative algorithms, the dominant error sources, and the effect of multiple simultaneous error sources. Specific results are advanced on the quantitative performance of both direct and iterative algorithms in the solution of systems of LAEs and in the solution of nonlinear matrix equations. Acoustic attenuation is found to dominate iterative algorithms and detector noise to dominate direct algorithms. The effect of multiple spatial errors is found to be additive. A theoretical expression for the amount of acoustic attenuation allowed is advanced and verified. Simulations and experimental data are included.

  8. Bounds on achievable accuracy in analog optical linear-algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen G.; Walkup, John F.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1990-07-01

    Upper arid lower bounds on the number of bits of accuracy achievable are determined by applying a seconth-ortler statistical model to the linear algebra processor. The use of bounds was found necessary due to the strong signal-dependence of the noise at the output of the optical linear algebra processor (OLAP). 1 1. ACCURACY BOUNDS One of the limiting factors in applying OLAPs to real world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication ard addition operations spatial variations across arrays and crosstalk. We have previously examined these noise sources and determined a general model for the output noise mean and variance. The model demonstrates a strony signaldependency in the noise at the output of the processor which has been confirmed by our experiments. 1 We define accuracy similar to its definition for an analog signal input to an analog-to-digital (ND) converter. The number of bits of accuracy achievable is related to the log (base 2) of the number of separable levels at the P/D converter output. The number of separable levels is fouri by dividing the dynamic range by m times the standard deviation of the signal a. 2 Here m determines the error rate in the P/D conversion. The dynamic range can be expressed as the

  9. A digital-signal-processor-based optical tomographic system for dynamic imaging of joint diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Joseph M.

    Over the last decade, optical tomography (OT) has emerged as viable biomedical imaging modality. Various imaging systems have been developed that are employed in preclinical as well as clinical studies, mostly targeting breast imaging, brain imaging, and cancer related studies. Of particular interest are so-called dynamic imaging studies where one attempts to image changes in optical properties and/or physiological parameters as they occur during a system perturbation. To successfully perform dynamic imaging studies, great effort is put towards system development that offers increasingly enhanced signal-to-noise performance at ever shorter data acquisition times, thus capturing high fidelity tomographic data within narrower time periods. Towards this goal, I have developed in this thesis a dynamic optical tomography system that is, unlike currently available analog instrumentation, based on digital data acquisition and filtering techniques. At the core of this instrument is a digital signal processor (DSP) that collects, collates, and processes the digitized data set. Complementary protocols between the DSP and a complex programmable logic device synchronizes the sampling process and organizes data flow. Instrument control is implemented through a comprehensive graphical user interface which integrates automated calibration, data acquisition, and signal post-processing. Real-time data is generated at frame rates as high as 140 Hz. An extensive dynamic range (˜190 dB) accommodates a wide scope of measurement geometries and tissue types. Performance analysis demonstrates very low system noise (˜1 pW rms noise equivalent power), excellent signal precision (˜0.04%--0.2%) and long term system stability (˜1% over 40 min). Experiments on tissue phantoms validate spatial and temporal accuracy of the system. As a potential new application of dynamic optical imaging I present the first application of this method to use vascular hemodynamics as a means of characterizing

  10. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J.; DeGroot, Anthony J.; Haigh, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  11. Optical Communication over Plastic Optical Fibers Integrated Optical Receiver Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Atef, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This book presents high-performance data transmission over plastic optical fibers (POF) using integrated optical receivers having good properties with multilevel modulation, i.e. a higher sensitivity and higher data rate transmission over a longer plastic optical fiber length. Integrated optical receivers and transmitters with high linearity are introduced for multilevel communication. For binary high-data rate transmission over plastic optical fibers, an innovative receiver containing an equalizer is described leading also to a high performance of a plastic optical fiber link. The cheap standard PMMA SI-POF (step-index plastic optical fiber) has the lowest bandwidth and the highest attenuation among multimode fibers. This small bandwidth limits the maximum data rate which can be transmitted through plastic optical fibers. To overcome the problem of the plastic optical fibers high transmission loss, very sensitive receivers must be used to increase the transmitted length over POF. The plastic optical fiber li...

  12. Integrating a Hypernymic Proposition Interpreter into a Semantic Processor for Biomedical Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszman, Marcelo; Rindflesch, Thomas C.; Kilicoglu, Halil

    2003-01-01

    Semantic processing provides the potential for producing high quality results in natural language processing (NLP) applications in the biomedical domain. In this paper, we address a specific semantic phenomenon, the hypernymic proposition, and concentrate on integrating the interpretation of such predications into a more general semantic processor in order to improve overall accuracy. A preliminary evaluation assesses the contribution of hypernymic propositions in providing more specific semantic predications and thus improving effectiveness in retrieving treatment propositions in MEDLINE abstracts. Finally, we discuss the generalization of this methodology to additional semantic propositions as well as other types of biomedical texts. PMID:14728170

  13. International Conference on Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering, 1st, Cambridge, MA, October 23-25, 1984, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, D. B.; Sriram, S.

    Aspects of waveguide technology are explored, taking into account waveguide fabrication techniques in GaAs/GaAlAs, the design and fabrication of AlGaAs/GaAs phase couplers for optical integrated circuit applications, ion implanted GaAs integrated optics fabrication technology, a direct writing electron beam lithography based process for the realization of optoelectronic integrated circuits, and advances in the development of semiconductor integrated optical circuits for telecommunications. Other subjects examined are related to optical signal processing, optical switching, and questions of optical bistability and logic. Attention is given to acousto-optic techniques in integrated optics, acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in proton exchanged waveguides, optical threshold logic architectures for hybrid binary/residue processors, integrated optical modulation and switching, all-optic logic devices for waveguide optics, optoelectronic switching, high-speed photodetector switching, and a mechanical optical switch.

  14. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E; Mizsey, P; Hottinger, P; Truong, T B; Roth, F von; Schucan, Th H [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  15. Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, L.D.; Randall, P.F.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface

  16. An Integrated Approach to Locality-Conscious Processor Allocation and Scheduling of Mixed-Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.

    2009-08-01

    Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.

  17. Integrated Optical Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    applications in optical disk memory systems [91. This device is constructed in a glass /SiO2/Si waveguide. The choice of a Si substrate allows for the...contact mask) were formed in the photoresist deposited on all of the samples, we covered the unwanted gratings on each sample with cover glass slides...processing, let us consider TeO2 (v, = 620 m/s) as a potential substrate for applications requiring large time delays. This con- sideration is despite

  18. Error-source effects on the performance of direct and iterative algorithms on an optical matrix-vector processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, Caroline J.; Casasent, David P.

    1990-09-01

    Error sources in an optical matrix-vector processor are analyzed in terms of their effect on the performance of the algorithms used to solve a set of nonlinear and linear algebraic equations. A direct and an iterative algorithm are used to solve a nonlinear time-dependent case-study from computational fluid dynamics. A simulator which emulates the data flow and number representation of the OLAP is used to studs? these error effects. The ability of each algorithm to tolerate or correct the error sources is quantified. These results are extended to the general case of solving nonlinear and linear algebraic equations on the optical system.

  19. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile

  20. Integrated optics theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hunsperger, Robert G

    1984-01-01

    Our intent in producing this book was to provide a text that would be comprehensive enough for an introductory course in integrated optics, yet concise enough in its mathematical derivations to be easily readable by a practicing engineer who desires an overview of the field. The response to the first edition has indeed been gratifying; unusually strong demand has caused it to be sold out during the initial year of publication, thus providing us with an early opportunity to produce this updated and improved second edition. This development is fortunate, because integrated optics is a very rapidly progressing field, with significant new research being regularly reported. Hence, a new chapter (Chap. 17) has been added to review recent progress and to provide numerous additional references to the relevant technical literature. Also, thirty-five new problems for practice have been included to supplement those at the ends of chapters in the first edition. Chapters I through 16 are essentially unchanged, except for ...

  1. Video image processor on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP instrument is designed to obtain diffraction-limited digital images of the sun with high photometric accuracy. The Video Processor originated from the requirement to provide onboard real-time image processing, both to reduce the telemetry rate and to provide meaningful video displays of scientific data to the payload crew. This original concept has evolved into a versatile digital processing system with a multitude of other uses in the SOUP program. The central element in the Video Processor design is a 16-bit central processing unit based on 2900 family bipolar bit-slice devices. All arithmetic, logical and I/O operations are under control of microprograms, stored in programmable read-only memory and initiated by commands from the LSI-11. Several functions of the Video Processor are described, including interface to the High Rate Multiplexer downlink, cosmetic and scientific data processing, scan conversion for crew displays, focus and exposure testing, and use as ground support equipment.

  2. Real-time wavefront processors for the next generation of adaptive optics systems: a design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuan; Brack, Gary L.; Troy, Mitchell; Trinh, Thang; Shi, Fang; Dekany, Richard G.

    2003-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems currently under investigation will require at least two orders of magitude increase in the number of actuators, which in turn translates to effectively a 104 increase in compute latency. Since the performance of an AO system invariably improves as the compute latency decreases, it is important to study how today's computer systems will scale to address this expected increase in actuator utilization. This paper answers this question by characterizing the performance of a single deformable mirror (DM) Shack-Hartmann natural guide star AO system implemented on the present-generation digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320C6701 from Texas Instruments. We derive the compute latency of such a system in terms of a few basic parameters, such as the number of DM actuators, the number of data channels used to read out the camera pixels, the number of DSPs, the available memory bandwidth, as well as the inter-processor communication (IPC) bandwidth and the pixel transfer rate. We show how the results would scale for future systems that utilizes multiple DMs and guide stars. We demonstrate that the principal performance bottleneck of such a system is the available memory bandwidth of the processors and to lesser extent the IPC bandwidth. This paper concludes with suggestions for mitigating this bottleneck.

  3. Effects of PEMFC operating parameters on the performance of an integrated ethanol processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesconi, Javier A.; Mussati, Miguel C.; Aguirre, Pio A. [INGAR Instituto de Desarrollo y Diseno (CONICET-UTN), Avellaneda 3657, CP:S3002GJC, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper the performance of a complete fuel cell system processing ethanol fuel has been analyzed as a function of the main fuel cell operating parameters. The fuel processor is based on the steam reforming process, followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors, and carbon monoxide preferential oxidation reactor, which are coupled to a polymeric fuel cell (PEMFC). The goal was to analyze and improve the fuel cell system performance by simulation techniques. PEMFC operation has been analyzed using an available parametric model, which was implemented within HYSYS environment software. Pinch Analysis concepts were used to investigate the process energy integration and determine the maximum efficiency minimizing ethanol consumption. The system performance was analyzed for the SR-12 Modular PEM Generator, the Ballard Mark V fuel cell and the BCS 500 W stack. The net system efficiency is dependent on the required power demand. Efficiency values higher than 50% at low loads and less than 30% at high power demands are computed. In addition, the effect of fuel cell temperature, pressure and hydrogen utilization was analyzed. The trade-off between the reformer yield and the fuel cell performance defines the optimal operation pressure. The cell temperature determines operating zones where the water, involved in the reforming reactions, can be produced or demanded. (author)

  4. Optical pulse generation using fiber lasers and integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.F.; Burkhart, S.C.; VanWonterghem, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated an optical pulse forming system using fiber and integrated optics, and have designed a multiple-output system for a proposed fusion laser facility. Our approach is an advancement over previous designs for fusion lasers, and an unusual application of fiber lasers and integrated optics

  5. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  6. Integrable models of quantum optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudson Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give an overview of exactly solvable many-body models of quantum optics. Among them is a system of two-level atoms which interact with photons propagating in a one-dimensional (1D chiral waveguide; exact eigenstates of this system can be explicitly constructed. This approach is used also for a system of closely located atoms in the usual (non-chiral waveguide or in 3D space. Moreover, it is shown that for an arbitrary atomic system with a cascade spontaneous radiative decay, the fluorescence spectrum can be described by an exact analytic expression which accounts for interference of emitted photons. Open questions related with broken integrability are discussed.

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: METSAT A1 Signal Processor (P/N: 1331670-2, S/N: F04)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, D.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a description of the tests performed, and the test data, for the A1 METSAT Signal Processor Assembly PN: 1331679-2, S/N F04. The assembly was tested in accordance with AE-26754, "METSAT Signal Processor Scan Drive Test and Integration Procedure." The objective is to demonstrate functionality of the signal processor prior to instrument integration.

  8. Design of 10Gbps optical encoder/decoder structure for FE-OCDMA system using SOA and opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Hwang, Seow; Alameh, Kamal

    2008-01-21

    In this paper we propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable 10Gbps frequency-encoded (1D) encoder/decoder structure for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). The encoder is constructed using a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and 1D reflective Opto-VLSI processor. The SOA generates broadband amplified spontaneous emission that is dynamically sliced using digital phase holograms loaded onto the Opto-VLSI processor to generate 1D codewords. The selected wavelengths are injected back into the same SOA for amplifications. The decoder is constructed using single Opto-VLSI processor only. The encoded signal can successfully be retrieved at the decoder side only when the digital phase holograms of the encoder and the decoder are matched. The system performance is measured in terms of the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  9. Integrated optical circuit comprising a polarization convertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated optical circuit includes a first device and a second device, which devices are connected by a polarization convertor. The polarization convertor includes a curved section of a waveguide, integrated in the optical circuit. The curved section may have several differently curved

  10. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering For Optical Fiber Gyrocopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Julian P.; We, Albert C.; Keur, M.; Lukas, Greg; Ott, Daniel M...; Sriram, S.

    1988-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes are of interest for low-cost, high performance rotation sensors. Integrated optical implementations of the processing optics offer the hope of mass-production, and associated cost reductions. The development of a suitable integrated optical system has been reported by other authors at a wavelength of 850nm [1]. Despite strong technical advantages at 1.3μm wavelength [2], no results have yet appeared. This wavelength is preferred for telecommunications applications applications, thus significantly reduced fiber costs may be realized. Lithium niobate is relatively immune from the photorefractive effect at this wavelength, whereas it is not at at 850nm [3].

  11. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  12. An automated data handling process integrating spreadsheets and word processors with analytical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.F.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1994-01-01

    A data handling process utilizing software programs that are commercially available for use on MS-DOS microcomputers was developed to reduce the time, energy and labour required to tabulate the final results of trace analyses. The elimination of hand computations reduced the possibility of transcription errors since, once the γ-ray spectrum analysis results are obtained and saved to a hard disk of a microcomputer, they can be manipulated very easily with little possibility of distortion. The 8 step process permitted the selection of each element of interest's best concentration value based upon its associated peak area. Calculated concentration values were automatically compared against the sample's determination limit. Unsatisfactory values were flagged for latter review and adjustment by the user. In the final step, a file was created which identified the samples with their appropriate particulars (i.e. source, sample, date, etc.), and the trace element concentration were displayed. This final file contained a fully formatted summary table that listed all of the sample's results and particulars such that it could be printed or imported into a word processor for inclusion in a report. In the illustrated application of analyzing wear debris in oil-lubricated systems, over 13,000 individual numbers were processed to arrive at final concentration estimates of 19 trace elements in 80 samples. The system works very well for the elements that were analyzed in this investigation. The usefulness of commercially available spreadsheets and word processors for this task was demonstrated. (author) 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  14. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  15. Analog Integrated Circuit Design for Spike Time Dependent Encoder and Reservoir in Reservoir Computing Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    HAS BEEN REVIEWED AND IS APPROVED FOR PUBLICATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. FOR THE CHIEF ENGINEER : / S / / S...bridged high-performance computing, nanotechnology , and integrated circuits & systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS neuromorphic computing, neuron design, spike...multidisciplinary effort encompassed high-performance computing, nanotechnology , integrated circuits, and integrated systems. The project’s architecture was

  16. Generation of optical vortices in an integrated optical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Rebeca; Kusko, Mihai; Kusko, Cristian

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the generation of optical vortices in an optical integrated circuit is numerically demonstrated. The optical vortices with topological charge m = ±1 are obtained by the coherent superposition of the first order modes present in a waveguide with a rectangular cross section, where the phase delay between these two propagating modes is Δφ = ±π/2. The optical integrated circuit consists of an input waveguide continued with a y-splitter. The left and the right arms of the splitter form two coupling regions K1 and K2 with a multimode output waveguide. In each coupling region, the fundamental modes present in the arms of the splitter are selectively coupled into the output waveguide horizontal and vertical first order modes, respectively. We showed by employing the beam propagation method simulations that the fine tuning of the geometrical parameters of the optical circuit makes possible the generation of optical vortices in both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. Also, we demonstrated that by placing a thermo-optical element on one of the y-splitter arms, it is possible to switch the topological charge of the generated vortex from m = 1 to m = -1.

  17. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  18. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  19. Boson sampling with integrated optical circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentivegna, M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating the evolution of non-interacting bosons through a linear transformation acting on the system’s Fock state is strongly believed to be hard for a classical computer. This is commonly known as the Boson Sampling problem, and has recently got attention as the first possible way to demonstrate the superior computational power of quantum devices over classical ones. In this paper we describe the quantum optics approach to this problem, highlighting the role of integrated optical circuits.

  20. Optical electronics self-organized integration and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionFrom Electronics to Optical ElectronicsAnalysis Tools for Optical CircuitsSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Theoretical AnalysisSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Experimental DemonstrationsOptical Waveguide Films with Vertical Mirrors 3-D Optical Circuits with Stacked Waveguide Films Heterogeneous Thin-Film Device IntegrationOptical Switches OE Hardware Built by Optical ElectronicsIntegrated Solar Energy Conversion SystemsFuture Challenges.

  1. Fibre Optic Gyroscope Developments Using Integrated Optic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.; DePaula, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The sensing of rotation using counterpropagating optical beams in a fiber loop (the SAGNAC effect) has gone through extensive developments and demonstrations since first proved feasible by Vali and Shorthilll in 1976. The interferometric fiber gyroscope minimum configuration2 which uses a common input-output port and single-mode filter was developed to provide the extreme high stability necessary to reach the sensitivities at low rotation rates attainable with current state-of-the-art detectors. The simplicity and performance of this configuration has led to its acceptance and wide-spread use. In order to increase the mechanical stability of this system, all single-mode fiber components are employed and a further advancement to integrated optics has enabled most of the optical functions to be placed on a single mass-producible substrate. Recent improvements in the components (eg polarization maintaining fiber and low coherence sources) have further enhanced the performance of the minimum configuration gyro. This presentation focused on the impact of LiNbO3 integrated optic components on gyroscope developments. The use of Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide optical circuits in interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes has taken two directions: to utilize only the phase modulator, or to combine many of the minimum configuration optical functions on the electro-optic substrate. The high-bandwidth phase modulator is the driving force for using LiNbO3 waveguide devices. This device allows both biasing the gyro for maximum sensitivity and closing the loop via frequency shifting, for example, thus increasing the dynamic range of the gyro and the linearity of the scale factor. Efforts to implement most of the minimum configuration optical functions onto a single LiNbO3 substrate have been led by Thomson CSF.3 They have demonstrated an interferometric gyroscope with excellent performance using a LiNbO3 optical circuit containing a Y-splitter, phase modulator, and surface

  2. Reconfigurable lattice mesh designs for programmable photonic processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Soref, Richard A

    2016-05-30

    We propose and analyse two novel mesh design geometries for the implementation of tunable optical cores in programmable photonic processors. These geometries are the hexagonal and the triangular lattice. They are compared here to a previously proposed square mesh topology in terms of a series of figures of merit that account for metrics that are relevant to on-chip integration of the mesh. We find that that the hexagonal mesh is the most suitable option of the three considered for the implementation of the reconfigurable optical core in the programmable processor.

  3. Pigtailing of integrated optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenth, Karin

    2001-01-01

    , but also a silicon motherboard for laser diode pigtailing and a Variable Optical Attenuator have been realized. The pigtailing method consists of three major parts: a waveguide chip with alignment trenches, a fiber array with alignment trenches, and a top plate with alignment rails. The top plate aligns....... The fiber array carrier and the top plate are fabricated by potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching. A method to align the mask pattern to the crystal orientation of the silicon substrate has been implemented. The impact of the etch of the nitride layer, used as an etch mask in KOH, on the line widths...... of the critical structures has been studied. The influence of the process parameters of a RIE etch process has been investigated with respect to the etch rate uniformity. After processing the variation of the line widths of the critical structures on the fiber array carrier and the top plate is determined...

  4. Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.

  5. Integrated optical 3D digital imaging based on DSP scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2008-03-01

    We present a scheme of integrated optical 3-D digital imaging (IO3DI) based on digital signal processor (DSP), which can acquire range images independently without PC support. This scheme is based on a parallel hardware structure with aid of DSP and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize 3-D imaging. In this integrated scheme of 3-D imaging, the phase measurement profilometry is adopted. To realize the pipeline processing of the fringe projection, image acquisition and fringe pattern analysis, we present a multi-threads application program that is developed under the environment of DSP/BIOS RTOS (real-time operating system). Since RTOS provides a preemptive kernel and powerful configuration tool, with which we are able to achieve a real-time scheduling and synchronization. To accelerate automatic fringe analysis and phase unwrapping, we make use of the technique of software optimization. The proposed scheme can reach a performance of 39.5 f/s (frames per second), so it may well fit into real-time fringe-pattern analysis and can implement fast 3-D imaging. Experiment results are also presented to show the validity of proposed scheme.

  6. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  7. Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a rapidly growing interest in integrated optical (IO) sensors, expecially because many of them principally allow for sensitive, real time, label-free-on-site measurements of the concentration of (bio-)chemical species. This review aims at giving an overview of

  8. Progress in high index contrast integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baets, R.G.F.; Bienstman, P.; Bogaerts, W.; Brouckaert, J.; De Backere, P.; Dumon, P.; Roelkens, G.; Scheerlinck, S.; Smit, M.K.; Taillaert, D.; Van Campenhout, J.; Van Laere, F.; Thourhout, Van D.

    2007-01-01

    A large fraction of the recent innovation in integrated optics is enabled by the use of high index contrast structures and devices. The strong confinement achievable in such devices allows for dramatic performance benefits and downscaling. In this paper the progress in this field is reviewed.

  9. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  10. Materials and integration schemes for above-IC integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; Rangarajan, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on silicon oxynitride material for waveguides and germanium-silicon alloys for p-i-n diodes. The materials are manufactured at low, CMOS-backend compatible temperatures, targeting the integration of optical functions on top of CMOS chips. Low-temperature germanium-silicon

  11. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  12. Analysis of the control structures for an integrated ethanol processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biset, S; Nieto Deglioumini, L; Basualdo, M [GIAIP-CIFASIS (UTN-FRRo-CONICET-UPCAM-UNR), BV. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Garcia, V M; Serra, M [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, C. Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate which would be a good preliminary plantwide control structure for the process of Hydrogen production from bioethanol to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) accounting only steady-state information. The objective is to keep the process under optimal operation point, that is doing energy integration to achieve the maximum efficiency. Ethanol, produced from renewable feedstocks, feeds a fuel processor investigated for steam reforming, followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors and preferential oxidation, which are coupled to a polymeric fuel cell. Applying steady-state simulation techniques and using thermodynamic models the performance of the complete system with two different control structures have been evaluated for the most typical perturbations. A sensitivity analysis for the key process variables together with the rigorous operability requirements for the fuel cell are taking into account for defining acceptable plantwide control structure. This is the first work showing an alternative control structure applied to this kind of process. (author)

  13. A web-based institutional DICOM distribution system with the integration of the Clinical Trial Processor (CTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, K Y E; Broekema, A; Langenhuysen, R G A; Oudkerk, M; van Ooijen, P M A

    2015-05-01

    To develop and test a fast and easy rule-based web-environment with optional de-identification of imaging data to facilitate data distribution within a hospital environment. A web interface was built using Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), an open source scripting language for web development, and Java with SQL Server to handle the database. The system allows for the selection of patient data and for de-identifying these when necessary. Using the services provided by the RSNA Clinical Trial Processor (CTP), the selected images were pushed to the appropriate services using a protocol based on the module created for the associated task. Five pipelines, each performing a different task, were set up in the server. In a 75 month period, more than 2,000,000 images are transferred and de-identified in a proper manner while 20,000,000 images are moved from one node to another without de-identification. While maintaining a high level of security and stability, the proposed system is easy to setup, it integrate well with our clinical and research practice and it provides a fast and accurate vendor-neutral process of transferring, de-identifying, and storing DICOM images. Its ability to run different de-identification processes in parallel pipelines is a major advantage in both clinical and research setting.

  14. Modular initiator with integrated optical diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Kathleen [Cedar Crest, NM; Schmitt, Randal L [Tijeras, NM; Welle, Eric J [Niceville, FL; Madden, Sean P [Arlington, MA

    2011-05-17

    A slapper detonator which integrally incorporates an optical wavequide structure for determining whether there has been degradation of the explosive in the explosive device that is to be initiated by the detonator. Embodiments of this invention take advantage of the barrel-like character of a typical slapper detonator design. The barrel assembly, being in direct contact with the energetic material, incorporates an optical diagnostic device into the barrel assembly whereby one can monitor the state of the explosive material. Such monitoring can be beneficial because the chemical degradation of the explosive plays an important in achieving proper functioning of a detonator/initiator device.

  15. NSTAR Ion Thruster and Breadboard Power Processor Functional Integration Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Miller, John R.; Myers, Roger M.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    A 2.3 kW Breadboard Power Processing Unit (BBPPU) was developed as part of the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) Program. The NSTAR program will deliver an electric propulsion system based on a 30 cm xenon ion thruster to the New Millennium (NM) program for use as the primary propulsion system for the initial NM flight. The final development test for the BBPPU, the Functional Integration Test, was carried out to demonstrate all aspects of BBPPU operation with an Engineering Model Thruster. Test objectives included: (1) demonstration and validation of automated thruster start procedures, (2) demonstration of stable closed loop control of the thruster beam current, (3) successful response and recovery to thruster faults, and (4) successful safing of the system during simulated spacecraft faults. These objectives were met over the specified 80-120 VDC input voltage range and 0.5-2.3 output power capability of the BBPPU. Two minor anomalies were noted in discharge and neutralizer keeper current. These anomalies did not affect the stability of the system and were successfully corrected.

  16. Design of a family of integrated parallel co-processors for images processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Thierry

    1991-01-01

    The design of parallel image processing Systems joining in a same architecture, sophisticated microprocessors and specialised operators is a difficult task, because of the various problems to be taken into account. The current study identifies a certain way of realizing and interfacing such dedicated operators to a central unit with microprocessor type. The two guide lines of this work are the search for polyvalent specialized and re-configurated operators as well as their connections to a System bus, and not to specialized video buses. This research work proposes a certain architecture of circuits dedicated to image processing and two realization proposals of them. One of them was be realized in this study by using silicon compiler tools. This work belongs to a more important project, whose aim is the development of an industrial image processing System, high performing, modular, based on the parallelization, in MIMD structures, of an elementary, autonomous image processing unit integrating a microprocessor equipped with a parallel coprocessor suited to image processing. (author) [fr

  17. Integrated optical interrogation of micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, III, Boyd M.; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Rajic, Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    The invention is an integrated optical sensing element for detecting and measuring changes in position or deflection. A deflectable member, such as a microcantilever, is configured to receive a light beam. A waveguide, such as an optical waveguide or an optical fiber, is positioned to redirect light towards the deflectable member. The waveguide can be incorporated into the deflectable member or disposed adjacent to the deflectable member. Means for measuring the extent of position change or deflection of the deflectable member by receiving the light beam from the deflectable member, such as a photodetector or interferometer, receives the reflected light beam from the deflectable member. Changes in the light beam are correlated to the changes in position or deflection of the deflectable member. A plurality of deflectable members can be arranged in a matrix or an array to provide one or two-dimensional imaging or sensing capabilities.

  18. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...... wavelength from temperature and refractive index changes in the surroundings is investigated, pointing towards the use of the described fabrication method for on-chip polymer sensor systems....

  19. Interferometric interrogation concepts for integrated electro-optical sensor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, Teunis Jan

    1998-01-01

    Integrated optical sensors have a high potential in the measurement of a large variety of measurands. Research on integrated optical sensors enjoys increasing interest. In order to reach accurate performance and to facilitate the use of integrated optical sensors, electronic functions for sensor

  20. A lock circuit for a multi-core processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An integrated circuit comprising a multiple processor cores and a lock circuit that comprises a queue register with respective bits set or reset via respective, connections dedicated to respective processor cores, whereby the queue register identifies those among the multiple processor cores...... that are enqueued in the queue register. Furthermore, the integrated circuit comprises a current register and a selector circuit configured to select a processor core and identify that processor core by a value in the current register. A selected processor core is a prioritized processor core among the cores...... configured with an integrated circuit; and a silicon die configured with an integrated circuit....

  1. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  2. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...... with the integrated control scheme so as to maximize overall network throughput in the integrated network architecture. To the best of our knowledge no load balancing mechanisms, especially based on the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP) defined in the IEEE 802.3ah, have been proposed so far. The major research...... issues are outlined and a cost function based optimization model is developed for power management. In particularly, two alternative feedback schemes are proposed to report wireless network status. Simulation results show that our proposed load balancing mechanism improves network performances....

  3. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  4. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  5. Development of a Next-Generation Membrane-Integrated Adsorption Processor for CO2 Removal and Compression for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila; LeVan, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    The current CO2 removal technology of NASA is very energy intensive and contains many non-optimized subsystems. This paper discusses the concept of a next-generation, membrane integrated, adsorption processor for CO2 removal nd compression in closed-loop air revitalization systems. This processor will use many times less power than NASA's current CO2 removal technology and will be capable of maintaining a lower CO2 concentration in the cabin than that can be achieved by the existing CO2 removal systems. The compact, consolidated, configuration of gas dryer, CO2 separator, and CO2 compressor will allow continuous recycling of humid air in the cabin and supply of compressed CO2 to the reduction unit for oxygen recovery. The device has potential application to the International Space Station and future, long duration, transit, and planetary missions.

  6. Integrating optical, mechanical, and test software (with applications to freeform optics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor; Michels, Gregory; Myer, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Optical systems must perform under environmental conditions including thermal and mechanical loading. To predict the performance in the field, integrated analysis combining optical and mechanical software is required. Freeform and conformal optics offer many new opportunities for optical design. The unconventional geometries can lead to unconventional, and therefore unintuitive, mechanical behavior. Finite element (FE) analysis offers the ability to predict the deformations of freeform optics under various environments and load conditions. To understand the impact on optical performance, the deformations must be brought into optical analysis codes. This paper discusses several issues related to the integrated optomechanical analysis of freeform optics.

  7. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  8. Evaluation of the Xeon phi processor as a technology for the acceleration of real-time control in high-order adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Basden, Alastair; Dipper, Nigel; Schwartz, Noah; Vick, Andy; Schnetler, Hermine

    2014-08-01

    We present wavefront reconstruction acceleration of high-order AO systems using an Intel Xeon Phi processor. The Xeon Phi is a coprocessor providing many integrated cores and designed for accelerating compute intensive, numerical codes. Unlike other accelerator technologies, it allows virtually unchanged C/C++ to be recompiled to run on the Xeon Phi, giving the potential of making development, upgrade and maintenance faster and less complex. We benchmark the Xeon Phi in the context of AO real-time control by running a matrix vector multiply (MVM) algorithm. We investigate variability in execution time and demonstrate a substantial speed-up in loop frequency. We examine the integration of a Xeon Phi into an existing RTC system and show that performance improvements can be achieved with limited development effort.

  9. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  10. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  11. Stripline kicker for integrable optics test accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey A.; Didenko, Alexander; Lebedev, Valeri; Valishev, Alexander

    2016-06-30

    We present a design of a stripline kicker for Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). For its experimental program IOTA needs two full-aperture kickers, capable to create an arbitrary controllable kick in 2D. For that reason their strengths are variable in a wide range of amplitudes up to 16 mrad, and the pulse length 100 ns is less than a revolution period for electrons. In addition, the kicker should have a physical aperture of 40 mm for a proposed operation with proton beam, and an outer size of 70 mm to fit inside existing quadrupole magnets to save space in the ring. Computer simulations using CST Microwave Studio show high field uniformity and wave impedance close to 50 {\\Omega}.

  12. Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-27

    A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.

  13. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  14. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  15. Green Secure Processors: Towards Power-Efficient Secure Processor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Siddhartha; Solihin, Yan

    With the increasing wealth of digital information stored on computer systems today, security issues have become increasingly important. In addition to attacks targeting the software stack of a system, hardware attacks have become equally likely. Researchers have proposed Secure Processor Architectures which utilize hardware mechanisms for memory encryption and integrity verification to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data and computation, even from sophisticated hardware attacks. While there have been many works addressing performance and other system level issues in secure processor design, power issues have largely been ignored. In this paper, we first analyze the sources of power (energy) increase in different secure processor architectures. We then present a power analysis of various secure processor architectures in terms of their increase in power consumption over a base system with no protection and then provide recommendations for designs that offer the best balance between performance and power without compromising security. We extend our study to the embedded domain as well. We also outline the design of a novel hybrid cryptographic engine that can be used to minimize the power consumption for a secure processor. We believe that if secure processors are to be adopted in future systems (general purpose or embedded), it is critically important that power issues are considered in addition to performance and other system level issues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to examine the power implications of providing hardware mechanisms for security.

  16. Characterization of hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Seoane, J.; Kehayas, E.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Martinez, J.M.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Ramos, F.; Marti, J.; Avramopoulos, H.; Jeppesen, P.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Poustie, A.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fully-packaged, hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop with separate optical set and reset operation. The flip-flop can control a wavelength converter to route 40 Gb/s data packets all-optically. The experimental results are given

  17. Characterisation of hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Seoane, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We present a fully-packaged, hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop with separate optical set and reset operation. The flip-flop can control a wavelength converter to route 40 Gb/s data packets all-optically. The experimental results are given....

  18. Editorial European conference on integrated optics (ECIO'10)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue contains a selection of extended papers from the Fifteenth European Conference on Integrated Optics held on 7-9 April 2010. The First European Conference on Integrated Optics in the series was held in London, UK thirty years ago, and the conference has been held biannually across

  19. Theory of absorption integrated optical sensor of gaseous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    The eigen and noneigen (leaky) modes of a three-layer planar integrated optical waveguide are described. The dispersion relation of a three-layer planar waveguide and other dependences are derived, and the cutoff conditions are analyzed. The diagram of propagation constants of the guided and radiation modes of an irregular asymmetric three-layer waveguide and the dependence of the electric field amplitudes of radiation modes of substrate on vertical coordinate in a tantalum integrated optical waveguide are presented. The operating principles of an absorption integrated optical waveguide sensor are investigated. The dependences of sensitivity of an integrated optical waveguide sensor on the sensory cell length, the coupling efficiency of the laser radiation into the waveguide, the absorption cross-section of the studied material, and the level of additive statistical noise are investigated. Some of the prospective areas of application of integrated-optical waveguide sensors are outlined.

  20. The LASS hardware processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of data analysis with hardware processors are reviewed and a description is given of a programmable processor. This processor, the 168/E, has been designed for use in the LASS multi-processor system; it has an execution speed comparable to the IBM 370/168 and uses the subset of IBM 370 instructions appropriate to the LASS analysis task. (Auth.)

  1. Functional Verification of Enhanced RISC Processor

    OpenAIRE

    SHANKER NILANGI; SOWMYA L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents design and verification of a 32-bit enhanced RISC processor core having floating point computations integrated within the core, has been designed to reduce the cost and complexity. The designed 3 stage pipelined 32-bit RISC processor is based on the ARM7 processor architecture with single precision floating point multiplier, floating point adder/subtractor for floating point operations and 32 x 32 booths multiplier added to the integer core of ARM7. The binary representati...

  2. Integrated optical transceiver with electronically controlled optical beamsteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; DeRose, Christopher; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2017-08-22

    A beam-steering optical transceiver is provided. The transceiver includes one or more modules, each comprising an antenna chip and a control chip bonded to the antenna chip. Each antenna chip has a feeder waveguide, a plurality of row waveguides that tap off from the feeder waveguide, and a plurality of metallic nanoantenna elements arranged in a two-dimensional array of rows and columns such that each row overlies one of the row waveguides. Each antenna chip also includes a plurality of independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters, each configured to produce a thermo-optical phase shift in a respective row. Each antenna chip also has, for each row, a row-wise heating circuit configured to produce a respective thermo-optic phase shift at each nanoantenna element along its row. The control chip includes controllable current sources for the independently addressable thermo-optical phase shifters and the row-wise heating circuits.

  3. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  4. Performance evaluation and comparison of fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell based on steam or autothermal reforming and on CO preferential oxidation or selective methanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercolino, Giuliana; Ashraf, Muhammad A.; Specchia, Vito; Specchia, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of different fuel processors integrated with PEM fuel cell stack. • Steam or autothermal reforming + CO selective methanation or preferential oxidation. • Reforming of different hydrocarbons: gasoline, light diesel oil, natural gas. • 5 kW e net systems comparison via energy efficiency and primary fuel rate consumed. • Highest net efficiency: steam reformer + CO selective methanation based system. - Abstract: The performances of four different auxiliary power unit (APU) schemes, based on a 5 kW e net proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) stack, are evaluated and compared. The fuel processor section of each APU is characterized by a reformer (autothermal ATR or steam SR), a non-isothermal water gas shift (NI-WGS) reactor and a final syngas catalytic clean-up step: the CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor or the CO selective methanation (SMET) one. Furthermore, three hydrocarbon fuels, the most commonly found in service stations (gasoline, light diesel oil and natural gas) are considered as primary fuels. The comparison is carried out examining the results obtained by a series of steady-state system simulations in Aspen Plus® of the four different APU schemes by varying the fed fuel. From the calculated data, the performance of CO-PROX is not very different compared to that of the CO-SMET, but the performance of the SR based APUs is higher than the scheme of the ATR based APUs. The most promising APU scheme with respect to an overall performance target is the scheme fed with natural gas and characterized by a fuel processor chain consisting of SR, NI-WGS and CO-SMET reactors. This processing reactors scheme together with the fuel cell section, notwithstanding having practically the same energy efficiency of the scheme with SR, NI-WGS and CO-PROX reactors, ensures a less complex scheme, higher hydrogen concentration in the syngas, lower air mass rate consumption, the absence of nitrogen in the syngas and higher potential

  5. Development of the multiwavelength monolithic integrated fiber optics terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, C. R.; Bryan, D. A.; Powers, J. K.; Rice, R. R.; Nettle, V. H.; Dalke, E. A.; Reed, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber Optic Terminal (MMIFOT) for the NASA Johnson Space Center. The program objective is to utilize guided wave optical technology to develop wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing units, using a single mode optical fiber for transmission between terminals. Intensity modulated injection laser diodes, chirped diffraction gratings and thin film lenses are used to achieve the wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing. The video and audio data transmission test of an integrated optical unit with a Luneburg collimation lens, waveguide diffraction grating and step index condensing lens is described.

  6. All-optical temporal integration of ultrafast pulse waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Ahn, Tae-Jung; Dai, Yitang; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José

    2008-10-27

    An ultrafast all-optical temporal integrator is experimentally demonstrated. The demonstrated integrator is based on a very simple and practical solution only requiring the use of a widely available all-fiber passive component, namely a reflection uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This design allows overcoming the severe speed (bandwidth) limitations of the previously demonstrated photonic integrator designs. We demonstrate temporal integration of a variety of ultrafast optical waveforms, including Gaussian, odd-symmetry Hermite Gaussian, and (odd-)symmetry double pulses, with temporal features as fast as ~6-ps, which is about one order of magnitude faster than in previous photonic integration demonstrations. The developed device is potentially interesting for a multitude of applications in all-optical computing and information processing, ultrahigh-speed optical communications, ultrafast pulse (de-)coding, shaping and metrology.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  8. A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Shinada, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Takaya; Harai, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Wataru; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Koji; Toyozumi, Tatuya; Wada, Naoya

    2012-12-17

    We newly developed a 3 × 3 integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node. Optical buffers and burst-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with the gain flatness are installed in the 3 × 3 switch-node. The optical buffer can prevent packet collisions and decrease packet loss. We constructed a multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network testbed connecting two single-ring networks and a client network by the 3 × 3 switch-node. For the first time, we demonstrated 244 km fiber transmission and 5-node hopping of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10 Gigabit Ethernet frames on the testbed. Error-free (frame error rate optical packets of various packet lengths. In addition, successful avoidance of packet collisions by optical buffers was confirmed.

  9. Glass-based integrated optical splitters: engineering oriented research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yinlei; Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Minghua

    2010-10-01

    Optical splitter is one of most typical device heavily demanded in implementation of Fiber To The Home (FTTH) system. Due to its compatibility with optical fibers, low propagation loss, flexibility, and most distinguishingly, potentially costeffectiveness, glass-based integrated optical splitters made by ion-exchange technology promise to be very attractive in application of optical communication networks. Aiming at integrated optical splitters applied in optical communication network, glass ion-exchange waveguide process is developed, which includes two steps: thermal salts ion-exchange and field-assisted ion-diffusion. By this process, high performance optical splitters are fabricated in specially melted glass substrate. Main performance parameters of these splitters, including maximum insertion loss (IL), polarization dependence loss (PDL), and IL uniformity are all in accordance with corresponding specifications in generic requirements for optic branching components (GR-1209-CORE). In this paper, glass based integrated optical splitters manufacturing is demonstrated, after which, engineering-oriented research work results on glass-based optical splitter are presented.

  10. Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Harai, Hiroaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Shinada, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Wataru; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We developed novel integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node equipment. Compared with our previous equipment, a polarization-independent 4 × 4 semiconductor optical amplifier switch subsystem, gain-controlled optical amplifiers, and one 100 Gbps optical packet transponder and seven 10 Gbps optical path transponders with 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) client-interfaces were newly installed in the present system. The switch and amplifiers can provide more stable operation without equipment adjustments for the frequent polarization-rotations and dynamic packet-rate changes of optical packets. We constructed an optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed consisting of two switch nodes for accelerating network development, and we demonstrated 66 km fiber transmission and switching operation of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10GbE frames. Error-free (frame error rate optical packets of various packet lengths and packet rates, and stable operation of the network testbed was confirmed. In addition, 4K uncompressed video streaming over OPS links was successfully demonstrated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Fuel processor integrated H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation technology for sulfur removal in fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, T.H.; Berry, D.A.; Lyons, K.D.; Beer, S.K.; Freed, A.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-12-01

    H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation technology with an activated carbon catalyst was found to be a promising method for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from fuel cell hydrocarbon feedstocks. Three different fuel cell feedstocks were considered for analysis: sour natural gas, sour effluent from a liquid middle distillate fuel processor and a Texaco O{sub 2}-blown coal-derived synthesis gas. The H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation reaction, its integratability into fuel cell power plants with different hydrocarbon feedstocks and its salient features are discussed. Experimental results indicate that H{sub 2}S concentration can be removed down to the part-per-million level in these plants. Additionally, a power law rate expression was developed and reaction kinetics compared to prior literature. The activation energy for this reaction was determined to be 34.4 kJ/g mol with the reaction being first order in H{sub 2}S and 0.3 order in O{sub 2}. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The GASSIPLEX0.7-2 Integrated Front-End Analog Processor for the HMPID and Muon Tracker of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Santiard, Jean-Claude

    1999-01-01

    The most recent member of the Gasplex family has been designed in a 0.7 µm n-well CMOS process to meet specifications for the ALICE applications: 500 fC linear dynamic range and a peaking time of 1.2 µs. Its internal circuitry is optimized for the readout of gaseous detectors. A dedicated filter compensates the long hyperbolic signal tail produced by the slow motion of the ions and allows the shaper to achieve perfect return to the base line after 5 µs. Measurement of fabricated chips showed a noise performance of 530 e- rms at 0 pF external input capacitance and 1.2 µs peaking-time, with a noise slope of 11.2 e- rms/pF. The gain is 3.6 mv/fC over a linear dynamic range of 560 fC.Summary:The Gasplex is a 16-channel low noise signal processor built in a 1.5 µm technology and specially designed for gaseous detectors. Each channel consists of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a filter, a Semi-Gaussian shaper and a Track/Hold circuit. The peaking time acts as a delay allowing an external trigger...

  13. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  14. Crosstalk performance of integrated optical cross-connects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herben, C.G.P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Maat, D.H.P.; Blok, H.; Smit, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Crosstalk performance of monolithically integrated multiwavelength optical cross-connects (OXC's) depends strongly on their architecture. In this paper, a semiquantitative analysis of crosstalk in 11 different architectures is presented. Two architectures are analyzed numerically in more detail and

  15. Advanced integrated spectrometer designs for miniaturized optical coherence tomography systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.; Povazay, B.; Chang, Lantian; Alex, A.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Drexler, W.; Pollnau, Markus

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has enabled clinical applications that revolutionized in vivo medical diagnostics. Nevertheless, its current limitations owing to cost, size, complexity, and the need for accurate alignment must be overcome by radically novel approaches. Exploiting integrated

  16. Compact integrated optical devices for optical sensor and switching applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of compact optical devices for sensing and switching applications. Our focus has been to realize the devices using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. Particularly the silicon photonics fabrication platform, ePIXfab, has been

  17. Evaluation of polymer based third order nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Blom, F.C.; Horst, F.; Horst, F.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; Lambeck, Paul; Popma, T.J.A.; Diemeer, Mart

    Nonlinear polymers are promising materials for high speed active integrated optics devices. In this paper we evaluate the perspectives polymer based nonlinear optical devices can offer. Special attention is directed to the materials aspects. In our experimental work we applied mainly Akzo Nobel DANS

  18. A Miniaturized Optical Sensor with Integrated Gas Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.; Ghaderi, M.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a highly integrated optical gas sensor is presented. The gas cell takes up most of the space in a microspectrometer and is the only component that has so far not been miniaturized. Using the tapered resonator cavity of a linear variable optical filter

  19. Integrated optical delay lines for time-division multiplexers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of integrated optical delay lines (DLs) for application in optical time-division multiplexers. The investigated DLs are formed by spirally folded waveguides. The components were designed in a generic approach and fabricated in multi-project wafer runs on an

  20. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  1. Optical amplification in photonic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The recent results in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in doped hard crystalline materials, specifically in Ti-doped sapphire and Yb-doped $KY(WO_4)_2$, are reviewed.

  2. How complex can integrated optical circuits become?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Hill, M.T.; Baets, R.G.F.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Karouta, F.; Koenraad, P.M.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Nötzel, R.; Oei, Y.S.; Waardt, de H.; Tol, van der J.J.G.M.; Khoe, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    The integration scale in Photonic Integrated Circuits will be pushed to VLSI-level in the coming decade. This will bring major changes in both application and manufacturing. In this paper developments in Photonic Integration are reviewed and the limits for reduction of device demensions are

  3. Combatting nonlinear phase noise in coherent optical systems with an optimized decision processor based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danshi; Zhang, Min; Cai, Zhongle; Cui, Yue; Li, Ze; Han, Huanhuan; Fu, Meixia; Luo, Bin

    2016-06-01

    An effective machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), is presented in the context of a coherent optical transmission system. As a classifier, the SVM can create nonlinear decision boundaries to mitigate the distortions caused by nonlinear phase noise (NLPN). Without any prior information or heuristic assumptions, the SVM can learn and capture the link properties from only a few training data. Compared with the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm, a lower bit-error rate (BER) is achieved by the SVM for a given launch power; moreover, the launch power dynamic range (LPDR) is increased by 3.3 dBm for 8 phase-shift keying (8 PSK), 1.2 dBm for QPSK, and 0.3 dBm for BPSK. The maximum transmission distance corresponding to a BER of 1 ×10-3 is increased by 480 km for the case of 8 PSK. The larger launch power range and longer transmission distance improve the tolerance to amplitude and phase noise, which demonstrates the feasibility of the SVM in digital signal processing for M-PSK formats. Meanwhile, in order to apply the SVM method to 16 quadratic amplitude modulation (16 QAM) detection, we propose a parameter optimization scheme. By utilizing a cross-validation and grid-search techniques, the optimal parameters of SVM can be selected, thus leading to the LPDR improvement by 2.8 dBm. Additionally, we demonstrate that the SVM is also effective in combating the laser phase noise combined with the inphase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator imperfections, but the improvement is insignificant for the linear noise and separate I/Q imbalance. The computational complexity of SVM is also discussed. The relatively low complexity makes it possible for SVM to implement the real-time processing.

  4. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose......Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  5. Integrated resource management for Hybrid Optical Wireless (HOW) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Yu, Hao; Wessing, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Efficient utilization of available bandwidth over hybrid optical wireless networks is a critical issue, especially for multimedia applications with high data rates and stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we propose an integrated resource management including an enhanced...... resource sharing scheme and an integrated admission control scheme for the hybrid optical wireless networks. It provides QoS guarantees for connections through both optical and wireless domain. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme improves QoS performances in terms of high throughput and low...

  6. Compressive sensing in a photonic link with optical integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Chi, Hao

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a novel structure to realize photonics-assisted compressive sensing (CS) with optical integration. In the system, a spectrally sparse signal modulates a multiwavelength continuous-wave light and then is mixed with a random sequence in optical domain. The optical signal......, which is equivalent to the function of integration required in CS. A proof-of-concept experiment with four wavelengths, corresponding to a compression factor of 4, is demonstrated. More simulation results are also given to show the potential of the technique....

  7. Integrated optical isolators based on two-mode interference couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yiling; Zhou, Haifeng; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Hao, Yinlei; Yang, Jianyi; Wang, Minghua

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optical waveguide isolator based on two-mode interference (TMI) couplers, by utilizing the magneto-optical nonreciprocal phase shift (NPS). The operating principle of this device is to utilize the difference between the nonreciprocal phase shifts of the two lowest-order modes. A two-dimensional (2D) semi-vectorial finite difference method is used to calculate the difference between the nonreciprocal phase shifts of the two lowest-order modes and optimize the parameters. The proposed device may play an important role in integrated optical devices and optical communication systems

  8. High-throughput optical inter-board interconnects for next-generation on-board digital transparent processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, N.; Sotom, M.; Gachon, H.; Foucal, V.; Pez, M.; Heikkinen, V.; Tuominen, T.; Pantoja, S.

    2017-11-01

    The satellite telecommunication sector is continuously facing new challenges. Operators turn towards increasing capacity payloads with higher number of beams and broader bandwidth, in order to cope with exhausting orbital positions and to lower the cost of in-orbit delivery of bit. Only satellites able to provide high data rate connections to numerous users are expected to achieve affordable communication prices. On the other hand, as the telecom market grows and the range of offered services (HDTV, Video On Demand, Triple Play), operators call for more versatile solutions to quickly grasp new markets and to adapt to these evolutions over the average 15 years of a satellite lifetime. Flexible payloads have found an increasing interest for a number of years. Flexibility is considered as a means for a better commercial exploitation of a satellite fleet and a better allocation of resource in response to traffic evolution and/or changing business plans, with potential advantages such as a wider range of applications, less customization for specific missions, increased production runs of equipment, enhancement of reliability, reduction of equipment cost, reduction of program schedules [1]. Flexibility is expected to be offered in spectrum management and frequency plan, in coverage, or in the repeater power allocation. The industry is taking up the challenge both by improving current telecom satellites and offering new payload technology, more flexible and able to address the new markets. From a system integrator perspective, flexibility is as an opportunity to design more generic payloads, that can be customized during or after fabrication only, thus shortening the design-to-manufacturing cycle, and improving the industry competitiveness.

  9. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  10. Probabilistic programmable quantum processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, V.; Ziman, M.; Hillery, M.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze how to improve performance of probabilistic programmable quantum processors. We show how the probability of success of the probabilistic processor can be enhanced by using the processor in loops. In addition, we show that an arbitrary SU(2) transformations of qubits can be encoded in program state of a universal programmable probabilistic quantum processor. The probability of success of this processor can be enhanced by a systematic correction of errors via conditional loops. Finally, we show that all our results can be generalized also for qudits. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. All-optically integrated photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All-optically integrated photoacoustic (PA and optical coherence tomography (OCT dual-mode imaging technology that could offer comprehensive pathological information for accurate diagnosis in clinic has gradually become a promising imaging technology in the aspect of biomedical imaging during the recent years. This review refers to the technology aspects of all-optical PA detection and system evolution of optically integrated PA and OCT, including Michelson interferometer dual-mode imaging system, Fabry–Perot (FP interferometer dual-mode imaging system and Mach–Zehnder interferometer dual-mode imaging system. It is believed that the optically integrated PA and OCT has great potential applications in biomedical imaging.

  12. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Wu, Dengshan; Shi, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology and the promotion of many local wars in the world, altitude optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle is more widely applied in the airborne remote sensing, measurement and detection. In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 138.2 nm, which is under PV ≤1 4λ . The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  13. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , Pauline; Lorrain , Nathalie; Poffo , Luiz; Guendouz , Mohammed; Lemaitre , Jonathan; Carré , Christiane; Gadonna , Michel; Bosc , Dominique; Vignaud , Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as cor...

  14. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  15. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  16. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  17. Characterization methods of integrated optics for mid-infrared interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Lucas; Kern, Pierre Y.; Schanen-Duport, Isabelle; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    his article deals with one of the important instrumentation challenges of the stellar interferometry mission IRSI-Darwin of the European Space Agency: the necessity to have a reliable and performant system for beam combination has enlightened the advantages of an integrated optics solution, which is already in use for ground-base interferometry in the near infrared. Integrated optics provides also interesting features in terms of filtering, which is a main issue for the deep null to be reached by Darwin. However, Darwin will operate in the mid infrared range from 4 microns to 20 microns where no integrated optics functions are available on-the-shelf. This requires extending the integrated optics concept and the undergoing technology in this spectral range. This work has started with the IODA project (Integrated Optics for Darwin) under ESA contract and aims to provide a first component for interferometry. In this paper are presented the guidelines of the characterization work that is implemented to test and validate the performances of a component at each step of the development phase. We present also an example of characterization experiment used within the frame of this work, is theoretical approach and some results.

  18. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  19. Optical Characteristics of a Multichannel Hybrid Integrated Light Source for Ultra-High-Bandwidth Optical Interconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Shimizu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of a multi-channel hybrid integrated light source were described for an optical interconnection with a bandwidth of over 10 Tbit/s. The power uniformity of the relative intensity of a 1000-channel light source was shown, and the minimum standard deviation s of the optical power of the 200 output ports at each 25-channel laser diode (LD array was estimated to be 0.49 dB. This hybrid integrated light source is expected to be easily adaptable to a photonics-electronics convergence system for ultra-high-bandwidth interchip interconnections.

  20. Silicon-based optical integrated circuits for terabit communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svidzinsky, K K

    2003-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the development of silicon-based optical integrated circuits used as components in modern all-optical communication networks with the terabit-per-second transmission capacity. The designs and technologies for manufacturing these circuits are described and the problems related to their development and application in WDM communication systems are considered. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  1. INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Velikanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  2. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  3. Integrated Micro-Optical Fluorescence Detection System for Microfluidic Electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; ARNOLD, DON W.; ASBILL, RANDOLPH E.; BAILEY, CHRISTOPHER G.; CARTER, TONY RAY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; SAMORA, SALLY; SWEATT, WILLIAM C.; WARREN, MIAL E.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the design and microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary-channel electrochromatograph with laser induced fluorescence detection. The optical design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. The optical system includes a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array, two high performance microlenses and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate with a 6 mm separation between the VCSEL and photodetector. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own module and the source to detector length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The systems are designed for indirect fluorescence detection using infrared dyes. The first generation design has been tested with a 750 nm VCSEL exciting a 10(sup -4) M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and meets the system sensitivity requirements

  4. Integrated all optical transmodulator circuits with non-linear gain elements and tunable optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuindersma, P.I.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Zantvoort, van J.H.C.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize integrated InP circuits for high speed ‘all-optical’ signal processing. Single chip circuits act as optical transistors. Transmodulation is performed by non-linear gain sections. Integrated tunable filters give signal equalization in time domain.

  5. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  6. Multithreading in vector processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi

    2018-01-16

    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  7. A High-Voltage Integrated Circuit Engine for a Dielectrophoresis-based Programmable Micro-Fluidic Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current, K. Wayne; Yuk, Kelvin; McConaghy, Charles; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Schwartz, Jon A.; Vykoukal, Jody V.; Andrews, Craig

    2010-01-01

    A high-voltage (HV) integrated circuit has been demonstrated to transport droplets on programmable paths across its coated surface. This chip is the engine for a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip system. This chip creates DEP forces that move and help inject droplets. Electrode excitation voltage and frequency are variable. With the electrodes driven with a 100V peak-to-peak periodic waveform, the maximum high-voltage electrode waveform frequency is about 200Hz. Data communication rate is variable up to 250kHz. This demonstration chip has a 32×32 array of nominally 100V electrode drivers. It is fabricated in a 130V SOI CMOS fabrication technology, dissipates a maximum of 1.87W, and is about 10.4 mm × 8.2 mm. PMID:23989241

  8. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-01-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d max. , 10 × 10 cm 2 , 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4–40.6°C (85–105°F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  9. Subsurface seeding of surface harmful algal blooms observed through the integration of autonomous gliders, moored environmental sample processors, and satellite remote sensing in southern California

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.; Birch, James M.; Marin, Roman; Scholin, Chris A.; Caron, David A.; Seubert, Erica L.; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Robertson, George L.; Jones, Burton

    2015-01-01

    effluent plumes, and other processes. Multi-month Webb Slocum glider deployments combined with MBARI environmental sample processors (ESPs), weekly pier sampling, and ocean color data provided a multidimensional characterization of the development

  10. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  11. Size-selective detection in integrated optical interferometric biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Harmen K P; Ymeti, Aurel; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new size-selective detection method for integrated optical interferometric biosensors that can strongly enhance their performance. We demonstrate that by launching multiple wavelengths into a Young interferometer waveguide sensor it is feasible to derive refractive index changes from

  12. Uni- and omnidirectional simulation tools for integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffer, Remco

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents several improvements on simulation methods in integrated optics, as well as some new methods. Both uni- and omnidirectional tools are presented; for the unidirectional methods, the emphasis is on higher-order accuracy; for the omnidirectional methods, the boundary conditions are

  13. Designing neutral-atom nanotraps with integrated optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, James P. Jr.; Chu, S.-T.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Williams, C.J.; Julienne, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated optical structures offer the intriguing potential of compact, reproducible waveguide arrays, rings, Y junctions, etc., that could be used to design evanescent field traps to transport, store, and interact atoms in networks as complicated as any integrated optical waveguide circuit. We theoretically investigate three approaches to trapping atoms above linear integrated optical waveguides. A two-color scheme balances the decaying evanescent fields of red- and blue-detuned light to produce a potential minimum above the guide. A one-color surface trap proposal uses blue-detuned light and the attractive surface interaction to provide a potential minimum. A third proposal uses blue-detuned light in two guides positioned above and below one another. The atoms are confined to the 'dark' spot in the vacuum gap between the guides. We find that all three approaches can be used to trap atoms in two or three dimensions with approximately 100 mW of laser power. We show that the dark spot guide is robust to light scatter and provides the most viable approach for constructing integrated optical circuits that could be used to transport and manipulate atoms in a controlled manner

  14. Optical dichroism: E1-M1 integral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, Ivan; Carra, Paolo; Bertoni, C M

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses optical dichroism in noncentrosymmetric systems. The cases of circular and linear polarizations are considered. Integrated spectra are interpreted using effective two-electron operators, which are derived within a localized (atomic) model. As a consequence, our theory is not suitable for quantitative predictions; nevertheless, it identifies microscopic origins of natural, nonreciprocal and Jones' dichroisms

  15. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  16. Preserving Simplecticity in the Numerical Integration of Linear Beam Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Presented are mathematical tools and methods for the development of numerical integration techniques that preserve the symplectic condition inherent to mechanics. The intended audience is for beam physicists with backgrounds in numerical modeling and simulation with particular attention to beam optics applications. The paper focuses on Lie methods that are inherently symplectic regardless of the integration accuracy order. Section 2 provides the mathematically tools used in the sequel and necessary for the reader to extend the covered techniques. Section 3 places those tools in the context of charged-particle beam optics; in particular linear beam optics is presented in terms of a Lie algebraic matrix representation. Section 4 presents numerical stepping techniques with particular emphasis on a third-order leapfrog method. Section 5 discusses the modeling of field imperfections with particular attention to the fringe fields of quadrupole focusing magnets. The direct computation of a third order transfer matrix for a fringe field is shown.

  17. Performing derivative and integral operations for optical waves with optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Cun-Li [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Lin [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); Yang, Hong-Wei, E-mail: phd_hwyang@njau.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The graded refractive index waveguides can perform Fourier transform for an optical wave. According to this characteristic, simpler optical metamaterials with three waveguides are theoretically proposed, in which all of the waveguides are materials with a positive refractive index. By selecting the appropriate refractive index and structure size, the theory and simulations demonstrated that these metamaterials can perform mathematical operations for the outline of incident optical waves, including the first-order derivative, second-order derivative and the integral. - Highlights: • The derivative and integral operations of optical waves are achieved with a simpler model. • Both negative and positive refractive index boast the same functions. • The mathematical operations can be implemented only by changing the refractive index of the intermediate material. • The results will greatly expand the possible applications, including photon computers, picture processing, video displays and data storage.

  18. High-speed special-purpose processor for event selection by number of direct tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Chudakov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    A processor which uses data on events from five detector planes is described. To increase economy and speed in parallel processing, the processor converts the input data to superposition code and recognizes tracks by a generated search mask. The resolving time of the processor is ≤300 nsec. The processor is CAMAC-compatible and uses ECL integrated circuits

  19. Integrating nanophotonic concepts and topics into optics curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, Gregory J.

    2007-06-01

    Nanophotonics has emerged as a new and important field of study, not only in research, but also in undergraduate optics and photonics education and training. Beyond the study of classical and quantum optics, it is important for students to learn about how the flow of light can be manipulated on a nanoscale level, and used in applications such as telecommunications, imaging, and medicine. This paper reports on our work to integrate basic nanophotonic concepts and topics into existing optics and optical electronics courses, as well as independent study projects, at the undergraduate level. Through classroom lectures, topical readings, computer modeling exercises, and laboratory experiments, students are introduced to nanophotonic concepts subsequent to a study of physical and geometrical optics. A compare and contrast methodology is employed to help students identify similarities and differences that exist in the optical behavior of bulk and nanostructured media. Training is further developed through engineering design and simulation exercises that use advanced, vector-diffraction-based, modeling software for simulating the performance of various materials and structures. To date, the addition of a nanophotonics component to the optics curriculum has proven successful, been enthusiastically received by students, and should serve as a basis for further course development efforts that emphasize the combined capabilities of nanotechnology and photonics.

  20. Ray and wave optics of integrable and stochastic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1979-07-01

    The generalization of WKB methods to more than one dimension is discussed in terms of the integrability or non-integrability of the geometrical optics (ray Hamiltonian) system derived in the short-wave approximation. In the two-dimensional case the ray trajectories are either regular or stochastic, and the qualitative differences between these types of motion are manifested in the characteristics of the spectra and eigenfunctions. These are examined for a model system which may be integrable or stochastic, depending on a single parameter

  1. Complete achromatic and robustness electro-optic switch between two integrated optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kyoseva, Elica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of electro-optic modulator and optical switching device, based on current integrated optics technique. The advantages of our optical switching device are broadband of input light wavelength, robustness against varying device length and operation voltages, with reference to previous design. Conforming to our results of previous paper [Huang et al, phys. lett. a, 90, 053837], the coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape. while detuning has a sign flip at maximum coupling, we called it as with a sign flip of phase mismatch model. The a sign flip of phase mismatch model can produce complete robust population transfer. In this paper, we enhance this device to switch light intensity controllable, by tuning external electric field based on electro-optic effect.

  2. Integrated control platform for converged optical and wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying

    The next generation of broadband access networks is expected to be heterogeneous. Multiple wired and wireless systems can be integrated, in order to simultaneously provide seamless access with an appropriate Quality of Service (QoS). Wireless networks support ubiquitous connectivity yet low data...... rates, whereas optical networks can offer much higher data rates but only provide fixed connection structures. Their complementary characteristics make the integration of the two networks a promising trend for next generation networks. With combined strengths, the converged network will provide both...... the complementary characteristics of the optical networks and the wireless networks, addresses motivations for their interworking, discusses the current progress in hybrid network architectures as well as the functionalities of a control system, and identifies the achieved research contributions in the integrated...

  3. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  4. Radiation-induced attenuation in integrated optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that three materials commonly employed in opto-electronic integrated circuits evaluated for radiation-induced optical attenuation in the range 300 nm to 3000 nm. These include optically clear epoxy and crystalline lithium niobate after Co-60 exposure and crystalline tellurium dioxide after mixed gamma/fast-neutron exposure. In all these materials, however, induced loss was restricted to shorter wavelengths; attenuation induced at the telecommunications windows near 850, 1300 and 1550 nm was <0.1 dB/cm

  5. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  6. Multipurpose silicon photonics signal processor core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Crudgington, Lee; Thomson, David J; Khokhar, Ali Z; Li, Ke; Cao, Wei; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Capmany, José

    2017-09-21

    Integrated photonics changes the scaling laws of information and communication systems offering architectural choices that combine photonics with electronics to optimize performance, power, footprint, and cost. Application-specific photonic integrated circuits, where particular circuits/chips are designed to optimally perform particular functionalities, require a considerable number of design and fabrication iterations leading to long development times. A different approach inspired by electronic Field Programmable Gate Arrays is the programmable photonic processor, where a common hardware implemented by a two-dimensional photonic waveguide mesh realizes different functionalities through programming. Here, we report the demonstration of such reconfigurable waveguide mesh in silicon. We demonstrate over 20 different functionalities with a simple seven hexagonal cell structure, which can be applied to different fields including communications, chemical and biomedical sensing, signal processing, multiprocessor networks, and quantum information systems. Our work is an important step toward this paradigm.Integrated optical circuits today are typically designed for a few special functionalities and require complex design and development procedures. Here, the authors demonstrate a reconfigurable but simple silicon waveguide mesh with different functionalities.

  7. Acoustooptic linear algebra processors - Architectures, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.

    1984-01-01

    Architectures, algorithms, and applications for systolic processors are described with attention to the realization of parallel algorithms on various optical systolic array processors. Systolic processors for matrices with special structure and matrices of general structure, and the realization of matrix-vector, matrix-matrix, and triple-matrix products and such architectures are described. Parallel algorithms for direct and indirect solutions to systems of linear algebraic equations and their implementation on optical systolic processors are detailed with attention to the pipelining and flow of data and operations. Parallel algorithms and their optical realization for LU and QR matrix decomposition are specifically detailed. These represent the fundamental operations necessary in the implementation of least squares, eigenvalue, and SVD solutions. Specific applications (e.g., the solution of partial differential equations, adaptive noise cancellation, and optimal control) are described to typify the use of matrix processors in modern advanced signal processing.

  8. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  9. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  10. Integration of optical imaging with a small animal irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weersink, Robert A.; Ansell, Steve; Wang, An; Wilson, Graham; Shah, Duoaud; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the integration of optical imaging with a targeted small animal irradiator device, focusing on design, instrumentation, 2D to 3D image registration, 2D targeting, and the accuracy of recovering and mapping the optical signal to a 3D surface generated from the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The integration of optical imaging will improve targeting of the radiation treatment and offer longitudinal tracking of tumor response of small animal models treated using the system. Methods: The existing image-guided small animal irradiator consists of a variable kilovolt (peak) x-ray tube mounted opposite an aSi flat panel detector, both mounted on a c-arm gantry. The tube is used for both CBCT imaging and targeted irradiation. The optical component employs a CCD camera perpendicular to the x-ray treatment/imaging axis with a computer controlled filter for spectral decomposition. Multiple optical images can be acquired at any angle as the gantry rotates. The optical to CBCT registration, which uses a standard pinhole camera model, was modeled and tested using phantoms with markers visible in both optical and CBCT images. Optically guided 2D targeting in the anterior/posterior direction was tested on an anthropomorphic mouse phantom with embedded light sources. The accuracy of the mapping of optical signal to the CBCT surface was tested using the same mouse phantom. A surface mesh of the phantom was generated based on the CBCT image and optical intensities projected onto the surface. The measured surface intensity was compared to calculated surface for a point source at the actual source position. The point-source position was also optimized to provide the closest match between measured and calculated intensities, and the distance between the optimized and actual source positions was then calculated. This process was repeated for multiple wavelengths and sources. Results: The optical to CBCT registration error was 0.8 mm. Two

  11. Integrated Quantum Optics: Experiments towards integrated quantum-light sources and quantum-enhanced sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk

    The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimental application and generation of continuous variable quantum correlated states of light in integrated dielectric structures. Squeezed states are among the most exploited continuous variable optical states for free-space quantum-enhanced se...... is presented and an optimized device design is proposed. The devices have been fabricated and tested optically and preliminary interrogations of the output quantum noise have been performed....

  12. Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Baggio, J.; Meunier, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

  13. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  14. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  15. A COTS RF Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RFOptical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  16. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    ... to light gases then steam reform the light gases into hydrogen rich stream. This report documents the efforts in developing a fuel processor capable of providing hydrogen to a 3kW fuel cell stack...

  17. 3081/E processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.; Gravina, M.; Oxoby, G.

    1984-04-01

    The 3081/E project was formed to prepare a much improved IBM mainframe emulator for the future. Its design is based on a large amount of experience in using the 168/E processor to increase available CPU power in both online and offline environments. The processor will be at least equal to the execution speed of a 370/168 and up to 1.5 times faster for heavy floating point code. A single processor will thus be at least four times more powerful than the VAX 11/780, and five processors on a system would equal at least the performance of the IBM 3081K. With its large memory space and simple but flexible high speed interface, the 3081/E is well suited for the online and offline needs of high energy physics in the future

  18. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The Air Base Technologies Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a logistic fuel processor that removes the sulfur content of the fuel and in the process converts logistic fuel...

  19. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  20. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  1. Demonstration of two-qubit algorithms with a superconducting quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, L; Chow, J M; Gambetta, J M; Bishop, Lev S; Johnson, B R; Schuster, D I; Majer, J; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2009-07-09

    Quantum computers, which harness the superposition and entanglement of physical states, could outperform their classical counterparts in solving problems with technological impact-such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. A quantum processor executes algorithms by applying a programmable sequence of gates to an initialized register of qubits, which coherently evolves into a final state containing the result of the computation. Building a quantum processor is challenging because of the need to meet simultaneously requirements that are in conflict: state preparation, long coherence times, universal gate operations and qubit readout. Processors based on a few qubits have been demonstrated using nuclear magnetic resonance, cold ion trap and optical systems, but a solid-state realization has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we demonstrate a two-qubit superconducting processor and the implementation of the Grover search and Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithms. We use a two-qubit interaction, tunable in strength by two orders of magnitude on nanosecond timescales, which is mediated by a cavity bus in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. This interaction allows the generation of highly entangled states with concurrence up to 94 per cent. Although this processor constitutes an important step in quantum computing with integrated circuits, continuing efforts to increase qubit coherence times, gate performance and register size will be required to fulfil the promise of a scalable technology.

  2. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  3. Universal discrete Fourier optics RF photonic integrated circuit architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Trevor J; Hasan, Mehedi

    2016-04-04

    This paper describes a coherent electro-optic circuit architecture that generates a frequency comb consisting of N spatially separated orders using a generalised Mach-Zenhder interferometer (MZI) with its N × 1 combiner replaced by an optical N × N Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Advantage may be taken of the tight optical path-length control, component and circuit symmetries and emerging trimming algorithms offered by photonic integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO3, silicon, III-V or hybrid technology. The circuit architecture subsumes all MZI-based RF photonic circuit architectures in the prior art given an appropriate choice of output port(s) and dimension N although the principal application envisaged is phase correlated subcarrier generation for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. Implementation is found to be practical.

  4. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  5. Implementation of an anonymisation tool for clinical trials using a clinical trial processor integrated with an existing trial patient data information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aryanto, Kadek Y. E.; Broekema, Andre; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    To present an adapted Clinical Trial Processor (CTP) test set-up for receiving, anonymising and saving Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data using external input from the original database of an existing clinical study information system to guide the anonymisation process. Two

  6. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  7. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, Gene [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  8. An integrated nonlinear optical loop mirror in silicon photonics for all-optical signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifei Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM has been studied for several decades and has attracted considerable attention for applications in high data rate optical communications and all-optical signal processing. The majority of NOLM research has focused on silica fiber-based implementations. While various fiber designs have been considered to increase the nonlinearity and manage dispersion, several meters to hundreds of meters of fiber are still required. On the other hand, there is increasing interest in developing photonic integrated circuits for realizing signal processing functions. In this paper, we realize the first-ever passive integrated NOLM in silicon photonics and demonstrate its application for all-optical signal processing. In particular, we show wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK signals over a wavelength range of 30 nm with error-free operation and a power penalty of less than 2.5 dB, we achieve error-free nonreturn to zero (NRZ-to-RZ modulation format conversion at 10 Gb/s also with a power penalty of less than 2.8 dB, and we obtain error-free all-optical time-division demultiplexing of a 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal into its 10 Gb/s tributary channels with a maximum power penalty of 3.5 dB.

  9. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roqan, Iman S.

    2017-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  10. Gallium nitride on gallium oxide substrate for integrated nonlinear optics

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.

    2017-11-22

    Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a direct bandgap semiconductor with a wide bandgap and high thermal stability, is attractive for optoelectronic and electronic applications. Furthermore, due to its high optical nonlinearity — the characteristic of all 111-V semiconductors — GaN is also expected to be a suitable candidate for integrated nonlinear photonic circuits for a plethora of apphcations, ranging from on-chip wavelength conversion to quantum computing. Although GaN devices are in commercial production, it still suffers from lack of a suitable substrate material to reduce structural defects like high densities of threading dislocations (TDs), stacking faults, and grain boundaries. These defects significandy deteriorate the optical quality of the epi-grown GaN layer, since they act as non-radiative recombination centers. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (−201) β-Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) has superior optical quality due to a better lattice matching as compared to GaN grown on Sapphire (Al2O3) [1-3]. In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaiOj substrate and their optical characterization to assess their feasibihty for efficient four-wave mixing (FWM).

  11. Integrated optical circuit engineering IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Sept. 16, 17, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.; Sriram, S.

    The design and implementation of integrated optical circuits are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include lithium niobate devices, silicon integrated optics, waveguide phenomena, coupling considerations, processing technology, nonlinear guided-wave optics, integrated optics for fiber systems, and systems considerations and applications. Also included are eight papers and a panel discussion from an SPIE conference on the processing of guided-wave optoelectronic materials (held in Los Angeles, CA, on January 21-22, 1986).

  12. All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Stefania; Duval, Daphné; Sepúlveda, Borja; González-Guerrero, Ana Belen; Sendra, José Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2012-03-26

    We present the theoretical and the experimental implementation of an all-optical phase modulation system in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers to solve the drawbacks related to the periodic nature of the interferometric signal. Sensor phase is tuned by modulating the emission wavelength of low-cost commercial laser diodes by changing their output power. FFT deconvolution of the signal allows for direct phase readout, immune to sensitivity variations and to light intensity fluctuations. This simple phase modulation scheme increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements in one order of magnitude, rendering in a sensor with a detection limit of 1.9·10⁻⁷ RIU. The viability of the all-optical modulation approach is demonstrated with an immunoassay detection as a biosensing proof of concept.

  13. Integration and application of optical chemical sensors in microbioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Pia; Marques, Marco P C; Szita, Nicolas; Mayr, Torsten

    2017-08-08

    The quantification of key variables such as oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, glucose, and temperature provides essential information for biological and biotechnological applications and their development. Microfluidic devices offer an opportunity to accelerate research and development in these areas due to their small scale, and the fine control over the microenvironment, provided that these key variables can be measured. Optical sensors are well-suited for this task. They offer non-invasive and non-destructive monitoring of the mentioned variables, and the establishment of time-course profiles without the need for sampling from the microfluidic devices. They can also be implemented in larger systems, facilitating cross-scale comparison of analytical data. This tutorial review presents an overview of the optical sensors and their technology, with a view to support current and potential new users in microfluidics and biotechnology in the implementation of such sensors. It introduces the benefits and challenges of sensor integration, including, their application for microbioreactors. Sensor formats, integration methods, device bonding options, and monitoring options are explained. Luminescent sensors for oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, glucose and temperature are showcased. Areas where further development is needed are highlighted with the intent to guide future development efforts towards analytes for which reliable, stable, or easily integrated detection methods are not yet available.

  14. Survivable integrated grooming in multi-granularity optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjing; Guo, Lei; Wei, Xuetao; Liu, Yejun

    2012-05-01

    Survivability is an important issue to ensure the service continuity in optical network. At the same time, with the granularity of traffic demands ranging from sub-wavelength-level to wavelength-level, traffic demands need to be aggregated and carried over the network in order to utilize resources effectively. Therefore, multi-granularity grooming is proposed to save the cost and reduce the number of switching ports in Optical-Cross Connects (OXCs). However, current works mostly addressed the survivable wavelength or waveband grooming. Therefore, in this paper, we propose three heuristic algorithms called Multi-granularity Dedicated Protection Grooming (MDPG), Multi-granularity Shared Protection Grooming (MSPG) and Multi-granularity Mixed Protection Grooming (MMPG), respectively. All of them are performed based on the Survivable Multi-granularity Integrated Auxiliary Graph (SMIAG) that includes one Wavelength Integrated Auxiliary Graph (WIAG) for wavelength protection and one waveBand Integrated Auxiliary Graph (BIAG) for waveband protection. Numerical results show that MMPG has the lowest average port-cost, the best resource utilization ratio and the lowest blocking probability among these three algorithms. Compared with MDPG, MSPG has lower average port-cost, better resource utilization ratio and lower blocking probability.

  15. Optical stretching of giant unilamellar vesicles with an integrated dual-beam optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Mehmet E; Biswas, Roshni; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Thompson, James R; Mejia, Camilo A; Malmstadt, Noah; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-10-01

    We have integrated a dual-beam optical trap into a microfluidic platform and used it to study membrane mechanics in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). We demonstrate the trapping and stretching of GUVs and characterize the membrane response to a step stress. We then measure area strain as a function of applied stress to extract the bending modulus of the lipid bilayer in the low-tension regime.

  16. 3081//sub E/ processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.; Gravina, M.; Oxoby, G.; Trang, Q.; Fucci, A.; Jacobs, D.; Martin, B.; Storr, K.

    1983-03-01

    Since the introduction of the 168//sub E/, emulating processors have been successful over an amazingly wide range of applications. This paper will describe a second generation processor, the 3081//sub E/. This new processor, which is being developed as a collaboration between SLAC and CERN, goes beyond just fixing the obvious faults of the 168//sub E/. Not only will the 3081//sub E/ have much more memory space, incorporate many more IBM instructions, and have much more memory space, incorporate many more IBM instructions, and have full double precision floating point arithmetic, but it will also have faster execution times and be much simpler to build, debug, and maintain. The simple interface and reasonable cost of the 168//sub E/ will be maintained for the 3081//sub E/

  17. IDENTIFICATIONS OF FIVE INTEGRAL SOURCES VIA OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Suzanne C.; Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Heras, Juan A. Zurita; Rodriguez, Jerome; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Oezbey, Mehtap

    2009-01-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is discovering hundreds of new hard X-ray sources, many of which remain unidentified. We report on optical spectroscopy of five such sources for which X-ray observations at lower energies (∼0.5-10 keV) and higher angular resolutions than INTEGRAL have allowed for unique optical counterparts to be located. We find that INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray (IGR) J16426+6536 and IGR J22292+6647 are Type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (with IGR J16426+6536 further classified as a Seyfert 1.5) which have redshifts of z = 0.323 and z = 0.113, respectively. IGR J18308-1232 is identified as a cataclysmic variable (CV), and we confirm a previous identification of IGR J19267+1325 as a magnetic CV. IGR J18214-1318 is identified as an obscured high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), which are systems thought to have a compact object embedded in the stellar wind of a massive star. We combine Chandra fluxes with distances based on the optical observations to calculate X-ray luminosities of the HMXB and CVs, finding L 0.3-10keV = 5 x 10 36 erg s -1 for IGR J18214-1318, L 0.3-10keV = 1.3 x 10 32 erg s -1 for IGR J18308-1232, and L 0.3-10keV = 6.7 x 10 32 erg s -1 for IGR J19267+1325.

  18. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  19. Tracking integration in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally moving optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-05-09

    In this work the concept of tracking-integrated concentrating photovoltaics is studied and its capabilities are quantitatively analyzed. The design strategy desists from ideal concentration performance to reduce the external mechanical solar tracking effort in favor of a compact installation, possibly resulting in lower overall cost. The proposed optical design is based on an extended Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) algorithm and uses two laterally moving plano-convex lenses to achieve high concentration over a wide angular range of ±24°. It achieves 500× concentration, outperforming its conventional concentrating photovoltaic counterparts on a polar aligned single axis tracker.

  20. Integrated optoelectronic materials and circuits for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high speed silicon and GaAs based technologies. In recent years clock speeds and on-chip density for VLSI/VHSIC technology has made packaging these high speed chips extremely difficult. A strong case can be made for using optical interconnects for on-chip/on-wafer, chip-to-chip and board-to-board high speed communications. GaAs integrated optoelectronic circuits (IOC's) are being developed in a number of laboratories for performing Input/Output functions at all levels. In this paper integrated optoelectronic materials, electronics and optoelectronic devices are presented. IOC's are examined from the standpoint of what it takes to fabricate the devices and what performance can be expected

  1. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  2. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pasquale, G; De Pasquale, D; Kim, SG

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%. (paper)

  3. Optical HMI with biomechanical energy harvesters integrated in textile supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, G.; Kim, SG; De Pasquale, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the design, prototyping and experimental validation of a human-machine interface (HMI), named GoldFinger, integrated into a glove with energy harvesting from fingers motion. The device is addressed to medical applications, design tools, virtual reality field and to industrial applications where the interaction with machines is restricted by safety procedures. The HMI prototype includes four piezoelectric transducers applied to the fingers backside at PIP (proximal inter-phalangeal) joints, electric wires embedded in the fabric connecting the transducers, aluminum case for the electronics, wearable switch made with conductive fabrics to turn the communication channel on and off, and a LED. The electronic circuit used to manage the power and to control the light emitter includes a diodes bridge, leveling capacitors, storage battery and switch made by conductive fabric. The communication with the machine is managed by dedicated software, which includes the user interface, the optical tracking, and the continuous updating of the machine microcontroller. The energetic benefit of energy harvester on the battery lifetime is inversely proportional to the activation time of the optical emitter. In most applications, the optical port is active for 1 to 5% of the time, corresponding to battery lifetime increasing between about 14% and 70%.

  4. Interleaved Subtask Scheduling on Multi Processor SOC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhe, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-progressing semiconductor processing technique has integrated more and more embedded processors on a single system-on-achip (SoC). With such powerful SoC platforms, and also due to the stringent time-to-market deadlines, many functionalities which used to be implemented in ASICs are

  5. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.; Bakapoulos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Petrantonakis, D.; Stampoulidis, L.; Poustie, A.; McDougall, R.; Maxwell, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Seoane, J.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Jeppesen, P.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be

  6. Semiclassical Path Integral Calculation of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provazza, Justin; Segatta, Francesco; Garavelli, Marco; Coker, David F

    2018-02-13

    Computation of nonlinear optical response functions allows for an in-depth connection between theory and experiment. Experimentally recorded spectra provide a high density of information, but to objectively disentangle overlapping signals and to reach a detailed and reliable understanding of the system dynamics, measurements must be integrated with theoretical approaches. Here, we present a new, highly accurate and efficient trajectory-based semiclassical path integral method for computing higher order nonlinear optical response functions for non-Markovian open quantum systems. The approach is, in principle, applicable to general Hamiltonians and does not require any restrictions on the form of the intrasystem or system-bath couplings. This method is systematically improvable and is shown to be valid in parameter regimes where perturbation theory-based methods qualitatively breakdown. As a test of the methodology presented here, we study a system-bath model for a coupled dimer for which we compare against numerically exact results and standard approximate perturbation theory-based calculations. Additionally, we study a monomer with discrete vibronic states that serves as the starting point for future investigation of vibronic signatures in nonlinear electronic spectroscopy.

  7. Software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2015-06-01

    We propose, for the first time to our knowledge, a software-defined reconfigurable microwave photonics signal processor architecture that can be integrated on a chip and is capable of performing all the main functionalities by suitable programming of its control signals. The basic configuration is presented and a thorough end-to-end design model derived that accounts for the performance of the overall processor taking into consideration the impact and interdependencies of both its photonic and RF parts. We demonstrate the model versatility by applying it to several relevant application examples.

  8. Optical computing - an alternate approach to trigger processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The enormous rate reduction factors required by most ISABELLE experiments suggest that we should examine every conceivable approach to trigger processing. One approach that has not received much attention by high energy physicists is optical data processing. The past few years have seen rapid advances in optoelectronic technology, stimulated mainly by the military and the communications industry. An intriguing question is whether one can utilize this technology together with the optical computing techniques that have been developed over the past two decades to develop a rapid trigger processor for high energy physics experiments. Optical data processing is a method for performing a few very specialized operations on data which is inherently two dimensional. Typical operations are the formation of convolution or correlation integrals between the input data and information stored in the processor in the form of an optical filter. Optical processors are classed as coherent or incoherent, according to the spatial coherence of the input wavefront. Typically, in a coherent processor a laser beam is modulated with a photographic transparency which represents the input data. In an incoherent processor, the input may be an incoherently illuminated transparency, but self-luminous objects, such as an oscilloscope trace, have also been used. We consider here an incoherent processor in which the input data is converted into an optical wavefront through the excitation of an array of point sources - either light emitting diodes or injection lasers

  9. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  10. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pentium Processor have modified the processor architecture to exploit parallelism in a program. .... The type of operation itself is encoded using 14 bits. .... text of designing simple architectures with low power consump- tion and execute x86 ...

  11. Control structures for high speed processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, G. K.; Mankin, R.; Owsley, P. A.; Kim, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A special processor was designed to function as a Reed Solomon decoder with throughput data rate in the Mhz range. This data rate is significantly greater than is possible with conventional digital architectures. To achieve this rate, the processor design includes sequential, pipelined, distributed, and parallel processing. The processor was designed using a high level language register transfer language. The RTL can be used to describe how the different processes are implemented by the hardware. One problem of special interest was the development of dependent processes which are analogous to software subroutines. For greater flexibility, the RTL control structure was implemented in ROM. The special purpose hardware required approximately 1000 SSI and MSI components. The data rate throughput is 2.5 megabits/second. This data rate is achieved through the use of pipelined and distributed processing. This data rate can be compared with 800 kilobits/second in a recently proposed very large scale integration design of a Reed Solomon encoder.

  12. The Molen Polymorphic Media Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanov, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address high performance media processing based on a tightly coupled co-processor architectural paradigm. More specifically, we introduce a reconfigurable media augmentation of a general purpose processor and implement it into a fully operational processor prototype. The

  13. Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Carré, Christiane; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique; Vignaud, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Micro-resonators (MR) have become a key element for integrated optical sensors due to their integration capability and their easy fabrication with low cost polymer materials. Nowadays, there is a growing need on MRs as highly sensitive and selective functions especially in the areas of food and health. The context of this work is to implement and study integrated micro-ring resonators devoted to sensing applications. They are fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core layer and PMATRIFE polymer as lower cladding layer. The refractive index of the polymers and of the waveguide structure as a function of the wavelength is presented. Using these results, a theoretical study of the coupling between ring and straight waveguides has been undertaken in order to define the MR design. Sub-micronic gaps of 0.5 μm to 1 μm between the ring and the straight waveguides have been successfully achieved with UV (i-lines) photolithography. Different superstrates such as air, water, and aqueous solutions with glucose at different concentrations have been studied. First results show a good normalized transmission contrast of 0.98, a resonator quality factor around 1.5 × 104 corresponding to a coupling ratio of 14.7%, and ring propagation losses around 5 dB/cm. Preliminary sensing experiments have been performed for different concentrations of glucose; a sensitivity of 115 ± 8 nm/RIU at 1550 nm has been obtained with this couple of polymers.

  14. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ivanov, I.C. [Charles Evans & Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  15. The microelectronic and photonic test bed RISC processor and DRAM memory stack experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, K.A.; Meehan, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the on-orbit data obtained from the MPTB RISC Processor Experiment, containing three Integrated Device Technologies R3081 processors. During operations, nine SEUs were observed in the processors, and four SEUs were observed in the memory and/or support circuitry. (authors)

  16. All-Optical Network Subsystems Using Integrated SOA-Based Optical Gates and Flip-Flops for Label-Swapped Netorks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Kehayas, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that all-optical network subsystems, offering intelligence in the optical layer, can be constructed by functional integration of integrated all-optical logic gates and flip-flops. In this context, we show 10-Gb/s all-optical 2-bit label address recognition......-level advantages of these all-optical subsystems combined with their realization with compact integrated devices, suggest that they are strong candidates for future packet/label switched optical networks....... by interconnecting two optical gates that perform xor operation on incoming optical labels. We also demonstrate 40-Gb/s all-optical wavelength-switching through an optically controlled wavelength converter, consisting of an integrated flip-flop prototype device driven by an integrated optical gate. The system...

  17. Multimode power processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  18. Study of the optical properties of solid tissue phantoms using single and double integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monem, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere...

  19. An updated program-controlled analog processor, model AP-006, for semiconductor detector spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkola, N.F.; Shevchenko, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    An analog processor, model AP-006, is reported. The processor is a development of a series of spectrometric units based on a shaper of the type 'DL dif +TVS+gated ideal integrator'. Structural and circuits design features are described. The results of testing the processor in a setup with a Si(Li) detecting unit over an input count-rate range of up to 5x10 5 cps are presented. Processor applications are illustrated. (orig.)

  20. Subsurface seeding of surface harmful algal blooms observed through the integration of autonomous gliders, moored environmental sample processors, and satellite remote sensing in southern California

    KAUST Repository

    Seegers, Bridget N.

    2015-04-01

    An observational study was performed in the central Southern California Bight in Spring 2010 to understand the relationship between seasonal spring phytoplankton blooms and coastal processes that included nutrient input from upwelling, wastewater effluent plumes, and other processes. Multi-month Webb Slocum glider deployments combined with MBARI environmental sample processors (ESPs), weekly pier sampling, and ocean color data provided a multidimensional characterization of the development and evolution of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Results from the glider and ESP observations demonstrated that blooms of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. can develop offshore and subsurface prior to their manifestation in the surface layer and/or near the coast. A significant outbreak and surface manifestation of the blooms coincided with periods of upwelling, or other processes that caused shallowing of the pycnocline and subsurface chlorophyll maximum. Our results indicate that subsurface populations can be an important source for “seeding” surface Pseudo-nitzschia HAB events in southern California.

  1. All-optical SR flip-flop based on SOA-MZI switches monolithically integrated on a generic InP platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitris, St.; Vagionas, Ch.; Kanellos, G. T.; Kisacik, R.; Tekin, T.; Broeke, R.; Pleros, N.

    2016-03-01

    At the dawning of the exaflop era, High Performance Computers are foreseen to exploit integrated all-optical elements, to overcome the speed limitations imposed by electronic counterparts. Drawing from the well-known Memory Wall limitation, imposing a performance gap between processor and memory speeds, research has focused on developing ultra-fast latching devices and all-optical memory elements capable of delivering buffering and switching functionalities at unprecedented bit-rates. Following the master-slave configuration of electronic Flip-Flops, coupled SOA-MZI based switches have been theoretically investigated to exceed 40 Gb/s operation, provided a short coupling waveguide. However, this flip-flop architecture has been only hybridly integrated with silica-on-silicon integration technology exhibiting a total footprint of 45x12 mm2 and intra-Flip-Flop coupling waveguide of 2.5cm, limited at 5 Gb/s operation. Monolithic integration offers the possibility to fabricate multiple active and passive photonic components on a single chip at a close proximity towards, bearing promises for fast all-optical memories. Here, we present for the first time a monolithically integrated all-optical SR Flip-Flop with coupled master-slave SOA-MZI switches. The photonic chip is integrated on a 6x2 mm2 die as a part of a multi-project wafer run using library based components of a generic InP platform, fiber-pigtailed and fully packaged on a temperature controlled ceramic submount module with electrical contacts. The intra Flip-Flop coupling waveguide is 5 mm long, reducing the total footprint by two orders of magnitude. Successful flip flop functionality is evaluated at 10 Gb/s with clear open eye diagram, achieving error free operation with a power penalty of 4dB.

  2. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Jonathan M; Hinz, Wolfgang; Rearick, Todd M; Schultz, Jonathan; Mileski, William; Davey, Mel; Leamon, John H; Johnson, Kim; Milgrew, Mark J; Edwards, Matthew; Hoon, Jeremy; Simons, Jan F; Marran, David; Myers, Jason W; Davidson, John F; Branting, Annika; Nobile, John R; Puc, Bernard P; Light, David; Clark, Travis A; Huber, Martin; Branciforte, Jeffrey T; Stoner, Isaac B; Cawley, Simon E; Lyons, Michael; Fu, Yutao; Homer, Nils; Sedova, Marina; Miao, Xin; Reed, Brian; Sabina, Jeffrey; Feierstein, Erika; Schorn, Michelle; Alanjary, Mohammad; Dimalanta, Eileen; Dressman, Devin; Kasinskas, Rachel; Sokolsky, Tanya; Fidanza, Jacqueline A; Namsaraev, Eugeni; McKernan, Kevin J; Williams, Alan; Roth, G Thomas; Bustillo, James

    2011-07-20

    The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome.

  3. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  4. Dual-scale topology optoelectronic processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, G C; Krishnamoorthy, A V; Esener, S C; Lee, S H

    1991-12-15

    The dual-scale topology optoelectronic processor (D-STOP) is a parallel optoelectronic architecture for matrix algebraic processing. The architecture can be used for matrix-vector multiplication and two types of vector outer product. The computations are performed electronically, which allows multiplication and summation concepts in linear algebra to be generalized to various nonlinear or symbolic operations. This generalization permits the application of D-STOP to many computational problems. The architecture uses a minimum number of optical transmitters, which thereby reduces fabrication requirements while maintaining area-efficient electronics. The necessary optical interconnections are space invariant, minimizing space-bandwidth requirements.

  5. Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Poustie, A.

    2006-01-01

    A fully-packaged hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop, where InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers are assembled onto a planar silica waveguide board, is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the flip-flop can dynamically toggle between its two states by injecting 150 ps optical

  6. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  7. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  8. Selection and integration of a network of parallel processors in the real time acquisition system of the 4π DIAMANT multidetector: modeling, realization and evaluation of the software installed on this network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirande, F.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in sensitivity of 4π arrays such as EUROBALL or DIAMANT has led to an increase in the data flow rate into the data acquisition system. If at the electronic level, the data flow has been distributed onto several data acquisition buses, it is necessary in the data processing system to increase the processing power. This work regards the modelling and implementation of the software allocated onto an architecture of parallel processors. Object analysis and formal methods were used, benchmark and evolution in the future of this architecture are presented. The thesis consists of two parts. Part A, devoted to 'Nuclear Spectroscopy with 4 π multidetectors', contains a first chapter entitled 'The Physics of 4π multidetectors' and a second chapter entitled 'Integral architecture of 4π multidetectors'. Part B, devoted to 'Parallel acquisition system of DIAMANT' contains three chapters entitled 'Material architecture', 'Software architecture' and 'Validation and Performances'. Four appendices and a term glossary close this work. (author)

  9. Optical RAM-enabled cache memory and optical routing for chip multiprocessors: technologies and architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleros, Nikos; Maniotis, Pavlos; Alexoudi, Theonitsa; Fitsios, Dimitris; Vagionas, Christos; Papaioannou, Sotiris; Vyrsokinos, K.; Kanellos, George T.

    2014-03-01

    The processor-memory performance gap, commonly referred to as "Memory Wall" problem, owes to the speed mismatch between processor and electronic RAM clock frequencies, forcing current Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) configurations to consume more than 50% of the chip real-estate for caching purposes. In this article, we present our recent work spanning from Si-based integrated optical RAM cell architectures up to complete optical cache memory architectures for Chip Multiprocessor configurations. Moreover, we discuss on e/o router subsystems with up to Tb/s routing capacity for cache interconnection purposes within CMP configurations, currently pursued within the FP7 PhoxTrot project.

  10. Integrated model-based retargeting and optical proximity correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Kanak B.; Banerjee, Shayak

    2011-04-01

    Conventional resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are becoming increasingly inadequate at addressing the challenges of subwavelength lithography. In particular, features show high sensitivity to process variation in low-k1 lithography. Process variation aware RETs such as process-window OPC are becoming increasingly important to guarantee high lithographic yield, but such techniques suffer from high runtime impact. An alternative to PWOPC is to perform retargeting, which is a rule-assisted modification of target layout shapes to improve their process window. However, rule-based retargeting is not a scalable technique since rules cannot cover the entire search space of two-dimensional shape configurations, especially with technology scaling. In this paper, we propose to integrate the processes of retargeting and optical proximity correction (OPC). We utilize the normalized image log slope (NILS) metric, which is available at no extra computational cost during OPC. We use NILS to guide dynamic target modification between iterations of OPC. We utilize the NILS tagging capabilities of Calibre TCL scripting to identify fragments with low NILS. We then perform NILS binning to assign different magnitude of retargeting to different NILS bins. NILS is determined both for width, to identify regions of pinching, and space, to locate regions of potential bridging. We develop an integrated flow for 1x metal lines (M1) which exhibits lesser lithographic hotspots compared to a flow with just OPC and no retargeting. We also observe cases where hotspots that existed in the rule-based retargeting flow are fixed using our methodology. We finally also demonstrate that such a retargeting methodology does not significantly alter design properties by electrically simulating a latch layout before and after retargeting. We observe less than 1% impact on latch Clk-Q and D-Q delays post-retargeting, which makes this methodology an attractive one for use in improving shape process windows

  11. AMD's 64-bit Opteron processor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    This talk concentrates on issues that relate to obtaining peak performance from the Opteron processor. Compiler options, memory layout, MPI issues in multi-processor configurations and the use of a NUMA kernel will be covered. A discussion of recent benchmarking projects and results will also be included.BiographiesDavid RichDavid directs AMD's efforts in high performance computing and also in the use of Opteron processors...

  12. Proposal of a uniform fiber Bragg grating as an ultrafast all-optical integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaña, José

    2008-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG) working in the linear regime inherently behaves as an optical temporal integrator over a limited time window. Specifically, the reflected temporal waveform from a weak-coupling uniform FBG is proportional to the time integral of an (arbitrary) optical pulse launched at the component input. This integration extends over a time window fixed by the duration of the squarelike temporal impulse response of the FBG. Ultrafast all-optical integrators capable of accurate operation over nanosecond time windows can be implemented using readily feasible FBGs. The introduced concepts are demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  13. Design of integrated optics all-optical label swappers for spectral amplitude code label swapping optical packet networks on active/passive InP technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, C.; Munoz, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Chen, Lawrence; Smit, M.K.; Capmany, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the designs of optical label swapper devices, for spectral amplitude coded labels, monolithically integrated on InP active/passive technology are pre sented. The devices are based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Multi-wavelength operation is enabled by

  14. Optical integration and verification of LINC-NIRVANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ventas, J.; Baumeister, H.; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, P.; Briegel, F.; Greggio, D.; Kittmann, F.; Marafatto, L.; Mohr, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Schray, H.

    2014-07-01

    The LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) located in Mount Graham near Tucson/Arizona at an altitude of about 3200m, is an innovative project being undertaken by institutions from Europe and USA. The structure of the telescope incorporates two 8.4-meter telescopes on a 14.4 center-to-center common mount. This configuration provides the equivalent collecting area of a 12m single-dish telescope. LINC-NIRVANA is an instrument to combine the light from both LBT primary mirrors in an imaging Fizeau interferometer. Many requirements must be fulfilled in order to get a good interferometric combination of the beams, being among the most important plane wavefronts, parallel input beams, homotheticity and zero optical path difference (OPD) required for interferometry. The philosophy is to have an internally aligned instrument first, and then align the telescope to match the instrument. The sum of different subsystems leads to a quite ambitious system, which requires a well-defined strategy for alignment and testing. In this paper I introduce and describe the followed strategy, as well as the different solutions, procedures and tools used during integration. Results are presented at every step.

  15. Satellite on-board real-time SAR processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Desnoyers, Nicholas; Legros, Mathieu; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optronic SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested up to a Technology Readiness Level of 4 (TRL4), the breadboard validation in a laboratory environment. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is an active system allowing day and night imaging independent of the cloud coverage of the planet. The SAR raw data is a set of complex data for range and azimuth, which cannot be compressed. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Originally the first SAR images were optically processed. The optical Fourier processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities allowing real-time SAR data processing and thus the ability for compression and strongly reduced communication bandwidth requirements for the satellite. SAR signal return data are in general complex data. Both amplitude and phase must be combined optically in the SAR processor for each range and azimuth pixel. Amplitude and phase are generated by dedicated spatial light modulators and superimposed by an optical relay set-up. The spatial light modulators display the full complex raw data information over a two-dimensional format, one for the azimuth and one for the range. Since the entire signal history is displayed at once, the processor operates in parallel yielding real-time performances, i.e. without resulting bottleneck. Processing of both azimuth and range information is performed in a single pass. This paper focuses on the onboard capabilities of the compact optical SAR processor prototype that allows in-orbit processing of SAR images. Examples of processed ENVISAT ASAR images are presented. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and

  16. Air-Lubricated Thermal Processor For Dry Silver Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryj, B. W.

    1980-09-01

    Since dry silver film is processed by heat, it may be viewed on a light table only seconds after exposure. On the other hand, wet films require both bulky chemicals and substantial time before an image can be analyzed. Processing of dry silver film, although simple in concept, is not so simple when reduced to practice. The main concern is the effect of film temperature gradients on uniformity of optical film density. RCA has developed two thermal processors, different in implementation but based on the same philosophy. Pressurized air is directed to both sides of the film to support the film and to conduct the heat to the film. Porous graphite is used as the medium through which heat and air are introduced. The initial thermal processor was designed to process 9.5-inch-wide film moving at speeds ranging from 0.0034 to 0.008 inch per second. The processor configuration was curved to match the plane generated by the laser recording beam. The second thermal processor was configured to process 5-inch-wide film moving at a continuously variable rate ranging from 0.15 to 3.5 inches per second. Due to field flattening optics used in this laser recorder, the required film processing area was plane. In addition, this processor was sectioned in the direction of film motion, giving the processor the capability of varying both temperature and effective processing area.

  17. Integration of In-Flight and Post-Flight Water Monitoring Resources in Addressing the U.S. Water Processor Assembly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; McCly, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in June of 2010, the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the U.S. Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water started to increase. A surprisingly consistent upward TOC trend was observed through weekly ISS total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) monitoring. As TOC is a general organic compound indicator, return of water archive samples was needed to make better-informed crew health decisions on the specific compounds of concern and to aid in WPA troubleshooting. TOCA-measured TOC was more than halfway to the health-based screening limit of 3,000 g/L before archive samples were returned. Archive samples were returned on 22 Soyuz in September 2010 and on ULF5 in November of 2010. The samples were subjected to extensive analysis. Although TOC was confirmed to be elevated, somewhat surprisingly, none of the typical target compounds were detected at high levels. After some solid detective work, it was confirmed that the TOC was associated with a compound known as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). DMSD is believed to be a breakdown product of siloxanes which are thought to be ubiquitous in the ISS atmosphere. A toxicological limit was set for DMSD and a forward plan was developed for conducting operations in the context of understanding the composition of the TOC measured in flight. This required careful consideration of existing ISS flight rules, coordination with ISS stakeholders, and development of a novel approach for the blending of inflight TOCA data with archive results to protect crew health. Among other challenges, team members had to determine how to utilize TOCA readings when making decisions about crew consumption of WPA water. This involved balancing very real concerns associated with the assumption that TOC would continue to be comprised of only DMSD. Demonstrated teamwork, multidisciplinary awareness, and innovative problem-solving were required to respond effectively to this anomaly.

  18. QKD-Based Secured Burst Integrity Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2016-03-01

    The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. It is quite evident that people prefer optical communication when it comes to large amount of data involving its transmission. The concept of switching in networks has matured enormously with several researches, architecture to implement and methods starting with Optical circuit switching to Optical Burst Switching. Optical burst switching is regarded as viable solution for switching bursts over networks but has several security vulnerabilities. However, this work exploited the security issues associated with Optical Burst Switching with respect to integrity of burst. This proposed Quantum Key based Secure Hash Algorithm (QKBSHA-512) with enhanced compression function design provides better avalanche effect over the conventional integrity algorithms.

  19. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154

  20. Nanoscale on-chip all-optical logic parity checker in integrated plasmonic circuits in optical communication range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-04-13

    The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.

  1. Integrated-optic current sensors with a multimode interference waveguide device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Moon; Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sang-Guk; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2016-04-04

    Optical current sensors based on polarization-rotated reflection interferometry are demonstrated using polymeric integrated optics and various functional optical waveguide devices. Interferometric sensors normally require bias feedback control for maintaining the operating point, which increases the cost. In order to resolve this constraint of feedback control, a multimode interference (MMI) waveguide device is integrated onto the current-sensor optical chip in this work. From the multiple outputs of the MMI, a 90° phase-shifted transfer function is obtained. Using passive quadrature demodulation, we demonstrate that the sensor could maintain the output signal regardless of the drift in the operating bias-point.

  2. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  3. Optical and vision: to the training more integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.; Sandoval, J.

    1997-01-01

    Engineering students answers wich show difficulties to explain , in very simple optical systems, the relationships between. a) perceived image and the curvature of the wavefront reaching the eye. b) optical system dimensions and the regions from wich complete image can be observed, are analyzed. Possible reasons for these difficulties are considered. The inclusion of the observer eye as well as an elemental model for vision when optical systems are studied is suggested. (Author) 16 refs

  4. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  5. A COTS RF/Optical Software Defined Radio for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Zeleznikar, Daniel J.; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Tokars, Roger P.; Schoenholz, Bryan L.; Lantz, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating the merits of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for deep space missions. In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a hybrid RF/Optical software defined radio (SDR), a laboratory prototype was assembled from primarily commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components. This COTS platform has been used to demonstrate simultaneous transmission of the radio and optical communications waveforms through to the physical layer (telescope and antenna). This paper details the hardware and software used in the platform and various measures of its performance. A laboratory optical receiver platform has also been assembled in order to demonstrate hybrid free space links in combination with the transmitter.

  6. Ultrafast all-optical integrator based on a fiber Bragg grating: proposal and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2008-06-15

    We demonstrate a simple technique for the implementation of an all-optical integrator based on a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in reflection that is designed to present a decreasing exponential impulse response. The proposed FBG integrator is readily feasible and can perform close to ideal integration of few-picosecond and subpicosecond pulses.

  7. Integrated optics and optoelectronics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 17-19, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka-Kha

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on integrated optics and optoelectronics discusses proton- and ion-exchange technologies, radiation effects on GaAs optical system FET devices and on the dynamical behavior of LiNbO3 switching devices, advanced lightwave components and concepts, advanced optical interconnects concepts, advanced aircraft and engine control, IOCs for fiber-optic gyroscopes, and commercial integrated optical devices. Attention is given to integrated optical devices for high-data-rate serial-to-parallel conversion, the design of novel integrated optic devices using depressed index waveguides, and a low-loss L-band microwave fiber-optic link for control of a T/R module. Topics addressed include the temperature and modulation dependence of spectral linewidth in distributed Bragg reflector laser diodes, length-minimization design considerations in photonic integrated circuits incorporating directional couplers, and the photochemical formation of polymeric optical waveguides and devices for optical interconnection applications

  8. Integrated manufacture of a freeform off-axis multi-reflective imaging system without optical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Zhu, Linlin; Yan, Ning

    2018-03-19

    Multi-reflective imaging systems find wide applications in optical imaging and space detection. However, it is faced with difficulties in adjusting the freeform mirrors with high accuracy to guarantee the optical function. Motivated by this, an alignment-free manufacture approach is proposed to machine the optical system. The direct optical performance-guided manufacture route is established without measuring the form error of freeform optics. An analytical model is established to investigate the effects of machine errors to serve the error identification and compensation in machining. Based on the integrated manufactured system, an ingenious self-designed testing configuration is constructed to evaluate the optical performance by directly measuring the wavefront aberration. Experiments are carried out to manufacture a three-mirror anastigmat, surface topographical details and optical performance shows agreement to the designed expectation. The final system works as an off-axis infrared imaging system. Results validate the feasibility of the proposed method to achieve excellent optical application.

  9. Optically controlled phased array antenna concepts using GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The desire for rapid beam reconfigurability and steering has led to the exploration of new techniques. Optical techniques have been suggested as potential candidates for implementing these needs. Candidates generally fall into one of two areas: those using fiber optic Beam Forming Networks (BFNs) and those using optically processed BFNs. Both techniques utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) in the BFN, but the role of the MMIC for providing phase and amplitude variations is largely eliminated by some new optical processing techniques. This paper discusses these two types of optical BFN designs and provides conceptual designs of both systems.

  10. Fiber-optic Sensor Demonstrator (FSD) integration with PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutlinger, Arnd; Glier, Markus; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Lars; Müller, Mathias; Rapp, Stephan; Kurvin, Charles; Ernst, Thomas; McKenzie, Iain; Karafolas, Nikos

    2017-11-01

    Modern telecommunication satellites can benefit from the features of fiber optic sensing wrt to mass savings, improved performance and lower costs. Within the course of a technology study, launched by the European Space Agency, a fiber optic sensing system has been designed and is to be tested on representative mockups of satellite sectors and environment.

  11. Integrated optical circuit engineering V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-20, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Mark A.

    Recent advances in the theoretical and practical design and applications of optoelectronic devices and optical circuits are examined in reviews and reports. Topics discussed include system and market considerations, guided-wave phenomena, waveguide devices, processing technology, lithium niobate devices, and coupling problems. Consideration is given to testing and measurement, integrated optics for fiber-optic systems, optical interconnect technology, and optical computing.

  12. Composable processor virtualization for embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molnos, A.M.; Milutinovic, A.; She, D.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Processor virtualization divides a physical processor's time among a set of virual machines, enabling efficient hardware utilization, application security and allowing co-existence of different operating systems on the same processor. Through initially intended for the server domain, virtualization

  13. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  14. A dedicated line-processor as used at the SHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.V.; Hatley, R.W.; Price, D.R.; Rankin, P.

    1985-01-01

    A hardwired trigger processor was used at the SLAC Hybrid Facility to find evidence for charged tracks originating from the fiducial volume of a 40'' rapidcycling bubble chamber. Straight-line projections of these tracks in the plane perpendicular to the applied magnetic field were searched for using data from three sets of proportional wire chambers (PWC). This information was made directly available to the processor by means of a special digitizing card. The results memory of the processor simulated read-only memory in a 168/E processor and was accessible by it. The 168/E controlled the issuing of a trigger command to the bubble chamber flash tubes. The same design of digitizer card used by the line processor was incorporated into the 168/E, again as read only memory, which allowed it access to the raw data for continual monitoring of trigger integrity. The design logic of the trigger processor was verified by running real PWC data through a FORTRAN simulation of the hardware. This enabled the debugging to become highly automated since a step by step, computer controlled comparison of processor registers to simulation predictions could be made

  15. Hybrid graphene/silicon integrated optical isolators with photonic spin–orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jingwen; Sun, Xiankai; Xi, Xiang; Yu, Zejie

    2016-01-01

    Optical isolators are an important building block in photonic computation and communication. In traditional optics, isolators are realized with magneto-optical garnets. However, it remains challenging to incorporate such materials on an integrated platform because of the difficulty in material growth and bulky device footprint. Here, we propose an ultracompact integrated isolator by exploiting graphene's magneto-optical property on a silicon-on-insulator platform. The photonic nonreciprocity is achieved because the cyclotrons in graphene experiencing different optical spins exhibit different responses to counterpropagating light. Taking advantage of cavity resonance effects, we have numerically optimized a device design, which shows excellent isolation performance with the extinction ratio over 45 dB and the insertion loss around 12 dB at a wavelength near 1.55 μm. Featuring graphene's CMOS compatibility and substantially reduced device footprint, our proposal sheds light on monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices.

  16. All-optical 40 Gbit/s compact integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    An interferometric Michelson wavelength converter is presented that combines a speed-optimized semiconductor optical amplifier technology with the benefits of the integrated interferometer showing 40-Gbit/s wavelength conversion. The optimized wavelength converter demonstrates noninverted converted...

  17. Stechiometric neodymium compounds as new materials for light sources in integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.

    1981-01-01

    Short review of physico-chemical properties of stechiometric neodymium compounds has been presented. Several constructions of minilasers as promising light sources for integrated optics devices have been described. (author)

  18. Integrated optical switch circuit operating under FPGA control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabile, R.; Zal, M.; Williams, K.A.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are enabling an abrupt step change in networking systems providing massive bandwidth and record transmission. The increasing complexity of high connectivity photonic integrated switches requires sophisticated control planes and more intimate high speed electronics. Here

  19. Integrated optics nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes for picoliter volume refractometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilardi, G.; Beccherelli, R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an integrated optics refractometric nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes in sapphire microspheres. A measurand fluid is injected in a micromachined reservoir defined in between the microsphere and an optical waveguide. The wavelength shift

  20. Integrated optical readout for miniaturization of cantilever-based sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and characterization of an integrated optical readout scheme based on single-mode waveguides for cantilever-based sensors. The cantilever bending is read out by monitoring changes in the optical intensity of light transmitted through the cantilever that also acts...

  1. Integrating sphere-based setup as an accurate system for optical properties measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdalmonem, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optical properties of solid and liquid samples has great importance. Since the integrating sphere-based setup is used to measure the amount of reflected and transmitted light by the examined samples, optical properties could...

  2. Flexible optical network components based on densely integrated microring resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design, realization and characterization of reconfigurable optical network components based on multiple microring resonators. Since thermally tunable microring resonators can be used as wavelength selective space switches, very compact devices with high complexity and

  3. Distributed processor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, B.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency in high-energy physics and in other fields to solve computational problems by distributing tasks among the resources of inter-coupled processing devices and associated system elements. This trend has gained further momentum more recently with the increased availability of low-cost processors and with the development of the means of data distribution. In two lectures, the broad question of distributed computing systems is examined and the historical development of such systems reviewed. An attempt is made to examine the reasons for the existence of these systems and to discern the main trends for the future. The components of distributed systems are discussed in some detail and particular emphasis is placed on the importance of standards and conventions in certain key system components. The ideas and principles of distributed systems are discussed in general terms, but these are illustrated by a number of concrete examples drawn from the context of the high-energy physics environment. (Auth.)

  4. A comparison of integrated and fiber optic responses in the presence of nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.W.; Wilson, V.R.; Sanchez, A.D.; Coughenour, M.; Chapman, S.

    1988-01-01

    A short survey of past experimental results is presented along with new investigative data, mathematical and physical response models and a comparison of the nuclear effects compatibility of fiber and integrated optic guided wave structures. The disparity in radiation resistance between optical fibers and guided wave structures is discussed and predictions are offered on the impact that these differences may have on influencing the eventual development of totally integrated radiation resistant structures

  5. Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , Pauline; Lemaitre , Jonathan; Guendouz , Mohammed; Lorrain , Nathalie; Poffo , Luiz; Gadonna , Michel; Bosc , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Research on sensors has experienced a noticeable development over the last decades especially in label free optical biosensors. However, compact sensors without markers for rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection of various substances induces a significant research of new technological solutions. The context of this work is the development of a sensor based on easily integrated and inexpensive micro-resonator (MR) component in integrated optics, highly sensitive and ...

  6. An ultra-efficient nonlinear planar integrated platform for optical signal processing and generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recently developed integrated platform: AlGaAs-oninsulator and its broad range of nonlinear applications. Recent demonstrations of broadband optical signal processing and efficient frequency comb generations in this platform will be reviewed.......This paper will discuss the recently developed integrated platform: AlGaAs-oninsulator and its broad range of nonlinear applications. Recent demonstrations of broadband optical signal processing and efficient frequency comb generations in this platform will be reviewed....

  7. Thin Film Magnetless Faraday Rotators for Compact Heterogeneous Integrated Optical Isolators (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0348 THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL ISOLATORS (POSTPRINT) Dolendra Karki...Interim 9 May 2016 – 1 December 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL...transfer of ultra-compact thin-film magnetless Faraday rotators to silicon photonic substrates. Thin films of magnetization latching bismuth

  8. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  9. Software-Programmed Optical Networking with Integrated NFV Service Provisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Wang, Xi; Basu, Shrutarshi

    2017-01-01

    We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS).......We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS)....

  10. "Real-Time Optical Laboratory Linear Algebra Solution Of Partial Differential Equations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Jackson, James

    1986-03-01

    A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) employing space and frequency-multiplexing, new partitioning and data flow, and achieving high accuracy performance with a non base-2 number system is described. Laboratory data on the performance of this system and the solution of parabolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) is provided. A multi-processor OLAP system is also described for the first time. It use in the solution of multiple banded matrices that frequently arise is then discussed. The utility and flexibility of this processor compared to digital systolic architectures should be apparent.

  11. Parallel optical information, concept, and response evolver: POINCARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John; Caulfield, Kimberly

    1991-08-01

    It is now possible to build a nonlinear adaptive system which will incorporate many of the properties of the human mind, such as true originality in such skills as reasoning by analogy and reasoning by retrodiction, including literally unpredictable thoughts; and development of individual styles, personalities, expertise, etc. Like humans, these optical processors will have a rich `subconscious'' experience. Like humans, they will be clonable, but clones will develop differently as they experience the world differently, make different decisions, develop different habits, etc. In short, powerful optical processors with some of the properties normally associated with human intelligence can be made. This approach can result in a powerful optical processor with those properties. A demonstration chosen for simplicity of implementation is suggested. This could be the first computer of any type which uses quantum indeterminacy in an integral and important way.

  12. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  13. Two-dimensional optoelectronic interconnect-processor and its operational bit error rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Jiang; Gollsneider, Brian; Chang, Wayne H.; Carhart, Gary W.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Simonis, George J.; Shoop, Barry L.

    2004-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) multi-channel 8x8 optical interconnect and processor system were designed and developed using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) driven 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays and the photodetector (PD) arrays with corresponding wavelengths. We performed operation and bit-error-rate (BER) analysis on this free-space integrated 8x8 VCSEL optical interconnects driven by silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) circuits. Pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) data sequence was used in operation of the interconnects. Eye diagrams were measured from individual channels and analyzed using a digital oscilloscope at data rates from 155 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s. Using a statistical model of Gaussian distribution for the random noise in the transmission, we developed a method to compute the BER instantaneously with the digital eye-diagrams. Direct measurements on this interconnects were also taken on a standard BER tester for verification. We found that the results of two methods were in the same order and within 50% accuracy. The integrated interconnects were investigated in an optoelectronic processing architecture of digital halftoning image processor. Error diffusion networks implemented by the inherently parallel nature of photonics promise to provide high quality digital halftoned images.

  14. Processors and systems (picture processing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmar, P

    1983-01-01

    Automatic picture processing requires high performance computers and high transmission capacities in the processor units. The author examines the possibilities of operating processors in parallel in order to accelerate the processing of pictures. He therefore discusses a number of available processors and systems for picture processing and illustrates their capacities for special types of picture processing. He stresses the fact that the amount of storage required for picture processing is exceptionally high. The author concludes that it is as yet difficult to decide whether very large groups of simple processors or highly complex multiprocessor systems will provide the best solution. Both methods will be aided by the development of VLSI. New solutions have already been offered (systolic arrays and 3-d processing structures) but they also are subject to losses caused by inherently parallel algorithms. Greater efforts must be made to produce suitable software for multiprocessor systems. Some possibilities for future picture processing systems are discussed. 33 references.

  15. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng, E-mail: xxd@tju.edu.c [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 {mu}m EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10{sup -9}. The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10 -9 . The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. T-SDN architecture for space and ground integrated optical transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kunkun; Hu, Wenjing; Gao, Shenghua; Chang, Chengwu

    2015-11-01

    Integrated optical transport network is the development trend of the future space information backbone network. The space and ground integrated optical transport network(SGIOTN) may contain a variety of equipment and systems. Changing the network or meeting some innovation missions in the network will be an expensive implement. Software Defined Network(SDN) provides a good solution to flexibly adding process logic, timely control states and resources of the whole network, as well as shielding the differences of heterogeneous equipment and so on. According to the characteristics of SGIOTN, we propose an transport SDN architecture for it, with hierarchical control plane and data plane composed of packet networks and optical transport networks.

  18. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  19. Optical propagators in vector and spinor theories by path integral formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of an extended parabolic (wide-angle) vector and spinor wave theory is presented. For that, optical propagators in monochromatic vector light optics and monoenergetic spinor electron optics are evaluated by the path integral formalism. The auxiliary parameter method introduced by Fock and the Feynman-Dyson perturbative series are used. The proposed theory supplies, by a generalized Fermat's principle, the Mukunda-Simon-Sudarshan transformation for the passage from scalar to vector light (or spinor electron) optics in an asymptotic approximation. (author). 19 refs

  20. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  1. Autonomous onboard optical processor for driving aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mondher; Servel, Alain; Guibert, Laurent

    1995-01-01

    We take advantage of recent technological advances in the field of ferroelectric liquid crystal silicon back plane optoelectronic devices. These are well suited to perform massively parallel processing tasks. That choice enables the design of low cost vision systems and allows the implementation of an on-board system. We focus on transport applications such as road sign recognition. Preliminary in-car experimental results are presented.

  2. Keystone Business Models for Network Security Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Low

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Network security processors are critical components of high-performance systems built for cybersecurity. Development of a network security processor requires multi-domain experience in semiconductors and complex software security applications, and multiple iterations of both software and hardware implementations. Limited by the business models in use today, such an arduous task can be undertaken only by large incumbent companies and government organizations. Neither the “fabless semiconductor” models nor the silicon intellectual-property licensing (“IP-licensing” models allow small technology companies to successfully compete. This article describes an alternative approach that produces an ongoing stream of novel network security processors for niche markets through continuous innovation by both large and small companies. This approach, referred to here as the "business ecosystem model for network security processors", includes a flexible and reconfigurable technology platform, a “keystone” business model for the company that maintains the platform architecture, and an extended ecosystem of companies that both contribute and share in the value created by innovation. New opportunities for business model innovation by participating companies are made possible by the ecosystem model. This ecosystem model builds on: i the lessons learned from the experience of the first author as a senior integrated circuit architect for providers of public-key cryptography solutions and as the owner of a semiconductor startup, and ii the latest scholarly research on technology entrepreneurship, business models, platforms, and business ecosystems. This article will be of interest to all technology entrepreneurs, but it will be of particular interest to owners of small companies that provide security solutions and to specialized security professionals seeking to launch their own companies.

  3. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-09-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for very bright guide star AO with substantial increase of enclosed energy. Over the last two years PALAO was upgraded to PALM-3000: an extreme, high-order adaptive optics system with two deformable mirrors with more than 3000 actuators, promising diffraction limited performance in SWIFT's wavelength range. In order to take advantage of this increased spatial resolution we upgraded SWIFT with new pre-optics allowing us to spatially Nyquist sample the diffraction limited PALM-3000 point spread function with 16 mas resolution, reducing the spaxel scale by another factor of 5×. We designed, manufactured, integrated and tested the new pre-optics in the first half of 2011 and commissioned it in December 2011. Here we present the opto-mechanical design and assembly of the new scale changing optics, as well as laboratory and on-sky commissioning results. In optimal observing conditions we achieve substantial Strehl ratios, delivering the near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the I and z bands.

  4. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  5. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    An exact line integral representation is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian dipoles. The positions of source and observation points can be almost arbitrary. Numerical examples...... are presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation....

  6. Integration of multiwavelength lasers with fast electro-optical modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) are of key importance in Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks because of their reduced volume and packaging costs compared to discrete components. The research described in this thesis was focussed on the integration of WDM-lasers and Radio-Frequency

  7. ZnO processing for integrated optic sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Winfried H.G.

    1986-01-01

    ZnO thin films were sputter deposited onto oxidized silicon wafers. The film quality increased with increasing applied r.f. power. Characterization of the films was performed by measurements of the attenuation of the transverse electric TE0 optical guided mode. For an applied r.f. power of 2000 W,

  8. Integrated synchronous receiver channel for optical instrumentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benten, Harold G. P. H.; Ruotsalainen, Tarmo; Maekynen, Anssi J.; Rahkonen, Timo E.; Kopola, Harri K.

    1997-09-01

    A two-channel synchronous receiver circuit for optical instrumentation applications has been designed and implemented. Each receiver channel comprises a.o. transimpedance preamplifier, voltage amplifiers, programmable feedback networks, and a synchronous detector. The function of the channel is to extract the slowly varying information carrying signal from a modulated carrier which is accompanied by relatively high levels of noise. As a whole, the channel can be characterized as a narrow band filter around the frequency of interest. Medical applications include arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurement and dental pulp vitality measurement. In both cases, two optical signals with different frequencies are received by a single photodiode. The measured performance of the optical receiver shows its suitability for the above mentioned applications. Therefore the circuit will be used in a small sized, battery-operated sensor prototype to test the sensing method in a clinical environment. Other applications include the signal processing of optical position-sensitive detectors. A summary of measured receiver channel performance: input reduced noise current spectral density between 0.20 and 0.30 pA/(root)Hz at all relevant frequencies, total programmable channel transimpedance between 7 M(Omega) and 500 M(Omega) , lower -3 dB frequency of at least 50 Hz, upper -3 dB frequency of 40 kHz, maximum voltage swing at the demodulator output of 2.4 V.

  9. Combined nanoimprint and photolithography of integrated polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    are defined in SU-8 resist, doped with Rhodamine 6G laser dye, shaped as planar slab waveguides on a Fused Silica buffer substrate, and with a lst-order DFB surface corrugation forming the laser resonator. When optically pumped at 532 nm, lasing is obtained in the wavelength range 560 nm -600 nm, determined...

  10. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  11. ISOGA: Integrated Services Optical Grid Architecture for Emerging E-Science Collaborative Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver Yu

    2008-11-28

    This final report describes the accomplishments in the ISOGA (Integrated Services Optical Grid Architecture) project. ISOGA enables efficient deployment of existing and emerging collaborative grid applications with increasingly diverse multimedia communication requirements over a wide-area multi-domain optical network grid; and enables collaborative scientists with fast retrieval and seamless browsing of distributed scientific multimedia datasets over a wide-area optical network grid. The project focuses on research and development in the following areas: the polymorphic optical network control planes to enable multiple switching and communication services simultaneously; the intelligent optical grid user-network interface to enable user-centric network control and monitoring; and the seamless optical grid dataset browsing interface to enable fast retrieval of local/remote dataset for visualization and manipulation.

  12. Integrated-optics heralded controlled-NOT gate for polarization-encoded qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Jonas; Sharma, Aditya N.; Tillmann, Max; Heilmann, René; Gräfe, Markus; Moqanaki, Amir; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Recent progress in integrated-optics technology has made photonics a promising platform for quantum networks and quantum computation protocols. Integrated optical circuits are characterized by small device footprints and unrivalled intrinsic interferometric stability. Here, we take advantage of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides' ability to process polarization-encoded qubits and present an implementation of a heralded controlled-NOT gate on chip. We evaluate the gate performance in the computational basis and a superposition basis, showing that the gate can create polarization entanglement between two photons. Transmission through the integrated device is optimized using thermally expanded core fibers and adiabatically reduced mode-field diameters at the waveguide facets. This demonstration underlines the feasibility of integrated quantum gates for all-optical quantum networks and quantum repeaters.

  13. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  14. Silicon photonics integrated circuits: a manufacturing platform for high density, low power optical I/O's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absil, Philippe P; Verheyen, Peter; De Heyn, Peter; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Lepage, Guy; De Coster, Jeroen; Van Campenhout, Joris

    2015-04-06

    Silicon photonics integrated circuits are considered to enable future computing systems with optical input-outputs co-packaged with CMOS chips to circumvent the limitations of electrical interfaces. In this paper we present the recent progress made to enable dense multiplexing by exploiting the integration advantage of silicon photonics integrated circuits. We also discuss the manufacturability of such circuits, a key factor for a wide adoption of this technology.

  15. The design of a graphics processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, M.; Thorne, A.R.

    1975-12-01

    The design of a graphics processor is described which takes into account known and anticipated user requirements, the availability of cheap minicomputers, the state of integrated circuit technology, and the overall need to minimise cost for a given performance. The main user needs are the ability to display large high resolution pictures, and to dynamically change the user's view in real time by means of fast coordinate processing hardware. The transformations that can be applied to 2D or 3D coordinates either singly or in combination are: translation, scaling, mirror imaging, rotation, and the ability to map the transformation origin on to any point on the screen. (author)

  16. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  17. Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, K; Schneebeli, L; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2012-03-26

    We have developed a novel integrated platform for liquid photonics based on liquid core optical fiber (LCOF). The platform is created by fusion splicing liquid core optical fiber to standard single-mode optical fiber making it fully integrated and practical - a major challenge that has greatly hindered progress in liquid-photonic applications. As an example, we report here the realization of ultralow threshold Raman generation using an integrated CS₂ filled LCOF pumped with sub-nanosecond pulses at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The measured energy threshold for the Stokes generation is 1nJ, about three orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values in the literature for hydrogen gas, a popular Raman medium. The integrated LCOF platform opens up new possibilities for ultralow power nonlinear optics such as efficient white light generation for displays, mid-IR generation, slow light generation, parametric amplification, all-optical switching and wavelength conversion using liquids that have orders of magnitude larger optical nonlinearities compared with silica glass.

  18. Integrated design course of applied optics focusing on operating and maintaining abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongjie; Ning, Yu; Jiang, Tian; Cheng, Xiangai

    2017-08-01

    The abilities of operating and maintaining optical instruments are crucial in modern society. Besides the basic knowledge in optics, the optics courses in the National University of Defense Technology also focus on the training on handling typical optical equipment. As the link between classroom courses on applied optics and the field trips, the integrated design course of applied optics aims to give the students a better understanding on several instantly used optical equipment, such as hand-held telescope and periscope, etc. The basic concepts of optical system design are also emphasized as well. The course is arranged rightly after the classroom course of applied optics and composed of experimental and design tasks. The experimental tasks include the measurements of aberrations and major parameters of a primitive telescope, while in the design parts, the students are asked to design a Keplerian telescope. The whole course gives a deepened understandings on the concepts, assembling, and operating of telescopes. The students are also encouraged to extend their interests on other typical optical instruments.

  19. Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy W. Lowry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used here is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose.

  20. Lipid Multilayer Grating Arrays Integrated by Nanointaglio for Vapor Sensing by an Optical Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Troy W.; Prommapan, Plengchart; Rainer, Quinn; Van Winkle, David; Lenhert, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Lipid multilayer gratings are recently invented nanomechanical sensor elements that are capable of transducing molecular binding to fluid lipid multilayers into optical signals in a label free manner due to shape changes in the lipid nanostructures. Here, we show that nanointaglio is suitable for the integration of chemically different lipid multilayer gratings into a sensor array capable of distinguishing vapors by means of an optical nose. Sensor arrays composed of six different lipid formulations are integrated onto a surface and their optical response to three different vapors (water, ethanol and acetone) in air as well as pH under water is monitored as a function of time. Principal component analysis of the array response results in distinct clustering indicating the suitability of the arrays for distinguishing these analytes. Importantly, the nanointaglio process used here is capable of producing lipid gratings out of different materials with sufficiently uniform heights for the fabrication of an optical nose. PMID:26308001

  1. Optical integration of Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens and dynamical phase lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-01-01

    In the optical system, most elements such as lens, prism, and optical fiber are made of silica glass. Therefore, integrating Pancharatnam-Berry phase elements into silica glass has potential applications in the optical system. In this paper, we take a lens, for example, which integrates a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens into a conventional plano-convex lens. The spin states and positions of focal points can be modulated by controlling the polarization states of the incident beam. The proposed lens has a high transmission efficiency, and thereby acts as a simple and powerful tool to manipulate spin photons. Furthermore, the method can be conveniently extended to the optical fiber and laser cavity, and may provide a route to the design of the spin-photonic devices.

  2. Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Ding, Yunhong

    2018-01-01

    -dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimension up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon-photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources. We verify the high precision, generality......The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is key for the investigation of fundamental science and for the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control and analyze high...

  3. Discovery Channel Telescope active optics system early integration and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetiou, Alexander J.; Bida, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.3-meter telescope with a thin meniscus primary mirror (M1) and a honeycomb secondary mirror (M2). The optical design is an f/6.1 Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) with an unvignetted 0.5° Field of View (FoV) at the Cassegrain focus. We describe the design, implementation and performance of the DCT active optics system (AOS). The DCT AOS maintains collimation and controls the figure of the mirror to provide seeing-limited images across the focal plane. To minimize observing overhead, rapid settling times are achieved using a combination of feed-forward and low-bandwidth feedback control using a wavefront sensing system. In 2011, we mounted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the prime focus of M1, the Prime Focus Test Assembly (PFTA), to test the AOS with the wavefront sensor, and the feedback loop. The incoming wavefront is decomposed using Zernike polynomials, and the mirror figure is corrected with a set of bending modes. Components of the system that we tested and tuned included the Zernike to Bending Mode transformations. We also started open-loop feed-forward coefficients determination. In early 2012, the PFTA was replaced by M2, and the wavefront sensor moved to its normal location on the Cassegrain instrument assembly. We present early open loop wavefront test results with the full optical system and instrument cube, along with refinements to the overall control loop operating at RC Cassegrain focus.

  4. XL-100S microprogrammable processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Guzik, Z.; Sutulin, V.A.; Forytski, A.

    1983-01-01

    The XL-100S microprogrammable processor providing the multiprocessor operation mode in the XL system crate is described. The processor meets the EUR 6500 CAMAC standards, address up to 4 Mbyte memory, and interacts with 7 CAMAC branchas. Eight external requests initiate operations preset by a sequence of microcommands in a memory of the capacity up to 64 kwords of 32-Git. The microprocessor architecture allows one to emulate commands of the majority of mini- or micro-computers, including floating point operations. The XL-100S processor may be used in various branches of experimental physics: for physical experiment apparatus control, fast selection of useful physical events, organization of the of input/output operations, organization of direct assess to memory included, etc. The Am2900 microprocessor set is used as an elementary base. The device is made in the form of a single width CAMAC module

  5. Java Processor Optimized for RTSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Shiliang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the preeminent work of the real-time specification for Java (RTSJ, Java is increasingly expected to become the leading programming language in real-time systems. To provide a Java platform suitable for real-time applications, a Java processor which can execute Java bytecode is directly proposed in this paper. It provides efficient support in hardware for some mechanisms specified in the RTSJ and offers a simpler programming model through ameliorating the scoped memory of the RTSJ. The worst case execution time (WCET of the bytecodes implemented in this processor is predictable by employing the optimization method proposed in our previous work, in which all the processing interfering predictability is handled before bytecode execution. Further advantage of this method is to make the implementation of the processor simpler and suited to a low-cost FPGA chip.

  6. Cylindrical integrated optical microresonators: modeling by 3-D vectorial coupled mode theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoffer, R.; Hiremath, K. R.; Hammer, M.; Prkna, Ladislav; Čtyroký, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 256, 1/3 (2005), s. 46-67 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0987 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) IST-2000-28018 NAIS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : integrated optics * optical waveguide theory * modelling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2005

  7. Stable integrated hyper-parametric oscillator based on coupled optical microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Andrea; Feron, Patrice; Dumeige, Yannick

    2015-12-01

    We propose a flexible scheme based on three coupled optical microcavities that permits us to achieve stable oscillations in the microwave range, the frequency of which depends only on the cavity coupling rates. We find that the different dynamical regimes (soft and hard excitation) affect the oscillation intensity, but not their periods. This configuration may permit us to implement compact hyper-parametric sources on an integrated optical circuit with interesting applications in communications, sensing, and metrology.

  8. Performance degradation of integrated optical modulators due to electrical crosstalk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Gilardi, G.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrical crosstalk in integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator arrays based on n-doped InP substrate and show that it can be the cause for transmitter performance degradations. In particular, a common ground return path between adjacent modulators can cause high coupling

  9. Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Roger; Hofrichter, Jens; Horst, Folkert; Jubin, Daniel; La Porta, Antonio; Meier, Norbert; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Weiss, Jonas; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2015-02-23

    To satisfy the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of future data centers and high-performance computers, low-cost low-power high-throughput optical interconnects will become a key enabling technology. To tightly integrate optics with the computing hardware, particularly in the context of CMOS-compatible silicon photonics, optical printed circuit boards using polymer waveguides are considered as a formidable platform. IBM Research has already demonstrated the essential silicon photonics and interconnection building blocks. A remaining challenge is electro-optical packaging, i.e., the connection of the silicon photonics chips with the system. In this paper, we present a new single-mode polymer waveguide technology and a scalable method for building the optical interface between silicon photonics chips and single-mode polymer waveguides.

  10. Moving the boundary between wavelength resources in optical packet and circuit integrated ring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-13

    Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.

  11. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  12. All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin; Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 10(6) and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

  13. Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    . The waveguides on the device were connected to optical fibers, which enabled alignment free operation due to the absence of free-space optics. A 750 mum long U-shaped detection cell was used to facilitate longitudinal absorption detection. To minimize geometrically induced band broadening at the turn in the U......The fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic separation chip with integrated of optical waveguides for absorption detection is presented. The device was fabricated on a silicon substrate by standard microfabrication techniques with the use of two photolithographic mask steps...

  14. Chip-integrated ultrawide-band all-optical logic comparator in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuicui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-27

    Optical computing opens up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic comparator is one of the indispensable core components of optical computing systems. Unfortunately, up to now, no any nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications has been realized experimentally. Here, we report a subtle and effective technical solution to circumvent the obstacles of inherent Ohmic losses of metal and limited propagation length of SPPs. A nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications is realized in plasmonic circuits directly. The incident single-bit (or dual-bit) logic signals can be compared and the comparison results are endowed with different logic encodings. An ultrabroad operating wavelength range from 700 to 1000 nm, and an ultrahigh output logic-state contrast-ratio of more than 25 dB are realized experimentally. No high power requirement is needed. Though nanoscale SPP light source and the logic comparator device are integrated into the same plasmonic chip, an ultrasmall feature size is maintained. This work not only paves a way for the realization of complex logic device such as adders and multiplier, but also opens up the possibility for realizing quantum solid chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  15. Towards a fully integrated optical gyroscope using whispering gallery modes resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrane, T.; Jager, J.-B.; Jager, T.; Calvo, V.; Léger, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    Since the developments of lasers and the optical fibers in the 70s, the optical gyroscopes have been subject to an intensive research to improve both their resolution and stability performances. However the best optical gyroscopes currently on the market, the ring laser gyroscope and the interferometer fiber optic gyroscope are still macroscopic devices and cannot address specific applications where size and weight constraints are critical. One solution to overcome these limitations could be to use an integrated resonator as a sensitive part to build a fully Integrated Optical Resonant Gyroscope (IORG). To keep a high rotation sensitivity, which is usually degraded when downsizing this kind of optical sensors based on the Sagnac effect, the resonator has to exhibit a very high quality factor (Q): as detailed in equation (1) where the minimum rotation rate resolution for an IORG is given as a function of the resonator characteristics (Q and diameter D) and of the global system optical system characteristics (i.e. SNR and bandwidth B), the higher the Q×D product, the lower the resolution.

  16. Optical device terahertz integration in a two-dimensional-three-dimensional heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhifang; Lin, Jie; Feng, Shuai

    2018-01-10

    The transmission properties of an off-planar integrated circuit including two wavelength division demultiplexers are designed, simulated, and analyzed in detail by the finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that the wavelength selection for different ports (0.404[c/a] at B 2 port, 0.389[c/a] at B 3 port, and 0.394[c/a] at B 4 port) can be realized by adjusting the parameters. It is especially important that the off-planar integration between two complex devices is also realized. These simulated results give valuable promotions in the all-optical integrated circuit, especially in compact integration.

  17. Coordinated Energy Management in Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines energy management in a heterogeneous processor consisting of an integrated CPU–GPU for high-performance computing (HPC applications. Energy management for HPC applications is challenged by their uncompromising performance requirements and complicated by the need for coordinating energy management across distinct core types – a new and less understood problem. We examine the intra-node CPU–GPU frequency sensitivity of HPC applications on tightly coupled CPU–GPU architectures as the first step in understanding power and performance optimization for a heterogeneous multi-node HPC system. The insights from this analysis form the basis of a coordinated energy management scheme, called DynaCo, for integrated CPU–GPU architectures. We implement DynaCo on a modern heterogeneous processor and compare its performance to a state-of-the-art power- and performance-management algorithm. DynaCo improves measured average energy-delay squared (ED2 product by up to 30% with less than 2% average performance loss across several exascale and other HPC workloads.

  18. Cantilever-based sensor with integrated optical read-out using single mode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication and mechanical characterisation of an integrated optical read-out scheme for cantilever-based biosensors. A cantilever can be used as a biosensor by monitoring its bending caused by the surface stress generated due to chemical reactions occurring on its...... surface. Here, we present a novel integrated optical read-out scheme based on single-mode waveguides that enables the fabrication of a compact system. The complete system is fabricated in the polymer SU-8. This manuscript shows the principle of operation and the design well as the fabrication...

  19. Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Paesani, Stefano; Ding, Yunhong; Santagati, Raffaele; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salavrakos, Alexia; Tura, Jordi; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Mančinska, Laura; Bacco, Davide; Bonneau, Damien; Silverstone, Joshua W; Gong, Qihuang; Acín, Antonio; Rottwitt, Karsten; Oxenløwe, Leif K; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony; Thompson, Mark G

    2018-04-20

    The ability to control multidimensional quantum systems is central to the development of advanced quantum technologies. We demonstrate a multidimensional integrated quantum photonic platform able to generate, control, and analyze high-dimensional entanglement. A programmable bipartite entangled system is realized with dimensions up to 15 × 15 on a large-scale silicon photonics quantum circuit. The device integrates more than 550 photonic components on a single chip, including 16 identical photon-pair sources. We verify the high precision, generality, and controllability of our multidimensional technology, and further exploit these abilities to demonstrate previously unexplored quantum applications, such as quantum randomness expansion and self-testing on multidimensional states. Our work provides an experimental platform for the development of multidimensional quantum technologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Synchronous OEIC Integrating Receiver for Optically Reconfigurable Gate Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez-Azqueta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A monolithically integrated optoelectronic receiver with a low-capacitance on-chip pin photodiode is presented. The receiver is fabricated in a 0.35 μm opto-CMOS process fed at 3.3 V and due to the highly effective integrated pin photodiode it operates at μW. A regenerative latch acting as a sense amplifier leads in addition to a low electrical power consumption. At 400 Mbit/s, sensitivities of −26.0 dBm and −25.5 dBm are achieved, respectively, for λ = 635 nm and λ = 675 nm (BER = 10−9 with an energy efficiency of 2 pJ/bit.

  1. Optical gain of LaF3:Nd nanoparticle doped polymers for active integrated optical devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwdam, J.W.; Klunder, D.J.W.; Borreman, A.; Diemeer, Mart; Worhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, A.; de Ridder, R.M.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G; Altena, G.; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R; Dekker, R.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rare earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA and SU-8 photosensitive polymers. We observed optical gain after we applied these materials for waveguides. Experimental results on various samples will be discussed. We theoretically discuss the improvements that can be obtained and

  2. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration...... circuits at the receiver interface, though VCOs are also found in the transmitter where a multitude of independent sources have to be mutually synchronized before multiplexing. The circuits are based on an InP DHBT process (VIP-2) supplied by Vitesse and made publicly available as MPW. The VIP-2 process...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  3. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  4. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  5. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  6. Evaluation of the optical conductivity tensor in terms of contour integrations

    OpenAIRE

    Szunyogh, Laszlo; Weinberger, Peter

    2000-01-01

    For the case of finite life-time broadening the standard Kubo-formula for the optical conductivity tensor is rederived in terms of Green's functions by using contour integrations, whereby finite temperatures are accounted for by using the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. For zero life-time broadening, the present formalism is related to expressions well-known in the literature. Numerical aspects of how to calculate the corresponding contour integrals are also outlined.

  7. Digital control card based on digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shigang; Yin Zhiguo; Xia Le

    2008-01-01

    A digital control card based on digital signal processor was developed. Two Freescale DSP-56303 processors were utilized to achieve 3 channels proportional- integral-differential regulations. The card offers high flexibility for 100 MeV cyclotron RF system development. It was used as feedback controller in low level radio frequency control prototype, with the feedback gain parameters continuously adjustable. By using high precision analog to digital converter with 500 kHz sampling rate, a regulation bandwidth of 20 kHz was achieved. (authors)

  8. VON WISPR Family Processors: Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagstaff, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ...) and the background noise they are embedded in. Processors utilizing those fluctuations such as the von WISPR Family Processors discussed herein, are methods or algorithms that preferentially attenuate the fluctuating signals and noise...

  9. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...

  10. Manufacturing a Micro-model with Integrated Fibre Optic Pressure Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarikos, I.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.; van Oordt, Wim

    The measurement of fluid pressure inside pores is a major challenge in experimental studies of two-phase flow in porous media. In this paper, we describe the manufacturing procedure of a micro-model with integrated fibre optic pressure sensors. They have a circular measurement window with a diameter

  11. Online analysis of oxygen inside silicon-glass microreactors with integrated optical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehgartner, Josef; Sulzer, Philipp; Burger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    A powerful online analysis set-up for oxygen measurements within microfluidic devices is presented. It features integration of optical oxygen sensors into microreactors, which enables contactless, accurate and inexpensive readout using commercially available oxygen meters via luminescent lifetime...... monitoring of enzyme transformations, including d-alanine or d-phenylalanine oxidation by d-amino acid oxidase, and glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase....

  12. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.

    2006-01-01

    the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  13. Integrated optical devices for wavelength division multiplexing using PECVD and direct UV writing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Leistiko, Otto

    1999-01-01

    channel waveguides are presented: a conventional method and direct UV writing. It is shown that an optimized three layer glass structure yields directly UV written waveguides with low insertion losses. Integrated optical structures have been designed and fabricated. The impact of process variations...

  14. Integration of Optically Generated Impulse Radio UWB Signals into Baseband WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Yu, Xianbin; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compact integration system to simultaneously provide wireline and wireless (baseband and ultra-wide band (UWB)) services to end-users in a WDM-PON. A 1-Gbps UWB signal is optically generated and shares the same wavelength with the baseband signal. Error-free performance was achieved...

  15. Integrated optical serializer designed and fabricated in a generic InP based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents design and characterization results of an optical pulse serializer, realized as an Application Specific Photonic Integrated Circuit (ASPIC) in a novel, generic InPbased technology and fabricated in a multi-project wafer run. The measurement results show high-speed (32 Gbit/s)

  16. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Habib, C.; Chen, L.R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Robbins, D.J.; Capmany, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in

  17. InP monolithically integrated label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Sancho, J.C.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a label swapping device, for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks, fully integrated using InP technology is presented. Compared to previous demonstrations using discrete component assembly, the device footprint is reduced by a factor of 105 and the operation speed is

  18. IOTA (Integrable Optics Test Accelerator): facility and experimental beam physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Edstrom, D.; Harms, E.; Lebedev, V.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Park, C. S.; Piekarz, H.; Piot, P.; Prebys, E.; Romanov, A.; Ruan, J.; Sen, T.; Stancari, G.; Thangaraj, C.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Valishev, A.; Shiltsev, V.

    2017-03-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is a storage ring for advanced beam physics research currently being built and commissioned at Fermilab. It will operate with protons and electrons using injectors with momenta of 70 and 150 MeV/c, respectively. The research program includes the study of nonlinear focusing integrable optical beam lattices based on special magnets and electron lenses, beam dynamics of space-charge effects and their compensation, optical stochastic cooling, and several other experiments. In this article, we present the design and main parameters of the facility, outline progress to date and provide the timeline of the construction, commissioning and research. The physical principles, design, and hardware implementation plans for the major IOTA experiments are also discussed.

  19. IOTA (Integrable Optics Test Accelerator): Facility and experimental beam physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Sergei; Broemmelsiek, Daniel; Bruhwiler, David; Edstrom, Dean; Harms, Elvin

    2017-01-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is a storage ring for advanced beam physics research currently being built and commissioned at Fermilab. It will operate with protons and electrons using injectors with momenta of 70 and 150 MeV/c, respectively. The research program includes the study of nonlinear focusing integrable optical beam lattices based on special magnets and electron lenses, beam dynamics of space-charge effects and their compensation, optical stochastic cooling, and several other experiments. In this article, we present the design and main parameters of the facility, outline progress to date and provide the timeline of the construction, commissioning and research. Finally, the physical principles, design, and hardware implementation plans for the major IOTA experiments are also discussed.

  20. Solitonic guide and multiphoton absorption processes in photopolymerizable materials for optical integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephane; Barsella, Alberto; Acker, D.; Sutter, C.; Beyer, N.; Andraud, Chantal; Fort, Alain F.; Dorkenoo, Kokou D.

    2004-09-01

    Up to now, most of the optical integrated devices are realized on glass or III-V substrates and the waveguides are usually obtained by photolithography techniques. We present here a new approach based on the use of photopolymerizable compounds. The conditions of self-written channel creation by solitonic propagation inside the bulk of these photopolymerizable formulations are analyzed. Both experimental and theoretical results of the various stages of self-written guide propagation are presented. A further step has been achieved by using a two-photon absorption process for the polymerization via a confocal microscopy technique. Combined with the solitonic guide creation, this technique allows to draw 3D optical circuits. Finally, by doping the photopolymerizable mixtures with push-pull chromophores having a controlled orientation, it will be possible to create active optical integrated devices.

  1. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  2. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen......A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d......B/mm at a wavelength of λ = 808 nm. An optimized bead tracking algorithm is implemented, allowing for determination of the optical forces acting on the particles. The algorithm features a spatio-temporal mapping of coordinates for uniting partial trajectories, without increased processing time. With an external laser...

  3. Deterministic chaos in the processor load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbiniak, Zbigniew; Jozwiak, Ireneusz J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present the results of research whose purpose was to identify the phenomenon of deterministic chaos in the processor load. We analysed the time series of the processor load during efficiency tests of database software. Our research was done on a Sparc Alpha processor working on the UNIX Sun Solaris 5.7 operating system. The conducted analyses proved the presence of the deterministic chaos phenomenon in the processor load in this particular case

  4. Processor farming in two-level analysis of historical bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, T.; Kruis, J.; Koudelka, T.; Šejnoha, M.

    2017-11-01

    This contribution presents a processor farming method in connection with a multi-scale analysis. In this method, each macro-scopic integration point or each finite element is connected with a certain meso-scopic problem represented by an appropriate representative volume element (RVE). The solution of a meso-scale problem provides then effective parameters needed on the macro-scale. Such an analysis is suitable for parallel computing because the meso-scale problems can be distributed among many processors. The application of the processor farming method to a real world masonry structure is illustrated by an analysis of Charles bridge in Prague. The three-dimensional numerical model simulates the coupled heat and moisture transfer of one half of arch No. 3. and it is a part of a complex hygro-thermo-mechanical analysis which has been developed to determine the influence of climatic loading on the current state of the bridge.

  5. A single chip pulse processor for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilsenrath, F.; Bakke, J.C.; Voss, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    A high performance digital pulse processor, integrated into a single gate array microcircuit, has been developed for spaceflight applications. The new approach takes advantage of the latest CMOS high speed A/D flash converters and low-power gated logic arrays. The pulse processor measures pulse height, pulse area and the required timing information (e.g. multi detector coincidence and pulse pile-up detection). The pulse processor features high throughput rate (e.g. 0.5 Mhz for 2 usec gausssian pulses) and improved differential linearity (e.g. + or - 0.2 LSB for a + or - 1 LSB A/D). Because of the parallel digital architecture of the device, the interface is microprocessor bus compatible. A satellite flight application of this module is presented for use in the X-ray imager and high energy particle spectrometers of the PEM experiment on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite

  6. JPP: A Java Pre-Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Kiniry, Joseph R.; Cheong, Elaine

    1998-01-01

    The Java Pre-Processor, or JPP for short, is a parsing pre-processor for the Java programming language. Unlike its namesake (the C/C++ Pre-Processor, cpp), JPP provides functionality above and beyond simple textual substitution. JPP's capabilities include code beautification, code standard conformance checking, class and interface specification and testing, and documentation generation.

  7. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-01-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for ver...

  8. An integrated instrumental setup for the combination of atomic force microscopy with optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R J; Heyes, C D; Knebel, D; Röcker, C; Nienhaus, G U

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, the study of single biomolecules using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has resulted in a plethora of new information regarding the physics underlying these complex biological systems. It is especially advantageous to be able to measure the optical, topographical, and mechanical properties of single molecules simultaneously. Here an AFM is used that is especially designed for integration with an inverted optical microscope and that has a near-infrared light source (850 nm) to eliminate interference between the optical experiment and the AFM operation. The Tip Assisted Optics (TAO) system consists of an additional 100 x 100-microm(2) X-Y scanner for the sample, which can be independently and simultaneously used with the AFM scanner. This allows the offset to be removed between the confocal optical image obtained with the sample scanner and the simultaneously acquired AFM topography image. The tip can be positioned exactly into the optical focus while the user can still navigate within the AFM image for imaging or manipulation of the sample. Thus the tip-enhancement effect can be maximized and it becomes possible to perform single molecule manipulation experiments within the focus of a confocal optical image. Here this is applied to simultaneous measurement of single quantum dot fluorescence and topography with high spatial resolution. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Menadione degrades the optical quality and mitochondrial integrity of bovine crystalline lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kenneth W; Bantseev, Vladimir; Choh, Vivan

    2011-01-26

    The crystalline lens is a unique cellular organ that performs metabolic processes while maintaining transparency for optical functionality. Mitochondria play a role in providing cells with aerobic respiration necessary for these metabolic processes. Using menadione, a mitochondria-specific inhibitor of the quinone family, and bovine lenses in vitro, this study was undertaken to determine whether a relationship exists between mitochondrial function and optical function. Bovine lenses were treated with 50 μM, 200 μM, 600 μM, and 1,000 μM menadione and lens optical function, assessed as optical quality, was observed over 9 days. Confocal micrographs of mitochondria in superficial secondary fiber cells were also analyzed in 50 μM, 200 μM, and 600 μM menadione-treated lenses over 48 h. A decrease in lens optical quality was observed in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h for the 200 µM- (p=0.0422), 600 µM- (pmenadione. The data show that menadione has a detrimental effect on mitochondrial integrity and this change is associated with degradation of optical quality, suggesting a possible link between mitochondrial function and optical function.

  10. Integrated fiber optical and thermal sensor for noninvasive monitoring of blood and human tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Schiffner, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    A novel concept of noninvasive monitoring of human tissue and blood based on optical diffuse reflective spectroscopy combined with metabolic heat measurements has been under development. A compact integrated fiber optical and thermal sensor has been developed. The idea of the method was to evaluate by optical spectroscopy haemoglobin and derivative concentrations and supplement with data associated with the oxidative metabolism of glucose. Body heat generated by glucose oxidation is based on the balance of capillary glucose and oxygen supply to the cells. The variation in glucose concentration is followed also by a difference from a distance (or depth) of scattered through the body radiation. So, blood glucose can be estimated by measuring the body heat and the oxygen supply. The sensor pickup contains of halogen lamp and LEDs combined with fiber optical bundle to deliver optical radiation inside and through the patient body, optical and thermal detectors. Fiber optical probe allows diffuse scattering measurement down to a depth of 2.5 mm in the skin including vascular system, which contributes to the control of the body temperature. The sensor pickup measures thermal generation, heat balance, blood flow rate, haemoglobin and derivative concentrations, environmental conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to convert various signals from the sensor pickup into physicochemical variables. By comparing the values from the noninvasive measurement with the venous plasma result, analytical functions for patient were obtained. Cluster analysis of patient groups was used to simplify a calibration procedure. Clinical testing of developed sensor is being performed.

  11. Development of a switched integrator amplifier for high-accuracy optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, John; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Smid, Marek; Smid, Radislav

    2008-01-01

    In the field of low flux optical measurements, the development and use of large area silicon detectors is becoming more frequent. The current/voltage conversion of their photocurrent presents a set of problems for traditional transimpedance amplifiers. The switched integration principle overcomes these limitations. We describe the development of a fully characterized current-voltage amplifier using the switched integrator technique. Two distinct systems have been developed in parallel at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) laboratories. We present the circuit theory and best practice in the design and construction of switched integrators. In conclusion the results achieved and future developments are discussed

  12. Development of a switched integrator amplifier for high-accuracy optical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, John; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Smid, Marek; Smid, Radislav

    2008-11-01

    In the field of low flux optical measurements, the development and use of large area silicon detectors is becoming more frequent. The current/voltage conversion of their photocurrent presents a set of problems for traditional transimpedance amplifiers. The switched integration principle overcomes these limitations. We describe the development of a fully characterized current-voltage amplifier using the switched integrator technique. Two distinct systems have been developed in parallel at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) laboratories. We present the circuit theory and best practice in the design and construction of switched integrators. In conclusion the results achieved and future developments are discussed.

  13. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yidong, E-mail: yidongyang@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I. [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Patterson, Michael S. [Juravinski Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4K1 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has been developed for focal tumor irradiation, allowing laboratory researchers to test basic biological hypotheses that can modify radiotherapy outcomes in ways that were not feasible previously. CBCT provides excellent bone to soft tissue contrast, but is incapable of differentiating tumors from surrounding soft tissue. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT), in contrast, allows direct visualization of even subpalpable tumors and quantitative evaluation of tumor response. Integration of BLT with CBCT offers complementary image information, with CBCT delineating anatomic structures and BLT differentiating luminescent tumors. This study is to develop a systematic method to calibrate an integrated CBCT and BLT imaging system which can be adopted onboard the SARRP to guide focal tumor irradiation. Methods: The integrated imaging system consists of CBCT, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and BLT. The anatomy acquired from CBCT and optical properties acquired from DOT serve as a priori information for the subsequent BLT reconstruction. Phantoms were designed and procedures were developed to calibrate the CBCT, DOT/BLT, and the entire integrated system. Geometrical calibration was performed to calibrate the CBCT system. Flat field correction was performed to correct the nonuniform response of the optical imaging system. Absolute emittance calibration was performed to convert the camera readout to the emittance at the phantom or animal surface, which enabled the direct reconstruction of the bioluminescence source strength. Phantom and mouse imaging were performed to validate the calibration. Results: All calibration procedures were successfully performed. Both CBCT of a thin wire and a euthanized mouse revealed no spatial artifact, validating the accuracy of the CBCT calibration. The absolute emittance calibration was validated with a 650 nm laser source, resulting in a 3

  14. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W.; Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) has been developed for focal tumor irradiation, allowing laboratory researchers to test basic biological hypotheses that can modify radiotherapy outcomes in ways that were not feasible previously. CBCT provides excellent bone to soft tissue contrast, but is incapable of differentiating tumors from surrounding soft tissue. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT), in contrast, allows direct visualization of even subpalpable tumors and quantitative evaluation of tumor response. Integration of BLT with CBCT offers complementary image information, with CBCT delineating anatomic structures and BLT differentiating luminescent tumors. This study is to develop a systematic method to calibrate an integrated CBCT and BLT imaging system which can be adopted onboard the SARRP to guide focal tumor irradiation. Methods: The integrated imaging system consists of CBCT, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), and BLT. The anatomy acquired from CBCT and optical properties acquired from DOT serve as a priori information for the subsequent BLT reconstruction. Phantoms were designed and procedures were developed to calibrate the CBCT, DOT/BLT, and the entire integrated system. Geometrical calibration was performed to calibrate the CBCT system. Flat field correction was performed to correct the nonuniform response of the optical imaging system. Absolute emittance calibration was performed to convert the camera readout to the emittance at the phantom or animal surface, which enabled the direct reconstruction of the bioluminescence source strength. Phantom and mouse imaging were performed to validate the calibration. Results: All calibration procedures were successfully performed. Both CBCT of a thin wire and a euthanized mouse revealed no spatial artifact, validating the accuracy of the CBCT calibration. The absolute emittance calibration was validated with a 650 nm laser source, resulting in a 3

  15. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  16. Online Fastbus processor for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the online computing aspects of Fastbus systems using a processor module which has been developed at CERN and is now available commercially. These General Purpose Master/Slaves (GPMS) are based on 68000/10 (or optionally 68020/68881) processors. Applications include use as event-filters (DELPHI), supervisory controllers, Fastbus stand-alone diagnostic tools, and multiprocessor array components. The direct mapping of single, 32-bit assembly instructions to execute Fastbus protocols makes the use of a GPM both simple and flexible. Loosely coupled processing in Fastbus networks is possible between GPM's as they support access semaphores and use a two port memory as I/O buffer for Fastbus. Both master and slave-ports support block transfers up to 20 Mbytes/s. The CERN standard Fastbus software and the MoniCa symbolic debugging monitor are available on the GPM with real time, multiprocessing support. (Auth.)

  17. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  18. An in-fiber integrated optofluidic device based on an optical fiber with an inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Tingting; Teng, Pingping; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Entao; Zhao, Enming; Tong, Chengguo; Yuan, Libo

    2014-06-21

    A new kind of optofluidic in-fiber integrated device based on a specially designed hollow optical fiber with an inner core is designed. The inlets and outlets are built by etching the surface of the optical fiber without damaging the inner core. A reaction region between the end of the fiber and a solid point obtained after melting is constructed. By injecting samples into the fiber, the liquids can form steady microflows and react in the region. Simultaneously, the emission from the chemiluminescence reaction can be detected from the remote end of the optical fiber through evanescent field coupling. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA or vitamin C, Vc) is determined by the emission intensity of the reaction of Vc, H2O2, luminol, and K3Fe(CN)6 in the optical fiber. A linear sensing range of 0.1-3.0 mmol L(-1) for Vc is obtained. The emission intensity can be determined within 2 s at a total flow rate of 150 μL min(-1). Significantly, this work presents information for the in-fiber integrated optofluidic devices without spatial optical coupling.

  19. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  20. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Simone Fohrmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  1. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  2. INVESTIGATING THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART CANDIDATES OF FOUR INTEGRAL SOURCES LOCALIZED WITH CHANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özbey Arabacı, Mehtap; Kalemci, Emrah; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Halpern, Jules; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-01-01

    We report on the optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of the candidate counterparts to four INTEGRAL sources: IGR J04069+5042, IGR J06552–1146, IGR J21188+4901, and IGR J22014+6034. The candidate counterparts were determined with Chandra, and the optical observations were performed with 1.5 m RTT-150 telescope (TÜBİTAK National Observatory, Antalya, Turkey) and 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope (MDM Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona). Our spectroscopic results show that one of the two candidates of IGR J04069+5042 and the one observed for IGR J06552–1146 could be active late-type stars in RS CVn systems. However, according to the likelihood analysis based on Chandra and INTEGRAL, two optically weaker sources in the INTEGRAL error circle of IGR J06552–1146 have higher probabilities to be the actual counterpart. The candidate counterparts of IGR J21188+4901 are classified as an active M-type star and a late-type star. Among the optical spectra of four candidates of IGR J22014+6034, two show Hα emission lines, one is a late-type star, and the other is an M type. The likelihood analysis favors a candidate with no distinguishing features in the optical spectrum. Two of the candidates classified as M-type dwarfs, are similar to some IGR candidates claimed to be symbiotic stars. However, some of the prominent features of symbiotic systems are missing in our spectra, and their NIR colors are not consistent with those expected for giants. We consider the IR colors of all IGR candidates claimed to be symbiotic systems and find that low-resolution optical spectrum may not be enough for conclusive identification.

  3. Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Norfolk, Mark; Wenning, Justin; Sheridan, John; Leser, Paul; Leser, Patrick; Newman, John A.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, a rather new three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. This low temperature attribute of the process enables integration of temperature sensitive components, such as fiber optic strain sensors, directly into metal structures. This may be an enabling technology for Digital Twin applications, i.e., virtual model interaction and feedback with live load data. This study evaluates the consolidation quality, interface robustness, and load sensing limits of commercially available fiber optic strain sensors embedded into aluminum alloy 6061. Lastly, an outlook on the technology and its applications is described.

  4. Performance evaluation of a burst-mode EDFA in an optical packet and circuit integrated network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Masaki; Awaji, Yoshinari; Furukawa, Hideaki; Shinada, Satoshi; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Wada, Naoya

    2013-12-30

    We experimentally investigate the performance of burst-mode EDFA in an optical packet and circuit integrated system. In such networks, packets and light paths can be dynamically assigned to the same fibers, resulting in gain transients in EDFAs throughout the network that can limit network performance. Here, we compare the performance of a 'burst-mode' EDFA (BM-EDFA), employing transient suppression techniques and optical feedback, with conventional EDFAs, and those using automatic gain control and previous BM-EDFA implementations. We first measure gain transients and other impairments in a simplified set-up before making frame error-rate measurements in a network demonstration.

  5. INTRASURGICAL MICROSCOPE-INTEGRATED SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-ASSISTED MEMBRANE PEELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner-Radler, Christiane I; Glittenberg, Carl; Gabriel, Max; Binder, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microscope-integrated intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography during macular surgery in a prospective monocenter study. Before pars plana vitrectomy and before, during, and after membrane peeling, 512 × 128 macular cube scans were performed using a Carl Zeiss Meditec Cirrus high-definition OCT system adapted to the optical pathway of a Zeiss OPMI VISU 200 surgical microscope and compared with retinal staining. The study included 51 patients with epiretinal membranes, with 8 of those having additional lamellar macular holes, 11 patients with vitreomacular traction, and 8 patients with full-thickness macular holes. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography allowed performing membrane peeling without using retinal dyes in 40% of cases (28 of 70 patients). No residual membranes were found in 94.3% of patients (66 of 70 patients) in intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography and subsequent (re)staining. In patients with vitreomacular traction, intrasurgical spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans facilitated decisions on the need for an intraocular tamponade after membrane peeling. Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography was comparable with retinal dyes in confirming success after membrane peeling. However, the visualization of flat membranes was better after staining.

  6. Demonstration of glass-based photonic interposer for mid-board-optical engines and electrical-optical circuit board (EOCB) integration strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H.; Neitz, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.

    2018-02-01

    Due to its optical transparency and superior dielectric properties glass is regarded as a promising candidate for advanced applications as active photonic interposer for mid-board-optics and optical PCB waveguide integration. The concepts for multi-mode and single-mode photonic system integration are discussed and related demonstration project results will be presented. A hybrid integrated photonic glass body interposer with integrated optical lenses for multi-mode data communication wavelength of 850 nm have been realized. The paper summarizes process developments which allow cost efficient metallization of TGV. Electro-optical elements like photodiodes and VCSELs can be directly flip-chip mounted on the glass substrate according to the desired lens positions. Furthermore results for a silicon photonic based single-mode active interposer integration onto a single mode glass made EOCB will be compared in terms of packaging challenges. The board level integration strategy for both of these technological approaches and general next generation board level integration concepts for photonic interposer will be introductorily discussed.

  7. Experimental integration of quantum key distribution and gigabit-capable passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Liu-Jun; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Mao, Yingqiu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Bi-Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) ensures information-theoretic security for the distribution of random bits between two remote parties. To extend QKD applications to fiber-to-the-home optical communications, such as gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs), an effective method is the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. However, the Raman scattering noise from intensive classical traffic and the huge loss introduced by the beam splitter in a GPON severely limits the performance of QKD. Here, we demonstrate the integration of QKD and a commercial GPON system with fiber lengths up to 14 km, in which the maximum splitting ratio of the beam splitter reaches 1:64. By placing the QKD transmitter on the optical line terminal side, we reduce the Raman noise collected at the QKD receiver. Using a bypass structure, the loss of the beam splitter is circumvented effectively. Our results pave the way to extending the applications of QKD to last-mile communications.

  8. 3D silicon neural probe with integrated optical fibers for optogenetic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric G R; Tu, Hongen; Luo, Hao; Liu, Bin; Bao, Shaowen; Zhang, Jinsheng; Xu, Yong

    2015-07-21

    Optogenetics is a powerful modality for neural modulation that can be useful for a wide array of biomedical studies. Penetrating microelectrode arrays provide a means of recording neural signals with high spatial resolution. It is highly desirable to integrate optics with neural probes to allow for functional study of neural tissue by optogenetics. In this paper, we report the development of a novel 3D neural probe coupled simply and robustly to optical fibers using a hollow parylene tube structure. The device shanks are hollow tubes with rigid silicon tips, allowing the insertion and encasement of optical fibers within the shanks. The position of the fiber tip can be precisely controlled relative to the electrodes on the shank by inherent design features. Preliminary in vivo rat studies indicate that these devices are capable of optogenetic modulation simultaneously with 3D neural signal recording.

  9. Four distributed feedback laser array integrated with multimode-interference and semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Zhu Hong-Liang; Liang Song; Zhao Ling-Juan; Chen Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic integration of four 1.55-μm-range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using varied ridge width with a 4 × 1-multimode-interference (MMI) optical combiner and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is demonstrated. The average output power and the threshold current are 1.8 mW and 35 mA, respectively, when the injection current of the SOA is 100 mA, with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. The four channels have a 1-nm average channel spacing and can operate separately or simultaneously. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. A full-duplex working integrated optoelectronic device for optical interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Fan, Huize; Huang, Yongqing; Duan, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qi; Ren, Xiaomin; Wei, Qi; Cai, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a full-duplex working integrated optoelectronic device is proposed. It is constructed by integrating a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) unit above a resonant cavity enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) unit. Analysis shows that, the VCSEL unit has a threshold current of 1 mA and a slop efficiency of 0.66 W/A at 849.7 nm, the RCE-PD unit obtains its maximal absorption quantum efficiency of 90.24% at 811 nm with a FWHM of 4 nm. Moreover, the two units of the proposed integrated device can work independently from each other. So that the proposed integrated optoelectronic device can work full-duplex. It can be applied for single fiber bidirectional optical interconnects system.

  11. Integration of Curved D-Type Optical Fiber Sensor with Microfluidic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yung-Shin; Li, Chang-Jyun; Hsu, Jin-Cherng

    2016-12-30

    A curved D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS) combined with a microfluidic chip is proposed. This OFS, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Kretchmann's configuration, is applied as a biosensor to measure the concentrations of different bio-liquids such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose solutions. The SPR phenomenon is attained by using the optical fiber to guide the light source to reach the side-polished, gold-coated region. Integrating this OFS with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic chip, the SPR spectra for liquids with different refractive indices are recorded. Experimentally, the sensitivity of the current biosensor was calculated to be in the order of 10 -5 RIU. This microfluidic chip-integrated OFS could be valuable for monitoring subtle changes in biological samples such as blood sugar, allergen, and biomolecular interactions.

  12. Integration of Curved D-Type Optical Fiber Sensor with Microfluidic Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shin Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A curved D-type optical fiber sensor (OFS combined with a microfluidic chip is proposed. This OFS, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the Kretchmann’s configuration, is applied as a biosensor to measure the concentrations of different bio-liquids such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose solutions. The SPR phenomenon is attained by using the optical fiber to guide the light source to reach the side-polished, gold-coated region. Integrating this OFS with a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-based microfluidic chip, the SPR spectra for liquids with different refractive indices are recorded. Experimentally, the sensitivity of the current biosensor was calculated to be in the order of 10−5 RIU. This microfluidic chip-integrated OFS could be valuable for monitoring subtle changes in biological samples such as blood sugar, allergen, and biomolecular interactions.

  13. Optical superimposed vortex beams generated by integrated holographic plates with blazed grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Dong; Su, Ya-Hui; Ni, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Zhong-Yu; Wang, Yu-Long; Wang, Chao-Wei; Ren, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Zhen; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Li, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Yan-Lei; Li, Jia-Wen; Wu, Dong; Chu, Jia-Ru

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the superposition of two vortex beams with controlled topological charges can be realized by integrating two holographic plates with blazed grating. First, the holographic plate with blazed grating was designed and fabricated by laser direct writing for generating well-separated vortex beam. Then, the relationship between the periods of blazed grating and the discrete angles of vortex beams was systemically investigated. Finally, through setting the discrete angle and different revolving direction of the holographic plates, the composite fork-shaped field was realized by the superposition of two vortex beams in a particular position. The topological charges of composite fork-shaped field (l = 1, 0, 3, and 4) depend on the topological charges of compositional vortex beams, which are well agreed with the theoretical simulation. The method opens up a wide range of opportunities and possibilities for applying in optical communication, optical manipulations, and photonic integrated circuits.

  14. In vivo integrated photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Hao F.; Wei, Qing; Cao, Wenwu

    2012-12-01

    The physiological and pathological properties of retina are closely associated with various optical contrasts. Hence, integrating different ophthalmic imaging technologies is more beneficial in both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of several blinding diseases. Recently, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) was developed for in vivo retinal imaging in small animals, which demonstrated the capability of imaging retinal vascular networks and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at high sensitivity. We combined PAOM with traditional imaging modalities, such as fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and auto-fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AF-SLO), for imaging rats and mice. The multimodal imaging system provided more comprehensive evaluation of the retina based on the complementary imaging contrast mechanisms. The high-quality retinal images show that the integrated ophthalmic imaging system has great potential in the investigation of blinding disorders.

  15. Localization and Imaging of Integrated Circuit Defect Using Simple Optical Feedback Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Julius Cemine

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available High-contrast microscopy of semiconductor and metal edifices in integrated circuits is demonstrated by combining laser-scanning confocal reflectance microscopy, one-photon optical-beam-induced current (1P-OBIC imaging, and optical feedback detection via a commercially available semiconductor laser that also serves as the excitation source. The confocal microscope has a compact in-line arrangement with no external photodetector. Confocal and 1P-OBIC images are obtained simultaneously from the same focused beam that is scanned across the sample plane. Image pairs are processed to generate exclusive high-contrast distributions of the semiconductor, metal, and dielectric sites in a GaAs photodiode array sample. The method is then utilized to demonstrate defect localization and imaging in an integrated circuit.

  16. A Review on Radio-Over-Fiber Technology-Based Integrated (Optical/Wireless) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shivika; Goyal, Rakesh

    2017-06-01

    In the present paper, radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology has been proposed, which is the integration of the optical and radio networks. With a high transmission capacity, comparatively low cost and low attenuation, optical fiber provides an ideal solution for accomplishing the interconnections. In addition, a radio system enables the significant mobility, flexibility and easy access. Therefore, the system integration can meet the increasing demands of subscribers for voice, data and multimedia services that require the access network to support high data rates at any time and any place inexpensively. RoF has the potentiality to the backbone of the wireless access network and it has gained significant momentum in the last decade as a potential last-mile access scheme. This paper gives the comprehensive review of RoF technology used in the communication system. Concept, applications, advantages and limitations of RoF technology are also discussed in this paper.

  17. Acousto-Optic Applications for Multichannel Adaptive Optical Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    AO cell and the two- channel line-scan camera system described in Subsection 4.1. The AO material for this IntraAction AOD-70 device was flint glass (n...Single-Channel 1.68 (flint glass ) 60,.0 AO Cell Multichannel 2.26 (TeO 2) 20.0 AO Cell Beam splitter 1.515 ( glass ) 50.8 Multichannel correlation was...Tone Intermodulation Dynamic Ranges of Longitudinal TeO2 Bragg Cells for Several Acoustic Power Densities 4-92 f f2 f 3 1 t SOURCE: Reference 21 TR-92

  18. Static and dynamic pile testing of reinforced concrete piles with structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kohlhoff, Harald; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Baeßler, Matthias; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Georgi, Steven; Herten, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Static and dynamic pile tests are carried out to determine the load bearing capacity and the quality of reinforced concrete piles. As part of a round robin test to evaluate dynamic load tests, structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors were used to receive more detailed information about the strains along the pile length compared to conventional measurements at the pile head. This paper shows the instrumentation of the pile with extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers sensors and fibre Bragg gratings sensors together with the results of the conducted static load test as well as the dynamic load tests and pile integrity tests.

  19. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-04

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster.

  20. Integration of optical fibers in mega-joule class laser environments: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.P.; Baggio, J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in the radiative environment associated with Megajoule class lasers as Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in France or National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the USA. Optical fibers present numerous advantages, like their electromagnetic immunity, for integration in these facilities devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement studies. Despite these advantages, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation, limiting their transmission capability. We studied the major mechanisms governing the amplitude of this degradation, focusing our discussion on the transient radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) phenomena that is often the limiting factor for LMJ applications. The amplitude and growth and decay kinetics of RIA are affected by different parameters related to the fibers themselves but also depend on the application and irradiation characteristics. We particularly investigated the fiber transient radiation responses when the optical links have to operate during the pulsed and mixed environment associated with ignition shots. Our study shows that, if the same parameters affect the fiber sensitivity for steady state and transient irradiations, the radiation tolerances of the different classes of waveguides strongly differ, implying dedicated experiments for LMJ facility needs. (authors)

  1. Cartilage microindentation using cylindrical and spherical optical fiber indenters with integrated Bragg gratings as force sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, G.; Canti, O.; Baier, V.; Micallef, W.; Hartmann, B.; Alberton, P.; Aszodi, A.; Clausen-Schaumann, H.; Roths, J.

    2018-02-01

    Fiber optic microindentation sensors that have the potential to be integrated into arthroscopic instruments and to allow localizing degraded articular cartilage are presented in this paper. The indenters consist of optical fibers with integrated Bragg gratings as force sensors. In a basic configuration, the tip of the fiber optic indenter consists of a cleaved fiber end, forming a cylindrical flat punch indenter geometry. When using this indenter geometry, high stresses at the edges of the cylinder are present, which can disrupt the tissue structure. This is avoided with an improved version of the indenter. A spherical indenter tip that is formed by melting the end of the glass fiber. The spherical fiber tip shows the additional advantage of strongly reducing reflections from the fiber end. This allows a reduction of the length of the fiber optic sensor element from 65 mm of the flat punch type to 27 mm of the spherical punch. In order to compare the performance of both indenter types, in vitro stress-relaxation indentation experiments were performed on bovine articular cartilage with both indenter types, to assess biomechanical properties of bovine articular cartilage. For indentation depths between 60 μm and 300 μm, the measurements with both indenter types agreed very well with each other. This shows that both indenter geometries are suitable for microindentation measuremnts . The spherical indenter however has the additional advantage that it minimizes the risk to damage the surface of the tissue and has less than half dimensions than the flat indenter.

  2. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    An integrated optics chemical sensor based on a ring resonator with an ethyl cellulose polymer coating has been demonstrated. The measured sensitivity to isopropanol in air is 50 ppm-the level immediately useful for health-related air quality monitoring. The resonator was fabricated using SiO2 and SixNy materials. The signal readout is based on tracking the wavelength of a resonance peak. The resonator layout optimisation for sensing applications is discussed.

  3. Integration of adaptive optics into highEnergy laser modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    contain hundreds of actuators with high control bandwidths and low hysteresis, all of which are ideal parameters for accurate reconstruction of higher... Available : https://web.archive.org/web/20110111093235/http: //csis.org/blog/missile-defense-umbrella [10] C. Kopp, “ High energy laser directed energy...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS INTEGRATION OF ADAPTIVE OPTICS INTO HIGH ENERGY LASER MODELING AND SIMULATION by Donald Puent

  4. Single integrated device for optical CDMA code processing in dual-code environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-Kai; Glesk, Ivan; Greiner, Christoph M; Iazkov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W; Wang, Ting; Prucnal, Paul R

    2007-06-11

    We report on the design, fabrication and performance of a matching integrated optical CDMA encoder-decoder pair based on holographic Bragg reflector technology. Simultaneous encoding/decoding operation of two multiple wavelength-hopping time-spreading codes was successfully demonstrated and shown to support two error-free OCDMA links at OC-24. A double-pass scheme was employed in the devices to enable the use of longer code length.

  5. Optical Sensitivity of a Monolithic Integrated InP PIN-HEMT-HBT Transimpedance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Matiss, A.; Janssen, G.; Bertenburg, R. M.; Brockerhoff, W.; Tegude, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    To improve sensitivity of optical receivers, a special integration concept is chosen that includes a pinphotodiode, high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) on a single substrate. This work focuses on the optimization of the amplifier design to achieve lowest input noise currents of a transimpedance amplifier, and thus highest receiver sensitivity. The respective advantages of the components used are investigated with respect...

  6. Four-dimensional Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography to Visualize Suture Depth in Strabismus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Neel D; Bhullar, Paramjit K; Shieh, Christine; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A; Freedman, Sharon F; Kuo, Anthony N

    2017-02-14

    The authors report the use of swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (SS-MIOCT), capable of live four-dimensional (three-dimensional across time) intraoperative imaging, to directly visualize suture depth during lateral rectus resection. Key surgical steps visualized in this report included needle depth during partial and full-thickness muscle passes along with scleral passes. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e1-e5.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Optical displacement measurement with GaAs/AlGaAs-based monolithically integrated Michelson interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Dändliker, René

    2008-01-01

    Two monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system are reported. These single-chip microsystems are configured as Michelson interferometers and comprise a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, photodetectors, phase shifters, and waveguide couplers. While the use of a single Michelson interferometer allows measurement of displacement magnitude only, a double Michelson interferometer with two interferometer signals in phase quadrature als...

  8. Assessing the consistency of optical properties measured in four integrating spheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Homolová, Lucie; Navrátil, M.; Hanuš, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 13 (2017), s. 3817-3830 ISSN 0143-1161 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Artificial material * Canopy radiative transfer * Directional hemispherical reflectances * Integrating spheres * Leaf optical property * Measurement protocol * Standard deviation * Statistically significant difference Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  9. Selected area growth integrated wavelength converter based on PD-EAM optical logic gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Bin; Zhou Daibing; Zhang Can; Liang Song; Lu Dan; Zhao Lingjuan; Wang Wei; Qiu Jifang; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    A selected area growth wavelength converter based on a PD-EAM optical logic gate for WDM application is presented, integrating an EML transmitter and a SOA-PD receiver. The design, fabrication, and DC characters were analyzed. A 2 Gb/s NRZ signal based on the C-band wavelength converted to 1555 nm with the highest extinction ratio of 7 dB was achieved and wavelength converted eye diagrams with eyes opened were presented. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Structure of modes of smoothly irregular three-dimensional integrated optical four-layer waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.A.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Sevast'yanov, A.L.; Sevast'yanov, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a method of research of an integrated optical multilayer waveguide, satisfying the condition of smooth modification of the shape of the studied three-dimensional structure, an asymptotic method is used. Three-dimensional fields of smoothly deforming modes of the integrated optical waveguide are circumscribed analytically. An evident dependence of the contributions of the first order of smallness in the amplitudes of the electrical and magnetic fields of the quasi-waveguide modes is obtained. The canonical type of the equations circumscribing propagation of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes in the smoothly irregular part of a four-layer integrated optical waveguide is represented for an asymptotic method. With the help of the method of coupled waves and perturbation theory method, the shifts of complex propagation constants for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes are obtained in an explicit form. The elaborated theory is applicable for the analysis of similar structures of dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials in a sufficiently broad band of electromagnetic wavelengths

  11. Integrated optical waveguides and inertial focussing microfluidics in silica for microflow cytometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butement, Jonathan T; Rowe, David J; Sessions, Neil P; Hua, Ping; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Clark, Owain; Chad, John E; Hunt, Hamish C

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of a microflow cytometry platform is the integration of the optical components with the fluidics as this requires compatible micro-optical and microfluidic technologies. In this work a microflow cytometry platform is presented comprising monolithically integrated waveguides and deep microfluidics in a rugged silica chip. Integrated waveguides are used to deliver excitation light to an etched microfluidic channel and also collect transmitted light. The fluidics are designed to employ inertial focussing, a particle positioning technique, to reduce signal variation by bringing the flowing particles onto the same plane as the excitation light beam. A fabrication process is described which exploits microelectronics mass production techniques including: sputtering, ICP etching and PECVD. Example devices were fabricated and the effectiveness of inertial focussing of 5.6 µ m fluorescent beads was studied showing lateral and vertical confinement of flowing beads within the microfluidic channel. The fluorescence signals from flowing calibration beads were quantified demonstrating a CV of 26%. Finally the potential of this type of device for measuring the variation in optical transmission from input to output waveguide as beads flowed through the beam was evaluated. (paper)

  12. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Cataract Surgery: Uses and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Kummelil, Mathew Kurian; Kharbanda, Varun; Arora, Vishal; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-05-01

    To demonstrate the uses and applications of a microscope integrated intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Micro Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS) and Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS). Intraoperative real time imaging using the RESCAN™ 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) was done for patients undergoing MICS as well as FLACS. The OCT videos were reviewed at each step of the procedure and the findings were noted and analyzed. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography was found to be beneficial during all the critical steps of cataract surgery. We were able to qualitatively assess wound morphology in clear corneal incisions, in terms of subclinical Descemet's detachments, tears in the inner or outer wound lips, wound gaping at the end of surgery and in identifying the adequacy of stromal hydration, for both FLACS as well as MICS. It also enabled us to segregate true posterior polar cataracts from suspected cases intraoperatively. Deciding the adequate depth of trenching was made simpler with direct visualization. The final position of the intraocular lens in the capsular bag and the lack of bioadhesivity of hydrophobic acrylic lenses were also observed. Even though Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography is in its early stages for its application in cataract surgery, this initial assessment does show a very promising role for this technology in the future for cataract surgery both in intraoperative decision making as well as for training purposes.

  13. Design of an optical temporal integrator based on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Ngo, Nam

    2007-10-15

    We present a theoretical study of a new application of a simple pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PSFBG) in transmission mode as a high-speed optical temporal integrator. The PSFBG consists of two concatenated identical uniform FBGs with a pi phase shift between them. When the reflectivities of the FBGs are extremely close to 100%, the transmissive PSFBG can perform the time integral of the complex envelope of an arbitrary input optical signal with high accuracy. As an example, the integrator is numerically shown to be able to convert an input Gaussian pulse into an optical step signal.

  14. Optically Driven Mobile Integrated Micro-Tools for a Lab-on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jui Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an optically driven complex micromachine with an Archimedes microscrew as the mechanical power, a sphere as a coupler, and three knives as the mechanical tools. The micromachine is fabricated by two-photon polymerization and is portably driven by optical tweezers. Because the microscrew can be optically trapped and rotates spontaneously, it provides driving power for the complex micro-tools. In other words, when a laser beam focuses on the micromachine, the microscrew is trapped toward the focus point and simultaneously rotates. A demonstration showed that the integrated micromachines are grasped by the optical tweezers and rotated by the Archimedes screw. The rotation efficiencies of the microrotors with and without knives are 1.9 rpm/mW and 13.5 rpm/mW, respectively. The micromachine can also be portably dragged along planed routes. Such Archimedes screw-based optically driven complex mechanical micro-tools enable rotation similar to moving machines or mixers, which could contribute to applications for a biological microfluidic chip or a lab-on-a-chip.

  15. A low-latency optical switch architecture using integrated μm SOI-based contention resolution and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgias-Alexandris, G.; Moralis-Pegios, M.; Terzenidis, N.; Cherchi, M.; Harjanne, M.; Aalto, T.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.

    2018-02-01

    The urgent need for high-bandwidth and high-port connectivity in Data Centers has boosted the deployment of optoelectronic packet switches towards bringing high data-rate optics closer to the ASIC, realizing optical transceiver functions directly at the ASIC package for high-rate, low-energy and low-latency interconnects. Even though optics can offer a broad range of low-energy integrated switch fabrics for replacing electronic switches and seamlessly interface with the optical I/Os, the use of energy- and latency-consuming electronic SerDes continues to be a necessity, mainly dictated by the absence of integrated and reliable optical buffering solutions. SerDes undertakes the role of optimally synergizing the lower-speed electronic buffers with the incoming and outgoing optical streams, suggesting that a SerDes-released chip-scale optical switch fabric can be only realized in case all necessary functions including contention resolution and switching can be implemented on a common photonic integration platform. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally a hybrid Broadcast-and-Select (BS) / wavelength routed optical switch that performs both the optical buffering and switching functions with μm-scale Silicon-integrated building blocks. Optical buffering is carried out in a silicon-integrated variable delay line bank with a record-high on-chip delay/footprint efficiency of 2.6ns/mm2 and up to 17.2 nsec delay capability, while switching is executed via a BS design and a silicon-integrated echelle grating, assisted by SOA-MZI wavelength conversion stages and controlled by a FPGA header processing module. The switch has been experimentally validated in a 3x3 arrangement with 10Gb/s NRZ optical data packets, demonstrating error-free switching operation with a power penalty of <5dB.

  16. Optical coherence tomography-enhanced microlaryngoscopy: preliminary report of a noncontact optical coherence tomography system integrated with a surgical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokes, David E; Jackson, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Perez, Jorge A; Su, Jianping; Ridgway, James M; Armstrong, William B; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging modality that uses near-infrared light to produce cross-sectional images of tissue with a resolution approaching that of light microscopy. We have previously reported use of OCT imaging of the vocal folds (VFs) during direct laryngoscopy with a probe held in contact or near-contact with the VFs. This aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel OCT system integrated with a surgical microscope to allow hands-free OCT imaging of the VFs, which could be performed simultaneously with microscopic visualization. We performed a prospective evaluation of a new method of acquiring OCT images of the VFs. An OCT system was successfully integrated with a surgical microscope to permit noncontact OCT imaging of the VFs of 10 patients. With this novel device we were able to identify VF epithelium and lamina propria; however, the resolution was reduced compared to that achieved with the standard contact or near-contact OCT. Optical coherence tomography is able to produce high-resolution images of vocal fold mucosa to a maximum depth of 1.6 mm. It may be used in the diagnosis of VF lesions, particularly early squamous cell carcinoma, in which OCT can show disruption of the basement membrane. Mounting the OCT device directly onto the operating microscope allows hands-free noncontact OCT imaging and simultaneous conventional microscopic visualization of the VFs. However, the lateral resolution of the OCT microscope system is 50 microm, in contrast to the conventional handheld probe system (10 microm). Although such images at this resolution are still useful clinically, improved resolution would enhance the system's performance, potentially enabling real-time OCT-guided microsurgery of the larynx.

  17. The UA1 trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

  18. Color sensor and neural processor on one chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiesler, Emile; Campbell, Shannon R.; Kempem, Lother; Duong, Tuan A.

    1998-10-01

    Low-cost, compact, and robust color sensor that can operate in real-time under various environmental conditions can benefit many applications, including quality control, chemical sensing, food production, medical diagnostics, energy conservation, monitoring of hazardous waste, and recycling. Unfortunately, existing color sensor are either bulky and expensive or do not provide the required speed and accuracy. In this publication we describe the design of an accurate real-time color classification sensor, together with preprocessing and a subsequent neural network processor integrated on a single complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. This one-chip sensor and information processor will be low in cost, robust, and mass-producible using standard commercial CMOS processes. The performance of the chip and the feasibility of its manufacturing is proven through computer simulations based on CMOS hardware parameters. Comparisons with competing methodologies show a significantly higher performance for our device.

  19. The hardware track finder processor in CMS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    1997-01-01

    The work covers the design of the Track Finder Processor in the high energy experiment CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid, planned for 2005) at CERN/Geneva. The task of this processor is to identify muons and measure their transverse momentum. The track finder processor makes it possible to determine the physical relevance of each high energetic collision and to forward only interesting data to the data an alysis units. Data of more than two hundred thousand detector cells are used to determine the location of muons and measure their transverse momentum. Each 25 ns a new data set is generated. Measurem ent of location and transverse momentum of the muons can be terminated within 350 ns by using an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit). A pipeline architecture processes new data sets with th e required data rate of 40 MHz to ensure dead time free operation. In the framework of this study specifications and the overall concept of the track finder processor were worked out in detail. Simul ations were performed...

  20. Evaluation of the Intel Nehalem-EX server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by the CERN openlab by comparing the 4-socket, 32-core Intel Xeon X7560 server with the previous generation 4-socket server, based on the Xeon X7460 processor. The Xeon X7560 processor represents a major change in many respects, especially the memory sub-system, so it was important to make multiple comparisons. In most benchmarks the two 4-socket servers were compared. It should be underlined that both servers represent the “top of the line” in terms of frequency. However, in some cases, it was important to compare systems that integrated the latest processor features, such as QPI links, Symmetric multithreading and over-clocking via Turbo mode, and in such situations the X7560 server was compared to a dual socket L5520 based system with an identical frequency of 2.26 GHz. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following ...

  1. Integrated Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Measurements in a Borosilicate Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Parisi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique is a well-known optical method that can be used to measure the refractive index of organic nano-layers adsorbed on a thin metal film. Although there are many configurations for measuring biomolecular interactions, SPR-based techniques play a central role in many current biosensing experiments, since they are the most suited for sensitive and quantitative kinetic measurements. Here we give some results from the analysis and numerical elaboration of SPR data from integrated optics experiments in a particular borosilicate glass, chosen for its composition offering the rather low refractive index of 1.4701 at 633 nm wavelength. These data regard the flow over the sensing region (metal window of different solutions with refractive indexes in the range of interest (1.3÷1.5 for the detection of contaminants in aqueous solutions. After a discussion of the principles of SPR, of the metal window design optimization by means of optical interaction numerical modeling, and of waveguide fabrication techniques, we give a description of system setup and experimental results. Optimum gold film window thickness and width in this guided-wave configuration has been for the first time derived and implemented on an integrated optic prototype device. Its characterization is given by means of the real time waveguide output intensity measurements, which correspond to the interaction between the sensing gold thin film window and the flowing analyte. The SPR curve was subsequently inferred. Finally, a modified version of the device is reported, with channel waveguides arranged in a Y-junction optical circuit, so that laser source stability requirements are lowered by a factor of 85 dB, making possible the use of low cost sources in practical applications.

  2. Data register and processor for multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpukhin, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A data register and a processor for data receiving and processing from drift chambers of a device for investigating relativistic positroniums are described. The data are delivered to the register input in the form of the Grey 8 bit code, memorized and transformed to a position code. The register information is delivered to the KAMAK trunk and to the front panel plug. The processor selects particle tracks in a horizontal plane of the facility. ΔY maximum coordinate divergence and minimum point quantity on the track are set from the processor front panel. Processor solution time is 16 μs maximum quantity of simultaneously analyzed coordinates is 16

  3. Many - body simulations using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of microscopic models of water and polypeptides using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques have been carried out with the aid of an FPS array processor. The computational techniques are discussed, with emphasis on the development and optimization of the software to take account of the special features of the processor. The computing requirements of these simulations exceed what could be reasonably carried out on a normal 'scientific' computer. While the FPS processor is highly suited to the kinds of models described, several other computationally intensive problems in statistical mechanics are outlined for which alternative processor architectures are more appropriate

  4. Sensitometric control of roentgen film processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, H.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1987-01-01

    Monitoring of film processors performance is essential since image quality, patient dose and costs are influenced by the performance. A system for sensitometric constancy control of film processors and their associated components is described. Experience with the system for 3 years is given when implemented on 17 film processors. Modern high quality film processors have a stability that makes a test frequency of once a week sufficient to maintain adequate image quality. The test system is so sensitive that corrective actions almost invariably have been taken before any technical problem degraded the image quality to a visible degree. (orig.)

  5. The exploration and practice of integrated innovation teaching mode in the Applied Optics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhao, Huifu; Fu, Xiuhua; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the Ministry of Education of China attaches great importance to the reform of higher education quality. As an important link in the reform of higher education, curriculum development is bound to promote the development of "quality-centered connotative education". Zhejiang University, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Southern Airlines University and other colleges and universities carried out a full range of close cooperation, proposed integrated innovation teaching mode of the course based on network technology. Based on this model, the course of "Applied Optics" has been practiced for two years. The results show that the integrated innovation teaching mode can fully realize the integration amplification effect among multiple colleges and universities and the depth sharing all types of resources. Based on the principle of co-building and sharing, mutual help, comprehensively improve the teaching quality of domestic related courses and promote the comprehensive development of the curriculum to meet the needs of learning society.

  6. Ray optics for diffraction: a useful paradox in a path integral context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Geometrical diffraction theory uses ray tracing techniques to calculate diffraction and other properties of the electromagnetic field generally considered characteristically wave like. The author studies this dualism of the classical electromagnetic field so as to distinguish those aspects of quantum dualism that arise simply as properties of oscillatory integrals and those that may have deeper origins. By a series of transformations the solutions of certain optics problems are reduced to the evaluation of a Feynman path integral and the known semiclassical approximations for the path integral provide a justification for the geometrical diffraction theory. Particular attention is paid to the problem of edge diffraction and for a half plane barrier a closed form solution is obtained. A classical variational principle for barrier penetration is also presented. (Auth.)

  7. Design of energy efficient optical networks with software enabled integrated control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    energy consumption by proposing a new integrated control plane structure utilising Software Defined Networking technologies. The integrated control plane increases the efficiencies of exchanging control information across different network domains, while introducing new possibilities to the routing...... methods and the control over quality of service (QoS). The structure is defined as an overlay generalised multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) control model. With the defined structure, the integrated control plane is able to gather information from different domains (i.e. optical core network......'s) routing behaviours. With the flexibility of the routing structure, results show that the energy efficiency of the network can be improved without compromising the QoS for delay/blocking sensitive services....

  8. Parameters affecting temporal resolution of Time Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron Detector (TRION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, I; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Feldman, G; Goldberg, M B; Brandis, M; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Bromberger, B; Weierganz, M

    2013-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Neutron (TRION) detector was developed for Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a fast-neutron transmission imaging method that exploits characteristic energy-variations of the total scattering cross-section in the E n = 1–10 MeV range to detect specific elements within a radiographed object. As opposed to classical event-counting time of flight (ECTOF), it integrates the detector signal during a well-defined neutron Time of Flight window corresponding to a pre-selected energy bin, e.g., the energy-interval spanning a cross-section resonance of an element such as C, O and N. The integrative characteristic of the detector permits loss-free operation at very intense, pulsed neutron fluxes, at a cost however, of recorded temporal resolution degradation This work presents a theoretical and experimental evaluation of detector related parameters which affect temporal resolution of the TRION system

  9. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  10. Breaking the Memory Bottleneck with an Optical Data Path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fritts, Jason E; Chamberlain, Roger D

    2005-01-01

    .... Through a simulation-based performance analysis of a 1 GHz processor model, we provide a preliminary evaluation of the benefits of an optical processor-to-memory bus in both eliminating the bandwidth...

  11. Electromagnetic modeling and characterization of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifterin GaAs integrated technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Faci, S.; Deshours, F.; Algani, C.; Alquié, G.; Formont, S.; Chazelas, J.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art of the modeling of microwave photoswitching devices is exposed. A new 3 D electromagnetic modeling allows the design of an optically-controlled microwave phase shifter microwave starting from the traditional circuit of a microwave photoswitch. Measurements of the parameters S of this optically-controlled microwave phase shifter attests the function of this circuit by optical way and highlights the interest of the integration of this new type of microwave phase shifters in ...

  12. Butt-joint integration of active optical components based on InP/AlInGaAsP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface was determi...

  13. A bit-rate flexible and power efficient all-optical demultiplexer realised by monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm

    1996-01-01

    A novel bit-rate flexible and very power efficient all-optical demultiplexer using differential optical control of a monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer with MQW SOAs is demonstrated at 40 to 10 Gbit/s. Gain switched DFB lasers provide ultra stable data and control signals....

  14. Integrated mechano-optical hydrogen gas sensor using cantilever bending readout with a Si3N4 grated waveguide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We demonstrate a proof of concept of a novel and compact integrated mechano-optical sensor for H2 detection based on a microcantilever suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide. The fabricated devices are mechanically and optically modeled and characterized. Sensing operation of the sensor is

  15. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminnated by Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles. The source and observation points can take on almost arbitrary positions. To illustrate the exactness and efficiency of the new line integral, numerical comparisons with the conventional surface radiation integral are carried out....

  16. Distributed strain measurement with polymer optical fibers integrated into multifunctional geotextiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Sascha; Lenke, Philipp; Krebber, Katerina; Seeger, Monika; Thiele, Elke; Metschies, Heike; Gebreselassie, Berhane; Münich, Johannes Christian; Stempniewski, Lothar

    2008-04-01

    Fiber optic sensors based on polymer optical fibers (POF) have the advantage of being very elastic and robust at the same time. Unlike silica fibers, standard PMMA POF fibers can be strained to more than 40% while fully maintaining their light guiding properties. We investigated POF as a distributed strain sensor by analysing the backscatter increase at the strained section using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique. This sensing ability together with its high robustness and break-down strain makes POF well-suited for integration into technical textiles for structural health monitoring purposes. Within the European research project POLYTECT (Polyfunctional textiles against natural hazards) technical textiles with integrated POF sensors, among others sensors are being developed for online structural health monitoring of geotechnical structures. Mechanical deformation in slopes, dams, dikes, embankments and retrofitted masonry structures is to be detected before critical damage occurs. In this paper we present the POF strain sensor properties, reactions to disturbing influences as temperature and bends as well as the results of the different model tests we conducted within POLYTECT. We further show the potential of perfluorinated graded-index POF for distributed strain sensing with increased spatial resolution and measurement lengths.

  17. Integrated optics for nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared: progress and recent achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, M.; Barthelemy, E.; Bastard, L.; Broquin, J.-E.; Hawkins, G.; Kirschner, V.; Ménard, S.; Parent, G.; Poinsot, C.; Pradel, A.; Vigreux, C.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X.

    2017-11-01

    The search for Earth-like exoplanets, orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than our Sun and showing biological activity, is one of the most exciting and challenging quests of the present time. Nulling interferometry from space, in the thermal infrared, appears as a promising candidate technique for the task of directly observing extra-solar planets. It has been studied for about 10 years by ESA and NASA in the framework of the Darwin and TPF-I missions respectively [1]. Nevertheless, nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared remains a technological challenge at several levels. Among them, the development of the "modal filter" function is mandatory for the filtering of the wavefronts in adequacy with the objective of rejecting the central star flux to an efficiency of about 105. Modal filtering [2] takes benefit of the capability of single-mode waveguides to transmit a single amplitude function, to eliminate virtually any perturbation of the interfering wavefronts, thus making very high rejection ratios possible. The modal filter may either be based on single-mode Integrated Optics (IO) and/or Fiber Optics. In this paper, we focus on IO, and more specifically on the progress of the on-going "Integrated Optics" activity of the European Space Agency.

  18. Optimization of an integrated optic broadband duplexer for 0.8/1.3-micrometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibaudo, Elise; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel; Benech, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    These last years, the growth of data traffic has increased the interest for broadband integrated optic devices. Their applications include, for example, the fiber communications on a single fiber by adding the transmission capacity of two optical telecommunication windows for Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) or by combining pump and signal wavelenghts in rare earth doped intergrated optical amplifiers. A promising technology to realize those devices is ion-exchange on glass. Indeed, it allows the integration of different functions in a glass substrate with efficient results and a better compatibility in fiber systems with a low cost. We propose in this paper an original broadband duplexer based on a leaky structure. First, the physical principle of the component is explained. The core of the structure is a leaky zone which involves a non-resonant coupling and ensures a broadband spectral behavior to the component. Then, the broadband duplexer is presented and the focus is specially made on the improvement of the outputs crosstalk through the suppression of parasitical back reflections. Theoretical optimization and validation by simulations are presented. Finally, perspectives of this work are proposed.

  19. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  20. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes.

  1. Producing chopped firewood with firewood processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Jouhiaho, A.

    2009-01-01

    The TTS Institute's research and development project studied both the productivity of new, chopped firewood processors (cross-cutting and splitting machines) suitable for professional and independent small-scale production, and the costs of the chopped firewood produced. Seven chopped firewood processors were tested in the research, six of which were sawing processors and one shearing processor. The chopping work was carried out using wood feeding racks and a wood lifter. The work was also carried out without any feeding appliances. Altogether 132.5 solid m 3 of wood were chopped in the time studies. The firewood processor used had the most significant impact on chopping work productivity. In addition to the firewood processor, the stem mid-diameter, the length of the raw material, and of the firewood were also found to affect productivity. The wood feeding systems also affected productivity. If there is a feeding rack and hydraulic grapple loader available for use in chopping firewood, then it is worth using the wood feeding rack. A wood lifter is only worth using with the largest stems (over 20 cm mid-diameter) if a feeding rack cannot be used. When producing chopped firewood from small-diameter wood, i.e. with a mid-diameter less than 10 cm, the costs of chopping work were over 10 EUR solid m -3 with sawing firewood processors. The shearing firewood processor with a guillotine blade achieved a cost level of 5 EUR solid m -3 when the mid-diameter of the chopped stem was 10 cm. In addition to the raw material, the cost-efficient chopping work also requires several hundred annual operating hours with a firewood processor, which is difficult for individual firewood entrepreneurs to achieve. The operating hours of firewood processors can be increased to the required level by the joint use of the processors by a number of firewood entrepreneurs. (author)

  2. Mathematics, commonness and integral pedagogy: offering trends from a humanist integral optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Elena Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the educative institutions, numerous difficulties still are being perceived to teach Mathematics as it is circumscribed in a traditional pedagogy, th educative, cultural and social context is still being planned in an hegemonic way. Using a hermeneutical methodology in this qualitative research, offerer tendencies are given on the triad: Mathematics-daily life experiences-integral pedagogy, to provide a swerve to the teaching of science and to present it with an improved, active and liberating pedagogy; tending to change the perspective of the teaching of science. Among such tendencies we can find: the contribution to educate a honorable, supportive and humanist individual; the preparation on the intellectual, moral and spiritual levels; and authentic education, taking into account the scholar’s potentialities and an individual educated on mind, body and heart. To do so, the teacher must be skilled on history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, semiotics among other categories; and they must be ethical, critics on their own praxis, opened to the changes and innovations individuals.

  3. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  4. Study on the management of the Boohung X-Dol 90 developer and fixing solution for automatic X-ray film processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyan, Yong Sil; Kim, Heung Tae; Kwon, Dal Gwan; Choi, Myung Joon; Cheung, Hwan

    1986-01-01

    Recently, Demands of Automatic X-ray film Processors are increasing more and more at University Hospitals and general Hospitals and Private clinics, but various troubles because of incorrect control were found out. Authors have researched to find out the function and Activity of Automatic X-ray film processor for 2 weeks Kodak RPX-OMAT Processor and Sakura GX3000 Processor and Doosan parka 2000 Processor and results obtained were as follows: 1. Automatic X-ray film processor have an advantage to conduct the rapid treatment of X-ray film processing but incorrect handling of developing and fixing agents were brought about a great change in Contrast and Optical density of X-ray film pictures. 2. About 300 X-ray film could be finished by same developing and fixing solution without exchanging any other solutions in each Automatic X-ray film processor

  5. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  6. Advanced RF and microwave functions based on an integrated optical frequency comb source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingyuan; Wu, Jiayang; Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2018-02-05

    We demonstrate advanced transversal radio frequency (RF) and microwave functions based on a Kerr optical comb source generated by an integrated micro-ring resonator. We achieve extremely high performance for an optical true time delay aimed at tunable phased array antenna applications, as well as reconfigurable microwave photonic filters. Our results agree well with theory. We show that our true time delay would yield a phased array antenna with features that include high angular resolution and a wide range of beam steering angles, while the microwave photonic filters feature high Q factors, wideband tunability, and highly reconfigurable filtering shapes. These results show that our approach is a competitive solution to implementing reconfigurable, high performance and potentially low cost RF and microwave signal processing functions for applications including radar and communication systems.

  7. Integrated optics nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes for picoliter volume refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2013-01-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an integrated optics refractometric nano-opto-fluidic sensor based on whispering gallery modes in sapphire microspheres. A measurand fluid is injected in a micromachined reservoir defined in between the microsphere and an optical waveguide. The wavelength shift due to changes in the refractive index of the measurand fluid are studied for a set of different configurations by the finite element method and a high sensitivity versus fluid volume is found. The proposed device can be tailored to work with a minimum fluid volume of 1 pl and a sensitivity up of 2000 nm/(RIU·nl). We introduce a figure of merit which quantifies the amplifying effect on the sensitivity of high quality factor resonators and allows us to compare different devices. (paper)

  8. Integration of Optical Coherence Tomography Scan Patterns to Augment Clinical Data Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S.; Patel, N.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W.; Otto, C.; Samuels, B.; Koslovsky, M.; Schaefer, C.; Taiym, W.; Wear, M.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration spaceflight astronauts has led Space Medicine at NASA to adopt a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented at NASA, including on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to increase the fidelity of the current OCT data set by integrating the traditional circumpapillary OCT image with radial and horizontal block images at the optic nerve head. The retinal nerve fiber layer was segmented by two experienced individuals. Intra-rater (N=4 subjects and 70 images) and inter-rater (N=4 subjects and 221 images) agreement was performed. The results of this analysis and the potential benefits will be presented.

  9. Micro processors for plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAffer, N.T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Micro computers can be used satisfactorily in general protection duties with economic advantages over hardwired systems. The reliability of such protection functions can be enhanced by keeping the task performed by each protection micro processor simple and by avoiding such a task being dependent on others in any substantial way. This implies that vital work done for any task is kept within it and that any communications from it to outside or to it from outside are restricted to those for controlling data transfer. Also that the amount of this data should be the minimum consistent with satisfactory task execution. Technology is changing rapidly and devices may become obsolete and be supplanted by new ones before their theoretical reliability can be confirmed or otherwise by field service. This emphasises the need for users to pool device performance data so that effective reliability judgements can be made within the lifetime of the devices. (orig.) [de

  10. Machine integrated optical measurement of honed surfaces in presence of cooling lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R; Koenig, N; Zheng, H

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of honed surfaces is one of the most important tasks in tribology. Although many established techniques exist for texture characterization, such as SEM, tactile stylus or white-light interferometry, none of them is suited for a machine integrated measurement. Harsh conditions such as the presence of cooling lubricant or vibrations prohibit the use of commercial sensors inside a honing machine. Instead, machined engine blocks need time-consuming cleaning and preparation while taken out of the production line for inspection. A full inspection of all produced parts is hardly possible this way. Within this paper, an approach for a machine-integrated measurement is presented, which makes use of optical sensors for texture profiling. The cooling lubricant here serves as immersion medium. The results of test measurements with a chromatic-confocal sensor and a fiber-optical low-coherence interferometer show the potential of both measuring principles for our approach. Cooling lubricant temperature and flow, scanning speed and measurement frequency have been varied in the tests. The sensor with best performance will later be chosen for machine integration.

  11. Bio-optical data integration based on a 4 D database system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, N. N.; Shimabukuro, M. H.; Carmo, A. F. C.; Alcantara, E. H.; Rodrigues, T. W. P.; Watanabe, F. S. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Bio-optical characterization of water bodies requires spatio-temporal data about Inherent Optical Properties and Apparent Optical Properties which allow the comprehension of underwater light field aiming at the development of models for monitoring water quality. Measurements are taken to represent optical properties along a column of water, and then the spectral data must be related to depth. However, the spatial positions of measurement may differ since collecting instruments vary. In addition, the records should not refer to the same wavelengths. Additional difficulty is that distinct instruments store data in different formats. A data integration approach is needed to make these large and multi source data sets suitable for analysis. Thus, it becomes possible, even automatically, semi-empirical models evaluation, preceded by preliminary tasks of quality control. In this work it is presented a solution, in the stated scenario, based on spatial - geographic - database approach with the adoption of an object relational Database Management System - DBMS - due to the possibilities to represent all data collected in the field, in conjunction with data obtained by laboratory analysis and Remote Sensing images that have been taken at the time of field data collection. This data integration approach leads to a 4D representation since that its coordinate system includes 3D spatial coordinates - planimetric and depth - and the time when each data was taken. It was adopted PostgreSQL DBMS extended by PostGIS module to provide abilities to manage spatial/geospatial data. It was developed a prototype which has the mainly tools an analyst needs to prepare the data sets for analysis.

  12. Alternative Measurement Configurations for Extracting Bulk Optical Properties Using an Integrating Sphere Setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thennadil, Suresh N; Chen, Yi-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    The usual approach for estimating bulk optical properties using an integrating sphere measurement setup is by acquiring spectra from three measurement modes namely collimated transmittance (T c ), total transmittance (T d ), and total diffuse reflectance (R d ), followed by the inversion of these measurements using the adding-doubling method. At high scattering levels, accurate acquisition of T c becomes problematic due to the presence of significant amounts of forward-scattered light in this measurement which is supposed to contain only unscattered light. In this paper, we propose and investigate the effectiveness of using alternative sets of integrating sphere measurements that avoid the use of T c and could potentially increase the upper limit of concentrations of suspensions at which bulk optical property measurements can be obtained in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) region of the spectrum. We examine the possibility of replacing T c with one or more reflectance measurements at different sample thicknesses. We also examine the possibility of replacing both the collimated (T c ) and total transmittance (T d ) measurements with reflectance measurements taken from different sample thicknesses. The analysis presented here indicates that replacing T c with a reflectance measurement can reduce the errors in the bulk scattering properties when scattering levels are high. When only multiple reflectance measurements are used, good estimates of the bulk optical properties can be obtained when the absorption levels are low. In addition, we examine whether there is any advantage in using three measurements instead of two to obtain the reduced bulk scattering coefficient and the bulk absorption coefficient. This investigation is made in the context of chemical and biological suspensions which have a much larger range of optical properties compared to those encountered with tissue.

  13. Towards a Process Algebra for Shared Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Andersen, Jacob; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    We present initial work on a timed process algebra that models sharing of processor resources allowing preemption at arbitrary points in time. This enables us to model both the functional and the timely behaviour of concurrent processes executed on a single processor. We give a refinement relation...

  14. Vector and parallel processors in computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, I.S.; Reid, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. These concern hardware and software for vector and parallel processors, numerical methods and algorithms for the computation on such processors, as well as applications of such methods to different fields of physics and related sciences. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  15. The communication processor of TUMULT-64

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tumult (Twente University MULTi-processor system) is a modular extendible multi-processor system designed and implemented at the Twente University of Technology in co-operation with Oce Nederland B.V. and the Dr. Neher Laboratories (Dutch PTT). Characteristics of the hardware are: MIMD type,

  16. An interactive parallel processor for data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mong, J.; Logan, D.; Maples, C.; Rathbun, W.; Weaver, D.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel array of eight minicomputers has been assembled in an attempt to deal with kiloparameter data events. By exporting computer system functions to a separate processor, the authors have been able to achieve computer amplification linearly proportional to the number of executing processors

  17. Proposal for arbitrary-order temporal integration of ultrafast optical signals using a single uniform-period fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Azaña, José

    2008-07-01

    A simple and practical all-fiber design for implementing arbitrary-order temporal integration of ultrafast optical waveforms is proposed and numerically investigated. We demonstrate that an ultrafast photonics integrator of any desired integration order can be implemented using a uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a properly designed amplitude-only grating apodization profile. In particular, the grating coupling strength must vary according to the (N-1) power of the fiber distance for implementing an Nth-order photonics integrator (N=1,2,...). This approach requires the same level of practical difficulty for realizing any given integration order. The proposed integration devices operate over a limited time window, which is approximately fixed by the round-trip propagation time in the FBG. Ultrafast arbitrary-order all-optical integrators capable of accurate operation over nanosecond time windows can be implemented using readily feasible FBGs.

  18. Architecture-Aware Optimization of an HEVC decoder on Asymmetric Multicore Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafael; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S.

    2016-01-01

    Low-power asymmetric multicore processors (AMPs) attract considerable attention due to their appealing performance-power ratio for energy-constrained environments. However, these processors pose a significant programming challenge due to the integration of cores with different performance capabilities, asking for an asymmetry-aware scheduling solution that carefully distributes the workload. The recent HEVC standard, which offers several high-level parallelization strategies, is an important ...

  19. Comparison of Processor Performance of SPECint2006 Benchmarks of some Intel Xeon Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kareem PARCHUR; Ram Asaray SINGH

    2012-01-01

    High performance is a critical requirement to all microprocessors manufacturers. The present paper describes the comparison of performance in two main Intel Xeon series processors (Type A: Intel Xeon X5260, X5460, E5450 and L5320 and Type B: Intel Xeon X5140, 5130, 5120 and E5310). The microarchitecture of these processors is implemented using the basis of a new family of processors from Intel starting with the Pentium 4 processor. These processors can provide a performance boost for many ke...

  20. Neurovision processor for designing intelligent sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.; Knopf, George K.

    1992-03-01

    A programmable multi-task neuro-vision processor, called the Positive-Negative (PN) neural processor, is proposed as a plausible hardware mechanism for constructing robust multi-task vision sensors. The computational operations performed by the PN neural processor are loosely based on the neural activity fields exhibited by certain nervous tissue layers situated in the brain. The neuro-vision processor can be programmed to generate diverse dynamic behavior that may be used for spatio-temporal stabilization (STS), short-term visual memory (STVM), spatio-temporal filtering (STF) and pulse frequency modulation (PFM). A multi- functional vision sensor that performs a variety of information processing operations on time- varying two-dimensional sensory images can be constructed from a parallel and hierarchical structure of numerous individually programmed PN neural processors.

  1. Development of a highly reliable CRT processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tomoya; Saiki, Akira; Hirai, Kenji; Jota, Masayoshi; Fujii, Mikiya

    1996-01-01

    Although CRT processors have been employed by the main control board to reduce the operator's workload during monitoring, the control systems are still operated by hardware switches. For further advancement, direct controller operation through a display device is expected. A CRT processor providing direct controller operation must be as reliable as the hardware switches are. The authors are developing a new type of highly reliable CRT processor that enables direct controller operations. In this paper, we discuss the design principles behind a highly reliable CRT processor. The principles are defined by studies of software reliability and of the functional reliability of the monitoring and operation systems. The functional configuration of an advanced CRT processor is also addressed. (author)

  2. Online track processor for the CDF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, E. J.

    2002-01-01

    A trigger track processor, called the eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT), has been designed for the CDF upgrade. This processor identifies high transverse momentum (> 1.5 GeV/c) charged particles in the new central outer tracking chamber for CDF II. The XFT design is highly parallel to handle the input rate of 183 Gbits/s and output rate of 44 Gbits/s. The processor is pipelined and reports the result for a new event every 132 ns. The processor uses three stages: hit classification, segment finding, and segment linking. The pattern recognition algorithms for the three stages are implemented in programmable logic devices (PLDs) which allow in-situ modification of the algorithm at any time. The PLDs reside on three different types of modules. The complete system has been installed and commissioned at CDF II. An overview of the track processor and performance in CDF Run II are presented

  3. Computer Generated Inputs for NMIS Processor Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Mullens; J. E. Breeding; J. A. McEvers; R. W. Wysor; L. G. Chiang; J. R. Lenarduzzi; J. T. Mihalczo; J. K. Mattingly

    2001-01-01

    Proper operation of the Nuclear Identification Materials System (NMIS) processor can be verified using computer-generated inputs [BIST (Built-In-Self-Test)] at the digital inputs. Preselected sequences of input pulses to all channels with known correlation functions are compared to the output of the processor. These types of verifications have been utilized in NMIS type correlation processors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since 1984. The use of this test confirmed a malfunction in a NMIS processor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) in 1998. The NMIS processor boards were returned to the U.S. for repair and subsequently used in NMIS passive and active measurements with Pu at VNIIEF in 1999

  4. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  5. Simplified Monolithic Flow Cytometer Chip With Three-Dimensional Hydrodyanmic Focusing And Integrated Fiber-Free Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motosuke, Masahiro; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Zhuang, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized flow cytometry incorporating both fluidic and optical systems has a great possibility for portable biochemical sensing or point-of-care diagnostics. This paper presents a simple microfluidic flow cytometer combining reliable 3D hydrodynamic focusing and optical detection without...... optical fibers in a monolithic architecture fabricated by a single photolithographic process. The vertical flow focusing is achieved by the optimized inlet geometry in a PDMS lid onto the substrate with detection channel and integrated optics. The simplified approach indicates the possibility...

  6. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  7. Integrated tunable quantum-dot laser for optical coherence tomography in the 1.7 μm wavelength region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilma, B.W.; Jiao, Y.; Kotani, J.; Smalbrugge, B.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated tunable laser for optical coherence tomography in medicine. This laser is the first monolithic photonic integrated circuit containing quantum-dot amplifiers, phase modulators and passive components. We

  8. Dual-Source Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Reconstructed on Integrated Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoude Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-source swept-source optical coherence tomography (DS-SSOCT has two individual sources with different central wavelengths, linewidth, and bandwidths. Because of the difference between the two sources, the individually reconstructed tomograms from each source have different aspect ratio, which makes the comparison and integration difficult. We report a method to merge two sets of DS-SSOCT raw data in a common spectrum, on which both data have the same spectrum density and a correct separation. The reconstructed tomographic image can seamlessly integrate the two bands of OCT data together. The final image has higher axial resolution and richer spectroscopic information than any of the individually reconstructed tomography image.

  9. Design and optical performance of a nonimaging Fresnel transmissive concentrator for building integration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemisana, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.chemisana@macs.udl.cat [Applied Physics Section of the Polytechnic School (EPS), University of Lleida, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Ignasi Rosell, Joan [Applied Physics Section of the Polytechnic School (EPS), University of Lleida, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The designed concentrator has an important potential for building integration. {yields} The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver. {yields} Tracking performed by a single driver, representing an important mechanical advantage. {yields} The system reaches a global optical efficiency value of 56.38%. - Abstract: A transmissive Fresnel reflector is designed to match the needs of building integration for concentrating photovoltaic (PV), thermal (T) or hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) generation. The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver by means of an array of reflectors which rotate collectively. All rotation axes are coplanar and parallel. A deep analytical ray tracing study has been made of the design characteristics and concentrator performance, thus determining the configuration which optimises efficiency. Numerous ray tracing numerical simulations have been performed which contrast and support the analytical results.

  10. Design and optical performance of a nonimaging Fresnel transmissive concentrator for building integration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, Daniel; Ignasi Rosell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The designed concentrator has an important potential for building integration. → The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver. → Tracking performed by a single driver, representing an important mechanical advantage. → The system reaches a global optical efficiency value of 56.38%. - Abstract: A transmissive Fresnel reflector is designed to match the needs of building integration for concentrating photovoltaic (PV), thermal (T) or hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) generation. The device concentrates radiation toward a static receiver by means of an array of reflectors which rotate collectively. All rotation axes are coplanar and parallel. A deep analytical ray tracing study has been made of the design characteristics and concentrator performance, thus determining the configuration which optimises efficiency. Numerous ray tracing numerical simulations have been performed which contrast and support the analytical results.

  11. Photonic crystal ring resonator based optical filters for photonic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a two Dimensional (2D) Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator (PCRR) based optical Filters namely Add Drop Filter, Bandpass Filter, and Bandstop Filter are designed for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs). The normalized output response of the filters is obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and the band diagram of periodic and non-periodic structure is attained by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method. The size of the device is minimized from a scale of few tens of millimeters to the order of micrometers. The overall size of the filters is around 11.4 μm × 11.4 μm which is highly suitable of photonic integrated circuits

  12. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  13. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  14. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Youn, J.S.; Park, K.Y.; Choi, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche

  15. A VLSI image processor via pseudo-mersenne transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, W.J.; Jagadeesh, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The computational burden on image processing in medical fields where a large amount of information must be processed quickly and accurately has led to consideration of special-purpose image processor chip design for some time. The very large scale integration (VLSI) resolution has made it cost-effective and feasible to consider the design of special purpose chips for medical imaging fields. This paper describes a VLSI CMOS chip suitable for parallel implementation of image processing algorithms and cyclic convolutions by using Pseudo-Mersenne Number Transform (PMNT). The main advantages of the PMNT over the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) are: (1) no multiplications are required; (2) integer arithmetic is used. The design and development of this processor, which operates on 32-point convolution or 5 x 5 window image, are described

  16. Analytical Bounds on the Threads in IXP1200 Network Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna, STGS; Jamadagni, HS

    2003-01-01

    Increasing link speeds have placed enormous burden on the processing requirements and the processors are expected to carry out a variety of tasks. Network Processors (NP) [1] [2] is the blanket name given to the processors, which are traded for flexibility and performance. Network Processors are offered by a number of vendors; to take the main burden of processing requirement of network related operations from the conventional processors. The Network Processors cover a spectrum of design trad...

  17. In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, J. F.; Blokland, P.; Posthumus, P.; Aalders, M.; Pickering, J. W.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.

    1997-11-01

    The optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor) were measured in vitro for cartilage, liver, lung, muscle, myocardium, skin, and tumour (colon adenocarcinoma CC 531) at 630, 632.8, 790, 850 and 1064 nm. Rabbits, rats, piglets, goats, and dogs were used to obtain the tissues. A double-integrating-sphere setup with an intervening sample was used to determine the reflectance, and the diffuse and collimated transmittances of the sample. The inverse adding - doubling algorithm was used to determine the optical properties from the measurements. The overall results were comparable to those available in the literature, although only limited data are available at 790 - 850 nm. The results were reproducible for a specific sample at a specific wavelength. However, when comparing the results of different samples of the same tissue or different lasers with approximately the same wavelength (e.g. argon dye laser at 630 nm and HeNe laser at 632.8 nm) variations are large. We believe these variations in optical properties should be explained by biological variations of the tissues. In conclusion, we report on an extensive set of in vitro absorption and scattering properties of tissues measured with the same equipment and software, and by the same group. Although the accuracy of the method requires further improvement, it is highly likely that the other existing data in the literature have a similar level of accuracy.

  18. Electro-optic routing of photons from a single quantum dot in photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midolo, Leonardo; Hansen, Sofie L.; Zhang, Weili; Papon, Camille; Schott, Rüdiger; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2017-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in solid-state photonic quantum technologies enable generating and detecting single photons with near-unity efficiency as required for a range of photonic quantum technologies. The lack of methods to simultaneously generate and control photons within the same chip, however, has formed a main obstacle to achieving efficient multi-qubit gates and to harness the advantages of chip-scale quantum photonics. Here we propose and demonstrate an integrated voltage-controlled phase shifter based on the electro-optic effect in suspended photonic waveguides with embedded quantum emitters. The phase control allows building a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer with two orthogonal arms, taking advantage of the anisotropic electro-optic response in gallium arsenide. Photons emitted by single self-assembled quantum dots can be actively routed into the two outputs of the interferometer. These results, together with the observed sub-microsecond response time, constitute a significant step towards chip-scale single-photon-source de-multiplexing, fiber-loop boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.

  19. Fiber in access technologies and network convergence: an opportunity for optical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiggino, Pierpaolo C.

    2008-11-01

    Broadband networks are among the fastest growing segment in telecom. The initial and still very significant push originated with xDSL technologies and indeed a significant amount of research and development is still occurring in this field with impressive results and allowing for a remarkable use of the installed copper infrastructure way beyond its originally planned bandwidth capabilities. However it is clear that ultimately a more suitable fiber based infrastructure will be needed in order to reduce both operational and network technology costs. Such cost reduction in inevitable as the added value to end users is only related to services and these cannot be priced outside a sensible window, whilst the related bandwidth increase is much more dramatic and its huge variability must be met with little or no cost impact by the network and its operation. Fiber in access has indeed the potential to cope with a huge bandwidth demand for many years to come as its inherent bandwidth capabilities are only just tapped by current service requirements. However the whole technology supply chain must follow in line. In particular optical technology must brace itself to cope with the required much larger deployment and greater cost effectiveness, whilst at the same time deliver performance suitable to the bandwidth increase offered in the longer term by the fiber medium. This paper looks at this issues and debates the opportunities for a new class of optical devices making use of the progress in optical integration

  20. An electro-magnetic micromachined actuator monolithically integrated with a vertical shutter for variable optical attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Shao Hsuan; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; John Su, Guo-Dung

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication and test results of an electromagnetic-actuated micromachined variable optical attenuator (VOA) are reported in this paper. Optical attenuation is achieved by moving a shutter into the light path between a pair of single mode fiber collimators. The shutter, consisting of a 500 µm × 1200 µm vertical micromirror, is monolithically integrated with an actuation flap. The micromirror was made by tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) anisotropic wet etching with a sharp edge and a smooth reflecting surface. By arranging fiber collimators in different configurations, the reported VOA can be used as either normally-on or normally-off modes due to its relatively large shutter surface. The insertion loss of the VOA is 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB for normally-on and normally-off modes, respectively. Both optical and mechanical simulation models of the device were discussed, and the theoretical calculations based on these models offered an efficient way to predict the performance of the shutter-type VOA. The controllable attenuation range is approximately 40 dB with a driving voltage less than 0.5 V, and the driving power is less than 2 mW. A response time of 5 ms is achieved by applying proper driving waveform

  1. Miniaturized Integrated Platform for Electrical and Optical Monitoring of Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Brasoveanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the design and functions of a miniaturized integrated platform for optical and electrical monitoring of cell cultures and the necessary steps in the fabrication and testing of a silicon microchip Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS-based technology for cell data recording, monitoring and stimulation. The silicon microchip consists of a MEMS machined device containing a shank of 240 μm width, 3 mm long and 50 μm thick and an enlarged area of 5 mm × 5 mm hosting the pads for electrical connections. Ten platinum electrodes and five sensors are placed on the shank and are connected with the external electronics through the pads. The sensors aim to monitor the pH, the temperature and the impedance of the cell culture. The electrodes are bidirectional and can be used both for electrical potential recording and stimulation of cells. The fabrication steps are presented, along with the electrical and optical characterization of the system. The target of the research is to develop a new and reconfigurable platform according to the particular applications needs, as a tool for the biologist, chemists and medical doctors working is the field of cell culture monitoring in terms of growth, maintenance conditions, reaction to electrical or chemical stimulation (drugs, toxicants, etc.. HaCaT (Immortalised Human Keratinocyte cell culture has been used for demonstration purposes in order to provide information on the platform electrical and optical functions.

  2. High Efficiency Optical MEMS by the Integration of Photonic Lattices with Surface MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLEMING, JAMES G.; LIN, SHAWN-YU; MANI, SEETHAMBAL S.; RODGERS, M. STEVEN; DAGEL, DARYL J.

    2002-11-01

    This report outlines our work on the integration of high efficiency photonic lattice structures with MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems). The simplest of these structures were based on 1-D mirror structures. These were integrated into a variety of devices, movable mirrors, switchable cavities and finally into Bragg fiber structures which enable the control of light in at least 2 dimensions. Of these devices, the most complex were the Bragg fibers. Bragg fibers consist of hollow tubes in which light is guided in a low index media (air) and confined by surrounding Bragg mirror stacks. In this work, structures with internal diameters from 5 to 30 microns have been fabricated and much larger structures should also be possible. We have demonstrated the fabrication of these structures with short wavelength band edges ranging from 400 to 1600nm. There may be potential applications for such structures in the fields of integrated optics and BioMEMS. We have also looked at the possibility of waveguiding in 3 dimensions by integrating defects into 3-dimensional photonic lattice structures. Eventually it may be possible to tune such structures by mechanically modulating the defects.

  3. Organic Optical Sensor Based on Monolithic Integration of Organic Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Lam Tam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic optical sensor that integrates a front organic light-emitting diode (OLED and an organic photodiode (OPD is demonstrated. The stripe-shaped cathode is used in the OLED components to create light signals, while the space between the stripe-shaped cathodes serves as the detection window for integrated OPD units. A MoO3 (5 nm/Ag (15 nm bi-layer inter-electrode is interposed between the vertically stacked OLED and OPD units, serving simultaneously as the cathode for the front OLED and an anode for the upper OPD units in the sensor. In the integrated sensor, the emission of the OLED units is confined by the area of the opaque stripe-shaped cathodes, optimized to maximize the reflected light passing through the window space for detection by the OPD components. This can ensure high OLED emission output, increasing the signal/noise ratio. The design and fabrication flexibility of an integrated OLED/OPD device also has low cost benefits, and is light weight and ultra-thin, making it possible for application in wearable units, finger print identification, image sensors, smart light sources, and compact information systems.

  4. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  5. Experimental study of structural and optical properties of integrated MOCVD GaAs/Si(001) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredin, P. V.; Lenshin, A. S.; Zolotukhin, D. S.; Arsentyev, I. N.; Nikolaev, D. N.; Zhabotinskiy, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    This is the first report of the control of the structural and optical functional characteristics of integrated GaAs/Si(001) heterostructures due to the use of misoriented Si(001) substrates with protoporous sublayer. The growth of the epitaxial GaAs layer on silicon substrates without formation of the antiphase domains can be performed on substrates deviating less than 4°-6° from the singular (001) plane or without the use of a transition layer of GaAs nano-columns. Preliminary etching of the silicon substrate with protoporous Si sublayer formation facilitated the acquisition of an epitaxial GaAs film in a single-crystalline state with a considerably less residual strain factor using MOCVD, which has a positive effect on the structural quality of the film. These data are in a good agreement with the results of IR reflection spectroscopy as well as PL and UV spectroscopy. The optical properties of the integrated GaAs/Si (001) heterostructures in the IR and UV spectral regions were also determined by the residual strain value.

  6. Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Pauline; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Guendouz, Mohammed; Lorrain, Nathalie; Poffo, Luiz; Gadonna, Michel; Bosc, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Research on sensors has experienced a noticeable development over the last decades especially in label free optical biosensors. However, compact sensors without markers for rapid, reliable and inexpensive detection of various substances induce a significant research of new technological solutions. The context of this work is the development of a sensor based on easily integrated and inexpensive micro-resonator (MR) component in integrated optics, highly sensitive and selective mainly in the areas of health and food. In this work, we take advantage of our previous studies on filters based on micro-resonators (MR) to experiment a new couple of polymers in the objective to use MR as a sensing function. MRs have been fabricated by processing SU8 polymer as core and PMATRIFE polymer as cladding layer of the waveguide. The refractive index contrast reaches 0.16 @ 1550 nm. Sub-micronic ring waveguides gaps from 0.5 to 1 μm have been successfully achieved with UV (i-line) photolithography. This work confirms our forecasts, published earlier, about the resolution that can be achieved. First results show a good extinction coefficient of ~17 dB, a quality factor around 104 and a finesse of 12. These results are in concordance with the theoretical study and they allow us to validate our technology with this couple of polymers. Work is going on with others lower cladding materials that will be used to further increase refractive index contrast for sensing applications.

  7. Towards an integrated strategy for monitoring wetland inundation with virtual constellations of optical and radar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, B.; Huang, W.; Huang, C.; Jones, J. W.; Lang, M. W.; Creed, I. F.; Carroll, M.

    2017-12-01

    The function of wetlandscapes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles is largely governed by surface inundation, with small wetlands that experience periodic inundation playing a disproportionately large role in these processes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of inundation in these wetland systems are still poorly understood, resulting in large uncertainties in global water, carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. Satellite imagery provides synoptic and repeat views of the Earth's surface and presents opportunities to fill this knowledge gap. Despite the proliferation of Earth Observation satellite missions in the past decade, no single satellite sensor can simultaneously provide the spatial and temporal detail needed to adequately characterize inundation in small, dynamic wetland systems. Surface water data products must therefore integrate observations from multiple satellite sensors in order to address this objective, requiring the development of improved and coordinated algorithms to generate consistent estimates of surface inundation. We present a suite of algorithms designed to detect surface inundation in wetlands using data from a virtual constellation of optical and radar sensors comprising the Landsat and Sentinel missions (DeVries et al., 2017). Both optical and radar algorithms were able to detect inundation in wetlands without the need for external training data, allowing for high-efficiency monitoring of wetland inundation at large spatial and temporal scales. Applying these algorithms across a gradient of wetlands in North America, preliminary findings suggest that while these fully automated algorithms can detect wetland inundation at higher spatial and temporal resolutions than currently available surface water data products, limitations specific to the satellite sensors and their acquisition strategies are responsible for uncertainties in inundation estimates. Further research is needed to investigate strategies for

  8. Framework Programmable Platform for the advanced software development workstation: Framework processor design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Ackley, Keith A.; Crump, Wes; Sanders, Les

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Framework Processor (FP) component of the Framework Programmable Software Development Platform (FFP) is described. The FFP is a project aimed at combining effective tool and data integration mechanisms with a model of the software development process in an intelligent integrated software development environment. Guided by the model, this Framework Processor will take advantage of an integrated operating environment to provide automated support for the management and control of the software development process so that costly mistakes during the development phase can be eliminated.

  9. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    and compressive strains in the lamina cribrosa of 42 and 43, respectively (Fig. 2). The corresponding changes in the optic nerve strains were 17 and 39, while in the PLNT they were 47 and 43. These magnitudes of relative elevations in peak strains may induce a phenotypic response in resident mechano-responsive resident cells [2]. This approach may be expanded to investigate other environmental changes (e.g. parabolic flight). Through our VIIP SCHOLAR project, we will validate and improve these integrated models by measuring patient-specific changes in optic nerve sheath geometry in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension before and after lumbar puncture and CSF removal.

  10. Element Load Data Processor (ELDAP) Users Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John K., Jr.; Ramsey, John K., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    Often, the shear and tensile forces and moments are extracted from finite element analyses to be used in off-line calculations for evaluating the integrity of structural connections involving bolts, rivets, and welds. Usually the maximum forces and moments are desired for use in the calculations. In situations where there are numerous structural connections of interest for numerous load cases, the effort in finding the true maximum force and/or moment combinations among all fasteners and welds and load cases becomes difficult. The Element Load Data Processor (ELDAP) software described herein makes this effort manageable. This software eliminates the possibility of overlooking the worst-case forces and moments that could result in erroneous positive margins of safety and/or selecting inconsistent combinations of forces and moments resulting in false negative margins of safety. In addition to forces and moments, any scalar quantity output in a PATRAN report file may be evaluated with this software. This software was originally written to fill an urgent need during the structural analysis of the Ares I-X Interstage segment. As such, this software was coded in a straightforward manner with no effort made to optimize or minimize code or to develop a graphical user interface.

  11. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  13. Development of Innovative Design Processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.S.; Park, C.O.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear design analysis requires time-consuming and erroneous model-input preparation, code run, output analysis and quality assurance process. To reduce human effort and improve design quality and productivity, Innovative Design Processor (IDP) is being developed. Two basic principles of IDP are the document-oriented design and the web-based design. The document-oriented design is that, if the designer writes a design document called active document and feeds it to a special program, the final document with complete analysis, table and plots is made automatically. The active documents can be written with ordinary HTML editors or created automatically on the web, which is another framework of IDP. Using the proper mix-up of server side and client side programming under the LAMP (Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) environment, the design process on the web is modeled as a design wizard style so that even a novice designer makes the design document easily. This automation using the IDP is now being implemented for all the reload design of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) type PWRs. The introduction of this process will allow large reduction in all reload design efforts of KSNP and provide a platform for design and R and D tasks of KNFC. (authors)

  14. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  15. A data base processor semantics specification package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A Semantics Specification Package (DBPSSP) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPSSP serves as a collection of cross assembly tools that allow the analyst to assemble request blocks on the host computer for passage to the DBP. The assembly tools discussed in this report may be effectively used in conjunction with a DBP compatible data communications protocol to form a query processor, precompiler, or file management system for the database processor. The source modules representing the components of DBPSSP are fully commented and included.

  16. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  17. High-frequency acoustic spectrum analyzer based on polymer integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Araz

    This dissertation presents an acoustic spectrum analyzer based on nonlinear polymer-integrated optics. The device is used in a scanning heterodyne geometry by zero biasing a Michelson interferometer. It is capable of detecting vibrations from DC to the GHz range. Initial low frequency experiments show that the device is an effective tool for analyzing an acoustic spectrum even in noisy environments. Three generations of integrated sensors are presented, starting with a very lossy (86 dB total insertion loss) initial device that detects vibrations as low as λ/10, and second and third generation improvements with a final device of 44 dB total insertion loss. The sensor was further tested for detecting a pulsed laser-excited vibration and resonances due to the structure of the sample. The data are compared to the acoustic spectrum measured using a low loss passive fiber interferometer detection scheme which utilizes a high speed detector. The peaks present in the passive detection scheme are clearly visible with our sensor data, which have a lower noise floor. Hybrid integration of GHz electronics is also investigated in this dissertation. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is integrated on a polymer device using a new approach. The VCO is shown to operate as specified by the manufacturer, and the RF signal is efficiently launched onto the micro-strip line used for EO modulation. In the future this technology can be used in conjunction with the presented sensor to produce a fully integrated device containing high frequency drive electronics controlled by low DC voltage. Issues related to device fabrication, loss analysis, RF power delivery to drive circuitry, efficient poling of large area samples, and optimizing poling conditions are also discussed throughout the text.

  18. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  19. A fully integrated optical detector with a-Si:H based color photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watty, Krystian; Merfort, Christian; Seibel, Konstantin; Schoeler, Lars; Boehm, Markus [Institute for Microsystem Technologies (IMT), University of Siegen, Hoelderlinstr. 3, 57076 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The fabrication of an electrophoresis separation microchip with monolithic integrated excitation light source and variospectral photodiodes for absorption detection is presented in this paper. Microchip based separation techniques are essential elements in the development of fully integrated micro-total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS). An integrated microfluidic device, like an application specific lab-on-microchip (ALM) (Seibel et al., in: MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, USA, 2005 1), includes all components, necessary to perform a chemical analysis on chip and it can be used as a stand-alone unit directly at the point of sampling. Variospectral diodes based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) technology allow for advanced optical detection schemes, because the spectral sensitivity of the devices can be tailored to fit the emission of specific fluorescent markers. Important features of a-Si:H variospectral photodiodes are a high dynamic range, a bias-tunable spectral sensitivity and a very good linearity for the separation of mixed color signals. Principle of ALM device. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Signal and noise analysis in TRION-Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Fast Neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartsky, D; Feldman, G; Mor, I; Goldberg, M B; Bar, D; Dangendorf, V

    2009-01-01

    TRION is a sub-mm spatial resolution fast neutron imaging detector, which employs an integrative optical time-of-flight technique. The detector was developed for fast neutron resonance radiography, a method capable of detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives. In this study we have analyzed in detail, using Monte-Carlo calculations and experimentally determined parameters, all the processes that influence the signal and noise in the TRION detector. In contrast to event-counting detectors where the signal-to-noise ratio is dependent only on the number of detected events (quantum noise), in an energy-integrating detector additional factors, such as the fluctuations in imparted energy, number of photoelectrons, system gain and other factors will contribute to the noise. The excess noise factor (over the quantum noise) due to these processes was 4.3, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9 and 1.9 for incident neutron energies of 2, 4, 7.5, 10 and 14 MeV, respectively. It is shown that, even under ideal light collection conditions, a fast neutron detection system operating in an integrative mode cannot be quantum-noise-limited due to the relatively large variance in the imparted proton energy and the resulting scintillation light distributions.