WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated oil operations

  1. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...... a framework for the knowledge transfer process from operations into engineering design that helps identifying and facing the challenges for such a transfer process. Methodology: The study was carried out as a case study in an offshore oil company. We used the empirical data collected through interviews...

  2. Technology Options and Integration Concepts for Implementing CO2 Capture in Oil-Sands Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordorica-Garcia, G.; Nikoo, M. [Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Carbo, M. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Bolea, I. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    The majority of the technology development for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is driven by the electric-utility industry, in which the emphasis is on large centralized units for electric-power generation with coal as the primary fuel. The implementation of CCS in oil-sands operations has significant potential to provide meaningful carbon-emissions reductions. This paper presents various concepts for integrating leading CO2-capture techniques to bitumen-extraction and -upgrading processes. The main carbon-capture technologies are reviewed, and their relative advantages and disadvantages for implementation in bitumen mining, thermal bitumen extraction, and bitumen upgrading are discussed, leading to a qualitative assessment of their suitability for each oil-sands process.

  3. Proceedings of ITOHOS 2008 : The 2008 SPE/PS/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium : Heavy Oil : Integrating the Pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    This multi-disciplinary conference and exhibition combined the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and the Petroleum Society's (PS) international thermal operations and heavy oil symposium, and the Canadian Heavy Oil Association's (CHOA) annual business meeting. The conference provided a forum to examine emerging technologies and other critical issues affecting the global heavy oil and bitumen industry. The most current technologies from around the world that enhance the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen from oil sand deposits were also showcased. The technical program encompassed the economic, technical, and environmental challenges that the petroleum industry is currently facing. The sessions of the conference were entitled: artificial lift; mining, extraction and cold production; simulation; solvent processes; reservoir characterization; steam generation and water treatment; and, in-situ combustion in Canada. The conference also featured a series of short courses and tutorials on heavy oil wellbore completions and design; drilling horizontal heavy oil wells and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells; geomechanical based reservoir monitoring; thermal well design; fiber optic thermal monitoring; heavy oil thermal recovery and economics; wellbore slotting; advanced geomechanics; and, an overview of cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS). All 91 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. GMRES and integral operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.T.; Xue, Z.Q. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Many discretizations of integral equations and compact fixed point problems are collectively compact and strongly convergent in spaces of continuous functions. These properties not only lead to stable and convergent approximations but also can be used in the construction of fast multilevel algorithms. Recently the GMRES algorithm has become a standard coarse mesh solver. The purpose of this paper is to show how the special properties of integral operators and their approximations are reflected in the performance of the GMRES iteration and how these properties can be used to strengthen the norm in which convergence takes place. The authors illustrate these ideas with composite Gauss rules for integral equations on the unit interval.

  5. Operational Amplifer Integrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    2003-01-01

    An integrator circuit comprises an operational amplifier which has a transistor stage (1) with an input terminal (4) and an output terminal (3), a feedback capacitor (2) connected between the input terminal (4) and the output terminal (3), and a resistor (5) connected to the input terminal (4), and

  6. Collaborative production management for oil sands operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Andrew [Matrikon (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the collaborative production management of oil sands operations. Some characteristics of oil sands operations include oil treatment, hydro treating, diluent addition, logistics, and environmental impact assessments. Some of the business challenges include regulatory uncertainty, a fluid workforce and a technology still in the process of being developed. Improvement is only possible when process is assessed and measured; hence, production data management is very important. Production data measurements encompass such areas as planning, documentation and transactions. Regulatory data reporting is represented using a flow chart. The concepts of business application architecture and functional reference modeling are also explained. Benchmarking plays a vital role, some aspects of which would be technology, automation and integration. Certain advantages of timely assessment are increased production, equity, and goodwill as well as reduction in costs, risk, and capital requirements. The relevance and importance of collaboration, awareness of web technology and aggregate information are also explained. From the study, it can be concluded that the key to overall improvement in the oil sands industry will be improved production management.

  7. Caprock integrity analysis in thermal operations: an integrated geomechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Safdar; Han, Hongxue; Ansari, Sajjad; Vishteh, Morteza; Khosravi, Nader [Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil fields, thermal processes such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam simulation (CSS) are used to recover oil. Unfortunately these methods can induce problems of caprock integrity. It is commonly thought that to maintain caprock integrity, the net injection pressure should be kept under the fracture pressure as measured by mini-fracturing tests but cases have shown that failures can occur below this pressure. This paper aimed at presenting a new approach based on geomechanics to evaluate caprock integrity in thermal processes. A study case was conducted on an SAGD pad development in Northern Alberta. Results confirmed that caprock integrity cannot be guaranteed by injecting steam at a pressure lower than the fracture pressure. In addition the geomechanical model can be used to take measures to avoid catastrophic events. A new integrated geomechanical approach for caprock integrity in thermal operations was developed herein and successfully tested in a field study.

  8. Handbook of offshore oil and gas operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speight, James G

    2015-01-01

    Handbook of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations is an authoritative source providing extensive up-to-date coverage of the technology used in the exploration, drilling, production, and operations in an offshore setting...

  9. China's Oil Giants Successfully Operates Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNPC wins oil project in Algeria China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) won the bid for an oil integration project in Algeria's Adrar Province on May 13 when Algeria National Petroleum Corporation (Sonatrach Inc) held the bid-opening ceremony at its headquarters.

  10. China to Further Accelerate Overseas Oil Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenhua

    2001-01-01

    @@ With China's national economy developing rapidly, the contradiction between oil supply and demand is increasing intense in the country. The growth of the domestic production has been lower than that of consumption since 1993.Reportedly, the oil consumption will rise at a rate of about 3.5 percent each year before 2010 while dependence on foreign oil resources will rise to 44 percent by 2010 from the current 20percent. It is an important issue for China's future economy to secure a long-term and stable oil supply. It is necessary to accelerate China's overseas oil operation because this issue is strategically related to whether the national economy can be kept growing continuously and healthfully.

  11. Engine Oil Condition Monitoring Using High Temperature Integrated Ultrasonic Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Bird; Cheng-Kuei Jen; Zhigang Sun; Pierre Sammut; Brian Galeote; Makiko Kobayashi; Kuo-Ting Wu; Nezih Mrad

    2011-01-01

    The present work contains two parts. In the first part, high temperature integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs) made of thick piezoelectric composite films, were coated directly onto lubricant oil supply and sump lines of a modified CF700 turbojet engine. These piezoelectric films were fabricated using a sol-gel spray technology. By operating these IUTs in transmission mode, the amplitude and velocity of transmitted ultrasonic waves across the flow channel of the lubricant oil in supply and...

  12. Engine Oil Condition Monitoring Using High Temperature Integrated Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Bird

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contains two parts. In the first part, high temperature integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs made of thick piezoelectric composite films, were coated directly onto lubricant oil supply and sump lines of a modified CF700 turbojet engine. These piezoelectric films were fabricated using a sol-gel spray technology. By operating these IUTs in transmission mode, the amplitude and velocity of transmitted ultrasonic waves across the flow channel of the lubricant oil in supply and sump lines were measured during engine operation. Results have shown that the amplitude of the ultrasonic waves is sensitive to the presence of air bubbles in the oil and that the ultrasound velocity is linearly dependent on oil temperature. In the second part of the work, the sensitivity of ultrasound to engine lubricant oil degradation was investigated by using an ultrasonically equipped and thermally-controlled laboratory testing cell and lubricant oils of different grades. The results have shown that at a given temperature, ultrasound velocity decreases with a decrease in oil viscosity. Based on the results obtained in both parts of the study, ultrasound velocity measurement is proposed for monitoring oil degradation and transient oil temperature variation, whereas ultrasound amplitude measurement is proposed for monitoring air bubble content.

  13. Apparatus for performing oil field laser operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2017-01-03

    A system, apparatus and methods for delivering high power laser energy to perform laser operations in oil fields and to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. A laser downhole assembly for the delivery of high power laser energy to surfaces and areas in a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics and a fluid path.

  14. Multilinear Integral Operators and Mean Oscillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lanzhe Liu

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, the boundedness properties for some multilinear operators related to certain integral operators from Lebesgue spaces to Orlicz spaces are obtained. The operators include Calderón–Zygmund singular integral operator, fractional integral operator, Littlewood–Paley operator and Marcinkiewicz operator.

  15. Integrating Nuclear Energy to Oilfield Operations – Two Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson; Lee O. Nelson; Michael G. McKellar; Anastasia M. Gandrik; Mike W. Patterson

    2011-11-01

    Fossil fuel resources that require large energy inputs for extraction, such as the Canadian oil sands and the Green River oil shale resource in the western USA, could benefit from the use of nuclear power instead of power generated by natural gas combustion. This paper discusses the technical and economic aspects of integrating nuclear energy with oil sands operations and the development of oil shale resources. A high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) that produces heat in the form of high pressure steam (no electricity production) was selected as the nuclear power source for both fossil fuel resources. Both cases were based on 50,000 bbl/day output. The oil sands case was a steam-assisted, gravity-drainage (SAGD) operation located in the Canadian oil sands belt. The oil shale development was an in-situ oil shale retorting operation located in western Colorado, USA. The technical feasibility of the integrating nuclear power was assessed. The economic feasibility of each case was evaluated using a discounted cash flow, rate of return analysis. Integrating an HTGR to both the SAGD oil sands operation and the oil shale development was found to be technically feasible for both cases. In the oil sands case, integrating an HTGR eliminated natural gas combustion and associated CO2 emissions, although there were still some emissions associated with imported electrical power. In the in situ oil shale case, integrating an HTGR reduced CO2 emissions by 88% and increased natural gas production by 100%. Economic viabilities of both nuclear integrated cases were poorer than the non-nuclear-integrated cases when CO2 emissions were not taxed. However, taxing the CO2 emissions had a significant effect on the economics of the non-nuclear base cases, bringing them in line with the economics of the nuclear-integrated cases. As we move toward limiting CO2 emissions, integrating non-CO2-emitting energy sources to the development of energy-intense fossil fuel resources is becoming

  16. Integrated pollution control for oil refinery complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, A. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sharratt, P.N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Improving environmental performance of oil refineries is a complex task. Emission limits, operating constraints, available technologies, operating techniques, and local environment sensitivity must all be considered. This work describes efforts to build an interactive software to deal with this problem. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Canadian R&D on oil-fired integrated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E. [CCRL/ERL/CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    This presentation will describe research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and water heating systems at the Combustion & Carbonization Research Laboratory (CCRL) in Ottawa, Canada. It will focus on R& D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA); in particular, progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes and to define outstanding issues and recommend solutions relating to sidewall venting, particularly in cold climates. Additional activities to be discussed relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for oil-fired combustion systems, in support of Canadian federal and provincial policy initiatives. The first activity in this standards area is a determination of the most appropriate measure of seasonal efficiency of complex integrated space/water heating systems. Performance of a range of existing and prototype integrated systems will be examined and their overall performances defined, using heat loss, heat balance and combined methods, for a wide range of cyclic operations and demands. The draft standard may be either a (slight or detailed) modification of the existing ASHRAE standard, or may be a new more appropriate test and analysis procedure, for the range of present and future systems suitable for Canadian applications in both new, low energy housing and in existing housing. The second standards activity is the development of an appropriate measure for the seasonal efficiency of sidewall vented oil-fired appliances.

  18. 46 CFR 169.234 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations. 169.234 Section 169... VESSELS Inspection and Certification Drydocking Or Hauling Out § 169.234 Integral fuel oil tank examinations. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within...

  19. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  20. Problems with Interagency Integration in Contemporary Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Problems with Interagency Integration in Contemporary Operations A Monograph by MAJ Raymond A. Maszarose U.S. Army School of Advanced...with Interagency Integration in Contemporary Operations 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...MAJ Raymond A. Maszarose Monograph Title: Problems with Interagency Integration in Contemporary Operations Approved by

  1. Integral operators and univalent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiah Wah Ong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define two new integral operators $L^k$ and $L_k$ which are iterative in nature. We show that for $f(z=z+a_2z^2+ \\cdots +a_nz^n +\\cdots$ with radius of convergence larger than one, $L^kf(z$ and $L_kf(z$ when restricted on $E=\\{z:|z|<1\\}$ will eventually be univalent for large enough $k$. We then show that these are the best possible results by demonstrating that there exists a holomorphic function $T(z$ in normalized form and with radius of convergence equal to one such that $L^kT(z$ and $L_kT(z$ fail to be univalent when restricted to $E$ for every $k\\in \\mathbb{N}$.

  2. On the application of heat integration in oil sands processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, A.I.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    During bitumen recovery, process heat is generated by burning natural gas or by using electrical energy that is also generated from a hydrocarbon source, typically coal. This adds carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere and contributes to global warming. The Canadian oil sands industry is challenged by stringent environmental regulations, including Kyoto Protocol obligations. In order to address the challenge of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere, the oil sands industry has adopted more efficient operations, has implemented heat and process integration and efficient energy management into its bitumen recovery operations. In particular, it has targeted the optimal integration of the supply and removal of heat among the process streams. The use of heat integration schemes results in conservation of heat energy and reductions in utility requirements, energy consumption, and production cost per unit of production. This paper described a heat exchanger network (HEN) design automation using pinch technology in which the existing problem table algorithm (PTA) is used to determine the optimal heat energy targets. It then proposed a simple modification of the existing PTA and presented a newly developed and improved algorithm called the simple problem table algorithm (SPTA) that eliminates the lumping stage in the PTA. The algorithm is used to determine the optimal heat energy targets. The main objective of this method is to save expense by maximizing process to-process heat recovery. This also reduces the external utility requirements for steam and cooling water. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Integrating hospital and physician revenue cycle operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Kevin M

    2014-03-01

    Standardized revenue cycle processes should be a key component of the coordinated care delivery strategy organizations will require to complete the transition to population health management. Integrating hospital and physician revenue cycle operations can help organizations better navigate new payment models, reduce costs, and improve value. The most comprehensive approach involves integrating patient access and registration, coding operations, and receivables management across different settings.

  4. Problems and prospects of integration development of oil and gas complex in the south of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitaeva Anastasia, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic transformations of the global energy market in recent years have formed the basic tendency of development of modern oil and gas complex – consolidation and integration of companies in the industry to maintain its competitiveness and ensure sustainable strategic business development. In this regard, the issues of building effective mechanisms of partnership interactions and management of integration processes of oil and gas complex at the national and regional levels become relevant. The authors describe the specific operating conditions of oil and gas companies in southern Russia, identify obstacles to the region's integration into the structure of the Russian oil and gas industry, and formulate directions and measures activation of innovative development of oil and gas complex in the South of Russia.

  5. New Operator in Oil Retail Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ When you look for gas stations to refill your car's tank in China, you will probably find only two brands: CNPC and Sinopec. But there will soon be a new player in the market:"Shide." Private firm Dalian Shide Group has recently won a licence to trade refined oil, putting an end to the monopoly of CNPC and Sinopec in the oil retail sector.

  6. Integrating Sustainable Development into Operations Management Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Peter; Persson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely acknowledged that aspects of sustainable development (SD) should be integrated into higher level operations management (OM) education. The aim of the paper is to outline the experiences gained at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden from integrating aspects of SD into OM courses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  7. A high-resolution operational forecast system for oil spill response in Belfast Lough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, Ana J; Castanedo, Sonia; Núñez, Paula; Mellor, Adam; Clements, Annika; Pérez, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Mar; Chiri, Helios; Medina, Raúl

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a high-resolution operational forecast system for providing support to oil spill response in Belfast Lough. The system comprises an operational oceanographic module coupled to an oil spill forecast module that is integrated in a user-friendly web application. The oceanographic module is based on Delft3D model which uses daily boundary conditions and meteorological forcing obtained from COPERNICUS and from the UK Meteorological Office. Downscaled currents and meteorological forecasts are used to provide short-term oil spill fate and trajectory predictions at local scales. Both components of the system are calibrated and validated with observational data, including ADCP data, sea level, temperature and salinity measurements and drifting buoys released in the study area. The transport model is calibrated using a novel methodology to obtain the model coefficients that optimize the numerical simulations. The results obtained show the good performance of the system and its capability for oil spill forecast.

  8. Integration of operational research and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof - Ruwaard, J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The subject of this thesis is the integration of Operational Research and Environmental Management. Both sciences play an important role in the research of environmental issues. Part I describes a framework for the interactions between Operational Research and Environmental Management.

  9. Integration of operational research and environmental management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the integration of Operational Research and Environmental Management. Both sciences play an important role in the research of environmental issues. Part I describes a framework for the interactions between Operational Research and Environmental Management. The framework

  10. Oil and gas operations and First Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [Kaska First Nation, Good Hope Lake, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The author began the presentation by indicating the boundaries of the Kaska traditional territory, which extends from the MacMillan Pass at the Yukon-Northwest Territories border to Williston Lake in British Columbia. The various First Nations that form part of the Kaska Tribal Council were listed. The settlement of land claims involves negotiations with four different public governments, as well as a number of various processes. Economic development within a strategic framework is sought by the Kaska Nation in all sectors of activity, and the emphasis was on the oil and gas industry during the presentation. The vision shared by the Kaska Nation concerning economic development consists of joint ventures, partnerships and strategic alliances. An impact benefit agreement must be signed by industry, government and the Kaska for any oil and gas activity taking place in the Yukon whose value exceeds one million dollars on lands that are claimed by the Kaska Nation. More details on impact benefit agreements were provided. The author discussed joint ventures and intergovernmental agreements. The Kaska Nation wants to actively participate in the economic development opportunities afforded by the oil and gas industry in the North, and it requires cooperation. The Kaska's priority is the conclusion of outstanding land claims, treaties and transboundary agreements, and final agreements will unleash the economic potential of the Kaska territory.

  11. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  12. Oil development-operating cost estimates, 1955-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, M.A.; Shahi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Few if any published oil production cost estimates can be verified as to method and basic data. Using US drilling costs and some assumptions explained in the text, this paper estimates development-operating costs in 41 oil-producing nations, from 1955 to 1985, from publicly available data on drilling. Estimation methods are described in detail so that anyone with access to better information on any item can substitute it to arrive at a better estimate.

  13. Dynamics of Microvalve Operations in Integrated Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T. H. Lau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic microvalves are widely used key components for automating liquid manipulation and flow control in microfluidics for more than one decade. Due to their robust operations and the ease of fabrication, tremendous microfluidic systems have been developed with the multiple microvalves for higher throughput and extended functionalities. Therefore, operation performance of the microvalves in the integrated microfluidic devices is crucial to the related applications, in fields such as micro-flows, cell analyses, drug discovery, and physical/chemical detections. It has been reported that operation performance of the microvalves are highly sensitive to the device configuration and pressurization scheme. This implies the further development of integrated microfluidics with a larger number of the valves may suffer the problems of undetermined microvalve behaviors during operations, which can become an unavoidable hurdle in the device design and optimization processes. Herein, we characterize responses of the individual microvalves for different operation configurations, e.g., membrane thicknesses and driving pressures. We investigate also the effects in microfluidics integrated with the more valves, through experiments, modeling and simulations. We show that dynamics of the microvalves is indeed influenced by the configurations, levels of design complexity and positions in the devices. Overall, taken dynamics of the microvalve responses into considerations, this work provides insights and guidelines for better designs of integrated microfluidics for the future applications requiring higher throughput and improved operation performance.

  14. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin [Brookhaven National Labs., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  15. Optimizing Integrated Terminal Airspace Operations Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the terminal airspace, integrated departures and arrivals have the potential to increase operations efficiency. Recent research has developed geneticalgorithm- based schedulers for integrated arrival and departure operations under uncertainty. This paper presents an alternate method using a machine jobshop scheduling formulation to model the integrated airspace operations. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. Because approximate solutions are computed, the proposed algorithm incorporates the computation of statistical bounds to estimate the optimality of the candidate solutions. A proof-ofconcept study is conducted on a baseline implementation of a simple problem considering a fleet mix of 14 aircraft evolving in a model of the Los Angeles terminal airspace. A more thorough statistical analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of the number of scenarios considered in the sampled problem. To handle extensive sampling computations, a multithreading technique is introduced.

  16. Dynamics of Microvalve Operations in Integrated Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Alan T. H. Lau; Hon Ming Yip; Kathy C. C. Ng; Xin Cui; Lam, Raymond H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic microvalves are widely used key components for automating liquid manipulation and flow control in microfluidics for more than one decade. Due to their robust operations and the ease of fabrication, tremendous microfluidic systems have been developed with the multiple microvalves for higher throughput and extended functionalities. Therefore, operation performance of the microvalves in the integrated microfluidic devices is crucial to the related applications, in fields such as micro-...

  17. Integrated safeguards and facility design and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tape, J.W.; Coulter, C.A.; Markin, J.T.; Thomas, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The integration of safeguards functions to deter or detect unauthorized actions by insiders requires careful communication and management of safeguards-relevant information on a timely basis. The separation of safeguards functions into physical protection, materials control, and materials accounting often inhibits important information flows. Redefining the major safeguards functions as authorization, enforcement, and verification and careful attention to management of information can result in effective safeguards integration. Whether designing new systems or analyzing existing ones, understanding the interface between facility operations and safeguards is critical to cost-effective integrated safeguards systems that meet modern standards of performance.

  18. Hydraulic analysis of the operation of oil and gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, T.; Szaharov, V.A.; Szilas, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The results are cited of a study of the operation of operational oil and gas wells. A hydraulic system of operational wells is identified for the first time, which consists of elements of a stratum, well and surface equipment system. After a brief presentation of the rating methods which describe the operation of the elements, the methods for hydraulic analysis of the complete system are detailed. After theoretical presentation of the methods, the course of computer (EVM) programs, developed for practical purposes, is shown. These programs may be used to solve two basic problems in gusher extraction of oil: identification of the maximal flow rate of a gusher well and the operational point of a well which has a wellhead coupling.

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-24 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 31.10-24... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-24 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull (integral fuel oil tank) is...

  20. Effect of Drying Operating Conditions on Canola Oil Tocopherol Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Laoretani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate two operating parameters of seed drying (temperature and initial moisture content on the tocopherol content of canola oil. The raw material was characterized by moisture, oil, protein, crude fiber and ash content. Seeds at 13.6% and 22.7% moisture content (dry basis, db were dried at temperatures in the range of 35–100 °C to a safe storage moisture of 7% db. Oil was extracted from each treated sample. The oil extracted from the samples dried at the extreme temperatures was analyzed by means of the acidity value, peroxide index and fatty acid composition, finding no significant differences among treatments or among untreated and treated samples. Tocopherol contents in the oils obtained for all the assayed temperatures were determined. Differences were found for the samples with 22.7% (db initial moisture content. Except at 35 °C, temperature affected negatively the oil tocopherol content. However, when 13.6% (db moisture seeds were processed, no significant differences were observed in the amount of this minor oil component among assays.

  1. Scattering integral equations for distorted transition operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, K.L.; Siciliano, E.R.; Thaler, R.M.

    1978-11-01

    Methods for embedding phenomenological distorted-wave techniques for rearrangement and inelastic scattering within well-defined theories of multiparticle scattering are developed. The essential point of contact between the two approaches is in the definition and choice of distorting potential. It is shown that the concept of a channel coupling scheme allows a comparative freedom of choice for these potentials; if they are connected operators, such as optical potentials, then it is possible to obtain connected-kernel equations for the distorted transition operators. The latter are introduced in the course of exploiting the two-potential formula for the full transition operator and have the property that their matrix elements with respect to distorted waves are the physical scattering amplitudes. It is found that the distorted counterparts of the Kouri, Levin, and Tobocman and the Bencze-Redish integral equations maintain their connected-kernel and minimally coupled properties. These equations can be used to derive other integral equations with the same properties for the distorted-wave operators which consist of the product of the distorted transition operators and the wave operators corresponding to distorted waves. These simplifications are not realized for arbitrary channel coupling schemes. In order to deal with the general situation an alternative approach employing a subtraction technique which involves projections on the bound two-cluster channel states is introduced. When the distorting potentials are essentially the optical potentials in the entrance and exit channels a set of multichannel two-particle Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations for the two-cluster distorted-wave transition operators are obtained. Input into these two-particle integral equations involves the solution of a modified N-particle equation. Approximations to the latter are discussed in the particular cases of the Kouri, Levin, and Tobocman and Bencze-Redish channel coupling schemes.

  2. Model-based Optimization of Oil Recovery: Robust Operational Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Essen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of depleting an oil reservoir can be poured into an optimal control problem with the objective to maximize economic performance over the life of the field. Despite its large potential, life-cycle optimization has not yet found its way into operational environments. The objective of this t

  3. Integrated supply and demand management in operations

    OpenAIRE

    Transchel, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal matching supply with demand, which is the fundament of supply chain management, has changed the role of operations management from pure cost control to value creation. The recent developments of integrating revenue management with supply chain management activities and the resulting successes have indicated the tremendous potential to improve the supply chain performance in the same way that revenue management has revolutionized the airline industry. This thesis investigates how an i...

  4. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  5. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  6. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, Oleg K

    2009-01-01

    We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.

  7. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinman, Oleg K [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    This paper considers the theory of Lax equations with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface, proposed by Krichever in 2001. The approach here is based on new objects, the Lax operator algebras, taking into consideration an arbitrary complex simple or reductive classical Lie algebra. For every Lax operator, regarded as a map sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyurin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra, a hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by the Lax equations is constructed, and it is proved that they are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example, elliptic A{sub n}, C{sub n}, and D{sub n} Calogero-Moser systems are derived in the framework of our approach. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  8. Electrical power integration for lunar operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Electrical power for future lunar operations is expected to range from a few kilowatts for an early human outpost to many megawatts for industrial operations in the 21st century. All electrical power must be imported as chemical, solar, nuclear, or directed energy. The slow rotation of the Moon and consequent long lunar night impose severe mass penalties on solar systems needing night delivery from storage. The cost of power depends on the cost of the power systems the cost of its transportation to the Moon, operating cost, and, of course, the life of the power system. The economic feasibility of some proposed lunar ventures depends in part on the cost of power. This paper explores power integration issues, costs, and affordability in the context of the following representative lunar ventures: (1) early human outpost (10 kWe); (2) early permanent lunar base, including experimental ISMU activities (100 kWe); (3) lunar oxygen production serving an evolved lunar base (500 kWe); (4) lunar base production of specialized high-value products for use on Earth (5 kWe); and (5) lunar mining and production of helium-3 (500 kWe). The schema of the paper is to project likely costs of power alternatives (including integration factors) in these power ranges, to select the most economic, to determine power cost contribution to the product or activities, to estimate whether the power cost is economically acceptable, and, finally, to offer suggestions for reaching acceptability where cost problems exist.

  9. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  10. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  11. Integrated field modelling[Oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Bamshad

    2002-07-01

    This research project studies the feasibility of developing and applying an integrated field simulator to simulate the production performance of an entire oil or gas field. It integrates the performance of the reservoir, the wells, the chokes, the gathering system, the surface processing facilities and whenever applicable, gas and water injection systems. The approach adopted for developing the integrated simulator is to couple existing commercial reservoir and process simulators using available linking technologies. The simulators are dynamically linked and customised into a single hybrid application that benefits from the concept of open software architecture. The integrated field simulator is linked to an optimisation routine developed based on the genetic algorithm search strategies. This enables optimisation of the system at field level, from the reservoir to the process. Modelling the wells and the gathering network is achieved by customising the process simulator. This study demonstrated that the integrated simulation improves current capabilities to simulate the performance of the entire field and optimise its design. This is achieved by evaluating design options including spread and layout of the wells and gathering system, processing alternatives, reservoir development schemes and production strategies. Effectiveness of the integrated simulator is demonstrated and tested through several field-level case studies that discuss and investigate technical problems relevant to offshore field development. The case studies cover topics such as process optimisation, optimum tie-in of satellite wells into existing process facilities, optimal well location and field layout assessment of a high pressure high temperature deepwater oil field. Case study results confirm the viability of the total field simulator by demonstrating that the field performance simulation and optimal design were obtained in an automated process with treasonable computation time. No significant

  12. Computing Fourier integral operators with caustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caday, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Fourier integral operators (FIOs) have widespread applications in imaging, inverse problems, and PDEs. An implementation of a generic algorithm for computing FIOs associated with canonical graphs is presented, based on a recent paper of de Hoop et al. Given the canonical transformation and principal symbol of the operator, a preprocessing step reduces application of an FIO approximately to multiplications, pushforwards and forward and inverse discrete Fourier transforms, which can be computed in O({N}n+(n-1)/2{log}N) time for an n-dimensional FIO. The same preprocessed data also allows computation of the inverse and transpose of the FIO, with identical runtime. Examples demonstrate the algorithm’s output, and easily extendible MATLAB/C++ source code is available from the author.

  13. Surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping stainless steel with new vegetable based cutting oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of new formulations of vegetable oils on surface integrity and part accuracy in reaming and tapping operations with AISI 316L stainless steel. Surface integrity was assessed with measurements of roughness, microhardness, and using metallographic ...

  14. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  15. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  16. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  17. Pseudo-Differential Operators and Integrable Models

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the theory of pseudo-differential operators in the study of non linear integrable systems is point out. Principally, the algebra $\\Xi $ of nonlinear (local and nonlocal) differential operators, acting on the ring of analytic functions $u_{s}(x, t)$, is studied. It is shown in particular that this space splits into several classes of subalgebras $\\Sigma_{jr}, j=0,\\pm 1, r=\\pm 1$ completely specified by the quantum numbers: $s$ and $(p,q)$ describing respectively the conformal weight (or spin) and the lowest and highest degrees. The algebra ${\\huge \\Sigma}_{++}$ (and its dual $\\Sigma_{--}$) of local (pure nonlocal) differential operators is important in the sense that it gives rise to the explicit form of the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV system and that we call also the Gelfand-Dickey Poisson bracket. This is explicitly done in several previous studies, see for the moment \\cite{4, 5, 14}. Some results concerning the KdV and Boussinesq hierarchies are derived explicitly.

  18. 46 CFR 167.15-40 - Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel oil tank examinations-T/ALL. 167.15-40... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-40 Integral fuel oil tank examinations—T/ALL. (a) Each fuel oil tank with at least one side integral to the vessel's hull and located within the hull...

  19. Strongly Singular Integral Operators on Weighted Hardy Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Feng LI; Shan Zhen LU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain that a strongly singular integral operator is bounded on Lpw space for 1<p<∞.We also obtain that a strongly singular integral operator is a bounded operator from Hpw to Lpw for some weight w and 0<p≤1. And by an atomic decomposition, we obtain that a strongly singular integral operator is a bounded operator on Hpw, for some w and 0<p<1.

  20. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  1. Towards sustainability in offshore oil and gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Ibrahim

    acceptable, economically profitable and socially responsible. This dissertation discusses the framework of true 'sustainability' for practically all aspects oil and gas operations and nature-based resource operations. Sustainability of existing offshore oil and gas operations techniques are analyzed and new nature-based technologies are proposed. Also evaluated are the fate and effect, environmental impact, risk factors, and the green supply chain in the case of seismic, drilling, production and decommissioning of oil operations. It is demonstrated with detailed examples that using the new approach will be economically more beneficial than the conventional approach, even in the short-term. The dissertation also examines the present status of petroleum operations with respect to waste generation, improper resource management, and the usage of toxic compounds in the overall lifecycle. To achieve true sustainability, some innovative models and technologies are presented. They include achievement of zero emissions, zero waste of resources, zero waste in activities, zero use of toxics, and zero waste in product life-cycle. This dissertation also discusses the environmental and technological problems of the petroleum sector and provides guidelines to achieve overall sustainability in oil company activities. Finally, this dissertation shows that inherent sustainability can be achieved by the involvement of community participation. The new screening tool proposed in this dissertation provides proper guidelines to achieve true sustainability in the technology development and other resource development operations.

  2. Multisensory integration : flexible use of general operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Murray, Micah M; Thut, Gregor; Schroeder, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Research into the anatomical substrates and "principles" for integrating inputs from separate sensory surfaces has yielded divergent findings. This suggests that multisensory integration is flexible and context dependent and underlines the need for dynamically adaptive neuronal integration mechanism

  3. On Quantum Field Theories in Operator and Functional Integral Formalisms

    CERN Document Server

    Teleki, A; Noga, Milan; Teleki, Aba

    2006-01-01

    Relations and isomorphisms between quantum field theories in operator and functional integral formalisms are analyzed from the viewpoint of inequivalent representations of commutator or anticommutator rings of field operators. A functional integral in quantum field theory cannot be regarded as a Newton-Lebesgue integral but rather as a formal object to which one associates distinct numerical values for different processes of its integration. By choosing an appropriate method for the integration of a given functional integral, one can select a single representation out of infinitely many inequivalent representations for an operator whose trace is expressed by the corresponding functional integral. These properties are demonstrated with two exactly solvable examples.

  4. Performance evaluation of NEEM oil and HONGE Oil as cutting fluid in drilling operation of mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cutting fluids are used in machining industries for improving tool life, reducing work piece and thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. Although the application of cutting fluids increases the tool life and Machining efficiency, but it has many major problems related to environmental impacts and health hazards along with recycling & disposal. These problems gave provision for the introduction of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. These oils play an important role in improving various machining properties, including corrosion protection, lubricity, antibacterial protection, even emulsibility and chemical stability. Compared to mineral oils, vegetable oils in general possess high viscosity index, high flash point, high lubricity and low evaporative losses. Vegetable oils can be edible or non-edible oils and Various researchers have proved that edible vegetable oils viz., palm oil, coconut oil, canola oil, soya bean oil can be effectively used as eco-friendly cutting fluid in machining operations. But in present situations harnessing edible oils for lubricants formation restricts the use due to increased demands of growing population worldwide and availability. In the present work, Non-edible vegetable oil like Neem and Honge are been used as cutting fluid for drilling of Mild steel and its effect on cutting temperature, hardness and surface roughness are been investigated. Results obtained are compared with SAE 20W40 (petroleum based cutting fluid)and dry cutting condition.

  5. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF POWER CONSUMPTION FOR SOME OIL PIPE-LINE SECTIONS WITH POOR OPERATIONAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kolesnik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of power consumption for technologically completed and non-completed oil pipe-line sections with poor operational stability has been developed on the basis of daily indices concerning oil transportation regimes. The model permits to take into account tendencies in power consumption under various time prediction cycles and ranges of oil freight turnover, changes in the bulk and characteristics of the transported oil, configuration and design parameters of oil pipe-line.

  6. CHINA'S LARGEST OIL & GAS MIXED-TRANSMISSION PROJECT PUT INTO OPERATION IN KAZAKSTAN SUCCESSFULLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The largest oil & gas mixed-transmission project in China's petroleum industry had been put into operation in Kazakstan successfully, which indicates that CNPC has entered the leading list in oil & gas mixed-transmission technology in the world.

  7. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  8. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chalil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO. India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for Indonesia and Malaysia, the two biggest CPO exporters in the world. This research using monthly price data from the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, EU28, India, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Market integrations are tested with Cointegration Test, Vector Error Correction Model and Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results show that these markets are integrated, but European countries are unlikely to lead the price movement. Therefore, the concern on sustainable certification from the European countries still slowly spreads to other main importers, resulting in low absorption of CSPO. Keywords: market integration; sustainable palm oil; seemingly unrelated regression; vector Error correction model

  9. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  10. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  11. Business Case for Integrated Reporting in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudeen J. AYOOLA

    2013-03-01

    were sourced from the annual reports and stand-alone sustainability reports of the six multinational companies operating in the Nigerian oil and gas sector. The results found that efforts to address environmental, social and governance reporting (ESG were adhoc, short term and unrelated to the core activities of the corporations and as such were not integrated into their business strategies and model. Information on ESG was also duplicated over many medium in a haphazard and distorted form. The study therefore concluded that the introduction of integrated reporting will streamline performance reporting that is in line with international best practice in the sector.

  12. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  13. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONAL SAFETY IN A COMPANY OF OIL AND GAS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Coentrão Marques

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Operational safety is a worrying factor within any company, especially in the oil and gas sector. The objective of this work was to analyze the application of technical regulation of the management system for operational safety on marine installations for drilling and production of oil and natural gas from the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels in manuals of a company in the oil and gas sector. The methodology was based on documentary analysis. It was observed that the company management can achieve the technical factors of work, building design and integration as operational safety in each of the management practices. Concluded that the format and information of manuals are placed as potential to eliminate the risks for the company and the environment.

  15. Boundedness for multilinear fractional integral operators on Herz type spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the boundedness for the multilinear fractional integral operator I(m)a on the product of Herz spaces and Herz-Morrey spaces are founded,which improves the Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality for classical fractional integral Ia.The method given in the note is useful for more general multilinear integral operators.

  16. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  17. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking on production safety systems on August 22, 2013 (78 FR 52240). The proposed rule would... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety...

  18. The spatiotemporal characteristics of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2016-09-15

    Marine ecosystems are home to a host of numerous species ranging from tiny planktonic organisms, fishes, and birds, to large mammals such as the whales, manatees, and seals. However, human activities such as offshore oil and gas operations increasingly threaten marine and coastal ecosystems, for which there has been little exploration into the spatial and temporal risks of offshore oil operations. Using the Gulf of Mexico, one of the world's hottest spots of offshore oil and gas mining, as the study area, we propose a spatiotemporal approach that integrates spatial statistics and geostatistics in a geographic information system environment to provide insight to environmental management and decision making for oil and gas operators, coastal communities, local governments, and the federal government. We use the records from 1995 to 2015 of twelve types of hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations, and analyze them spatially over a five year period. The spatial clusters of these hazards are analyzed and mapped using Getis-Ord Gi and local Moran's I statistics. We then design a spatial correlation coefficient matrix for multivariate spatial correlation, which is the ratio of the cross variogram of two types of hazards to the product of the variograms of the two hazards, showing a primary understanding of the degrees of spatial correlation among the twelve types hazards. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first application of spatiotemporal analysis methods to environmental hazards caused by offshore oil and gas operations; the proposed methods can be applied to other regions for the management and monitoring of environmental hazards caused by offshore oil operations.

  19. String operator formalism and functional integral in holomorphic representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losev, A.; Morozov, A.; Rosly, A.; Shatashvili, S.

    1989-01-05

    We discuss the relation between the functional integral over open Riemann surfaces and the operator formalism on closed Riemann surfaces. The states in the latter formalism arise in the holomorphic representation of the functional integral.

  20. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  1. An integrated operation mode for green logistics of enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chengxue; Wu Chunyou; Fan Yu

    2006-01-01

    The integrated operation mode of green logistics is a new enterprise's logistics operation and management mode concerning environment issues based on the traditional integrated mode. Through comparative study on the integrated operation mode of logistics based on self-operation, the operation mode of an integrated logistics of enterprises based on TPL, the green-supply chain management, and the operation mode of eco-industrial park (EIP), a relatively complete objective system structure is put forward for the integrated operation mode of green logistics of enterprises. Furthermore, the correspondent practical mode is also set up to help enterprises, especially for the manufacturing companies, not only improve the environment effectively, but support the technological framework for the enterprise's economic performance and social benefits in order to realize economic, social and environmental benefits are concerned.

  2. AREA INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS FOR SECTORIAL OPERATORS ON Lp SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽亁; 孙牧

    2014-01-01

    Area integral functions are introduced for sectorial operators on Lp-spaces. We establish the equivalence between the square and area integral functions for sectorial operators on Lp spaces. This follows that the results of Cowling, Doust, McIntosh, Yagi, and Le Merdy on H∞ functional calculus of sectorial operators on Lp-spaces hold true when the square functions are replaced by the area integral functions.

  3. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  4. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  5. Historic Breakthrough in CNPC's Overseas Oil and Gas Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Daily overseas oil production tops 80,000 tons China National Oil and Gas Exploration and Development Corporation (CNODC), one of the subsidiaries under CNPC specialized in overseas oil and gas exploration, is now experiencing a strong and rapid business development momentum this year.

  6. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  7. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  8. Integrals of operator-valued functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimond A. Struble

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikusinski-type expansions of operator-valued functions are discussed in some detail. As a natural part of the development, a “kernel” concept for operators is proposed and an elaborate system of convolution quotients in one and two variables is obtained.

  9. Manifolds with integrable affine shape operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Joaquín

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the conditions for the existence of vector fields with the property that theirs covariant derivative, with respect to the affine normal connection, be the affine shape operatorS in hypersurfaces. Some results are obtained from this property and, in particular, for some kind of affine decomposable hypersurfaces we explicitely get the actual vector fields.

  10. Singular integral operators on product Triebel-Lizorkin spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the rough singular integral operators on product Triebel-Lizorkin spaces and prove certain boundedness properties on the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces. We also use the same method to study the fractional integral operator and the Littlewood-Paley functions. The results extend some known results.

  11. 76 FR 47423 - Aviation Fuel and Oil Operating Limitations; Policy Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... (ECO) when evaluating compliance with the standards for aviation fuel and oil operating limitations... Certification Office (ECO) when evaluating compliance with the standards for aviation fuel and oil operating... type certification, major design change, and supplemental type certification projects. The draft...

  12. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Registrants Engaged in Oil and Gas Producing Activities § 229.1208 (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage. (a) Disclose, as of a reasonably current date or as of the end of the fiscal...

  13. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinman, Oleg K.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct th...

  14. Generalized Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities involving fractional integral operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Erhan; Noor, Muhammed Aslam; Awan, Muhammed Uzair; Gözpinar, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a new general integral identity involving generalized fractional integral operators is established. With the help of this identity new Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities are obtained for functions whose absolute values of derivatives are convex. As a consequence, the main results of this paper generalize the existing Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities involving the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral.

  15. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  16. Projection Operator and Propagator for an Arbitrary Integral Spin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄时中; 阮图南; 吴宁; 郑志鹏

    2002-01-01

    Based on the solution of the Bargmann-Wigner equation for an arbitrary integral spin, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for an arbitrary integral spin is presented. The explicit form for the spin projection operators constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is confirmed. The commutation rules and a general expression for the Feynman propagator for a free particle of arbitrary integral spin are deduced.

  17. SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS IN L2 SPACE WITH CHEBYSHEV WEIGHTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a class of singular integral operators Iwj on L2wj space,where wights wj(j=1-4) are four kinds of Chebyshev weights.The authors prove that Iwj is an unique linear extension of classic singular integral operator Iwj on Holder space,some important properties of Iwj and some results of singular integral equation in L2wj space.

  18. ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulan Jiao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1operator.

  19. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  20. Integrated Air Surveillance Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ) In...Office of Management and Budget OpsCon: Operational Concept OSINT : Open Source Intelligence OSTP: Office of Science & Technology Policy Pt–to-Pt

  1. Integrated approaches to warehouse planning and operations

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S.

    2010-01-01

    In this talk we discuss a tactical model recently available in warehouse literature. The model integrates the replenishment decision in inventory management, the allocation of products to warehousing systems and the assignment of products to storage locations in warehousing management. Our aim is to show the models’ potentialities and weaknesses when applied to a wide variety of problems and to identify challenging research opportunities for developing global warehouse decision support mod...

  2. HTL heavy oil upgrading a key solution for heavy oil upstream and midstream operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, M.A.; Pavel, S. K.; Hillderman, M. D. [Ivanhoe Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, heavy oil has become a strategic resource due to the decline of light crude oil reserves and the rising energy demand. Many challenges have to be overcome during heavy oil development and Ivanhoe Energy has developed a new process to address these issues. The heavy to light (HTL) upgrading process converts heavy crude oil into lighter and more valuable synthetic oil. This process can be used upstream, midstream or near the well head. The aim of this paper is to present the history of HTL's development, the technology itself and its performance and advantages. HTL captures the majority of the market value difference between heavy and light oil while eliminating diluent requirement; in addition this technology is economic at small scales. The HTL upgrading process presented herein is a simple and efficient solution for exploiting heavy oil and bitumen reserves.

  3. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  4. On algebraically integrable differential operators on an elliptic curve

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    We discuss explicit classification of algebraically integrable (i.e., finite gap) differential operators on elliptic curves with one and several poles. After giving a new exposition of some known results (based on differential Galois theory), we describe a conjectural classification of third order algebraically integrable operators with one pole (obtained using Maple), in particular discovering new "isolated" ones, living on special elliptic curves defined over $\\Bbb Q$. We also discuss algebraically integrable operators with several poles, with and without symmetries, and connect them to elliptic Calogero-Moser systems (in the case with symmetries, to the crystallographic ones, introduced recently by Felder, Ma, Veselov, and the first author).

  5. Integration of Dynamic Models in Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    This work addresses the various model interactions in real-time to make an efficient internet based decision making tool for Shuttle launch. The decision making tool depends on the launch commit criteria coupled with physical models. Dynamic interaction between a wide variety of simulation applications and techniques, embedded algorithms, and data visualizations are needed to exploit the full potential of modeling and simulation. This paper also discusses in depth details of web based 3-D graphics and applications to range safety. The advantages of this dynamic model integration are secure accessibility and distribution of real time information to other NASA centers.

  6. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations... National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and...

  7. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  8. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  9. Microwave-integrated extraction of total fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Tomao, Valérie; Ginies, Christian; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-07-04

    An improved process of Soxhlet extraction assisted by microwave, called microwave-integrated Soxhlet (MIS) is proposed for the extraction of oils and fats from different food matrixes such as oleaginous seeds, meat and bakery products. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology and reached from a central composite design allowing us to conclude in a previous paper that the proposed process ensures complete, efficient and accurate extraction for lipids determination from olives. In this paper, the peak areas of the main fatty acids extracted with MIS from olive seeds were considered as response variables and submitted to an analysis of variance in order to determine if there was a significant link between the extraction of fatty acids and the variables required in extraction procedures. Results have shown that MIS parameters do not affect the composition of the extracts. For the generalization of the study with several food matrixes, MIS extraction results obtained were then compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction in terms of crude extract and fatty acid composition and shown that the oils extracted by MIS were quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction. MIS labstation can be considered as a new and general alternative for the extraction of lipids by using microwave energy.

  10. AN INTER-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF OIL FIRMS: FURTHER EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mautin Oke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been growing needs to investigate oil and gas firms more closely due to their corporate scandals. Globally, oil firm managements have become more risk intolerant. They are sometimes under pressure to deliver results within a short time, which often negatively affect their ability to undertake risky ventures that are rewarding.Applying the Data Envelopment Analysis, this paper shows a high level of technical operational inefficiency of 0.51 in Nigerian oil industry over the period 2006-2009. The fall in technical efficiency of the oil firms in 2009 might be attributed to the banking crisis in Nigeria in 2009 that affected financial operations of some oil firms that relied on banking credits for running their business, and the fall in global oil prices relative to mid 2008.

  11. Exponential decay estimates for Singular Integral operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Rela, Ezequiel

    2012-01-01

    The following subexponential estimate for commutators is proved |[|\\{x\\in Q: |[b,T]f(x)|>tM^2f(x)\\}|\\leq c\\,e^{-\\sqrt{\\alpha\\, t\\|b\\|_{BMO}}}\\, |Q|, \\qquad t>0.\\] where $c$ and $\\alpha$ are absolute constants, $T$ is a Calder\\'on--Zygmund operator, $M$ is the Hardy Littlewood maximal function and $f$ is any function supported on the cube $Q$. It is also obtained \\[|\\{x\\in Q: |f(x)-m_f(Q)|>tM_{1/4;Q}^#(f)(x) \\}|\\le c\\, e^{-\\alpha\\,t}|Q|,\\qquad t>0,\\] where $m_f(Q)$ is the median value of $f$ on the cube $Q$ and $M_{1/4;Q}^#$ is Str\\"omberg's local sharp maximal function. As a consequence it is derived Karagulyan's estimate \\[|\\{x\\in Q: |Tf(x)|> tMf(x)\\}|\\le c\\, e^{-c\\, t}\\,|Q|\\qquad t>0,\\] improving Buckley's theorem. A completely different approach is used based on a combination of "Lerner's formula" with some special weighted estimates of Coifman-Fefferman obtained via Rubio de Francia's algorithm. The method is flexible enough to derive similar estimates for other operators such as multilinear Calder\\'on--Z...

  12. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  13. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... the problems due to discrepancies between a non-linear and a linearized formulation. The proposed model covers realistic settings by allowing the blending of crude oil in storage tanks, by modeling storage tanks and relevant processing units individually, and by handling more crude oil types and quality...

  14. An integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus for the extraction of essential oils from herb materials and its application in Flos Magnoliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhui; Li, Boxia; Duan, Haogang; Wu, Xin'an; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    A large number of herb materials contain essential oils with extensive bioactivities. In this work, an integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction (ISDE) apparatus was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, the performance of ISDE was evaluated for the extraction of essential oil from Flos Magnoliae and compared with conventional techniques including steam distillation (SD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). According to the product yield, the time consumed and the composition of oil, the essential oils isolated by ISDE were better than that obtained by SD and similar to those obtained by SDE. ISDE was also better than SDE due to its simple operation and lower consumption of energy and organic solvent.

  15. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  16. Reinforcing effect for corn oil stimulus was concentration dependent in an operant task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Taka, Yuichi; Okamura, Maya; Mizushige, Takafumi; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manabe, Yasuko; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-11-30

    Corn oil is reported to elicit a conditioned place preference (CPP) in a CPP test in mice. To further investigate a reinforcing effect of corn oil, we studied whether the corn oil acts as a reinforcer under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule in the operant task. BALB/c mice were trained to lever press for sucrose and corn oil. After reaching a stable break-point for 100% corn oil, the PR test was conducted for various concentrations of corn oil (0%-100%). The reinforcing effect of corn oil was increased in a concentration-dependent manner under the PR schedule. A mineral oil and 0.3% xanthan gum as vehicles did not show any reinforcing effect in the PR test, suggesting that oily and viscous texture was not related to the reinforcing property of corn oil. The break-point for corn oil was attenuated by pretreatment with (-)-sulpiride, a D(2) antagonist, in the PR test. On the other hand, SCH23390, a D(1) antagonist, did not influence the break-point. Furthermore, the pretreatment with (-)-sulpiride or SCH23390 did not influence the intake of corn oil in a one-bottle test for 30 min, suggesting that the dopaminergic system is involved in the reinforcing effect but not the consumption of corn oil in mice. In conclusion, operant response to corn oil is concentration-dependently enhanced under the PR schedule. This reinforcing effect of corn oil is at least partly mediated through the dopaminergic systems via D(2) receptors.

  17. 76 FR 21395 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity; 1010-0141, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...; 1010-0141, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request... request (ICR) concerns the paperwork requirements related to oil and gas drilling operations, and related.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart D, Oil and Gas Drilling Operations. BOEMRE...

  18. Certain Inequalities Involving the Fractional q-Integral Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Baleanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities involving Saigo fractional q-integral operator in the theory of quantum calculus by using the two parameters of deformation, q1 and q2, whose special cases are shown to yield corresponding inequalities associated with Riemann-Liouville and Kober fractional q-integral operators, respectively. Furthermore, we also consider their relevance with other related known results.

  19. Real-Time Simulation of Oil Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Opdal

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the basic numeric model for the oil drilling simulator WELLSIM. As a case study it presents an example from well pressure control. Figure 1 shows a picture of the simulator.

  20. Pipeline design software and the simulation of liquid propane/butane-light oils pipeline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive and integrated suite of computer software routines has been developed to simulate the flow of liquids in pipelines. The fluid properties module accommodates Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids or mixtures including corrections for changes in properties with temperature and pressure. The hydraulic model calculates pressure drop in single or looped pipelines based on the diameter, route (length) and profile data provided. For multi-product pipelines the hydraulics module estimates energy loss for any sequence of batches given the size and fluid properties of each batch, and the velocity in the pipeline. When the characteristics of existing or proposed pipeline pumps are included, location and size of pumps can be optimized. The effect of heat loss on pressure drop is predicted by invoking the module which calculates the fluid temperature profile based on operating conditions, fluid properties, pipe and insulation conductivity and soil heat transfer data. Modules, created to simulate heater or cooler operations, can be incorporated to compensate for changes in temperature. Input data and calculated results can be presented in a format customized by the user. The simulation software has been successfully applied to multi-product, fuel oil, and non-Newtonian emulsion pipelines. The simulation and operation of a refinery products pipeline for the transportation of propane, butane, gasline, jet and diesel batches will be discussed. The impact of high vapor pressure batches (i.e., propane and butane) on the operation of the pipeline and on the upstream and downstream facilities will be examined in detail.

  1. Drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells in an H/sub 2/S environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, M.W.; Hodgson, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: facts about hydrogen sulfides; drilling and operating oil, gas, and geothermal wells; detection devices and protective equipment; hazard levels and safety procedures; first aid; and H/sub 2/S in California oil, gas, and geothermal fields. (MHR)

  2. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%.

  3. Modular Filter Convergence Theorems for Urysohn Integral Operators and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio BOCCUTO; Xenofon DIMITRIOU

    2013-01-01

    We prove some versions of modular convergence theorems for nonlinear Urysohn-type integral operators with respect to filter convergence.We consider pointwise filter convergence of functions giving also some applications to linear and nonlinear Mellin operators.We show that our results are strict extensions of the classical ones.

  4. Integrated ADIOS-IGENPRO operator advisory support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Park, J. H.; Kim, J. T.; Kim, C. H.; Park, W. M.; Hwang, I. K.; Cheon, S. W.; Song, S. J

    2001-05-01

    The I and C systems and control rooms of nuclear power plants have been constructed by using the automatic control concept and changed to computer-based systems in nowadays. For Increase of an automation and CRT, the role of operators is changed to monitor the condition of the nuclear power plants. Therefore, the information that is offered to operators has to integrate in order for operator to understand the hole condition of plants. In commercial nuclear plants, raw data of sensors and components are shown in a control room. So, operators can not diagnose the condition of plants correctly. For a development of an integrated operator aid system which contain an alarm processing system and a fault diagnosis system, we integrated IGENPRO of ANL(Argonne National Lab.) and ADIOS of KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute). IGENPRO is a fault diagnosis system contains three module such as PROTREN, PRODIAG and PROTREN. ADIOS is an alarm processing system that informs operators of important alarms. The integrated operator advisory support system developed in the research is composed of an alarm processing module and a fault diagnosis module. The alarm processing module shows important alarms to operator by using dynamic alarm filtering methods. The fault diagnosis module shows the cause of faults of sensors and hardwares.

  5. Characteristics of operation and possible oil recovery from the sixth formation of Arlansk oil field. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viktorov, P.F.; Teterev, I.G.

    1970-01-01

    This field is characterized by complex geological variations, high viscosity oil (16 to 39 cp), and extreme heterogeneity. The field has been under a peripheral waterflood for 10 yr, however even at high water-cut (50 to 75%), only 40% of the reserve has been recovered. The high water-cut results from premature water breakthrough in high-permeability zones and from water coning. As cumulative oil recovery increases, water production increases exponentially. Oil recovery can be increased only 3 to 4%, by increasing the removal of fluids from wells. Consideration is being given to use of hot water and high-pressure gas to increase oil recovery.

  6. Approximation of integral operators using product-convolution expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Escande, Paul; Weiss, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of linear integral operators with impulse responses varying regularly in time or space. These operators appear in a large number of applications ranging from signal/image processing to biology. Evaluating their action on functions is a computationally intensive problem necessary for many practical problems. We analyze a technique called product-convolution expansion: the operator is locally approximated by a convolution, allowing to design fast numerical algorithms ba...

  7. Approximation of integral operators using convolution-product expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Escande, Paul; Weiss, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of linear integral operators with impulse responses varying regularly in time or space. These operators appear in a large number of applications ranging from signal/image processing to biology. Evaluating their action on functions is a computation-ally intensive problem necessary for many practical problems. We analyze a technique called convolution-product expansion: the operator is locally approximated by a convolution, allowing to design fast numerical algorithms based ...

  8. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  9. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stripping suction device. (iv) Number and location of COW machines operating simultaneously in each cargo... crude oil. (13) The procedure for draining and stripping the pumps and piping of the COW system,...

  10. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α -stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α ,γ ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α =2 . The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  11. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  12. Foamy oil flow : a laboratory curiosity or a real drive mechanism in field operations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, B.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The exceptional performance of primary depletion in many Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil reservoirs can be attributed to the mechanism of foamy oil flow. It is has been speculated that the solution gas released during depletion remains dispersed in the oil and flows towards the production well in the form of gas-in-oil dispersion. However, most laboratory studies of foamy-oil-flow reveal that the depletion rates required for generating dispersed flow are completely unrealistic in field operations. This study examined whether foamy oil flow is merely a laboratory aberration. The paper defines foamy oil flow and explains how it evolved. A brief review of Canadian field practices was presented along with observations from cold production of heavy oil. The pore-scale mechanisms involved and the interplay between capillary and viscous forces were also discussed along with the conditions under which dispersed flow is generated in field operations. The strengths and weaknesses of several mathematical models proposed for numerical simulation of foamy oil flow were described.

  13. Uncertainty quantification and reliability assessment in operational oil spill forecast modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xianlong; Hodges, Ben R; Feng, Dongyu; Liu, Qixiao

    2017-03-15

    As oil transport increasing in the Texas bays, greater risks of ship collisions will become a challenge, yielding oil spill accidents as a consequence. To minimize the ecological damage and optimize rapid response, emergency managers need to be informed with how fast and where oil will spread as soon as possible after a spill. The state-of-the-art operational oil spill forecast modeling system improves the oil spill response into a new stage. However uncertainty due to predicted data inputs often elicits compromise on the reliability of the forecast result, leading to misdirection in contingency planning. Thus understanding the forecast uncertainty and reliability become significant. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation is implemented to provide parameters to generate forecast probability maps. The oil spill forecast uncertainty is thus quantified by comparing the forecast probability map and the associated hindcast simulation. A HyosPy-based simple statistic model is developed to assess the reliability of an oil spill forecast in term of belief degree. The technologies developed in this study create a prototype for uncertainty and reliability analysis in numerical oil spill forecast modeling system, providing emergency managers to improve the capability of real time operational oil spill response and impact assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration for Responsive Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancements in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. Two Distinct Testing Environments: a) GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage - GODU LH2; b) GODU Autonomous Control - GODU LO2. Scope: I. GODU LH2: a) Investigate alternative storage and distribution architecture for future cryogenic propellant operations. b) Demonstrate advanced cryogenic propellant handling operations (liquefaction, storage and distribution) of normal boiling point and sub-cooled cryogenic propellants. II. GODU L02: a) Develop and demonstrate advanced control and health management technologies and techniques to autonomously control cryogenic propellant servicing operations. b) Investigate modern COTS hardware and control systems in an effort to reduce the "standing army" of engineers associated with maintaining and operating ground systems through the use of health management and autonomous control technologies. Goals: a) Raise Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRL) of several key technology development areas. b) Reduce operations lifecycle costs of future test programs and launch complexes. c) Demonstrate technologies for future exploration beyond low earth orbit. d) Serve as test environments for extraterrestrial surface operations.

  15. Oil spill impacts on mangroves: Recommendations for operational planning and action based on a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Norman C

    2016-08-30

    Mangrove tidal wetland habitats are recognised as highly vulnerable to large and chronic oil spills. This review of current literature and public databases covers the last 6 decades, summarising global data on oil spill incidents affecting, or likely to have affected, mangrove habitat. Over this period, there have been at least 238 notable oil spills along mangrove shorelines worldwide. In total, at least 5.5milliontonnes of oil has been released into mangrove-lined, coastal waters, oiling possibly up to around 1.94millionha of mangrove habitat, and killing at least 126,000ha of mangrove vegetation since 1958. However, there were assessment limitations with incomplete and unavailable data, as well as unequal coverage across world regions. To redress the gaps described here in reporting on oil spill impacts on mangroves and their recovery worldwide, a number of recommendations and suggestions are made for refreshing and updating standard operational procedures for responders, managers and researchers alike.

  16. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  17. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...... and goals and incorporate knowledge about redundancy and reliability data. Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used build knowledge bases representing plant goals and functions and has been applied for fault diagnosis and supervisory control but currently it does not take into account structural information...

  18. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  19. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  20. Numerical Integration Based on Bivariate Quartic Quasi-Interpolation Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to deal with numerical integral by using two kinds of C2 quasi-interpolation operators on the bivariate spline space, and also discuss the convergence properties and error estimates. Moreover, the proposed method is applied to the numerical evaluation of 2-D singular integrals. Numerical experiments will be carried out and the results will be compared with some previously published results.

  1. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  2. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compres...

  3. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Yang; Zhenxing Wu; Lifen Liu; Fengxiang Zhang; Shengna Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC) to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC) alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW) alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemic...

  4. Integration of hospital information systems, operative and peri-operative information systems, and operative equipment into a single information display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mark; Levine, Wilton C; Brzezinski, Philip; Robbins, Jeffrey; Lai, Fuji; Spitz, Gabriel; Sandberg, Warren S

    2005-01-01

    The integration of disparate information systems in the operative environment allows access to information that is typically unseen or unused. Through a collaborative effort, a variety of information systems and surgical equipment are being integrated. This provides improved context-sensitive information display and decision support and improved access to information to improve workflow, safety and visualization of information that was previously unattainable.

  5. Phase Zero Contracting Operations (PZCO) -- Strategic and Integrative Planning for Contingency and Expeditionary Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    Tier Model ( TTM ) ........................... 15  A.  Credentialed Contract Planners Integrated with Operations Planners...Planners The Three-tier Model ( TTM ) was published to address the challenges inherent in contracting in complex military operations (Yoder, 2004). The...Contingency Contracting, Expeditionary Contracting, Humanitarian Aid, Disaster Relief, Advanced Planning, Three-tier Model , YTTM, APEX, JOPES, JCASO

  6. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    distillation plant is investigated more closely with the purpose of elucidating essential decisions behind planning experiments, which are suitable for identifying models and constraints. The basis for analysis of optimal operation is the type of operation upon which an application focuses. In this paper...... and their influence upon the further decisions behind the experimental design. An energy-integrated distillation column, which may exhibit fold bifurcations, is used as a relevant example process....

  7. Boundedness for Marcinkiewicz Integrals Associated with Schr\\"odinger Operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenhua Gao; Lin Tang

    2014-05-01

    Let $L=- +V$ be a Schr\\"odinger operator, where is the Laplacian on $\\mathbb{R}^n$, while nonnegative potential belongs to the reverse H\\"older class. In this paper, we will show that Marcinkiewicz integral associated with Schr\\"odinger operator is bounded on $BMO_L$, and from $H^1_L(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ to $L^1(\\mathbb{R}^n)$.

  8. NASA's ATM Technology Demonstration-1: Integrated Concept of Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swenson, Harry N.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) demonstration will integrate three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to touchdown. It also enables aircraft to conduct Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and implantation into an operational environment. Goals of the ATD-1 demonstration include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  9. Passive seismic data management and processing to monitor heavy oil steaming operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.R.; Wang, L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Searles, K.H.; Smith, R.J.; Keith, C.M. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Imperial Oil Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Cyclic steam injection (CSS) is a cost-effective means to produce heavy oil at the Cold Lake field in Alberta, Canada. The primary obstacle to economic production is the high viscosity of the bitumen. However the bitumen viscosity decreases significantly with temperature. Steam is injected at fracturing conditions, resulting in dilation and recompaction which propagates stress and strain fields in the overburden. An important design consideration involves the mechanical loads on wells resulting from this production process. A seismic production monitoring system was developed in 1995 in the Cold Lake field in order to provide early detection of casing failures and possible fracturing of the overburden. The method was shown to detect a high percentage of casing failures in the production monitoring system. This paper discussed the use and application of methods developed for passive seismic data analysis. The Cold Lake passive seismic system (CLPS) has evolved into an integrated process with a daily workflow. Personnel have identified roles and responsibilities. The paper provided a discussion of the development of a web-based platform running on the operator's internal network called PSWeb. The progression of work in microseismic monitoring of fracture stimulation treatments was also discussed along with the development of FIDO, which used graphical event processing methods to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. Further development of these tools is ongoing to improve casing failure detection and to incorporate more information from seismic data to understand the impact of the CSS process on overburden integrity. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  10. IT-OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill risk associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; Martins, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Oil Spill Risk Assessments (OSRAs) are widely employed to support decision making regarding oil spill risks. This article adapts the ISO-compliant OSRA framework developed by Sepp Neves et al. (J Environ Manag 159:158-168, 2015) to estimate risks in a complex scenario where uncertainties related to the meteo-oceanographic conditions, where and how a spill could happen exist and the risk computation methodology is not yet well established (ensemble oil spill modeling). The improved method was applied to the Algarve coast, Portugal. Over 50,000 simulations were performed in 2 ensemble experiments to estimate the risks due to operational and accidental spill scenarios associated with maritime traffic. The level of risk was found to be important for both types of scenarios, with significant seasonal variations due to the the currents and waves variability. Higher frequency variability in the meteo-oceanographic variables were also found to contribute to the level of risk. The ensemble results show that the distribution of oil concentrations found on the coast is not Gaussian, opening up new fields of research on how to deal with oil spill risks and related uncertainties.

  11. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  12. PREVALENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN AN INTEGRATED SWINE OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Isolation of C. difficile was performed u...

  13. Varied prevalence of Clostridium difficile in an integrated swine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Preliminary results are based on 131 C. d...

  14. STRONGLY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATED COSINE OPERATOR FUNCTIONS WITH GROWTH ω

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiying Wang; Guoxiang Chen

    2007-01-01

    For a continuous increasing function ω: [0, ∞) → (0, ∞) of finite exponetial type, we establish a Hille-Yosida type theorem for strongly continuous integrated cosine operator functions with O(ω). It includes the well-known polynomially bounded and exponentially bounded cases.

  15. Integrated multi-sensor package (IMSP) for unmanned vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Eddie C.; Reichard, Karl; Rogan, Chris; Callen, Jeff; Seifert, Elwood

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to develop integrated multi-sensor payloads for small robotic platforms for improved operator situational awareness and ultimately for greater robot autonomy. The focus is on enhancements to perception through integration of electro-optic, acoustic, and other sensors for navigation and inspection. The goals are to provide easier control and operation of the robot through fusion of multiple sensor outputs, to improve interoperability of the sensor payload package across multiple platforms through the use of open standards and architectures, and to reduce integration costs by embedded sensor data processing and fusion within the sensor payload package. The solutions investigated in this project to be discussed include: improved capture, processing and display of sensor data from multiple, non-commensurate sensors; an extensible architecture to support plug and play of integrated sensor packages; built-in health, power and system status monitoring using embedded diagnostics/prognostics; sensor payload integration into standard product forms for optimized size, weight and power; and the use of the open Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS)/ Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) AS-4 interoperability standard. This project is in its first of three years. This paper will discuss the applicability of each of the solutions in terms of its projected impact to reducing operational time for the robot and teleoperator.

  16. Integral operators in non-standard function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kokilashvili, Vakhtang; Rafeiro, Humberto; Samko, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This book, the result of the authors’ long and fruitful collaboration, focuses on integral operators in new, non-standard function spaces and presents a systematic study of the boundedness and compactness properties of basic, harmonic analysis integral operators in the following function spaces, among others: variable exponent Lebesgue and amalgam spaces, variable Hölder spaces, variable exponent Campanato, Morrey and Herz spaces, Iwaniec-Sbordone (grand Lebesgue) spaces, grand variable exponent Lebesgue spaces unifying the two spaces mentioned above, grand Morrey spaces, generalized grand Morrey spaces, and weighted analogues of some of them. The results obtained are widely applied to non-linear PDEs, singular integrals and PDO theory. One of the book’s most distinctive features is that the majority of the statements proved here are in the form of criteria. The book is intended for a broad audience, ranging from researchers in the area to experts in applied mathematics and prospective students.

  17. The Prestige crisis: operational oceanography applied to oil recovery, by the Basque fishing fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Manuel; Uriarte, Adolfo; Pozo, Rogelio; Collins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    On 19th November 2002, the oil tanker Prestige (containing 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel no. 2 (M100)) sank in 3500 m of water, off the coast of northwestern Spain. Intermittent discharge of oil from the stricken tanker, combined with large-scale sea surface dispersion, created a tracking and recovery problem. Initially, conventional oil recovery approaches were adopted, close to the wreck. With time and distance from the source, the oil dispersed dramatically and became less viscous. Consequently, a unique monitoring, prediction and data dissemination system was established, based upon the principles of 'operational oceanography'; this utilised in situ tracked buoys and numerical (spill trajectory) modelling outputs, in combination with remote sensing (satellite sensors and visual observation). Overall, wind effects on the surface waters were found to be the most important mechanism controlling the smaller oil slick movements. The recovery operation involved up to 180 fishing boats, 9-30 m in length. Such labour-intensive recovery of the oil (21,000 tonnes, representing an unprecedented ratio of 6.6 tonnes at sea, per tonne recovered on land) continued over a 10 month period. The overall recovery at sea, by the fishing vessels, represented 63% of the total oil recovered at sea; this compares to only 37% recovered by specialised 'counter- pollution' vessels.

  18. [Comprehensive system integration and networking in operating rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feußner, H; Ostler, D; Kohn, N; Vogel, T; Wilhelm, D; Koller, S; Kranzfelder, M

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive surveillance and control system integrating all devices and functions is a precondition for realization of the operating room of the future. Multiple proprietary integrated operation room systems are currently available with a central user interface; however, they only cover a relatively small part of all functionalities. Internationally, there are at least three different initiatives to promote a comprehensive systems integration and networking in the operating room: the Japanese smart cyber operating theater (SCOT), the American medical device plug-and-play interoperability program (MDPnP) and the German secure and dynamic networking in operating room and hospital (OR.NET) project supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Within the framework of the internationally advanced OR.NET project, prototype solution approaches were realized, which make short-term and mid-term comprehensive data retrieval systems probable. An active and even autonomous control of the medical devices by the surveillance and control system (closed loop) is expected only in the long run due to strict regulatory barriers.

  19. Comprehensive Solutions for Integration of Solar Resources into Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, Kenneth [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Makarov, Yuri V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rajagopal, Sankaran [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Loutan, Clyde [California Independent System Operator; Etingov, Pavel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Laurie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lu, Bo [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Mansingh, Ashmin [Siemens Energy, Erlangen (Germany); Zack, John [MESO, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sherick, Robert [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States); Romo, Abraham [Southern California Edison; Habibi-Ashrafi, Farrokh [Southern California Edison; Johnson, Raymond [Southern California Edison

    2016-01-14

    The need for proactive closed-loop integration of uncertainty information into system operations and probability-based controls is widely recognized, but rarely implemented in system operations. Proactive integration for this project means that the information concerning expected uncertainty ranges for net load and balancing requirements, including required balancing capacity, ramping and ramp duration characteristics, will be fed back into the generation commitment and dispatch algorithms to modify their performance so that potential shortages of these characteristics can be prevented. This basic, yet important, premise is the motivating factor for this project. The achieved project goal is to demonstrate the benefit of such a system. The project quantifies future uncertainties, predicts additional system balancing needs including the prediction intervals for capacity and ramping requirements of future dispatch intervals, evaluates the impacts of uncertainties on transmission including the risk of overloads and voltage problems, and explores opportunities for intra-hour generation adjustments helping to provide more flexibility for system operators. The resulting benefits culminate in more reliable grid operation in the face of increased system uncertainty and variability caused by solar power. The project identifies that solar power does not require special separate penetration level restrictions or penalization for its intermittency. Ultimately, the collective consideration of all sources of intermittency distributed over a wide area unified with the comprehensive evaluation of various elements of balancing process, i.e. capacity, ramping, and energy requirements, help system operators more robustly and effectively balance generation against load and interchange. This project showed that doing so can facilitate more solar and other renewable resources on the grid without compromising reliability and control performance. Efforts during the project included

  20. EXODUS: Integrating intelligent systems for launch operations support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1991-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing knowledge-based systems to automate critical operations functions for the space shuttle fleet. Intelligent systems will monitor vehicle and ground support subsystems for anomalies, assist in isolating and managing faults, and plan and schedule shuttle operations activities. These applications are being developed independently of one another, using different representation schemes, reasoning and control models, and hardware platforms. KSC has recently initiated the EXODUS project to integrate these stand alone applications into a unified, coordinated intelligent operations support system. EXODUS will be constructed using SOCIAL, a tool for developing distributed intelligent systems. EXODUS, SOCIAL, and initial prototyping efforts using SOCIAL to integrate and coordinate selected EXODUS applications are described.

  1. On discrete fractional integral operators and related Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jongchon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that an arithmetic property of a hypersurface in $\\zn{k+1}$ (a map $\\gamma:\\zn{k} \\to \\mathbb{Z}$) gives $l^p \\to l^q$ bounds of a Radon-type discrete fractional integral operator along the hypersurface. As a corollary, we prove $l^p \\to l^q$ bounds of a Radon-type discrete fractional integral operator along paraboloids in $\\zn{3}$ and some other related operators. As a by-product of this approach, we show that the statement $r_{s,k}(N) = O(N^\\epsilon)$ for any $\\epsilon>0$ is false if $s>k$, where $r_{s,k}(N)$ denotes the number of representations of a positive integer $N$ as a sum of s positive $k$-th powers.

  2. The Computer Aided Integrated Design and Analysis of Oil Tank in Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper creates 3D solid model and assembly of U RJ 92-6 oil tank and analyses its strength by integrated CAD/CAE/CAM software I-D EAS. Through integrated simulation in computer, design efficiency and quality of oil tank is greatly improved. Adopting integrated CAD/CAE/CAM software to carry out integrated research to equ ipment and products, we will be able to take overall analysis in aspects of 3-D solid modeling, pre-assembly and strength, etc., to realize non-paper designi ng and parallel designing...

  3. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  4. Wind power integration connection and system operational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Wind Power Integration provides a wide-ranging discussion on all major aspects of wind power integration into electricity supply systems. This second edition has been fully revised and updated to take account of the significant growth in wind power deployment in the past few years. New discussions have been added to describe developments in wind turbine generator technology and control, the network integration of wind power, innovative ways to integrate wind power when its generation potential exceeds 50% of demand, case studies on how forecasting errors have affected system operation, and an update on how the wind energy sector has fared in the marketplace. Topics covered include: the development of wind power technology and its world-wide deployment; wind power technology and the interaction of various wind turbine generator types with the utility network; and wind power forecasting and the challenges faced by wind energy in modern electricity markets.

  5. Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management plays a key role for future ground operations at NASA. The software that is integrated into this system is called G2 2011 Gensym. The purpose of this report is to describe the Ground Operations Autonomous Control and Integrated Health Management with the use of the G2 Gensym software and the G2 NASA toolkit for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) which is a Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI). The decision rationale for the use of the G2 platform is to develop a modular capability for ISHM and AC. Toolkit modules include knowledge bases that are generic and can be applied in any application domain module. That way, there's a maximization of reusability, maintainability, and systematic evolution, portability, and scalability. Engine modules are generic, while application modules represent the domain model of a specific application. Furthermore, the NASA toolkit, developed since 2006 (a set of modules), makes it possible to create application domain models quickly, using pre-defined objects that include sensors and components libraries for typical fluid, electrical, and mechanical systems.

  6. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  7. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Chalil

    2016-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO). India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for I...

  8. Dunkl operator, integrability, and pairwise scattering in rational Calogero model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, David

    2017-05-01

    The integrability of the Calogero model can be expressed as zero curvature condition using Dunkl operators. The corresponding flat connections are non-local gauge transformations, which map the Calogero wave functions to symmetrized wave functions of the set of N free particles, i.e. it relates the corresponding scattering matrices to each other. The integrability of the Calogero model implies that any k-particle scattering is reduced to successive pairwise scatterings. The consistency condition of this requirement is expressed by the analog of the Yang-Baxter relation.

  9. AN ENDPOINT ESTIMATE FOR MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A weak type endpoint estimate for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator T*Af(x)=supε>0|(f)(x-y)>ε (Ω(x-y)/(|x-y|(n+1)))(A(x)-A(y)-▽A(y)(x-y))f(y)dy| is established, where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one, and A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). A regularity condition on Ω which implies an LlogL type estimate of T*A is given.

  10. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move.

  11. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanditmars, C. [BC Gas Utilities Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited`s integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment.

  12. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  13. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, G.; Carrasco, A.; Hole, L. R.; Dick, S.; Janssen, F.; Mattsson, J.; Berger, S.

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution), the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  14. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Broström

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution, the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  15. 76 FR 54782 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the potential...

  16. 75 FR 67994 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... and Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the... following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... exploration, development, production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal...

  17. 78 FR 47746 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... were prepared during the period April 1, 2013, through June 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and mineral-related..., and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the...

  18. 78 FR 12085 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... were prepared during the period October 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012, for oil, gas, and mineral..., production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine...

  19. 78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... were prepared during the period July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013, for oil, gas, and mineral..., production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine...

  20. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations... oil, gas, and mineral-related activities that were proposed on the Gulf of Mexico, or more..., and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the...

  1. Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta, Paresh Chandra

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the composition of sterols in vegetable oils used in industrial frying operations, and sterols and sterol oxides in the fried potato products. The sterols and sterol oxides were enriched by saponification of oils and by solid phase extraction. Preparative thin layer chromatography, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were used to give qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed that the content of desmethylsterols in palm oil, sunflower oil, high oleic sunflower oil, and rapeseed oil/palm oil blend were, 790, 4501, 3550, and 4497 ppm, respectively. Sitosterol was the major desmethylsterol in all samples. Palm oil also contained the lowest levels of total unsaponifiables. The sterols and unsaponifiable contents in sunflower oil were, to some extent, higher than in higholeic sunflower oil. The compositions of sterols after two days of frying were neither markedly different in the oils nor in the potato products fried in these oils compared with the original oils. Isomerised sterols were tentatively quantified to account for 10 ppm, 50 ppm and 20 ppm, in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend, sunflower oil, and high-oleic sunflower oils, respectively. Lipids extracted from French fries prepared in rapeseed oil/palm oil blend contained the highest levels of total sterol oxides, 191 ppm, and epoxides of both sitosterol and campesterol were the major contributors, together at a level of 172 ppm. On the other hand, lipids extracted from French fries prepared in sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil contained 7α-hydroxy-, 7β-hydroxy-, 7-keto- and both epimers of epoxysitosterol, generally in equal amounts. All samples also contained small amounts of different oxidation products of campesterol and stigmasterol.

  2. A NOTE ON THE MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Yulan

    2004-01-01

    Lp(Rn) boundedness is considered for the multilinear singular integral operator defined by TAf(x) = ∫Rn Ω(x - y)/|x - y|n+1 (A(x) - A(y) - (△)A(y)(x - y))f(y)dy,where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one. A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). We give a smoothness condition which is fairly weaker than that Ω∈ Lipα(Sn-1) (0 <α≤ 1) and implies the Lp(Rn) (1 < p < oo) boundedness for the operator TA. Some endpoint estimates are also established.

  3. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  4. Operations variables in the transesterification process of vegetable oil: a review - chemical catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a bibliographic review of the effects of operation conditions on process yield in the chemical transesterification of vegetable oil. The parameters studied were: temperature and time reaction, alcohol:oil molar ratio, catalyst and alcohol type, catalyst concentration, mixed intensity and free fatty acid and water concentration. It also reports that this pro- cess has been carried out with basic and acid catalysts using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes for a wide va- riety of oils. It was found that reaction yield increased when temperature and time reaction increased; however this parameter de- creased at low catalyst concentration ( 1% w/w and water (> 3% w/w concentration in oil.

  5. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  6. Three Oil Giants Achieved Good Operating Performances in First Quarter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ PetroChina announced performance results PetroChina released its operation data for the first quarter this year on April 15th. A manager in PetroChina said that the increase rate of production of PetroChina in the first quarter this year has created the best level since PetroChina registered in HK in 2000.

  7. The Fractional Maximal Operator and Marcinkiewicz Integrals Associated with Schr ¨odinger Operators on Morrey Spaces with Variable Exponent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shu; Min Wang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the boundedness of the fractional maximal opera-tor, Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator and marcinkiewicz integrals associated with Schr ¨odinger operator on Morrey spaces with variable exponent.

  8. Fractional integration associated with second order divergence operators on Rn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Donggao(

    2003-01-01

    [1]McIntosh, A., Operators which have an H∞-calculus, Miniconference on Operator Theory and Partial Differential Equations (Proceedings of the Centre for Mathematical Analysis, ANU), 1986, 14: 210.[2]Stein, E. M., Singular Integral and Differentiability Properties of Functions, Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press,1970.[3]Auscher, P., Tchamitchian, P., Square Root Problem for Divergence Operators and Related Topics, Astérisque,vol. 249, 1998.[4]Auscher, P., Coulhon, T., Tchamitchian, P., Absence de principe du maximum pour certaines équations paraboliques complexes, Coll. Math., 1996, 171: 87.[5]Auscher, P., Hofmann, S., Lacey, M., The solution of Kato's conjectures, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sr. I Math.,2001, 332: 601.[6]Davies, E. B., Uniformly elliptic operators with measurable coefficients, J. Funct. Anal., 1995, 132: 141.[7]Liskevich, V., Vogt, H., On Lp-spectrum and essential spectra of second order elliptic operators, Proc. London Math. Soc., 2000, 80: 590.[8]Duong, X. T., McIntosh, A., Singular integral operators with non-smooth kernels on irregular domains, Rev.Mat. Iberoamericana, 1999, 15: 233.[9]Lions, J. L., Espaces d'interpolation et domaines de puissances fractionnaires, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 1962, 14:233.[10]Auscher, P., McIntosh, A., Nahmod, A., The square root problem of Kato in one dimension, and first order elliptic systems, Indiana Univ. Math. J., 1997, 46: 659.[11]Deng, D. G., Hah, Y. S., Theory of Hp Spaces (in Chinese), Beijing: Peking Univ. Press, 1992.Vector subdivision schemes in (Lp(Rs))r(1 ≤ p ≤∞) spacesLI Song(李松)[12]Auscher,P.,Tchamitchian,P.,Square roots of elliptic second order divergence operators on strongly Lipschitz domain:L2 theory ,to appear in Journal d' Analyse Mathematique.

  9. Integrated management of operations in Santos Basin: methodology applied to a new philosophy of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Leandro Leonardo; Lima, Claudio Benevenuto de Campos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Derenzi Neto, Dario [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Vladimir Steffen [Soda IT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the methodology used to develop the Integrated Management of Operations (GIOp) project in Santos Basin Operational Unit (UO-BS) in the South-Southeast Exploration and Production area of PETROBRAS. The following text describes how the activities were carried out to gather improvements opportunities and to design To-Be processes, considering the challenging environment of the Santos Basin in the coming years. At the end of more than 12 months of work, more than 50 processes and sub-processes were redesigned, involving a multidisciplinary team in the areas of operations, maintenance, safety, health and environment, flow assurance, wells, reservoirs and planning. (author)

  10. Weak estimates for commutators of fractional integral operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Yong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Stein,E.M.,Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions,Princeton:Princeton University Press,1970.[2]Muckenhoupt,B.,Wheeden,R.L.,Weighted norm inequalities for fractional integrals,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,1974,192:261-274.[3]Taibleson,M.H.,Weiss,G.,The molecular characterization of certain Hardy spaces,Astérisque,1980,77:67-149.[4]Chanillo,S.,Watson,D.K.,Wheeden,R.L.,Some integral and maximal operators related to starlike sets,Studia Math.,1993,107:223-255.[5]Ding,Y.,Lu,S.Z.,Weighted norm inequalities for fractional integral operators with rough kernel,Canad.J.Math.,1998,50:29-39.[6]Ding,Y.,Weak type bounds for a class of rough operators with power weights,Proc.Amer.Math.Soc.,1997,125:2939-2942.[7]Chanillo,S.,A note on commutators,Indiana Univ.Math.J.,1982,31:7-16.[8]Ding,Y.,Lu,S.Z.,Higher order commutators for a class of rough operators,Ark.Mat.,1999,37:33-44.[9]Pérez,C., Endpoint estimates for commutators of singular integral operators,J.Funct.Anal.,1995,128:163-185.[10]Rao,M.M.,Ren,Z.D.,Theorey of Orlicz Spaces,New York:Marcel Dekker,1991.[11]Fefferman,C.,Stein,E.M.,Hp spaces of several variables,Acta Math.,1972,129:137-193.[12]Garcia-Cuerva,J.,Rubio de Francia,J.L.,Weighted Norm Inequalities and Related Topics, Amsterdam:North-Holland,1985.[13]Adams,D.R.,A note on Riesz potentials,Duke Math.J.,1975,42:765-778.[14]Stein,E.M.,Note on the class Llog L,Studia Math.,1969,32:305-310.[15]Pérez,C.,Weighted norm inequalities for singular integral operators,J.London Math.Soc.,1994,49:296-308.[16]Stein,E.M.,Harmonic Analysis:Real-Variable Methods,Orthogonality,and Oscillatory Integrals,Princeton:Princeton University Press,1993.[17]Pérez,C.,On sufficient conditions for the boundedness of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator between weighted Lp-spaces with different weights,Proc.London Math.Soc.,1995,71:135-157.[18]Garcia-Cuerva,J.,Harboure,E.,Segovia,C.et al.,Weighted norm

  11. Supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    The refining industry values the safety of its employees and staff working in its installations, as well as those living in communities near to its installations. Personal safety and safe operations are prerequisites for an industry that routinely produces and manages flammable and potentially explosive products. For this reason, safety considerations have been a major focus for CONCAWE and our member companies for as long as our association has existed.

  12. An Integrated Expert System for Linear Scheduling Heavy Earthmoving Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Markiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy earthmoving operations are repetitive in nature and vulnerable to time-related restraints and uncertainties. Therefore, at the conceptual stage, scheduling these operations can take a linear form, known as linear schedule or line of balance (LOB. In such type of work, generating a preliminary line of balance for variable sequencing of activities is crucial. In this paper, an integrated expert system for determining preliminary linear schedules for heavy earthmoving operations at the conceptual stage is presented. The proposed system incorporates numerous factors that influence the analysis of earthmoving operations, which include geological and topographical parameters used to determine productivity rates at the conceptual stage. Also, the proposed system is capable of automatically generating a line of balance based on a stochastic scheduling technique via the metaheuristic simulated annealing intelligent approach to incorporate randomness and uncertainties in performing the associated activities. A parametric analysis is conducted in order to quantify the system’s degree of accuracy. An actual case project is then utilized to illustrate its numerical capabilities. Generating accurate linear schedules for heavy earthmoving operations at the conceptual design stage is anticipated to be of major significance to infrastructure project stakeholders, engineers, and construction managers by detecting schedule’s conflicts early in order to enhance overall operational logistics.

  13. Integral representations and properties of operator fractional Brownian motions

    CERN Document Server

    Didier, Gustavo; 10.3150/10-BEJ259

    2011-01-01

    Operator fractional Brownian motions (OFBMs) are (i) Gaussian, (ii) operator self-similar and (iii) stationary increment processes. They are the natural multivariate generalizations of the well-studied fractional Brownian motions. Because of the possible lack of time-reversibility, the defining properties (i)--(iii) do not, in general, characterize the covariance structure of OFBMs. To circumvent this problem, the class of OFBMs is characterized here by means of their integral representations in the spectral and time domains. For the spectral domain representations, this involves showing how the operator self-similarity shapes the spectral density in the general representation of stationary increment processes. The time domain representations are derived by using primary matrix functions and taking the Fourier transforms of the deterministic spectral domain kernels. Necessary and sufficient conditions for OFBMs to be time-reversible are established in terms of their spectral and time domain representations. I...

  14. Respondents, Operants, and Emergents: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.

  15. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  16. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  17. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Natural oils are extensively used in cosmetics and as treatment for a growing number of more or less specific ailments. Skin irritation and cases of allergy have repeatedly been described in the literature following exposure to these oils. The present study evaluated the extent to which...... three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...... was applied. The three natural oils decreased the skin integrity dose-dependently. Concomitant dermal exposure to low concentrations of peppermint oil reduced the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid. The present study lends support to the notion that low concentrations of peppermint oil may act...

  18. 78 FR 68079 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations; Submitted for Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart E, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations. OMB Control Number: 1014... driller's report. 517(d)(8) Function test ROV 10 17 wells 170 interventions on your subsea BOP stack... completions..... 13 autoshear and deadman on your subsea BOP stack during stump test; document all...

  19. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment of Transnational Operation Environment for Chinese Oil Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive method was developed to assess the transnational operation environment in host countries for Chinese oil companies. This method includes an assessment criterion system of the environment, which is to be scored by the experts. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematical methods were used to make evaluation and get the assessment result and ranking of three host countries.

  20. Improvement of a Vertical Falling Ball Viscometer for Measuring Engine Oil Properties using 532nm diode laser, with Estimation of the Concentration of operated Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood O. Altaify

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an improvement of falling ball viscometer was presented using laser beam. Several parameters such as viscosity, shear stress, shear rate, Reynolds number and drag coefficient were calculated for a sample of unused engine oil. In the other words, during the operation of engine, the variation of viscosity occurs due to the increasing in the engine temperature and may in the increasing of the concentration of engine body particles inside the oil due to friction force even with existing the oil filter there are tiny particles that pass through the oil filter, therefore a Lambert’s law was used to estimate the particles concentrations of the operated oil, the resulted graphs show increasing of the impurities concentration with operation time.

  1. An Operational System For Monitoring Oil Spills In The Mediterranean Sea: The PROMED System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. KERAMITSOGLOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this work was the development of an operational system for early detection of oil-spills, monitoring of their evolution, and provision of support to responsible Public Authorities during cleanup operations, based on Remote Sensing and GIS technologies. In case of emergency, the principal characteristics of the oil spill are defined with the aid of a space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR. The transport, spreading and dispersion of the oil spill is subsequently simulated on the basis of wind forecasts of the area. The use of thematic maps of protected, fishing and urban areas, and regions of high tourism allows the better assessment of the impact of an oil spill on the areas to be affected in terms of environmental sensitivity. Finally, reports are generated notifying port authorities, the media, and local organizations to be potentially affected by the presence of the oil spill. The pilot site for testing the PROMED System in Greece is the island of Crete.

  2. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  3. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  4. An Operational System For Monitoring Oil Spills In The Mediterranean Sea: The PROMED System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. KERAMITSOGLOU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this work was the development of an operational system for early detection of oil-spills, monitoring of their evolution, and provision of support to responsible Public Authorities during cleanup operations, based on Remote Sensing and GIS technologies. In case of emergency, the principal characteristics of the oil spill are defined with the aid of a space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR. The transport, spreading and dispersion of the oil spill is subsequently simulated on the basis of wind forecasts of the area. The use of thematic maps of protected, fishing and urban areas, and regions of high tourism allows the better assessment of the impact of an oil spill on the areas to be affected in terms of environmental sensitivity. Finally, reports are generated notifying port authorities, the media, and local organizations to be potentially affected by the presence of the oil spill. The pilot site for testing the PROMED System in Greece is the island of Crete.

  5. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  6. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions...

  7. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  8. Integrated Fractional Resolvent Operator Function and Fractional Abstract Cauchy Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ning Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We firstly prove that β-times integrated α-resolvent operator function ((α,β-ROF satisfies a functional equation which extends that of β-times integrated semigroup and α-resolvent operator function. Secondly, for the inhomogeneous α-Cauchy problem cDtαu(t=Au(t+f(t, t∈(0,T, u(0=x0, u'(0=x1, if A is the generator of an (α,β-ROF, we give the relation between the function v(t=Sα,β(tx0+(g1*Sα,β(tx1+(gα-1*Sα,β*f(t and mild solution and classical solution of it. Finally, for the problem cDtαv(t=Av(t+gβ+1(tx, t>0, v(k(0=0, k=0,1,…,N-1, where A is a linear closed operator. We show that A generates an exponentially bounded (α,β-ROF on a Banach space X if and only if the problem has a unique exponentially bounded classical solution vx and Avx∈L loc 1(ℝ+,X. Our results extend and generalize some related results in the literature.

  9. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Measurements for Intelligent Machine Health Monitoring. Degree awarded by Toledo Univ., May 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. An oil debris sensor and the two vibration algorithms were adapted as the diagnostic tools. An inductance type oil debris sensor was selected for the oil analysis measurement technology. Gear damage data for this type of sensor was limited to data collected in the NASA Glenn test rigs. For this reason, this analysis included development of a parameter for detecting gear pitting damage using this type of sensor. The vibration data was used to calculate two previously available gear vibration diagnostic algorithms. The two vibration algorithms were selected based on their maturity and published success in detecting damage to gears. Oil debris and vibration features were then developed using fuzzy logic analysis techniques, then input into a multi sensor data fusion process. Results show combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears. As a result of this research, this new diagnostic tool has significantly improved detection of gear damage in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rigs. This research also resulted in several other findings that will improve the development of future health monitoring systems. Oil debris analysis was found to be more reliable than vibration analysis for detecting pitting fatigue failure of gears and is capable of indicating damage progression. Also, some vibration algorithms are as sensitive to operational effects as they

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  11. Design of current mirror integration ROIC for snapshot mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker Gupta, Hari; Kiran Kumar, A. S.; Shojaei Baghini, M.; Chakrabarti, Subhananda; Mehta, Sanjeev; Chowdhury, Arup Roy; Sharma, Dinesh K.

    2016-10-01

    Current mirror integration (CMI) read out integrated circuit (ROIC) topology provides a low input impedance to photo-detectors and provides large injection efficiency, large charge handling capacity and snapshot mode operation without in-pixel opamps. The ROIC described in this paper has been implemented with a modified current mirror circuit, with matched PMOS pairs for detector input stage and its biasing. The readout circuit has been designed for 30 × 30 μm2 pixel size, 4 × 4 array size, variable frame rate, 5 Mega pixel per second (Mpps). Experimental performance of the test chip has achieved 15 Me charge handling capacity, a high dynamic range of 83 dB, 99.8% linearity and 99.96% injection efficiency. The ROIC design has been fabricated in 3.3 V 1P6M UMC 180 nm CMOS process and tested up to 5 MHz pixel rate at room and at cryogenic temperature.

  12. Commutators of Integral Operators with Variable Kernels on Hardy Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pu Zhang; Kai Zhao

    2005-11-01

    Let $T_{,}(0≤ < n)$ be the singular and fractional integrals with variable kernel $(x,z)$, and $[b, T_{,}]$ be the commutator generated by $T_{,}$ and a Lipschitz function . In this paper, the authors study the boundedness of $[b, T_{,}]$ on the Hardy spaces, under some assumptions such as the $L^r$-Dini condition. Similar results and the weak type estimates at the end-point cases are also given for the homogeneous convolution operators $T_{\\overline{},}(0≤ < n)$. The smoothness conditions imposed on $\\overline{}$ are weaker than the corresponding known results.

  13. Integrity of a common operating picture in military situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available . If a commander loses his trust in the COP (due to irrelevant data, wrongfully displayed data etc.), the commander tends to ignore all the information portrayed by the COP and needs to rely on other methods to keep informed of the situation within.... Evaluating the integrity of the COP can be done by implementing a weighted system, which can give different weights to the different principles for every source, depending on the source‟s relative importance or impact on the operation. Different types...

  14. Radiation and annealing effects on integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, J.

    2017-02-01

    Integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier (op-amp) type μA 741 was irradiated with neutrons and gamma rays. The radiation on gain factors, slew rate, and power supply current have been evaluated. The experimental results show a decrease of these parameter values after exposing to the radiation. The advantage of the increase of the voltage power supplies and the thermal annealing treatment on the damaged parameters was also explored. The relationship among different frequency response parameters is also studied leading to an analytical formula for the above degraded parameters.

  15. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Salmanpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions.

  16. Studies on exhaust emissions of mahua oil operated compression ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilan, N; Reddy, R P

    2009-07-01

    The world is confronted with fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The energy demand and pollution problems lead to research for an alternative renewable energy sources. Vegetable oils and biodiesel present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to study the feasibility of using raw mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel in dual fuel engine. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used as primary fuel and mahua oil was used as pilot fuel. The results show that the performance of the dual fuel engine at the injector opening pressure of 220 bar and the advanced injection timing of 30 degrees bTDC results in performance close to diesel base line (DBL) operation and lower smoke and oxides of nitrogen emission.

  17. NPDES permit compliance and enforcement: A resource guide for oil and gas operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    During the fall of 1996, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission sponsored sessions for government and industry representatives to discuss concerns about the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program under the Clean Water Act. In January 1997, the NPDES Education/Communication/Training Workgroup (ECT Workgroup) was established with co-leaders from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and industry. The ECT Workgroup`s purpose was to develop ideas that would improve communication between NPDES regulators and the oil and gas industry regarding NPDES compliance issues. The Workgroup focused on several areas, including permit compliance monitoring and reporting, enforcement activity and options, and treatment technology. The ECT Workgroup also discussed the need for materials and information to help NPDES regulatory agency personnel understand more about oil and gas industry exploration and extraction operations and treatment processes. This report represents a compendium of the ECT Workgroup`s efforts.

  18. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Horak, Karl Emanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaChance, Jeffrey L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tolk, Keith Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, Donnie Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  19. Improving vacuum gas oil hydrotreating operation via a lumped parameter dynamic simulation modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remesat, D.

    2008-07-01

    Although hydrotreating has become a large part of refining operations for sour crudes, refiners rarely achieve their run lengths and crude throughput objectives for vacuum gas oil (VGO) hydrotreaters. This shortfall in performance can be attributed to crude flow changes, feed compositional changes, sulphur and metals changes, or hydrogen partial pressure changes, all of which reduce the effectiveness of the catalysts that remove sulphur from the crude oil streams. Although some proprietary steady state models exist to indicate performance enhancement during operation, they have not been widely used and it is not certain whether they would be effective in simulating the process with disturbances over the run length of the process. This study used publicly unattainable data gathered from 14 operating hydrotreaters and developed a lumped parameter dynamic model, using both Excel and HYSYS software, for industrial refinery/upgrader VGO hydrotreaters. The model takes proprietary and public steady state hydrotreater models and successfully applies it to a commercial dynamic simulation package. The model tracks changes in intrinsic reaction rate based on catalyst deactivation, wetting efficiency, feed properties and operating conditions to determine operating temperature, outlet sulphur composition and chemical hydrogen consumed. The model simulates local disturbances, and represents the start, middle and end operating zones during hydrotreater run length. This correlative, partially predictive model demonstrates the economic benefits of increasing hydrogen to improve the operation of a hydrotreater by increasing run length and/or improving crude processing.

  20. Integration of Weather Data into Airspace and Traffic Operations Simulation (ATOS) for Trajectory- Based Operations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mark; Boisvert, Ben; Escala, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with the National Airspace System (NAS) structure is needed to improve the development and execution of operationally effective weather impact mitigation plans and has become increasingly important due to NAS congestion and associated increases in delay. This article considers several contemporary weather-air traffic management (ATM) integration applications: the use of probabilistic forecasts of visibility at San Francisco, the Route Availability Planning Tool to facilitate departures from the New York airports during thunderstorms, the estimation of en route capacity in convective weather, and the application of mixed-integer optimization techniques to air traffic management when the en route and terminal capacities are varying with time because of convective weather impacts. Our operational experience at San Francisco and New York coupled with very promising initial results of traffic flow optimizations suggests that weather-ATM integrated systems warrant significant research and development investment. However, they will need to be refined through rapid prototyping at facilities with supportive operational users We have discussed key elements of an emerging aviation weather research area: the explicit integration of aviation weather forecasts with NAS structure to improve the effectiveness and timeliness of weather impact mitigation plans. Our insights are based on operational experiences with Lincoln Laboratory-developed integrated weather sensing and processing systems, and derivative early prototypes of explicit ATM decision support tools such as the RAPT in New York City. The technical components of this effort involve improving meteorological forecast skill, tailoring the forecast outputs to the problem of estimating airspace impacts, developing models to quantify airspace impacts, and prototyping automated tools that assist in the development of objective broad-area ATM strategies, given probabilistic

  1. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  2. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the Full City accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, G.; Carrasco, A.; Hole, L. R.; Dick, S.; Janssen, F.; Mattsson, J.; Berger, S.

    2011-06-01

    Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important decision support system (DeSS) useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models is of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the Full City accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws but including an analysis based on a higher resolution model (1.5 km resolution) for the area the model system show results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble using three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  3. Integrating International Engineering Organizations For Successful ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Elizabeth; Duggan, Matt; Patten, L.; Pieterek, Hhtrud

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a multinational orbiting space laboratory that is built in cooperation with 16 nations. The design and sustaining engineering expertise is spread worldwide. As the number of Partners with orbiting elements on the ISS grows, the challenge NASA is facing as the ISS integrator is to ensure that engineering expertise and data are accessible in a timely fashion to ensure ongoing operations and mission success. Integrating international engineering teams requires definition and agreement on common processes and responsibilities, joint training and the emergence of a unique engineering team culture. ISS engineers face daunting logistical and political challenges regarding data sharing requirements. To assure systematic information sharing and anomaly resolution of integrated anomalies, the ISS Partners are developing multi-lateral engineering interface procedures. Data sharing and individual responsibility are key aspects of this plan. This paper describes several examples of successful multilateral anomaly resolution. These successes were used to form the framework of the Partner to Partner engineering interface procedures, and this paper describes those currently documented multilateral engineering processes. Furthermore, it addresses the challenges experienced to date, and the forward work expected in establishing a successful working relationship with Partners as their hardware is launched.

  4. Effect of thyme essential oil and selenium on intestine integrity and antioxidant status of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placha, I; Takacova, J; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Laukova, A; Strompfova, V; Venglovska, K; Faix, S

    2014-02-01

    1. This study evaluated the duodenal wall integrity, antioxidant status as well as some immunological parameters of broiler chickens supplemented with 0.5 g Thymus vulgaris essential oil (EO)/kg diet and 0.4 mg Se/kg DM (dry matter) derived from sodium selenite. 2. A total of 192 one-d-old randomly divided chickens of both sexes (Ross 308 hybrid broilers) were divided into 4 treatment groups of 48 birds each. 3. The first group was fed on a nutritionally balanced basal diet (BD). The other three groups received BD supplemented with 0.5 g/kg thyme oil, or 0.4 mg Se/kg DM, or both feed additives together. 4. The results for the evaluated feed additives were (1) thyme oil - decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in duodenal mucosa and kidney, increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration in duodenal mucosa, stimulated phagocytic activity in blood, improved intestinal barrier integrity (2) selenium - increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in blood and liver as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in duodenal mucosa, liver and in the kidney, (3) EO with selenium - increased thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in duodenal mucosa. 5. These results demonstrated that thyme oil alone showed more effective potential to improve intestinal barrier integrity and antioxidant status as well as evoking an immune response in chickens, than if diets were supplemented with both thyme oil and selenium.

  5. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  6. Development of an integrated model system to simulate transport and fate of oil spills in seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional integrated model is developed for simulating transport and final fate of oil spills in seas.The model contains two main modules,flow and transport-fate modules.The flow module uses an unstructured finite-volume wave-ocean coupling model.Using unstructured meshes provides great flexibility for modeling the flow in complex geometries of tidal creeks,barriers and islands.In the transport-fate module the oil dispersion is solved using a particle-tracking method.Horizontal diffusion is simulated using random walk techniques in a Monte Carlo framework,whereas the vertical diffusion process is solved on the basis of the Langeven equation.The model simulates the most significant processes that affect the motion of oil particles,such as advection,surface spreading,evaporation,dissolution,emulsification and turbulent diffusion as well as the interaction of the oil particles with the shoreline,sedimentation and the temporal variations of oil viscosity,density and surface tension.The model simulates either continuous or instantaneous oil spills,and also other toxic matter.This model has been applied to simulate the oil spill accident in the Bohai Sea.In comparison with the observations,the numerical results indicate that the model is reasonably accurate.

  7. Optimal operation of integrated processes. Studies on heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemmestad, Bjoern

    1997-12-31

    Separators, reactors and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery are important parts of an integrated plant. This thesis deals with the operation of HENs, in particular, optimal operation. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also introduces new interactions and feedback into the overall plant. A prerequisite for optimisation is that there are extra degrees of freedom left after regulatory control is implemented. It is shown that extra degrees of freedom may not always be utilized for energy optimisation, and a quantitative expression for the degrees of freedom that can be so utilized are presented. A simplified expression that is often valid is also deduced. The thesis presents some improvements and generalisations of a structure based method that has been proposed earlier. Structural information is used to divide possible manipulations into three categories depending on how each manipulation affects the utility consumption. By means of these categories and two heuristic rules for operability, the possible manipulations are ordered in a priority table. This table is used to determine which manipulation should be preferred and which manipulation should be selected if an active manipulation is saturated. It is shown that the method may correspond to split-range control. A method that uses parametric information in addition to structural information is proposed. In this method, the optimal control structure is found through solving an integer programming problem. The thesis also proposes a method that combines the use of steady state optimisation and optimal selection of measurements. 86 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Principles for Integrating Mars Analog Science, Operations, and Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the scientific community and NASA used terrestrial analog sites for understanding planetary features and for training astronauts to be scientists. Human factors studies (Harrison, Clearwater, & McKay 1991; Stuster 1996) have focused on the effects of isolation in extreme environments. More recently, with the advent of wireless computing, we have prototyped advanced EVA technologies for navigation, scheduling, and science data logging (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Combining these interests in a single expedition enables tremendous synergy and authenticity, as pioneered by Pascal Lee's Haughton-Mars Project (Lee 2001; Clancey 2000a) and the Mars Society s research stations on a crater rim on Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic (Clancey 2000b; 2001b) and the Morrison Formation of southeast Utah (Clancey 2002a). Based on this experience, the following principles are proposed for conducting an integrated science, operations, and technology research program at analog sites: 1) Authentic work; 2) PI-based projects; 3) Unencumbered baseline studies; 4) Closed simulations; and 5) Observation and documentation. Following these principles, we have been integrating field science, operations research, and technology development at analog sites on Devon Island and in Utah over the past five years. Analytic methods include work practice simulation (Clancey 2002c; Sierhuis et a]., 2000a;b), by which the interaction of human behavior, facilities, geography, tools, and procedures are formalized in computer models. These models are then converted into the runtime EVA system we call mobile agents (Clancey 2002b; Clancey et al., in press). Furthermore, we have found that the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (Jones, 1999) provides a vast repository or understanding astronaut and CapCom interactions, serving as a baseline for Mars operations and quickly highlighting opportunities for computer automation (Clancey, in press).

  9. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  10. The integrated effect on properties and composition of high-paraffin oil sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Anufriev, R. V.; G. I. Volkova; A. A. Vasilyeva; Petukhova, A. V.; Usheva, Nataliya Viktorovna

    2015-01-01

    The study is devoted to the integrated effect of acoustic treatment and addition of an inhibitor on viscosity-temperature properties and n-alkane composition in high-paraffin oil sludge. Ultrasonic treatment for 1 minute and addition of the inhibitor at the concentration of 0.05% wt. decrease viscosity by 10 times and pour point by 8 °С.

  11. Wintertime Air Quality Impacts from Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Operations in the Bakken Formation Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoski-Cole, Ashley; Sive, Barkley; Zhou, Yong; Prenni, Anthony; Schurman, Misha; Day, Derek; Sullivan, Amy; Li, Yi; Hand, Jenny; Gebhart, Kristi; Schichtel, Bret; Collett, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Oil and natural gas extraction has dramatically increased in the last decade in the United States due to the increased use of unconventional drilling techniques which include horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. The impact of these drilling activities on local and regional air quality in oil and gas basins across the country are still relatively unknown, especially in recently developed basins such as the Bakken shale formation. This study is the first to conduct a comprehensive characterization of the regional air quality in the Bakken region. The Bakken shale formation, part of the Williston basin, is located in North Dakota and Montana in the United States and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada. Oil and gas drilling operations can impact air quality in a variety of ways, including the generation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), hazardous air pollutants, ozone, and greenhouse gas emissions. During the winter especially, PM formation can be enhanced and meteorological conditions can favor increased concentrations of PM and other pollutants. In this study, ground-based measurements throughout the Bakken region in North Dakota and Montana were collected over two consecutive winters to gain regional trends of air quality impacts from the oil and gas drilling activities. Additionally, one field site had a comprehensive suite of instrumentation operating at high time resolution to gain detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition. Measurements included organic carbon and black carbon concentrations in PM, the characterization of inorganic PM, inorganic gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precipitation and meteorology. These elevated PM episodes were further investigated using the local meteorological conditions and regional transport patterns. Episodes of elevated concentrations of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were also detected. The VOC concentrations were analyzed and specific VOCs that are known oil and gas tracers were used

  12. Hardware and software system for monitoring oil pump operation in power high-voltage transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic prerequisites for the creation of an automated monitoring system for oil pumps of high-voltage transformers. This is due to the fact that the long operation of oil pumps results in deterioration and destruction of bearings, rubbing of the rotor, breakage and damage to the impeller, leakage, etc., which inevitably causes a significant decrease in the insulating properties of the transformer oil and leads to expenditures for its further recovery. False triggerings of gas protection sometimes occur. Continuous operation of the electric motor also requires additional equipment to protect the motor itself from various emergency situations, such as a short in the stator winding, a housing breakdown, an incomplete phase mode, etc. The use of stationary systems provides: diagnosing defects at an early stage of their development, increasing the reliability and longevity of the equipment components, increasing the overhaul period, decreasing the number of emergency stops, and adjusting the schedule of preventative maintenance. The basic principles of identification of the damaged part of the oil pump are given, the hardware and algorithmic solutions are considered in the work. The full-scale tests of the model sample on the power transformer of the high-voltage substation confirmed the assumption of the possibility of detecting the damaged unit separating it from the rest connected in one mechanical structure. A detailed analysis of the operation of each of the units is carried out by means of the general substation switchboard and displayed as graphs, diagrams and text messages. When the limit values of vibration are reached, faults in the operation of the unit are detected, the overlimit current values, a warning alarm is activated, and the command to disconnect the damaged unit is issued. The optimal solution for the organization of the information collection system using the principle of sensor networks, but combined

  13. Performance and Operating Characteristics of a Novel Positive-Displacement Oil-Free CO2 Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtulus, Orkan; YANG Bin; Lumpkin, Dominique; Eckhard A. Groll; Jestings, Lee; Conde, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Research activities towards developing CO2 compressors have increased drastically during the last couple years. Since the transcritical CO2 cycle operates at much higher absolute pressures as compared to the conventional vapor compression cycles, it is necessary to develop new compressors or modify existing ones. In this paper, a novel positive-displacement oil-free CO2 compressor will be introduced. The compressor’s mechanical linkage system will be described. In addition, preliminary compre...

  14. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mylrea, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-22

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study draws conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to maintaining

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  16. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    to perform arbitrage and to alleviate wind power deviations from day-ahead contracts. The strategy is developed with two-price balancing markets in mind. A mixed integer nonlinear optimization formulation is built to determine optimal offers by taking into account expected wind power forecasting errors......Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...... and the power balancing capability of the ESS. A modified gradient descent algorithm is designed to solve this nonlinear problem. A number of case studies validate the computational efficiency and optimality of the algorithm. Compared to the existing strategies, the proposed strategies yield increased economic...

  17. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented.......The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...

  18. An Integrated Business and Technology Curriculum: Oil and Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Hillary Jean

    2011-01-01

    Technology in every form has become an important part of everyday life. In business, it is a necessity for success and survival. Many authors (Kotrlik & Redmann, 2009; Ma & Runyon (2004), among others) in the arena of higher education have pointed out the need for truly integrated business and technology programs at the graduate level, but…

  19. The characterization of soybean oil body integral oleosin isoforms and the effects of alkaline pH on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Ying, Yusang; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-06-15

    Oil body, an organelle in seed cell (naturally pre-emulsified oil), has great potentials to be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. Researchers have tried to extract oil body by alkaline buffers, which are beneficial for removing contaminated proteins. But it is not clear whether alkaline buffers could remove oil body integral proteins (mainly oleosins), which could keep oil body integrity and stability. In this study, seven oleosin isoforms were identified for soybean oil body (three isoforms, 24 kDa; three isoforms, 18 kDa; one isoform, 16kDa). Oleosins were not glycoproteins and 24 kDa oleosin isoforms possessed less thiol groups than 18 kDa ones. It was found that alkaline pH not only removed contaminated proteins but also oleosins, and more and more oleosins were removed with increasing alkaline pH.

  20. Generalized Fractional Integral Operators on Generalized Local Morrey Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the continuity properties of the generalized fractional integral operator Iρ on the generalized local Morrey spaces LMp,φ{x0} and generalized Morrey spaces Mp,φ. We find conditions on the triple (φ1,φ2,ρ which ensure the Spanne-type boundedness of Iρ from one generalized local Morrey space LMp,φ1{x0} to another LMq,φ2{x0}, 1integral inequalities on (φ1,φ2,ρ and (φ,ρ, which do not assume any assumption on monotonicity of φ1(x,r, φ2(x,r, and φ(x,r in r.

  1. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Interconnected operations services in a vertically integrated utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, S.P. [ComEd, Lombard, IL (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The North American electric industry has historically been composed of regulated Vertically Integrated Utilities (VIU). Vertical integration means that the same company owns generation, transmission, and distribution facilities. Regulated utilities were ensured cost recovery for all justifiable expenses. The entire industry is in the process of deregulation. The industry-wide trend is to competitive generation, while transmission and distribution remain regulated. Many variations, in both timing and structure, exist in states that have enacted deregulation and retail choice legislation. Some have combined retail choice with an ISO and power exchange; others have opted for retail choice without either. In the past, Interconnected Operations Services (IOS) were obtained by informal means within the same company. Generation is now being actively bought and sold as companies align their strategic direction with different sectors of the emerging electric industry. In the future, these IOS will have to be obtained by formal arrangements. The formal arrangements will need to encompass parameters including service definitions, compensation, performance measurement, and performance incentives. These formal arrangements are presently taking different forms in the industry depending on the stage of deregulation in each area, and on the particular agreements made by each Control Area. This paper describes how VIUs obtained and dispatched the IOS needed for reliability, and what challenges will be faced with respect to these services.

  3. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  4. 76 FR 11809 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS...

  5. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Enforcement Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of..., production, and transport of oil, gas, and mineral resources on the Federal OCS. These SEAs examine the... Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS...

  6. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... Impact (FONSI), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed... availability of environmental documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS...

  7. 76 FR 16632 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY...), prepared by BOEMRE for the following oil-, gas-, and mineral-related activities proposed on the Gulf of... Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. SUMMARY: The...

  8. The Assessment of Instruments for Detecting Surface Water Spills Associated with Oil and Gas Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  9. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    , and cultural differences, to ensure an efficient response to customer issues using a small Customer Service Team (CST) and adaptability, constant communication with customers, technical expertise and knowledge of services, and dedication to customer service. The HOSC Customer Support Team has implemented a variety of processes, and procedures that help to mitigate the potential problems that arise when integrating ground system services for a variety of complex missions and the lessons learned from this experience will lead the future of customer service in the space operations industry.

  10. A multi-model Python wrapper for operational oil spill transport forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X.; Hodges, B. R.; Negusse, S.; Barker, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Hydrodynamic and oil spill modeling system for Python (HyosPy) is presented as an example of a multi-model wrapper that ties together existing models, web access to forecast data and visualization techniques as part of an adaptable operational forecast system. The system is designed to automatically run a continual sequence of hindcast/forecast hydrodynamic models so that multiple predictions of the time-and-space-varying velocity fields are already available when a spill is reported. Once the user provides the estimated spill parameters, the system runs multiple oil spill prediction models using the output from the hydrodynamic models. As new wind and tide data become available, they are downloaded from the web, used as forcing conditions for a new instance of the hydrodynamic model and then applied to a new instance of the oil spill model. The predicted spill trajectories from multiple oil spill models are visualized through Python methods invoking Google MapTM and Google EarthTM functions. HyosPy is designed in modules that allow easy future adaptation to new models, new data sources or new visualization tools.

  11. Results of geological prospecting operations for oil and gas in Hrvatia in 1969-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir, T.; Branimir, M.

    1980-01-01

    In 1969-1979, exploratory and prospecting operations in Hrvatia were conducted at 34 districts which showed promise in terms of the likelihood of oil and gas. Definite advances were achieved both in the area of prospecting and in exploration. Prospecting techniques for non-anticlinal deposits and for testing fissured reservoirs were improved. A significant saving was attained by applying controlled-directional drilling. Discoveries which were made markedly increased the oil and gas reserves in categories A, B, and C. Over the 11-year period, 832 prospecting boreholes were drilled, of which 461 were vertical, 189 inclined, and 182 controlled-directional. The overall length (in meters) of these boreholes amounted to 1,318,272 m; 27.5% of the drilled boreholes were unsuccessful (in the United States, by comparison, in 1969 26.9% of all boreholes did not show positive results). This indicator may be considered acceptable, since Hrvatia deposits are small in size, irregular in shape, and have complicated geological structures. Through the use of controlled-directional drilling, it was possible to retain a large number of already drilled vertical boreholes for subsequent exploitation of producing levels; only 7.24% of the total number of boreholes were eliminated. During this period, a noticeable growth in oil and gas reserves was achieved; within the Pannonnsk basin of Hrvatian, these deposits, increased 51% (oil) and 26% (gas).

  12. IT integration, operations flexibility and performance: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Caracuel Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between IT implementation and performance with manufacturing flexibility based on a sample drawn from a set of manufacturing firms. Design/methodology/approach: The relationships were analyzed using structural equations modeling (SEM using EQS 6.2 software. Previously, an explanatory factor analysis confirmed one-dimensionality of the scales, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to evaluate its internal consistency and a confirmatory factor analysis was run to observe scales’ validity. Findings: This research proves a significant positive and direct effect of IT implementation on operations performance with 4 out of 6 flexibility dimensions (Machine, Labour, Material handling and Volume. Mix and Routing flexibility dimensions show no significant impact on firm performance. Research limitations/implications: It is necessary to be cautious when generalizing these findings, as service firms were not part of the sample even when statistical results prove robustness suggesting that the findings are quite reliable. Some flexibility dimensions show no significant impact in performance (Routing and Mix flexibility. This is consistent with the fact that these flexibility dimensions act as variability absorbers within the manufacturing process. Originality/value: This research proves a significant positive and direct effect of IT implementation on operations performance. Results show not only the links between IT implementation and operations performance, but also the magnitude of every impact. The model considers IT integration as the degree of alignment that existing technology resources in a firm have with the business strategy, in terms of importance and support for this strategy.

  13. Production of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate using triazabicyclodecene in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul

    Due to the increasing awareness of the dwindling fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biofuel became an alternative renewable fuel to meet the steady increase of energy consumption and environmental demands. This work was designed to produce biofuel free from glycerol, soap, catalyst and wastes from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an organocatalyst, triazabicyclodecene (TBD). To achieve these goals, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a flow sheet was developed for the process and operating criteria were identified by laboratory experimentation verified with Aspen Plus. Mass and energy integration studies were performed to minimize the consumption of materials and energy utilities. Next, kinetics of canola oil transesterification using TBD as homogeneous catalyst in dimethyl carbonate has been investigated and a model was developed. Kinetics data were vital in process assessment and kinetics model was essential in the study of chemical reaction and catalyst development. Finally, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed for use as a biofuel catalyst through the immobilization of TBD into MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which can combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with the best properties of heterogeneous materials.

  14. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  15. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aalst, M. [Global Environment Facility Program, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under

  16. Optimum Operating Conditions for Epoxidation Reaction of Jojoba and Castor Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Adly R. A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to determine the best set of parameters such as, glacial acetic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio (acid/ethylene, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio (H2O2/ethylene and temperature on epoxidation conversion based on experimental results, with respect to time. The effect of these parameters has been studied in a separate set of experiments. Their ranges were as follows: 0.2-0.8Wt%, 0.75-3Wt%, and 40oC-80oC respectively. Six models have been introduced to indicate the effect of these three variables on conversion for both jojoba and castor oil, and the prediction abilities of the resultant models were tested. Regression analysis is used to extract the introduced non linear models. In addition, two new correlations have been introduced to incorporate all the studied variables and their effect on conversion simultaneously for both jojoba and castor oil. An optimization program has been introduced to determine the optimum operating conditions for maximum conversion for both jojoba and castor oil. The study shows that, the maximum conversion for epoxidized jojoba oil (66% could be achieved at acid/ethylene ratio: 0.4, H2O2/ethylene ratio: 1.44; temp: 66.5 and time is 8hr. While the maximum conversion for epoxidized castor oil (53.24% could be achieved at acid/ethylene ratio: 0.37; H2O2/ethylenes ratio: 1.32; temp: 61 and time is 8hr. the model results are strongly agreed with the experimental results.

  17. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  18. Automatic Synthetic Aperture Radar based oil spill detection and performance estimation via a semi-automatic operational service benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Vespe, Michele; Trieschmann, Olaf

    2013-08-15

    Today the health of ocean is in danger as it was never before mainly due to man-made pollutions. Operational activities show regular occurrence of accidental and deliberate oil spill in European waters. Since the areas covered by oil spills are usually large, satellite remote sensing particularly Synthetic Aperture Radar represents an effective option for operational oil spill detection. This paper describes the development of a fully automated approach for oil spill detection from SAR. Total of 41 feature parameters extracted from each segmented dark spot for oil spill and 'look-alike' classification and ranked according to their importance. The classification algorithm is based on a two-stage processing that combines classification tree analysis and fuzzy logic. An initial evaluation of this methodology on a large dataset has been carried out and degree of agreement between results from proposed algorithm and human analyst was estimated between 85% and 93% respectively for ENVISAT and RADARSAT.

  19. Towards an operational system for oil-spill forecast over Spanish waters: initial developments and implementation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, M G; Fanjul, E Alvarez; Castanedo, S; Abascal, A J; Menendez, J; Emelianov, M; Olivella, R; García-Ladona, E; Ruiz-Villarreal, M; Conde, J; Gómez, M; Conde, P; Gutierrez, A D; Medina, R

    2008-04-01

    The ESEOO Project, launched after the Prestige crisis, has boosted operational oceanography capacities in Spain, creating new operational oceanographic services and increasing synergies between these new operational tools and already existing systems. In consequence, the present preparedness to face an oil-spill crisis is enhanced, significantly improving the operational response regarding ocean, meteorological and oil-spill monitoring and forecasting. A key aspect of this progress has been the agreement between the scientific community and the Spanish Search and Rescue Institution (SASEMAR), significantly favoured within the ESEOO framework. Important achievements of this collaboration are: (1) the design of protocols that at the crisis time provide operational state-of-the-art information, derived from both forecasting and observing systems; (2) the establishment, in case of oil-spill crisis, of a new specialized unit, named USyP, to monitor and forecast the marine oceanographic situation, providing the required met-ocean and oil-spill information for the crisis managers. The oil-spill crisis scenario simulated during the international search and rescue Exercise "Gijón-2006", organized by SASEMAR, represented an excellent opportunity to test the capabilities and the effectiveness of this USyP unit, as well as the protocols established to analyze and transfer information. The results presented in this work illustrate the effectiveness of the operational approach, and constitute an encouraging and improved base to face oil-spill crisis.

  20. Spherical and plane integral operators for PDEs construction, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelfeld, Karl K

    2013-01-01

    The book presents integral formulations for partial differential equations, with the focus on spherical and plane integral operators. The integral relations are obtained for different elliptic and parabolic equations, and both direct and inverse mean value relations are studied. The derived integral equations are used to construct new numerical methods for solving relevant boundary value problems, both deterministic and stochastic based on probabilistic interpretation of the spherical and plane integral operators.

  1. Integrated Management Strategies Increase Cottonseed, Oil and Protein Production: The Key Role of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xinyue; Chen, Binglin; Meng, Yali; Wang, Youhua; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed, oil, and protein, as the by-products of cotton production, have the potential to provide commodities to meet the increasing demand of renewable bio-fuels and ruminant feed. An increase in crop yield per unit area requires high-yielding cultivar management with an economic nitrogen (N) rate, an optimal N application schedule, high-yielding plant populations and strong seedlings. Whether the integration of these agronomic practices into a coherent management system can increase the productivity of cotton fiber, embryo oil and protein requires experimental elucidation. In this 2-year study, conventional management practices (CM) were used as a control, and two integrated management strategies (IMS1 and IMS2) were considered at two soil fertility levels (high soil fertility and low soil fertility) to analyze the metabolic and biochemical traits of cotton embryos. The results illustrate that the cottonseed, oil, and protein yields for IMS1 and IMS2 were significantly higher than those under CM at both soil fertility levels and the fiber yield increased as well. The IMS regulated the maternal photo thermal environment by delaying the flowering date, resulting in increases in the seed weight. In developing cotton embryos, the IMS increased the embryo weight accumulation rate and biomass partitioning into oil and protein, which were associated with high activities of H+-ATPase, H+-PPase, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and cell wall invertase (C-INV) and low activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and vacuole invertase (V-INV). Increased hexoses (D-fructose, D-glucose) content contributed to the oil and protein contents. These results suggest that increased sucrose/H+ symport, sucrose hydrolysis, hexoses synthesis, and cumulative photo-thermal product (PTP), especially in the early stage of embryo growth, play a dominant role in the high productivity of cotton oil and protein. PMID:28194156

  2. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemical oxygen demand (COD, oil removal, and output voltage generation were continuously monitored. The COD removals of three reactors were between 73% and 75%, and oil removals were over 95.7%. Compared with MFC, the CW-MFC with a MnO2 modified cathode produced higher power density and output voltage. Maximum power densities of CW-MFC and MFC were 3868 mW/m3 (102 mW/m2 and 3044 mW/m3 (80 mW/m2, respectively. The plants in CW-MFC play a positive role for reactor cathode potential. Both plants and cathode modification can improve reactor performance of electricity generation.

  3. Integration Methodology For Oil-Free Shaft Support Systems: Four Steps to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Commercial applications for Oil-Free turbomachinery are slowly becoming a reality. Micro-turbine generators, highspeed electric motors, and electrically driven centrifugal blowers are a few examples of products available in today's commercial marketplace. Gas foil bearing technology makes most of these applications possible. A significant volume of component level research has led to recent acceptance of gas foil bearings in several specialized applications, including those mentioned above. Component tests identifying such characteristics as load carrying capacity, power loss, thermal behavior, rotordynamic coefficients, etc. all help the engineer design foil bearing machines, but the development process can be just as important. As the technology gains momentum and acceptance in a wider array of machinery, the complexity and variety of applications will grow beyond the current class of machines. Following a robust integration methodology will help improve the probability of successful development of future Oil-Free turbomachinery. This paper describes a previously successful four-step integration methodology used in the development of several Oil-Free turbomachines. Proper application of the methods put forward here enable successful design of Oil-Free turbomachinery. In addition when significant design changes or unique machinery are developed, this four-step process must be considered.

  4. Area integral functions and $H^{\\8}$ functional calculus for sectorial operators on Hilbert spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zeqian; Sun, Mu

    2012-01-01

    Area integral functions are introduced for sectorial operators on Hilbert spaces. We establish the equivalence relationship between the square and area integral functions. This immediately extends McIntosh/Yagi's results on $H^{\\8}$ functional calculus of sectorial operators on Hilbert spaces to the case when the square functions are replaced by the area integral functions.

  5. 49 CFR 192.909 - How can an operator change its integrity management program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.909 How can an operator change its integrity management... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can an operator change its integrity management program? 192.909 Section 192.909 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...

  6. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  7. Instrumentation and operational requirements for pilot-scale CO/sub 2/ enhanced oil recovery projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, Jr., W. D.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes an instrumentation system to monitor a miscible displacement pilot flood under carefully controlled conditions. The primary focus is on CO/sub 2/ flooding but the results apply equally well to other types of miscible floods. Included are discussions of the physical processes in a CO/sub 2/ flood, a review of existing CO/sub 2/ floods, instrumentation available, site selection and characterization, operation of the flood, simulator evaluation, and cost estimates for this type of project. Throughout the report it is emphasized that determination of residual oil saturation before and after the flood is crucial to evaluation of the results.

  8. Thermal Aging Characteristics of Insulation Paper in Mineral Oil under Overloaded Operating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Katsunori; Oe, Etsuo; Yamagata, Naoki; Miyahara, Hideyuki

    A sudden capacity increase in demand during the summer peak, or in contingencies such as malfunctioning transformers, may cause overload for normal transformers. In this paper, on the basis of examples of overloaded transformer operation in distributing substations, thermal aging testing in oil was carried out under various overload patterns, such as short time overload and long time overload, but with the winding insulation paper's life loss kept constant. From the results, various characteristics such as mean degree of polymerization and productions of furfural and (CO2+CO), and their effects on the life loss of the insulation paper were obtained.

  9. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  10. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  11. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers.

  12. Effect of Operating Conditions on Sulfur and Metal Content of Basrah Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In the present work, Basrah crude oil, atmospheric distillate of 305-623 K boiling range, vacuum distillate of 623-823 K boiling range, and wide petroleum distillate of boiling range 305-823 K are hydrotreated in trickle bed reactor using Cobalt-Molybdenum alumina as a catalyst. Hydrotreating temperatures are 598-648K, 598-673K, 648-673K and 648K respectively while LHSV are 0.7-2 hr-1, 1 hr-1, 0.7-2 hr-1 respectively. The operating pressure  and H2/Oil ratio for all experiments are kept constant at 3 Mpa and 300 liter/liter.    The results show that Sulphur and metal content decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing LHSV.     Vacuum residue of boiling range above 823K is mixed with hydrotreated atmospheric distillate, vacuum distillate and with the hydrotreated wide petroleum distillate. The temperature for hydrotreating the mixed sample is 648K and LHSV is 1 hr-1. It was found that hydrotreating crude oil is the best choice since it gives the highest removal of sulphur, vanadium and cobalt removal.

  13. Effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) seed essential oil on biofilm formation and plasmid Integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Sattari, Morteza; Bigdeli, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of the cumin plant (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been used since many years in Iranian traditional medicine. We assessed the effect of cumin seed essential oil on the biofilm-forming ability of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and on the integrity of a native resistance plasmid DNA from K. pneumoniae isolates, treated with essential oil. Antibacterial coaction between the essential oil and selected antibiotic disks were determined for inhibiting K. pneumoniae. The essential oil of the cumin seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clavenger system. A simple method for the formation of biofilms on semiglass lamellas was established. The biofilms formed were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of essential oil on plasmid integrity was studied through the induction of R-plasmid DNA degradation. The plasmid was incubated with essential oil, and agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. Disk diffusion assay was employed to determine the coaction. The essential oil decreased biofilm formation and enhanced the activity of the ciprofloxacin disk. The incubation of the R-plasmid DNA with essential oil could not induce plasmid DNA degradation. The results of this study suggest the potential use of cumin seed essential oil against K. pneumoniae in vitro, may contribute to the in vivo efficacy of this essential oil.

  14. Effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum seed essential oil on biofilm formation and plasmid Integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Derakhshan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the cumin plant (Cuminum cyminum L. have been used since many years in Iranian traditional medicine. We assessed the effect of cumin seed essential oil on the biofilm-forming ability of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and on the integrity of a native resistance plasmid DNA from K. pneumoniae isolates, treated with essential oil. Antibacterial coaction between the essential oil and selected antibiotic disks were determined for inhibiting K. pneumoniae. The essential oil of the cumin seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clavenger system. A simple method for the formation of biofilms on semiglass lamellas was established. The biofilms formed were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of essential oil on plasmid integrity was studied through the induction of R-plasmid DNA degradation. The plasmid was incubated with essential oil, and agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. Disk diffusion assay was employed to determine the coaction. The essential oil decreased biofilm formation and enhanced the activity of the ciprofloxacin disk. The incubation of the R-plasmid DNA with essential oil could not induce plasmid DNA degradation. The results of this study suggest the potential use of cumin seed essential oil against K. pneumoniae in vitro, may contribute to the in vivo efficacy of this essential oil.

  15. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  16. Integral-Operator Analysis of Layered Media and Integrated Microstrip Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi.

    This dissertation presents a rigorous full-wave integral operator formulation for electromagnetic interactions among microstrip configurations in the layered environment, and a comprehensive study on one of the most essential elements in microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC's), the microstrip transmission lines. Broad electromagnetic phenomena associated with microstrip transmission lines, including their propagation spectrum, dispersion characteristics, coupling effects, current distributions, characteristic impedances, losses and leakage and/or radiation properties are investigated via the integral equation approach. First, dyadic Green's functions are developed for layered media with both dielectric and magnetic contrast. Based on the Green's functions, an electric field integral equation (EFIE) description for general microstrip circuits is developed, and then applied to microstrip transmission lines. The complete propagation-mode spectrum of microstrip line is identified and an excitation and coupling theory is developed. Propagation modes on isolated and coupled microstrip transmission lines are studied in details. Numerical solutions to the EFIE's are implemented by Galerkin's method of moments. Chebyshev polynomials with square-root edge factors are utilized as basis functions. An accurate circuit modeling of the non-TEM microstrip line structure is described and a full -wave analysis for the characteristic impedance is developed. Also, a EFIE-based full-wave perturbation theory for N coupled microstrip transmission lines is presented. An experimental verification is carried out and the theoretical and experimental results are in a good agreement. Much effort is made in this thesis in developing a unified, consistent, complex integral equation-formulation which correctly handles the problem of general lossy and leaky microstrip lines. In discussions of the bound waveguiding modes and the non-spectral radiative leaky modes, the propagation

  17. Special Operations can make a difference in integrated conflict prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    on tangible operationalization of this vision and provides knowledge on how special operations can be an attractive instrument in comprehensive conflict prevention, including how the special characteristics of special operations make them suitable for supporting the non-military instruments....

  18. Integrating Mission Type Orders into Operational Level Intelligence Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Operational Control OPLAN Operation Plan OSINT Open Source Intelligence OT Exercise OLYMPIC TITAN PED Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination PIR...human intelligence (HUMINT), open source intelligence ( OSINT ), and counterintelligence (CI). These are human-oriented collection capabilities and

  19. 75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ..., in OCS Order No. 11 in 1974, ] during a period of oil shortages and energy crises. In 1988, MMS... other oil and natural gas production data. The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration... recommendation to the Secretary of Energy to consider consulting with EPA (Environmental Protection Agency),...

  20. Deriving new operator identities by alternately using normally,antinormally,and Weyl ordered integration technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Dirac’s ket-bra formalism is the language of quantum mechanics.We have reviewed how to apply Newton-Leibniz integration rules to Dirac’s ket-bra projectors in previous work.In this work,by alternately using the technique of integration within normal,antinormal,and Weyl ordering of operators we not only derive some new operator ordering identities,but also deduce some new integration formulas regarding Laguerre and Hermite polynomials.This may open a new route of directly deriving some complicated mathematical integration formulas by virtue of the quantum mechanical operator ordering technique,without really performing the integrations in the ordinary way.

  1. Functional Calculus via Transference, Double Operator Integrals and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of several aspects of the theory of functional calculus. This theory considers the combination of an operator A and a function f(z) of a variable z, resulting in an operator f(A). One then attempts to study properties of the operator f(A) in terms of properties

  2. Functional Calculus via Transference, Double Operator Integrals and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of several aspects of the theory of functional calculus. This theory considers the combination of an operator A and a function f(z) of a variable z, resulting in an operator f(A). One then attempts to study properties of the operator f(A) in terms of properties

  3. 78 FR 68082 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations; Submitted for Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 250, Subpart F, Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1014... Burden covered under 1014-0018. 0 begin subsea well- workover operations; submit Forms BSEE-0124 (include... and equivalent well-control fluid volume. Subtotal 306 responses...... 230...

  4. Reliability-Based Planning of Inspection, Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Oil & Gas Structures and Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Reliability-based cost-optimal planning of inspection, maintenance and operation has many applications. In this paper applications for planning of inspections for oil & gas jacket structures and of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines are described and illustrated by examples....

  5. Possibilities of making use of integrated emission monitoring system for inspection of electroprecipitators operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knitter, J.; Matys, T. [Gdansk Thermal-Electric Power Station Complex S.A., Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Microprocessor and computer control devices for ESP operation and integrated emission monitoring systems are discussed. An operating ESP inspection system for the Gdansk power station complex is determined. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  6. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-01

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  7. BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF STREAMS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATOR OPERABLE UNITS, 1996 TO 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S

    2004-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been divided into six Integrator Operable Units (IOUs) that correspond to the watersheds of the five major streams on the SRS (Upper Three Runs, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs) and the portions of the Savannah River and Savannah River Swamp associated with the SRS. The streams are the primary integrators within each IOU because they potentially receive, through surface or subsurface drainage, soluble contaminants from all waste sites within their watersheds. If these contaminants reach biologically significant levels, they would be expected to effect the numbers, types, and health of stream organisms. In this study, biological sampling was conducted within each IOU as a measure of the cumulative ecological effects of the waste sites within the IOUs. The use of information from biological sampling to assess environmental quality is often termed bioassessment. The IOU bioassessment program included 38 sites in SRS streams and nine sites in the Savannah River. Sampling was conducted in 1996 to 1998, 2000, and 2003. Four bioassessment methods were used to evaluate ecological conditions in the IOU streams: the Index of Biotic Integrity, the Fish Health Assessment Index, measurement of fish tissue contaminant levels, and two benthic macroinvertebrate indices. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is an EPA supported method based on comparison of ecologically important and sensitive fish assemblage variables between potentially disturbed and reference (i.e., undisturbed) sites. It is designed to assess the ability of a stream to support a self-sustaining biological community and ecological processes typical of undisturbed, natural conditions. Since many types of contaminants can bioaccumulate, fish tissue contaminant data were used to determine the types of chemicals fish were exposed to and their relative magnitudes among IOUs. The Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) is an EPA supported method for assessing

  8. Spectral Properties of Integral Differential Operators Applied in Linear Antenna Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekers, D.J.; Eijndhoven, S.J.L. van

    2012-01-01

    The current on a linear strip or wire solves an equation governed by a linear integro-differential operator that is the composition of the Helmholtz operator and an integral operator with a logarithmically singular displacement kernel. Investigating the spectral behaviour of this classical operator,

  9. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles ...

  10. Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.

    2007-08-01

    At the end of 2005, the Power Engineering Society (PES) published a special issue of its Power & Energy Magazine that focused on integrating wind into the power system. This paper provides a summary and update on many of the salient points from that special issue about the current state of knowledge regarding utility wind integration issues.

  11. Vibration analysis of angular contact ball bearing operated with copper oxide nanoparticles mixed ISO VG 68 lubricating oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash E.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of CuO nanoparticles on lubricating oil and vibration reduction in angular contact ball bearing. CuO nanoparticles are synthesized by using chemical method and characteristic studies done in XRD and TEM. CuO nanoparticles size achieved in the range 26 - 30 nm. The nanoparticles concentration of 0.2 wt. % added into the lubricant (ISO VG 68. The testrig setup consists of angular contact ball bearing operated by AC motor with speed controller. The bearing (New and outer defect vibrations measured using base oil and CuO mixed oil.

  12. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  13. Integral anomalous effect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostyshevskiy, M.B.; Nabokov, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic precepts of an elaborated version of a procedure for forecasting (direct exploration) of oil and gas deposits according to seismic prospecting data MOV are examined. This procedure was previously called the procedure of analysis of the integral affect of an oil and gas deposit in a seismic wave field (MIIEZ-VP). The procedure is implemented in the form of an automated system ASOM-VP for the BESM-4 computer in a standard configuration equipped with standard input-output devices for seismic information (''Potok'', MVU, ''Atlas''). The entire procedure of processing from input of data into the computer to output of resulting maps and graphs on graph plotter ''Atlas'' is automated. Results of testing of procedure MIIEZ-VP and system ASOM-VP on drilled areas of Kazakhstan, Azerbaydzhan and Uzbekistan are cited.

  14. The Integration Aspects of Activities of the Companies in the Oil and Gas Industry Sector in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevnyk Tetiana M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers both the dynamics and the structure of oil and gas production in Ukraine, situation of the oil and gas companies at the current stage of globalization of the world economy have been covered. The main problems impacting the functioning of the domestic industry sector have been identified, including the lack of effectiveness of the existing integration processes. The world trends and patterns of integration processes have been considered. It has been determined that the oil and gas industry sector leaders are the multinational companies that actively use integration in their practices. The current trends in creating integration linkages in different parts of the process chain in the oil and gas industry have been identified. Influence by large corporations of the innovative type on the creation of a favorable investment climate has been confirmed, as well as conducting their own policies of expansion in the overseas markets. On the basis of studying the foreign experience, expediency of development of the oil and gas sector enterprises by activating integration processes has been substantiated. Priorities and possibilities for further functioning of enterprises in the the oil and gas industry sector have been identified

  15. Evidence of emissions from oil and gas drilling operations in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Montzka, S. A.; Karion, A.; Miller, B. R.; Frost, G. J.; Hirsch, A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hall, B. D.; Trainer, M.; Welsh, D. C.; Wolfe, D. E.; Tans, P. P.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2007, air samples collected regularly at NOAA tall towers and from aircraft across the US have been analyzed for over sixty different species, including greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), CO, several hydrocarbons (propane, n-butane, pentanes, benzene, acetylene), and ozone-depleting substances. The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a 300-m tall tower located 35 km north of the Denver metropolitan area in the northern Colorado Front Range. The BAO sits on the southwestern edge of the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB), home to over 15,000 oil and gas wells. Using in-situ meteorological data, we analyze the air composition of the BAO samples for three different wind sectors: the North and East sector (with strong contributions from oil and gas production operations and cattle feedlots), the South sector (dominated by the Denver urban area), and the West sector (containing the foothills of the Rocky Mountains and a few oil and gas wells). Air samples from the BAO North and East sector exhibit enhanced levels of alkanes that are strongly correlated with each other. To put these BAO samples in a regional context, we drove a mobile laboratory around BAO during the summer of 2008. A continuous methane analyzer was used to detect regional enhancements in methane and local plumes from point sources (including a natural gas processing plant, feedlot, and waste water treatment plant). Targeted air samples within and outside of plumes were collected and later analyzed in the NOAA lab. Samples collected over the DJB show very similar molar ratios of alkanes as the BAO samples from the North and East sector. These alkane ratios compare very well with the ratios measured in over 70 natural gas samples collected at various wells in the DJB in 2006.

  16. Integration using invariant operators Conformally flat radiation metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Edgar, S B

    1999-01-01

    A new method is presented for obtaining the general conformally flat radiation metric by using the differential operators of Machado Ramos and Vickers (a generalisation of the GHP operators) which are invariant under null rotations and spin and boosts. The solution is found by constructing involutive tables of these derivatives applied to the quantities which arise in the Karlhede classification of metrics.

  17. Integral Theorems Based on a New Gradient Operator Derived from Biomembranes (Part ⅠⅡ): Fundamentals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yajun

    2005-01-01

    A new gradient operator was derived in recent studies of topological structures and shape transitions in biomembranes. Because this operator has widespread potential uses in mechanics, physics, and biology, the operator's general mathematical characteristics should be investigated. This paper explores the integral characteristics of the operator. The second divergence and the differential properties of the operator are used to demonstrate new integral transformations for vector and scalar fields on curved surfaces, such as the second divergence theorem, the second gradient theorem, the second curl theorem, and the second circulation theorem. These new theorems provide a mathematical basis for the use of this operator in many disciplines.

  18. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  19. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  20. Operational Contract Support: Actions Needed to Enhance the Collection, Integration, and Sharing of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Additionally, the Army’s Acquisition, Logistics and Technology-Integration Office has fully integrated with the Combined Arms Support Command’s Reverse ...Acquisition, Technology and Logistics ) Memorandum, Charter for the Department of Defense Operational Contract Support Functional Capabilities Integration...Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics has overall responsibility for establishing and publishing policies and procedures

  1. The effects of low internal integration between purchasing and operations on suppliers’ resource mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Koch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A company that suffers from low internal integration between corporate functions performs worse than its more integrated competitors, leaving it in a position of competitive disparity. This paper reports on an investigation of the effects of internal integration between purchasing and operations...

  2. Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Thorsten; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Czech, Hendryk; Harndorf, Horst; Jakobi, Gert; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Karg, Erwin; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Michalke, Bernhard; Müller, Laarnie; Orasche, Jürgen; Passig, Johannes; Radischat, Christian; Rabe, Rom; Reda, Ahmed; Rüger, Christopher; Schwemer, Theo; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Torvela, Tiina; Weggler, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.

  3. Harnessing Geothermal Energy from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent geotechnical research shows that geothermal heat can be efficiently mined by circulating CO2 through naturally permeable, porous rock formations. This method, called CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG), targets the same geologic reservoirs that are suitable for deep saline aquifer CO2 sequestration or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). While previous investigations have focused on CO2-based heat mining from saline aquifers, here we present new research that is primarily concerned with EOR reservoirs, specifically those using a CO2 flood. EOR operations provide excellent opportunities for economically-favorable geothermal energy recovery, assuming subsurface temperatures are sufficient, because the majority of costly infrastructure (i.e., wells) is in place. Moreover, the subsurface characteristics that make a site suitable for hydrocarbon recovery -- at least moderate reservoir permeability and porosity, and a low-permeability capping feature -- help ensure that fluid can be circulated for heat extraction and that CO2 will be contained. However, heat extraction from the CO2 + water/brine + hydrocarbon EOR production stream is challenging, requiring fluid separation and multiple binary and/or direct power systems (depending on site-specific fluid composition and conditions). We discuss several scenarios, encompassing multiple power system configurations, for harnessing geothermal energy from CO2 EOR operations. In addition, we present preliminary numerical modeling results for net power production from such EOR operations -- accounting for wide variation in produced fluid temperature, pressure, and composition -- and consider the economic implications of power sales for EOR sites.

  4. Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yejian; YAN Li; CHI Lina; LONG Xiuhua; MEI Zhijian; ZHANG Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill ettluent (POME).The reactor had been operated continuously at 35℃ for 514 d,with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD/(m3·d).The results showed that the EGSB reactor had good performance in terms of COD removal on the one hand,high COD removal of 91% Was obtained at two days’ of hydraulic retention time (HRT),and the highest OLR of 17.5 kg COD/(m3·d).On the other hand,only 46% COD in raw POME Was transformed into biogas in which the methane content was about 70% (v/v).A 30-d intermittent experiment indicated that the maximum transformation potential of organic matter in raw POME into methane Was 56%.Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed in the later operation stage,and this Was settled by supplementing trace metal elements.On the whole,the system exhibited good stability in terms of acidity and alkalinity.Finally, the operational problems inherent in the laboratory scale experiment and the corresponding countermeasures were also discussed.

  5. The logistics of operations: integrating strategic decisions for competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Cárdenas Aguirre

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Literature about logistics indicates the functions of supplying, operations and distribution like most important of the logistics activity in the companies. Most of the reviewed academic production focuses to the initial and final functions, leaving a breach among them when not taking care of the function of operations from the logistic point of view, paper that of certain way has fulfilled the operations management. The objective of the present article, is to give the bases for the definition of the central elements of which it has occurred in calling logistic of operations, logistic of production or internal logistics, as well as of its paper and importance in the performance of the organization.

  6. Oil and gas platforms with steam bottoming cycles: System integration and thermoenvironomic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil and gas platforms is currently regarded as the most promising option for improving the performance of these energy-intensive systems. In this paper, a North Sea platform is taken as case study, and a systematic analysis of its energy requirements...... cooling utility, and (iv) the weight limitations on the platform are quantitatively assessed. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbine process into a combined cycle, since the fuel gas consumption and the total CO2-emissions can be reduced by more than 15 %. Using the cooling...

  7. 30 CFR 203.54 - How does my relief arrangement for an oil and gas lease operate if prices rise sharply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arrangement for an oil and gas lease operate if prices rise sharply? In those months when your current... closing prices on the NYMEX for light sweet crude oil and natural gas over the most recent full 12... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does my relief arrangement for an oil...

  8. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  9. Improving environmental assessments by integrating Species Sensitivity Distributions into environmental modeling: examples with two hypothetical oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Mearns, Alan J

    2015-04-15

    A three dimensional (3D) trajectory model was used to simulate oil mass balance and environmental concentrations of two 795,000 L hypothetical oil spills modeled under physical and chemical dispersion scenarios. Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD) for Total Hydrocarbon Concentrations (THCs) were developed, and Hazard Concentrations (HC) used as levels of concern. Potential consequences to entrained water column organisms were characterized by comparing model outputs with SSDs, and obtaining the proportion of species affected (PSA) and areas with oil concentrations exceeding HC5s (Area ⩾ HC5). Under the physically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 77% of the oil remains on the water surface and strands on shorelines, while with the chemically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 67% of the oil is entrained in the water column. For every 10% increase in chemical dispersion effectiveness, the average PSA and Area ⩾ HC5 increases (range: 0.01-0.06 and 0.50-2.9 km(2), respectively), while shoreline oiling decreases (⩽ 2919 L/km). Integrating SSDs into modeling may improve understanding of scales of potential impacts to water column organisms, while providing net environmental benefit comparison of oil spill response options.

  10. Identification of Critical Operation Conditions of Industrial Gearboxes by 24/7 Monitoring of Oil Quality, Oil Aging, and Additive Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauntz, M.; Peuser, J.

    2017-05-01

    The demand for wind energy grows at exponential rates. At the same time improving reliability, reduced operation and maintenance costs are the key priorities in wind tur-bine maintenance strategies [1]. This paper provides information about a novel online oil condition monitoring system to give a solution to the mentioned priorities. The presented sensor system enables damage prevention of the wind turbine gear-box by an advanced warning time of critical operation conditions and an enhanced oil exchange interval realized by a precise measurement of the electrical conductivity, the relative permittivity and the oil temperature. A new parameter, the WearSens® Index (WSi) is introduced. The mathematical model of the WSi combines all measured values and its gradients in one single parameter for a comprehensive monitoring to prevent wind turbines from damage. Furthermore, the WSi enables a long-term prognosis on the next oil change by 24/7 server data logging. Corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. First WSi results of an onshore wind turbine installation compared to traditional vibration monitoring are shown.

  11. Integrating Timetabling and Crew Scheduling at a Freight Railway Operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bach (Lucas); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We investigate to what degree we can integrate a Train Timetabling / Engine Scheduling Problem with a Crew Scheduling Problem. In the Timetabling Problem we design a timetable for the desired lines by fixing the departure and arrival times. Also, we allocate time-slots

  12. Integration and operation of prognostics in logistics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de la Cruz , A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the concept of prognostics integrated logistics is introduced. The idea behind this concept is to investigate the use of technological tools for continuous monitoring and data gathering to do accurate prognostics on logistics requirements; i.e.: maintenance procedures, stock replenis

  13. Modularization, inter-functional integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    for firms to indeed use product modularity beneficially, in particular inter-functional integration between manufacturing and purchasing, design and sales, respectively. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the direct performance effects of modularization, as well as the mediating effects of the three...

  14. Bilinear decompositions and commutators of singular integral operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ky, Luong Dang

    2011-01-01

    Let $b$ be a $BMO$-function. It is well-known that the linear commutator $[b, T]$ of a Calder\\'on-Zygmund operator $T$ does not, in general, map continuously $H^1(\\mathbb R^n)$ into $L^1(\\mathbb R^n)$. However, P\\'erez \\cite{Pe} showed that if $H^1(\\mathbb R^n)$ is replaced by a suitable atomic subspace $\\mathcal H^1_b(\\mathbb R^n)$ then the commutator is continuous from $\\mathcal H^1_b(\\mathbb R^n)$ into $L^1(\\mathbb R^n)$. In this paper, we find the largest subspace $H^1_b(\\mathbb R^n)$ such that all commutators of Calder\\'on-Zygmund operators are continuous from $H^1_b(\\mathbb R^n)$ into $L^1(\\mathbb R^n)$. We also study the commutators $[b,T]$ for $T$ in a class $\\mathcal K$ of sublinear operators containing almost all important operators in Harmonic analysis. When $T$ is linear, we prove that there exists a bilinear operators $\\mathfrak R$ map continuously $H^1(\\mathbb R^n)\\times BMO(\\mathbb R^n)$ into $L^1(\\mathbb R^n)$ such that for all $(f,b)\\in H^1(\\mathbb R^n)\\times BMO(\\mathbb R^n)$, we have\\label{...

  15. Propagation of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in an integral oil-gas plume model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shitao

    2016-05-27

    Polynomial Chaos expansions are used to analyze uncertainties in an integral oil-gas plume model simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The study focuses on six uncertain input parameters—two entrainment parameters, the gas to oil ratio, two parameters associated with the droplet-size distribution, and the flow rate—that impact the model\\'s estimates of the plume\\'s trap and peel heights, and of its various gas fluxes. The ranges of the uncertain inputs were determined by experimental data. Ensemble calculations were performed to construct polynomial chaos-based surrogates that describe the variations in the outputs due to variations in the uncertain inputs. The surrogates were then used to estimate reliably the statistics of the model outputs, and to perform an analysis of variance. Two experiments were performed to study the impacts of high and low flow rate uncertainties. The analysis shows that in the former case the flow rate is the largest contributor to output uncertainties, whereas in the latter case, with the uncertainty range constrained by aposteriori analyses, the flow rate\\'s contribution becomes negligible. The trap and peel heights uncertainties are then mainly due to uncertainties in the 95% percentile of the droplet size and in the entrainment parameters.

  16. Propagation of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in an integral oil-gas plume model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shitao; Iskandarani, Mohamed; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Thacker, W. Carlisle; Winokur, Justin; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-05-01

    Polynomial Chaos expansions are used to analyze uncertainties in an integral oil-gas plume model simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The study focuses on six uncertain input parameters—two entrainment parameters, the gas to oil ratio, two parameters associated with the droplet-size distribution, and the flow rate—that impact the model's estimates of the plume's trap and peel heights, and of its various gas fluxes. The ranges of the uncertain inputs were determined by experimental data. Ensemble calculations were performed to construct polynomial chaos-based surrogates that describe the variations in the outputs due to variations in the uncertain inputs. The surrogates were then used to estimate reliably the statistics of the model outputs, and to perform an analysis of variance. Two experiments were performed to study the impacts of high and low flow rate uncertainties. The analysis shows that in the former case the flow rate is the largest contributor to output uncertainties, whereas in the latter case, with the uncertainty range constrained by aposteriori analyses, the flow rate's contribution becomes negligible. The trap and peel heights uncertainties are then mainly due to uncertainties in the 95% percentile of the droplet size and in the entrainment parameters.

  17. New oil condition monitoring system, Wearsens® enables continuous, online detection of critical operating conditions and wear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new oil sensor system is presented for the continuous, online measurement of the wear in turbines, industrial gears, generators, hydraulic systems and transformers. Detection of change is much earlier than existing technologies such as particle counting, vibration measurement or recording temperature. Thus targeted, corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. Efficient machine utilization, accurately timed preventive maintenance, increased service life and a reduction of downtime can all be achieved. The presented sensor system effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps, result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination of the oil. For additivated lubricants, the stage of degradation of the additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of an alteration in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the wind turbine, industrial gearbox and test stands, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor unit. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid inspection intervals.

  18. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  19. A differential operator for integrating one-loop scattering equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Tianheng; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a differential operator for computing the residues associated with a class of meromorphic $n$-forms that frequently appear in the Cachazo-He-Yuan form of the scattering amplitudes. This differential operator is conjectured to be uniquely determined by the local duality theorem and the intersection number of the divisors in the $n$-form. We use the operator to evaluate the tree-level amplitude of $\\phi^3$ theory and the one-loop integrand of Yang-Mills theory from their CHY forms. The method can reduce the complexity of the calculation. In addition, the expression for the 1-loop four-point Yang-Mills integrand obtained in our approach has a clear correspondence with the Q-cut results.

  20. Empowering Globally Integrated Operations and Mission Command: Revisiting Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    naval operations in support of ground operations at Plattsburg in the War of 1812, the amphibious landing and siege at Veracruz in the Mexican-American...War.8 Indeed, President Polk praised the Army and Navy after the Veracruz campaign: “There was concert between the heads of the two arms of the...Management and Planning, April 2010), 22. 9 Paul C. Clark and Edward H. Moseley, “D-Day Veracruz , 1847—A Grand Design,” Joint Force Quarterly 10 (Winter 1995

  1. Integrated care: meeting mental health needs after the Gulf oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Howard J; Osofsky, Joy D; Wells, John H; Weems, Carl

    2014-03-01

    This column describes an integrated behavioral health initiative in primary care clinics in Louisiana parishes affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The Louisiana Mental and Behavioral Health Capacity Project is an integral part of the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program and is funded from the Deepwater Horizon Medical Benefits Class Action Settlement. Using a public health approach, the Department of Psychiatry of the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center developed an interprofessional collaboration model of care to provide culturally tailored and time-sensitive on-site and telemedicine services to adults and children affected by the disaster. Results indicate a high level of acceptance of the services and reductions in both mental health symptoms and general medical symptoms. Primary care clinic staff also report increased confidence and resilience to meet future disasters. The approach could be used by communities at risk of disasters and by rural communities with limited mental health resources.

  2. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  3. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The present r

  4. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; van de Plassche EJ; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. Th

  5. What is Mine is Yours: The Art of Operational Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39 18 Adobe Professional 7 .0 Name of Candidate: Major William W...The Stilwell Papers, 68. 137 Wesley M. Bagby, The Eagle-Dragon Alliance (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1992), 57. 138 Tuchman, Stilwell...Unified Land Operations. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2011. Bagby, Wesley M. The Eagle-Dragon Alliance. Newark: University of Delaware

  6. Prediction of operational variables involved in the Production Process of Crude Oil by Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lowy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/04/16 - Accepted: 2015/05/29This paper presents the oil deposit and operational variables that influence the implementation of the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD process for the Production of Heavy and Extra-heavy Crude Oil. This process consists of drilling two parallel horizontal wells, one above the other, where the upper well is used for steam injection and the lower well is used for production. The efficiency of the process is greatly affected by the deposit and operating parameters (vertical spacing of wells, injection pressure, preheating period, among others. Furthermore, the prediction of the maximum rate of oil extraction was determined using an example with currently available real data of Block 20 of the Pungarayacu Field.

  7. Stabilization Operations Through Military Capacity Building-Integration Between Danish Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    N.Y: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998), 82–83. 146 Adams, US. Special Operations Forces in Action, 84–85. 147 Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam, 69...liaison teams, which were considered an important factor in the development of the Afghan National Army ( ANA ). Operational mentoring and liaison...Chief of Defence. Adams, Thomas K. U.S. Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. New York: Frank Cass Publishers

  8. A model for diagnosing and developing knowledge transfer from operations into engineering design: the case of the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn

    2017-01-01

    Transferring knowledge from the operation phase of a product or system to the engineering design phase for a similar product or system is paramount, especially in sectors with complex design processes and dispersed design teams, like the offshore oil and maritime sectors. Such transfer helps both...

  9. 75 FR 68817 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... rulemaking that became effective June 3, 2010 (75 FR 23582), and addresses the procedures and requirements... 12, 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 18545) announcing that we would submit this...: 1010-0067, Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for Office...

  10. Integrated micro-plasmas in silicon operating in helium

    CERN Document Server

    Dussart, Remi; Lefaucheux, P; Dufour, Thierry; Kulsreshath, M; Mandra, Monali; Tillocher, Thomas; Aubry, O; Dozias, S; Ranson, P; Goeckner, M

    2016-01-01

    Microplasma arrays operating in helium in a DC regime have been produced in silicon microre-actors. Cathode boundary layer (CBL) type microdevices were elaborated using clean room facilities and semiconductor processing techniques. Ignition of the micro-discharge arrays having either 50 or 100 m diameter cavities was studied. Two different structures (isotropically etched or anisotropically etched cavity) and various conditions (the two different voltage polarities, pressures etc.) were investigated. 100 microdis-charges of 50 m diameter could be ignited in parallel at 1000 torr. At high current, some parasitic and transient sparks appeared at the edge of the sample. When the polarization was reversed (cathode side corresponding the opened electrode), more current was needed to light all the microdischarges. A thermally affected zone around the hole on the anode side was obtained after operation.

  11. Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for the generalized k-fractional integral operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Erhan; Choi, Junesang; Gözpinar, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    We firstly give a modification of the known Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for the generalized k-fractional integral operators of a function with respect to another function. We secondly establish several Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for the generalized k-fractional integral operators of a function with respect to another function. The results presented here, being very general, are pointed out to be specialized to yield some known results. Relevant connections of the various results presented here with those involving relatively simple fractional integral operators are also indicated.

  12. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    OpenAIRE

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The present report describes the procedure followed and the results obtained in the evaluation of the environmental effects of these chemicals. Pesticides have been evaluated on the basis of the test r...

  13. Chen's Iterated Integral represents the Operator Product Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, D

    1999-01-01

    The recently discovered formalism underlying renormalization theory, the Hopf algebra of rooted trees, allows to generalize Chen's lemma. In its generalized form it describes the change of a scale in Green functions, and hence relates to the operator product expansion. Hand in hand with this generalization goes the generalization of the ordinary factorial $n!$ to the tree factorial $t^!$. Various identities on tree-factorials are derived which clarify the relation between Connes-Moscovici weights and Quantum Field Theory.

  14. Quantum field theory from operators to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kerson

    1998-01-01

    A unique approach to quantum field theory, with emphasis on the principles of renormalization Quantum field theory is frequently approached from the perspective of particle physics. This book adopts a more general point of view and includes applications of condensed matter physics. Written by a highly respected writer and researcher, it first develops traditional concepts, including Feynman graphs, before moving on to key topics such as functional integrals, statistical mechanics, and Wilson's renormalization group. The connection between the latter and conventional perturbative renormalization is explained

  15. Operational simulation and forecast of the Aige 2002 oil spill in the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukouka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2003-07-01

    A quick-response oil spill prediction and analysis system has been developed in response to concerns about several oil spills from damaged tankers which have impacted the environment in the Sea of Japan in recent years. The system includes a meteorological data processing module, ocean circulation models for the Sea of Japan, and an oil spill fate and drift model. Physical changes resulting from the weathering process are also considered. This paper describes the application of the newly developed system in forecasting oil drifts following a spill of Bunker C fuel oil from the Belizean cargo ship Aige on March 31, 2002 near the Oki Islands. The model successfully predicted that the oil slick would drift south-east to the coast of Hyogo. It also successfully predicted that the oil leaking from the sunken vessel would spread by April 6-7 in the opposite direction and impact the shores of Dogo Island. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Quantum Field Theory: From Operators to Path Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kerson

    1998-07-01

    A unique approach to quantum field theory, with emphasis on the principles of renormalization Quantum field theory is frequently approached from the perspective of particle physics. This book adopts a more general point of view and includes applications of condensed matter physics. Written by a highly respected writer and researcher, it first develops traditional concepts, including Feynman graphs, before moving on to key topics such as functional integrals, statistical mechanics, and Wilson's renormalization group. The connection between the latter and conventional perturbative renormalization is explained. Quantum Field Theory is an exceptional textbook for graduate students familiar with advanced quantum mechanics as well as physicists with an interest in theoretical physics. It features: * Coverage of quantum electrodynamics with practical calculations and a discussion of perturbative renormalization * A discussion of the Feynman path integrals and a host of current subjects, including the physical approach to renormalization, spontaneous symmetry breaking and superfluidity, and topological excitations * Nineteen self-contained chapters with exercises, supplemented with graphs and charts

  17. Performance evaluation of integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology in palm oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, J. R.; Suprihatin, S.; Indrasti, N. S.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.

    2017-05-01

    The oil palm industry significantly contributes to environmental degradation if without waste management properly. The newest alternative waste management that might be developed is by utilizing the effluent of POME anaerobic digestion with EFB through integrated anaerobic decomposition process. The aim of this research was to examine and evaluate the integrated solid-liquid waste treatment technology in the view point of greenhouse gasses emission, compost, and biogas production. POME was treated in anaerobic digester with loading rate about 1.65 gCOD/L/day. Treated POME with dosis of 15 and 20 L/day was sprayed to the anaerobic digester that was filled of 25 kg of EFB. The results of research showed that after 60 days, the C/N ratio of EFB decreased to 12.67 and 10.96 for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. In case of 60 day decomposition, the integrated waste treatment technology could produce 51.01 and 34.34 m3/Ton FFB which was equivalent with 636,44 and 466,58 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. The results of research also showed that integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology could reduce GHG emission about 421.20 and 251.34 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively.

  18. Oil sands operations as a large source of secondary organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Hayden, Katherine; Taha, Youssef M.; Stroud, Craig; Darlington, Andrea; Drollette, Brian D.; Gordon, Mark; Lee, Patrick; Liu, Peter; Leithead, Amy; Moussa, Samar G.; Wang, Danny; O'Brien, Jason; Mittermeier, Richard L.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Lu, Gang; Staebler, Ralf M.; Han, Yuemei; Tokarek, Travis W.; Osthoff, Hans D.; Makar, Paul A.; Zhang, Junhua; L. Plata, Desiree; Gentner, Drew R.

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide heavy oil and bitumen deposits amount to 9 trillion barrels of oil distributed in over 280 basins around the world, with Canada home to oil sands deposits of 1.7 trillion barrels. The global development of this resource and the increase in oil production from oil sands has caused environmental concerns over the presence of toxic compounds in nearby ecosystems and acid deposition. The contribution of oil sands exploration to secondary organic aerosol formation, an important component of atmospheric particulate matter that affects air quality and climate, remains poorly understood. Here we use data from airborne measurements over the Canadian oil sands, laboratory experiments and a box-model study to provide a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of secondary organic aerosol production from oil sands emissions. We find that the evaporation and atmospheric oxidation of low-volatility organic vapours from the mined oil sands material is directly responsible for the majority of the observed secondary organic aerosol mass. The resultant production rates of 45-84 tonnes per day make the oil sands one of the largest sources of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols in North America. Heavy oil and bitumen account for over ten per cent of global oil production today, and this figure continues to grow. Our findings suggest that the production of the more viscous crude oils could be a large source of secondary organic aerosols in many production and refining regions worldwide, and that such production should be considered when assessing the environmental impacts of current and planned bitumen and heavy oil extraction projects globally.

  19. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  20. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  1. Logistics: An integral part of cost efficient space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann D.

    1996-01-01

    The logistics of space programs and its history within NASA are discussed, with emphasis on manned space flight and the Space Shuttle program. The lessons learned and the experience gained during these programs are reported on. Key elements of logistics are highlighted, and the problems and issues that can be expected to arise in relation to the support of long-term space operations and future space programs, are discussed. Such missions include the International Space Station program and the reusable launch vehicle. Possible solutions to the problems identified are outlined.

  2. Airborne gamma spectrometry--towards integration of European operational capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Harri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is an excellent tool for finding out in a timely manner the extent and magnitude of the dispersion of radioactive materials resulting from a nuclear disaster. To utilise existing European airborne monitoring capabilities for multilateral assistance in an accident is a complex administrative and technical matter. Several international exercises have been organised demonstrating the capability to cooperate. However, efficient mutual assistance between European countries requires conceptual work, standards and harmonisation of software. A unified radiological vocabulary and data exchange format in XML need to be developed. A comprehensive database is essential for data assimilation. An operations centre is needed for management and planning of surveys.

  3. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  4. The effect of an oil drilling operation on the trace metal concentrations in offshore bottom sediments of the Campos Basin oil field, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, C E; Lacerda, L D; Ovalle, A R C; Souza, C M M; Gobo, A A R; Santos, D O

    2002-07-01

    The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba, V, Sn and As in offshore bottom sediments from the Bacia de Campos oil field, SE Brazil, were measured at the beginning and at 7 months after completion of the drilling operation. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Ni and Zn were significantly higher closer to the drilling site compared to stations far from the site. Average concentrations of Al, Cu, and in particular of Ni, were significantly higher at the end of the drilling operation than at the beginning. Comparison between drilling area sediments with control sediments of the continental platform, however, showed no significant difference in trace metal concentrations. Under the operation conditions of this drilling event, the results show that while changes in some trace metal concentrations do occur during drilling operations, they are not significantly large to be distinguished from natural variability of the local background concentrations.

  5. Contributing to operations of community agencies through integrated fieldwork experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Lisa; Bossers, Ann

    2009-06-01

    Occupational therapists are change agents who are well equipped to participate in community development. Community development projects can help agencies in many ways, including determining needs, educating stakeholders, developing novel programs, finding and creating resources, marketing the agency, and creating or implementing policy. In order for service agencies to profit, they need an understanding of the skills occupational therapists can offer. The best way to gain that knowledge may be through direct experience. This paper describes the benefits that flow to community agency partners and to occupational therapy students from an innovative, integrated fieldwork model that links students with service agencies. This approach has demonstrated many benefits to community partners, while allowing all students in an occupational therapy program to have community development experience. This is a cost-effective way to demonstrate the value of occupational therapy and to deliver multiple community development projects.

  6. Integrated Procedures for Flight and Ground Operations Using International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John

    2011-01-01

    Imagine astronauts using the same Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM's) as the ground personnel who assemble or maintain their flight hardware, and having all of that data interoperable with design, logistics, reliability analysis, and training. Modern international standards and their corresponding COTS tools already used in other industries provide a good foundation for streamlined technical publications in the space industry. These standards cover everything from data exchange to product breakdown structure to business rules flexibility. Full Product Lifecycle Support (PLCS) is supported. The concept is to organize, build once, reuse many ways, and integrate. This should apply to all future and some current launch vehicles, payloads, space stations/habitats, spacecraft, facilities, support equipment, and retrieval ships.

  7. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...

  8. Non-adiabatic holonomy operators in classical and quantum completely integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

    2002-01-01

    Given a completely integrable system, we associate to any connection on its invariant tori fibred over a parameter manifold the classical and quantum holonomy operator (generalized Berry's phase factor), without any adiabatic approximation.

  9. Sandwich-type theorems for a class of integral operators with special properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Hariri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we prove subordination, superordination and sandwich-type properties of a certain integral operators for univalent functions on open unit disc, moreover the special behavior of this class is investigated.

  10. Gelation of Oil Slicks by Amine Carbamates as an Adjunct to U.S. Navy Oil Spill Recovery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-14

    treatment with carbon dioxide, to produce carbamate salts: e, r-! R-NH2 + CO2 - R-NH2 -CO 2 amine (cartamate salt) (With a sufficiently high molecular...700 No. 2 Fuel Oil gels verv readily. In an attempt to obtain quantitative measurements of gel strengths eor various combinations of different...solution. CO2 gas was then released through the spraying apparatus, in either of two modes, (a) As a propelling gas, forcing the amine contents through the

  11. New spectral estimations for a class of integral-difference operators and generalisation to higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Yuri B.

    2016-09-01

    Quadratic form approach allows for new results in the analysis of a class of integral-difference operators in finite domains: non-negativity, spectral estimations, a new property of Legendre polynomials, and establishing links with weighted mean-square deviation functionals and with infinite Jacobi matrices with not-bounded coefficients. Generalisation of integral-difference operators to higher dimensions is provided and application to matter relaxation in a field is considered. A new class of special functions naturally appears.

  12. Noether, Partial Noether Operators and First Integrals for the Coupled Lane-Emden System

    OpenAIRE

    Muatjetjeja, Ben; Khalique, Chaudry

    2010-01-01

    Systems of Lane-Emden equations arise in the modelling of several physical phenomena, such as pattern formation, population evolution and chemical reactions. In this paper we construct Noether and partial Noether operators corresponding to a Lagrangian and a partial Lagrangian for a coupled Lane-Emden system. Then the first integrals with respect to Noether and partial Noether operators are obtained for the Lane-Emden system under consideration. We show that the first integrals for both the N...

  13. A Review on Approximation Results for Integral Operators in the Space of Functions of Bounded Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Angeloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on recent approximation results in the space of functions of bounded variation for some classes of integral operators in the multidimensional setting. In particular, we present estimates and convergence in variation results for both convolution and Mellin integral operators with respect to the Tonelli variation. Results with respect to a multidimensional concept of φ-variation in the sense of Tonelli are also presented.

  14. (Modified) Fredholm Determinants for Operators with Matrix-Valued Semi-Separable Integral Kernels Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Makarov, Konstantin A.

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the computation of (2-modified) Fredholm determinants for operators with matrix-valued semi-separable integral kernels. The latter occur, for instance, in the form of Green's functions associated with closed ordinary differential operators on arbitrary intervals on the real line. Our approach determines the (2-modified) Fredholm determinants in terms of solutions of closely associated Volterra integral equations, and as a result offers a natural way to compute such determinants. We...

  15. Newton Leibniz integration for ket bra operators in quantum mechanics and derivation of entangled state representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Lu, Hai-liang; Fan, Yue

    2006-02-01

    Newton-Leibniz integration rule only applies to commuting functions of continuum variables, while operators made of Dirac's symbols (ket versus bra, e.g., | q>mechanics are usually not commutative. Therefore, integrations over the operators of type |>mathematical gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, and further reveals the beauty and elegance of Dirac's symbolic method and transformation theory. Various applications of the IWOP technique, including constructing the entangled state representations and their applications, are presented.

  16. North Carolina used-motor-oil re-refining program: economics and logistics; and operating results. Topical report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    This is the third in a planned series of topical reports on a program to develop and demonstrate a State-operated re-refining system for used engine oil. The North Carolina Oil Re-Refining Facility, using a 2,000,000 gallon input per year PROP plant, was installed in late 1980. During the first year of startup operation ending December 31, 1981, approximately 137,000 gallons were produced. Report 2 of this series reflects on the startup experience and financial results for the first year of operation (1981) as well as projected expectations at that time. This report concentrates on operating and financial results for 1982 and the first five months of 1983. During the 17 months ending May 1983 only about 270,000 gallons were produced and sold. Based on normal annual accounting the loss for that period was $685,060 and the cashflow loss was $480,679. Even after substantial upgrading modifications were done in 1982-83, the plant still has major throughput problems, the greatest of which is the required quality and quantity of used oil feedstock. The report describes financial results, cost-variance analyses, production impediments encountered, and also projects future operating volumes necessary for the facility to cover costs.

  17. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  18. Heavy and viscous oil evaluation in a deep water environment: an integrated evaluation process; Avaliacao de oleo pesado e viscoso em aguas profundas: um processo integrado de avaliacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Wesley S.; Armacanqui, Gina [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    There are many challenges related to heavy and viscous oil reserves evaluation. When this includes a deep-water offshore environment the challenges, including safety issues, increase in complexity. In this paper we share some experiences obtained during the preparation and execution of heavy oil evaluation activities. The process uses the petrophysical and fluid characterization preliminary results obtained during the logging phase as well as prior information from correlation field/wells in order to design the appropriate ESP configuration and location in the DST string as well as the sampler location which should allow monophasic sampling. During the operation a real time interpretation is performed validating the data obtained and sensitizing parameters such as pump frequency, bubble point pressure, GOR and viscosities, allowing the diagnostic of the operation and consequent appropriated flow conditions in order to provide a optimum picture supporting decisions regarding sampling time and other specific evaluation objectives. The examples presented illustrate the methodology proposed of integrated evaluation applied to heavy oil and its benefits. (author)

  19. Operation variables in transesterification of vegetable oil: an enzymatic catalysis review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-07-01

    90h and a 3:1alcohol: vegetable oil molar ratio; however, such values would intrinsically depend on the type of lipase and oil u- sed. It was also found that free fatty acid and moisture concentration were parameters which did not require rigorous control due to high enzyme specificity. Lipases immobilised from Pseudomona cepacia bacteria and Rhizopus orizae fungi were most used in vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification.

  20. The Generalized Inverse of Singular Integral Operators on an Open Arc and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After choosing weight functions suitably, we define a Banach space Hμω(L) and discuss the generalized inverse of singular integral operators on an open arc. Using the generalized inverse, we obtain the solutions for the following singular integral equation Hence, we extend and unify the method of solution for characteristic equations with Cauchy kernel and Hilbert kernel.

  1. Fractional Integral and Generalized Stieltjes Transforms for Hypergeometric Functions as Transmutation Operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornwinder, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    For each of the eight n-th derivative parameter changing formulas for Gauss hypergeometric functions a corresponding fractional integration formula is given. For both types of formulas the differential or integral operator is intertwining between two actions of the hypergeometric differential operat

  2. Fractional Integral and Generalized Stieltjes Transforms for Hypergeometric Functions as Transmutation Operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornwinder, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    For each of the eight n-th derivative parameter changing formulas for Gauss hypergeometric functions a corresponding fractional integration formula is given. For both types of formulas the differential or integral operator is intertwining between two actions of the hypergeometric differential

  3. An Integrated Approach to the Teaching of Operations Management in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ram B.; Ravinder, Handanhal; Peterson, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss a curriculum integration effort that a school of business piloted recently. This effort was aimed at integrating the core functions (finance, marketing, management, and operations) so that undergraduate students would better appreciate the full impact of functional decisions on each other and in achieving the corporation's…

  4. The path integral representation kernel of evolution operator in Merton-Garman model

    CERN Document Server

    Blazhyevskyi, L F; 10.5488/CMP.14.23001

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of path integral the evolution operator kernel for the Merton-Garman Hamiltonian is constructed. Based on this kernel option formula is obtained, which generalizes the well-known Black-Scholes result. Possible approximation numerical schemes for path integral calculations are proposed.

  5. Integrating truck arrival management into tactical operation planning at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Gang; Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Truck arrival management (TAM) has been recognized as an effective solution to alleviate the gate congestion at container terminals. To further utilize TAM in improving the overall terminal performance, this study integrates TAM with the other terminal operations at a tactical level. An integrated...

  6. Experience of molecular monitoring techniques in upstream oil and gas operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Anthony F.; Anfindsen, Hilde; Liengen, Turid; Molid, Solfrid [Statoil ASA (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    For a numbers of years, molecular monitoring tools have been used in upstream oil and gas operations but the results have given only limited added value. This paper discusses the various techniques available for upstream molecular monitoring which provides scope for identification of microbial influenced problems. The methodology, which consists of analyzing solid samples using traditional as well as molecular techniques, is detailed. Two cases were studied with the objective of determining if microbial contamination was contributing to the problem. The first case was a study of amorphous deposits in production wells and mainly iron sulphide was found. The second study was of amorphous deposits in water injection wells and the analysis showed typical components of drilling and completion fluids with some organic material. Two more cases, corrosion of tubing in a water injection well and flow line corrosion, are discussed and the results are given. From the study, it can be concluded that failure can be due to several factors, chemical and biological.

  7. Application of microemulsion in oil production operations; Emprego de microemulsao na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia Cristina K. de; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable liquid-liquid dispersions that present a wide range of potential applications in the Petroleum Industry due to their high stability, ultralow interfacial tension and capacity to modify the wettability of the solids eventually present in the system. In this work some specific application such as removal of deposits from solid surfaces, oily sludge separation, heavy oil recovery from consolidated porous media and oil mobilization from limestone cores, currently under examination at PETROBRAS, are reviewed. It has been found that heavy oil fraction strongly attached to solid surfaces can be removed up to above 90% in the case solids contaminated with oil previously treated by thermal desorption or for sand contaminated with crude oil. Tests with field samples of oily sludge showed that these contaminants can readily be resolved into oil, water and free loose solid particles. In fluid injection tests using consolidated porous media it was observed that the injection of microemulsion after secondary oil removal with sea water conduced to an additional recovery of 59%. Qualitative tests carried out with consolidated limestone cores impregnated with crude oil showed that the oil was efficiently displaced by microemulsion. This effect has been ascribed to the rock matrix wettability inversion caused by the microemulsion. (author)

  8. The Question of Selecting Aggregation Operator to Develop Integral Students’ Academic Progress Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the problem of selecting an operator of the grade-based rating aggregation in a variety of subjects to develop the integral score of students’ academic achievements based on expert knowledge. The goal is to justify the choice of an aggregation operator and methods of its construction. The possibilities of aggregation of the grade-based rating are mostly defined by selection of the type of an aggregation operator, which aggregates the individual disciplines ratings using the formalized expert preferences.The paper discusses application options of different aggregation operators in this field, in particular, the arithmetic mean, the weighted arithmetic mean, the Yager's OWA operator. An analysis of the possible use of different operators has shown that the most appropriate in this field is to use the fuzzy measure Choquet integral because this type of aggregation operator complies with all the considered features of the application area. A number of formal mathematical and non-formalized properties of the Choquet integral correspond to these properties. The paper also considers the choice of an appropriate identification method of the fuzzy measure to use the Choquet integral in development of the integral score of students’ academic achievements. It justifies the choice of the identification method based on variance minimization of the fuzzy measure. Other identification methods have properties that militate against their application in the area under consideration.

  9. Independent Electricity Market Operator integration management participant technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-11-15

    The document provides potential participants with the essential technical information to permit them to participate in the IMO-administered markets, and is not intended to be a complete technical reference manual for all issues within the realm of electricity production, distribution, or consumption. Written for the participants, it provides only that information which is relevant to the participant for interfacing with the IMO and participating in the market. Written as a generic guide, all the information contained within it may not be relevant to all the participants. The document's intent is to provide participants with a description of the various facilities and interfaces required by market participants to take part in the IMO-administered markets. The document supplements the market rules and provides installation, set-up, and configuration information for the various tools and facilities that will be required for market participation as a supplier, carrier/delivery (transmitter/distributer), generator, or consumer in the market. Aspects considered include: participant workstation specifications, dispatch workstation specification, message exchange, remote terminal unit specification, AGC operational RTU specification, real time network connection specification, telephone connection specification, revenue administration specification, funds administration specification, data catalogues, market information, power grid connection requirements, and appendices.

  10. Integration& Operation of a Microgrid at Santa Rita Jail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevron Energy Solutions; Alameda County; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy; Stadler, Michael; Mendes, Goncalo; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon

    2011-05-01

    Santa Rita Jail is a 4,500 inmate facility located in Dublin CA, approximately 40 miles (65 km) east of San Francisco. Over the past decade, a series of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) installations and efficiency measures have been undertaken to transform the 3MW facility into a"Green Jail". These include a 1.2MW rated rooftop PV system installed in 2002, a 1MW molten carbonate fuel cell with CHP, and retrofits to lighting and HVAC systems to reduce peak loads. With the upcoming installation of a large-scale battery and fast static disconnect switch, Santa Rita Jail will become a true microgrid, with full CERTS Microgrid functionality. Consequently, the jail will be able to seamlessly disconnect from the grid and operate as an island in the event of a disturbance, reconnecting again once the disturbance has dissipated. The extent to which that jail is capable of islanding is principally dependant on the energy capacity of the battery-one focus of this investigation. Also presented here are overviews of the DER currently installed at the jail, as well as the value it provides by offsetting the purchase of electricity under the current Pacific Gas& Electric (PG&E) tariff.

  11. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2003-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  12. Wind energy and power system operations: a review of wind integration studies to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaro, Jennifer de; Porter, Kevin; Milligan, Michael

    2009-12-15

    Wind integration will not be accomplished successfully by doing ''more of the same.'' It will require significant changes in grid planning and operations, continued technical evolution in the design and operation of wind turbines, further adoption and implementation of wind forecasting in the control room, and incorporation of market and policy initiatives to encourage more flexible generation. (author)

  13. Double Subordination Preserving Properties for a New Generalized Srivastava-Attiya Integral Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jugal K.PRAJAPAT; Teodor BULBOAC(A)

    2012-01-01

    The authors obtain subordination and superordination preserving properties for a new defined generalized operator involving the Srivastava-Attiya integral operator.Differential sandwich-type theorems for these univalent functions,and some consequences involving well-known special functions are also presented.

  14. Grid-Integrated Distributed Solar: Addressing Challenges for Operations and Planning, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, Michael; Miller, Mackay; Katz, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document introduces a brief overview of common technical impacts of PV on distribution systems and operations, as well as emerging strategies for successfully addressing some of the priority issues.

  15. Design and Operation of Laboratory Combustion Cell for Air Injection into Light Oil Reservoirs: Potential Application in Sindh Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haque Tunio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical experimental work on the combustion oil recovery processes consists of both laboratory and field studies. Although field experiments are the ultimate test of any oil recovery process, they are costly, time consuming and difficult to analyze quantitatively. Laboratory CC (Combustion Cell experiments are cost effective and less time consuming, but are subject to scaling and interpretation challenges. Experimental set up has been developed to understand air injection process for improving oil recovery from light oil reservoirs taking into account the sand pack petro physical and fluid properties. Some important design problems; operational criteria and considerations important to interpretation of results are pointed out. To replicate subsurface reservoir conditions or pressure and temperature, experiments up to 6895 KPa, at non-isothermal conditions with 5oC/min ramp-up are performed on unconsolidated cores with reservoir oil samples. Correlations were obtained for low temperature oxidation rate of oil, the fuel deposition rate and the rate of burning fuel as a fuel concentration. Various parameters such as (sand pack, pressure, oil saturation and flow rate/air flux were changed to investigate their impact on reaction and chemical nature of the fuel burned. To determine the importance of distribution and pyrolysis on these reactions, the hydrogen-carbon ratio and m-ratio was calculated. For further confirmation Arrhenius graphs were drawn by assuming 1.0 order of reaction with carbon concentration which is also confirmed.This research will contribute to the overall understanding of air injection process;help to determine the most appropriate

  16. Projection Operator and Propagator for an Arbitrary Half-Integral Spin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄时中; 阮图南; 吴宁; 郑志鹏

    2003-01-01

    Based on the solution to Bargmann-Wigner equation for an arbitrary half-integral spin, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for an arbitrary half-integral spin is presented. The projection operator constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is confirmed and simplified. The commutation rules and a general expression for the Feynman propagator for a free particle with arbitrary half-integral spin are deduced. Explicit expressions for the propagators for spins 3/2, 5/2 and 7/2 are provided.

  17. Integral Theorems Based on a New Gradient Operator Derived from Biomembranes (Part Ⅱ): Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yajun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the second gradient operator and corresponding integral theorems such as the second divergence theorem, the second gradient theorem, the second curl theorem, and the second circulation theorem on curved surfaces, a few new scalar differential operators are defined and a series of integral transformations are derived. Interesting transformations between the average curvature and the Gauss curvature are presented. Various conserved integrals related to the Gauss curvature and the second fundamental tensor are disclosed. The important applications of the results in disciplines such as the geometry, physics, mechanics, and biology are briefly discussed.

  18. Combustion characteristics of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on Honge oil, Neem and Rice Bran oils when directly injected and dual fuelled with producer gas induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli 580031, Karnataka (India); Yaliwal, V.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SDM College of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad Karnataka (India); Kambalimath, Satish [Wipro Technologies (India); Basavarajappa, Y.H. [K.L.E. Society' s Polytechnic, Hubli (India)

    2009-07-15

    Energy is an essential requirement for economic and social development of any country. Sky rocketing of petroleum fuel costs in present day has led to growing interest in alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic fuels, CNG, LPG, Producer gas, biogas in order to provide a suitable substitute to diesel for a compression ignition (CI) engine. The vegetable oils present a very promising alternative fuel to diesel oil since they are renewable, biodegradable and clean burning fuel having similar properties as that of diesel. They offer almost same power output with slightly lower thermal efficiency due to their lower energy content compared to diesel. Utilization of producer gas in CI engine on dual fuel mode provides an effective approach towards conservation of diesel fuel. Gasification involves conversion of solid biomass into combustible gases which completes combustion in a CI engines. Hence the producer gas can act as promising alternative fuel and it has high octane number (100-105) and calorific value (5-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Because of its simpler structure with low carbon content results in substantial reduction of exhaust emission. Downdraft moving bed gasifier coupled with compression ignition engine are a good choice for moderate quantities of available mass up to 500 kW of electrical power. Hence bio-derived gas and vegetable liquids appear more attractive in view of their friendly environmental nature. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled CI engine operated in single fuel mode using Honge, Neem and Rice Bran oils. In dual fuel mode combinations of Producer gas and three oils were used at different injection timings and injection pressures. Dual fuel mode of operation resulted in poor performance at all the loads when compared with single fuel mode at all injection timings tested. However, the brake thermal efficiency is improved marginally when the injection timing was advanced. Decreased

  19. State-scale perspective on water use and production associated with oil and gas operations, Oklahoma, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kyle E

    2013-05-07

    A common goal of water and energy management is to maximize the supply of one while minimizing the use of the other, so it is important to understand the relationship between water use and energy production. A larger proportion of horizontal wells and an increasing number of hydraulically fractured well bores are being completed in the United States, and consequently increasing water demand by oil and gas operations. Management, planning, and regulatory decisions for water, oil, and gas are largely made at the state-level; therefore, it is necessary to aggregate water use and energy production data at the state-scale. The purpose of this paper is to quantify annual volumes of water used for completion of oil and gas wells, coproduced during oil and gas production, injected via underground injection program wells, and used in water flooding operations. Data from well completion reports, and tax commission records were synthesized to arrive at these estimates for Oklahoma. Hydraulic fracturing required a median fluid volume of 11,350 m(3) per horizontal well in Oklahoma. Median fluid volume (~15,774 m(3)) and volume per perforated interval (15.73 m(3) m(-1)) were highest for Woodford Shale horizontal wells. State-scale annual water use for oil and gas well completions was estimated to be up to 16.3 Mm(3) in 2011 or less than 1% of statewide freshwater use. Statewide annual produced water volumes ranged from 128.5 to 146.6 Mm(3), with gas wells yielding an estimated 72.4% of the total coproduced water. Volumes of water injected into underground injection control program wells ranged from 206.8 to 305.4 Mm(3), which indicates that water flooding operations may use up to 167.0 Mm(3) per year. State-scale water use estimates for Oklahoma could be improved by requiring oil and gas operators to supplement well completion reports with water use and water production data. Reporting of oil and gas production data by well using a unique identifier (i.e., API number) would also

  20. Application of the quantitative oil monitoring to analysing the operating condition of marine machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data of Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, spectrometric oilanalysis (SOA) and other routine methods, the experiment of oil monitoring for steering propellersis discussed. The experiment demonstrates the FTIR spectroscopy can rapidly and easily obtainthe results in laboratory analysis, and combine with spectrometer oil analysis, complementary in-formation is most effective to condition monitoring of marine machinery.

  1. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATION IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR IN SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZA MASOOMI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  2. The role of mechanization and integration of manufacturing processes in achieving operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, Syed Turab Haider; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    Small manufacturing firms are the dominant organization type for most of the developed countries. However, these firms have not been the focus of research and their strategic and operational needs are not extensively addressed by the academic community. Therefore, this research aims at empirically...... finding the impact of mechanization and integration of manufacturing processes and systems on operational performance in small Danish manufacturing firms. We use data of 357 small Danish manufacturing firms and empirically found distinct impact of mechanization and integration of systems on operational...... performance in context of production to order (PTO) and production to stock (PTS) strategies....

  3. The role of mechanization and integration of manufacturing processes in achieving operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqvi, Syed Turab Haider; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    finding the impact of mechanization and integration of manufacturing processes and systems on operational performance in small Danish manufacturing firms. We use data of 357 small Danish manufacturing firms and empirically found distinct impact of mechanization and integration of systems on operational......Small manufacturing firms are the dominant organization type for most of the developed countries. However, these firms have not been the focus of research and their strategic and operational needs are not extensively addressed by the academic community. Therefore, this research aims at empirically...

  4. Creating value from waste: remediation of froth treatment tailings from oil sands mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Kevin [Titanium Corporation (Canada); Burdenie, B. [SNC-LAVALIN (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the world reserves of oil are depleting, most of the remaining oil is heavy oil from oil sands. Several methods based on water and solvent usage are used to recover this oil but they lead to the rejection of valuable compounds into tailings: heavy minerals, residual bitumen, water and solvent. The aim of this paper is to present the research and development program carried out by Titanium Corporation Inc., of Canada, to recover these compounds in Alberta. Pilot projects were conducted to test the developed technologies. Results showed performance meeting or exceeding expectations as well as a numerous environmental benefits including a significant reduction in water imports and emissions of CO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds. .

  5. On Generalized Fractional Integral Operators and the Generalized Gauss Hypergeometric Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Baleanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkably large number of fractional integral formulas involving the number of special functions, have been investigated by many authors. Very recently, Agarwal (National Academy Science Letters gave some integral transform and fractional integral formulas involving the Fpα,β·. In this sequel, here, we aim to establish some image formulas by applying generalized operators of the fractional integration involving Appell’s function F3(· due to Marichev-Saigo-Maeda. Some interesting special cases of our main results are also considered.

  6. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation.

  7. Online Load Operating Mode of Oil Film Bearing in High Speed Wire Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yugui; PANG Siqing; HUANG Qingxue; WANG Jianmei; ZHAO Chunjiang

    2006-01-01

    To study the mechanism of burnt damage of oil film bearing in high-speed wire rolling mill, reasonable temperature sensors are designed and calibrated, pressure block of rolling mill has been transformed into pressure sensors. Online temperature and load of oil film bearing in a domestic precision rolling F15 have been tested. Consequently, a large sum of valuable test data was obtained. The distributions rules of pressure and temperature under continuous online rolling state are recorded in detail. Theoretical and experimental results are beneficial to damage mechanism of oil film bearing, thus its service life could be prolonged. Moreover, such results could provide an important reference for online test and control.

  8. Operations and maintenance performance in oil and gas production assets. Theoretical architecture and capital value theory in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liyanage, Jayantha P.

    2003-07-01

    In response to growing demands from the Norwegian oil and gas industry, a joint industry project on the development and implementation of operations and maintenance performance indicators for the petroleum industry was initiated by the Center for Asset and Maintenance Management of Stavanger University College, Norway, in 1999. The project consortium composed of BP, Shell, Philips, Statoil, NorskHydro, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Andersen Consulting, DNV, Industrial and Financial Systems (IFS), ADB Systems AS, DNV, RC Consultants and Tieto Enator. While the project was managed effectively to serve the expectations of member organizations, its boundaries were predefined by various conditions within organizational environments leaving a substantial space unexplored. Hence, the width and the breadth of operations and maintenance performance captured by the project were largely limited. This called for an independent research study to explore the phenomenon with a more broader or holistic perspective. Notably thus, while the project was devoted to a down-to-earth component of the exercise, i.e. to develop performance indicators, the exploratory research study was launched alongside to bring a theoretical or a philosophical insight. The study was conducted during 2000-2002 with collaboration of 14 organizations within the Norwegian continental shelf. The population included oil and gas producers regulatory and verification bodies and third parties. The study identified the bulk of problems that the entire problem domain constitute of within operations and maintenance performance. They were classified into some theoretical forms, and the study concentrated on, what I term, technical alienation, i.e. lack of descriptive performance models to guide meaningful assessment and management of operations and maintenance performance. The choice to shed some light in this endeavor was based on the relevance to SDV project, emerging managerial interest

  9. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham [Purdue University; Jiang, Zheyu [Purdue University; Tawarmalani, Mohit [Purdue University; Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  10. [Interface interconnection and data integration in implementing of digital operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingyi; Chen, Hua; Liu, Jiquan

    2011-10-01

    The digital operating-room, with highly integrated clinical information, is very important for rescuing lives of patients and improving quality of operations. Since equipments in domestic operating-rooms have diversified interface and nonstandard communication protocols, designing and implementing an integrated data sharing program for different kinds of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment equipments become a key point in construction of digital operating room. This paper addresses interface interconnection and data integration for commonly used clinical equipments from aspects of hardware interface, interface connection and communication protocol, and offers a solution for interconnection and integration of clinical equipments in heterogeneous environment. Based on the solution, a case of an optimal digital operating-room is presented in this paper. Comparing with the international solution for digital operating-room, the solution proposed in this paper is more economical and effective. And finally, this paper provides a proposal for the platform construction of digital perating-room as well as a viewpoint for standardization of domestic clinical equipments.

  11. Assessment of fresh groundwater vulnerability to contamination caused by production operations in oil and gas fields of Nizhnevartovsk Region (Western Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, Yu V.; Matusevich, V. M.; Popov, V. K.; Kuzevanov, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality is possible to provide under the condition of aquifers effective protection from surface contamination and bottom pollution prevention in the areas of intense oil-gas production operations. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of groundwater vulnerability is based on regional characteristics of lithological composition and thickness of impermeable deposits in unsaturated zone and overlying deposits. The correlation of head and water table levels, absorption capacity of soils and clay rocks are also considered. An integrated approach to natural vulnerability analysis of groundwater has been presented. It suggests a combination of three most common methods. Based on performed calculations, the map has been made to plot fresh groundwater vulnerability of Atlym-Novomikhailovsk aquifer system (Nizhnevaryovsk Region, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomus Okrug).

  12. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  13. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  14. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  15. Integrated Communications System for the Remote Operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kurek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the concept of the integrated system dedicated for communication and remote operation of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. In the paper the concept and realization of this kind of wireless communications system is presented. The system consists of two integrated solutions – unidirectional broadcast transmission of video, audio and data from UAV to the operators within the mobile command centre and two-way communication with the telemetry and control subsystem. The systems are integrated within the single chassis and placed on the UAV to ensure proper operation of the flying robot. The specific elements of the system are presented as well as main requirements and connected with them development methods are also discussed in the paper.

  16. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  17. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Fermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application.

  18. Inter-plant coordination and its relationships with supply chain integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Chaudhuri, Atanu; Farooq, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from the sixth version of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS VI), this paper explores the relationships at the level of plant between (1) inter-plant coordination and operational performance, and (2) between inter-plant coordination and internal/external ...... and customer integration; and (3) the relationships between inter-plant coordination and cost/flexibility are fully mediated by supplier integration.......Based on the data obtained from the sixth version of International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS VI), this paper explores the relationships at the level of plant between (1) inter-plant coordination and operational performance, and (2) between inter-plant coordination and internal...

  19. L2(Rn) Boundedness for a Class of Multilinear Singular Integral Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo En HU

    2003-01-01

    The L2(Rn) boundedness for the multilinear singular integral operators defined by Ω(x-y) TAf(x) =∫Ω(x-y)/Rn[ |x-y|n+1 ](A(x) - A(y) - A(y)(x - y))f(y)dy is considered, where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one, A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). A sufficient condition based on the Fourier transform estimate and implying the L2(Rn) boundedness for the multilinear operator TA is given.

  20. Bipolar integrated circuits in SiC for extreme environment operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael; Hallén, Anders; Hedayati, Raheleh; Kargarrazi, Saleh; Lanni, Luigia; Malm, B. Gunnar; Mardani, Shabnam; Norström, Hans; Rusu, Ana; Saveda Suvanam, Sethu; Tian, Ye; Östling, Mikael

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) integrated circuits have been suggested for extreme environment operation. The challenge of a new technology is to develop process flow, circuit models and circuit designs for a wide temperature range. A bipolar technology was chosen to avoid the gate dielectric weakness and low mobility drawback of SiC MOSFETs. Higher operation temperatures and better radiation hardness have been demonstrated for bipolar integrated circuits. Both digital and analog circuits have been demonstrated in the range from room temperature to 500 °C. Future steps are to demonstrate some mixed signal circuits of greater complexity. There are remaining challenges in contacting, metallization, packaging and reliability.

  1. Thermalization away from integrability and the role of operator off-diagonal elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, N P

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the rate of thermalization of local operators in the one-dimensional anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with next-nearest neighbor interactions that break integrability. This is done by calculating the scaling of the difference of the diagonal and canonical thermal ensemble values as a function of system size, and by directly calculating the time evolution of the expectation values of the operators with the Chebyshev polynomial expansion. Spatial and spin symmetry is exploited and the Hamiltonian is divided into subsectors according to their symmetry. The rate of thermalization depends on the proximity to the integrable limit. When integrability is weakly broken thermalization is slow, and becomes faster the stronger the next-nearest neighbor interaction is. Three different regimes for the rate of thermalization with respect to the strength of the integrability breaking parameter are identified. These are shown to be directly connected with the relative strength of the low and higher energy difference off-diagonal operator matrix elements in the symmetry eigenbasis of the Hamiltonian. Close to the integrable limit the off-diagonal matrix elements peak at higher energies and high-frequency fluctuations are important and slow down thermalization. Away from the integrable limit a strong low-energy peak gradually develops that takes over the higher frequency fluctuations and leads to quicker thermalization.

  2. Input/output pulse operation of ZnO nanowire threshold integrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard; Colli, Alan; Li Hongwei; Kivioja, Jani, E-mail: alan.colli@nokia.com [Nokia Research Center, Broers Building, 21 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-14

    Integrating more functionality into individual nano-components is a key step to exploit alternative architectures for energy-efficient computation, such as, for instance, neuromorphic computing. Here, we show how to configure ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors as light pulse integrators with programmable threshold. We demonstrate that these single-component devices can be operated as both synchronous and asynchronous neuron-like structures, where the firing threshold and the form of the output signal, either step-like or spiked, can be controlled by using several operational parameters, including the environment in which the device operates. A detailed study showing how environmental variables, such as relative humidity, ambient light and temperature, affect device operation is presented.

  3. Integrated Assessment Plan Template and Operational Demonstration for SPIDERS Phase 2: Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kreyling, Sean J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This document contains the Integrated Assessment Plan (IAP) for the Phase 2 Operational Demonstration (OD) of the Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability (SPIDERS) Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) project. SPIDERS will be conducted over a three year period with Phase 2 being conducted at Fort Carson, Colorado. This document includes the Operational Demonstration Execution Plan (ODEP) and the Operational Assessment Execution Plan (OAEP), as approved by the Operational Manager (OM) and the Integrated Management Team (IMT). The ODEP describes the process by which the OD is conducted and the OAEP describes the process by which the data collected from the OD is processed. The execution of the OD, in accordance with the ODEP and the subsequent execution of the OAEP, will generate the necessary data for the Quick Look Report (QLR) and the Utility Assessment Report (UAR). These reports will assess the ability of the SPIDERS JCTD to meet the four critical requirements listed in the Implementation Directive (ID).

  4. Data Processing Concepts for the Integration of SAR Into Operational Volcano Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2013-05-01

    Remote Sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and despite its high performance in monitoring change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to (1) the high data costs associated with radar data, (2) the slow data processing and delivery procedures, and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar remote sensing data into operational volcano monitoring systems. The data integration concept presented here combines advanced data processing techniques with fast data access procedures in order to provide high quality radar-based volcano hazard information at improved temporal sampling rates. First performance analyses show that the integration of SAR can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  5. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  6. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  7. Zeros and poles of quantum current operators and the condition of quantum integrability

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Miwa, Tetsuji

    1996-01-01

    For the current realization of the affine quantum groups, a simple comultiplication for the quantum current operators was given by Drinfeld. With this comultiplication, we study the zeros and poles of the quantum current operators and present a condition of integrability on the quantum current of $U_q\\left(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)\\right)$, which is a deformation of the corresponding condition for $\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)$.

  8. FROM UAS DATA ACQUISITION TO ACTIONABLE INFORMATION – HOW AN END-TO-END SOLUTION HELPS OIL PALM PLANTATION OPERATORS TO PERFORM A MORE SUSTAINABLE PLANTATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    The research results describe how operators can successfully make use of a UAS-based solution together with the developed software solution to improve their efficiency in oil palm plantation management.

  9. Formulae and Bounds connected to Optimal Design and Homogenization of Partial Differential Operators and Integral Functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukkassen, D.

    1996-12-31

    When partial differential equations are set up to model physical processes in strongly heterogeneous materials, effective parameters for heat transfer, electric conductivity etc. are usually required. Averaging methods often lead to convergence problems and in homogenization theory one is therefore led to study how certain integral functionals behave asymptotically. This mathematical doctoral thesis discusses (1) means and bounds connected to homogenization of integral functionals, (2) reiterated homogenization of integral functionals, (3) bounds and homogenization of some particular partial differential operators, (4) applications and further results. 154 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Measuring the Value-added of Oil Palm Products with Integrating SCOR Model and Discrete Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitra Lestari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm processing industry in Malaysia can directly distribute the finished products in exporting without considering the transformation value of the product to the end customer. Nevertheless, it influences the configuration of the supply chain strategy. The purpose of this study measures the performance of supply chain configuration in oil palm business. The model use tools for measuring supply chain configuration with integrating SCOR models and discrete event simulation. Finding of this study revealed that the highest value-added of oil palm derivative product is scenario 5 which it proposes 100% CPO and CPKO deliver to the local refinery without distributing to the export and its finished products are distributed to the export through the port. Finally, it gives consideration to the stakeholders in controlling the system and then makes sure the business process keeps running on the track.

  11. Integrated electrofluidic circuits: pressure sensing with analog and digital operation functionalities for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chueh-Yu; Lu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Man-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2012-10-21

    Microfluidic technology plays an essential role in various lab on a chip devices due to its desired advantages. An automated microfluidic system integrated with actuators and sensors can further achieve better controllability. A number of microfluidic actuation schemes have been well developed. In contrast, most of the existing sensing methods still heavily rely on optical observations and external transducers, which have drawbacks including: costly instrumentation, professional operation, tedious interfacing, and difficulties of scaling up and further signal processing. This paper reports the concept of electrofluidic circuits - electrical circuits which are constructed using ionic liquid (IL)-filled fluidic channels. The developed electrofluidic circuits can be fabricated using a well-developed multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. Electrofluidic circuits allow seamless integration of pressure sensors with analog and digital operation functions into microfluidic systems and provide electrical readouts for further signal processing. In the experiments, the analog operation device is constructed based on electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuits with electrical outputs of the addition and subtraction results of the applied pressures. The digital operation (AND, OR, and XOR) devices are constructed using the electrofluidic pressure controlled switches, and output electrical signals of digital operations of the applied pressures. The experimental results demonstrate the designed functions for analog and digital operations of applied pressures are successfully achieved using the developed electrofluidic circuits, making them promising to develop integrated microfluidic systems with capabilities of precise pressure monitoring and further feedback control for advanced lab on a chip applications.

  12. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  13. Propagation of uncertainties through the oil spill model MEDSLIK-II: operational application to the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Lecci, Rita

    2017-04-01

    In operational oil spill modeling, MEDSLIK-II (De Dominicis et al., 2013) focuses on the reliability of the oil drift and fate predictions routinely fed by operational oceanographic and atmospheric forecasting chain. Uncertainty calculations enhance oil spill forecast efficiency, supplying probability maps to quantify the propagation of various uncertainties. Recently, we have developed the methodology that allows users to evaluate the variability of oil drift forecast caused by uncertain data on the initial oil spill conditions (Liubartseva et al., 2016). One of the key methodological aspects is a reasonable choice of a way of parameter perturbation. In case of starting oil spill location and time, these scalars might be treated as independent random parameters. If we want to perturb the underlying ocean currents and wind, we have to deal with deterministic vector parameters. To a first approximation, we suggest rolling forecasts as a set of perturbed ocean currents and wind. This approach does not need any extra hydrodynamic calculations, and it is quick enough to be performed in web-based applications. The capabilities of the proposed methodology are explored using the Black Sea Forecasting System (BSFS) recently implemented by Ciliberti et al. (2016) for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (http://marine.copernicus.eu/services-portfolio/access-to-products). BSFS horizontal resolution is 1/36° in zonal and 1/27° in meridional direction (ca. 3 km). Vertical domain discretization is represented by 31 unevenly spaced vertical levels. Atmospheric wind data are provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasts, at 1/8° (ca. 12.5 km) horizontal and 6-hour temporal resolution. A great variety of probability patterns controlled by different underlying flows is represented including the cyclonic Rim Current, flow bifurcations in anticyclonic eddies (e.g., Sevastopol and Batumi), northwestern shelf circulation, etc

  14. Integral centrifuges for olive oil extraction, at the third millenium threshold. Transformation yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, Alfonso

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A new-two, phase "decanter" (able to centrifuge the oily pastes without previous addition of hot water was compared with a three-phase one, processing homogeneous lots of three olive varieties (Coratina, Nebbio and Grossa di Cassano at an industrial level. The results showed that the integral centrifuge frequently yielded higher oil outputs. Furthermore, as the vegetation water was not separated from the husk, the amount liquid effluent produced was much lower (about 10 Kg/q olives, on average. This goes towards solving the age-old and very difficult problems connected with the production of this highly polluting outflow. However, the olive cake obtained semi-liquid (with about 55-60% of moisture, making the industrial recovery of the residual oil difficult and expensive. Furthermore, the solid by-product was characterized by higher percentage values of the oil amount, higher values of the pulp/stone ratio, as well as the greater weight produced. The effluent produced in small quantities, besides being more concentrated and thus richer in fat, dry residue, phenols and o-diphenols. The COD and turbidity values were also higher. Finally, as will be referred to in detail in the second part of this work, the oils obtained were of a far higher quality, mainly for their lower oxidizability and better organoleptic characteristic, so that they are wholly comparable to those extracted by pressing or filtering. In addition, the significant reduction of processing costs, as well as the lower consumption of hot water and electrical energy, must also be emphasized.

    El nuevo "decanter", a dos fases (capaz de centrifugar la pasta oleosa sin la dilución previa con agua caliente ha sido confrontado con el de a tres fases, elaborando, a nivel industrial, partidas homogéneas de tres variedades de aceitunas (Coratina, Nebbio y Grossa di Cassano. Los resultados de investigación han puesto de manifiesto que las centrifugadoras integrales permiten obtener

  15. Hydrogen sulphide, odor, and VOC air emission control systems for heavy oil storage, transport, and processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, H.P. [APC Technologies, Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, companies have to control their air emissions in compliance with regulatory and process improvement objectives. The industry therefore operates air emission control systems to eliminate odor complaints, reduce personnel exposure to H2S and remove BTEX and VOC emissions. This paper studies different cases of companies which have chosen to use a fixed activated carbon adsorption unit. The study was conducted on three cases of heavy oil industries which installed the CarbonPure adsorption system and describes their objectives, processes, emissions, technology options and performances. Results showed an elimination of odor complaints, a reduction of personnel exposure to harmful air contaminants and a reduction of VOC concentrations in a reliable, low maintenance and economic manner. This study presents the greater benefits of the CarbonPure adsorption system combined with an ultra high efficiency unit over those of other adsorption systems.

  16. Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Björn

    2011-03-01

    Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions.

  17. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui Li; Baoqi Lu; Jing Zou; Bin Xu; Zhizeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years’ experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters) underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of“filling joints with water”is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles for design and

  18. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  19. Operator Representation of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Integral Functions with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aslam Chaudhry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein functions arise as quantum statistical distributions. The Riemann zeta function and its extension, the polylogarithm function, arise in the theory of numbers. Though it might not have been expected, these two sets of functions belong to a wider class of functions whose members have operator representations. In particular, we show that the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integral functions are expressible as operator representations in terms of themselves. Simpler derivations of previously known results of these functions are obtained by their operator representations.

  20. Integrated operation of sewer system and WWTP by simulation-based control of the WWTP inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggelke, K; Rosenwinkel, K H; Vanrolleghem, P A; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    In recent years numerical modelling became a standard procedure to optimise urban wastewater systems design and operation by integration. For dynamic control of the wastewater teatment plant (WWTP) inflow, a model-based predictive concept is introduced aiming at improving the receiving water quality. An on-line simulator running parallel to the real WWTP operation reflects the actual state of operation and provides this model information to a prognosis tool which determines the best option for the WWTP inflow. The investigations showed that it is possible to reduce the NH4-N peak concentrations in the receiving water by dynamic WWTP inflow control based on predictive scenario analysis.

  1. COHERENT INFORMATION ON THERMAL RADIATION NOISE CHANNEL: AN APPROACH OF INTEGRAL WITHIN ORDERED PRODUCT OF OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小余; 仇佩亮

    2001-01-01

    An analytical expression is given to the coherent information of the thermal radiation signal transmitted over the thermal radiation noise channel, one of the most essential quantum Gaussian channels. Focusing on the single normal mode of the thermal radiation signal and noise, we resolve the entangled state density operator, which characterizes quantum information transmission, into a direct product of two parts, with each part being a thermal radiation density operator. The calculation is aided by the technique known as "integral within ordered product of operators".

  2. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  3. Integrated soil fertility management: Operational definition and consequences for implementation and dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Bationo, A.; Chianu, J.; Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.; Mokwunye, U.; Ohiokpehai, O.; Pypers, P.; Tabo, R.; Shepherd, K.D.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Woomer, P.L.; Sanginga, N.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa depend primarily on mining soil nutrients. The African green revolution aims to intensify agriculture through the dissemination of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM). This paper develops a robust and operational definition of ISFM based on d

  4. 77 FR 1779 - Meeting and Webinar on Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Meeting and Webinar on Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research... host a free public meeting and webinar to obtain stakeholder input on concepts, opportunities, and... part of the public meeting or participate in the three-hour webinar should register by January 19,...

  5. Convexity of the integral operator involving normalized Mittag-Leffler function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlar, Murat; Yılmaz, Saip Emre; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-04-01

    The main object of this paper is to give sufficient condition for a certain family of integral operator which are defined by means of the normalized form of the Mittag-Leffler function to be convex of given order in the open unit disk.

  6. 5Gb/s optical logic AND operations using by monolithically integrated photodiode and electroabsorption modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Zhao, L. J.; Niu, B.; Pan, J. Q.; Wang, W.

    2010-05-01

    A novel EAM/PD monolithically-integrated optical logic element is presented. 5Gb/s optical logic AND gate operations at about -2 V for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals with8.4dB extinction ratio and16mW absorbed optical power was demonstrated.

  7. Sandwich-Type Theorems for a Class of Multiplier Transformations Associated with the Noor Integral Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Eun Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain some subordination- and superordination-preserving properties for a class of multiplier transformations associated with Noor integral operators defined on the space of normalized analytic functions in the open unit disk. The sandwich-type theorems for these transformations are also considered.

  8. Integrated emission management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  9. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  10. BOUNDEDNESS OF HIGHER ORDER COMMUTATORS OF GENERALIZED FRACTIONAL INTEGRAL OPERATORS ON HARDY SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlei He; Lisheng Shu

    2005-01-01

    Let Tμ,b,m be the higher order commutator generated by a generalized fractional integral operator Tμ and a BMO function b. In this paper, we will study the boundedness of Tμ,b,m on classical Hardy spaces and Herz-type Hardy spaces.

  11. Inclusion Properties for Certain Classes of Analytic Functions Involving a Family of Fractional Integral Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Prajapat, Jugal

    2008-01-01

    2000 Math. Subject Classification: 30C45 A known family of fractional integral operators is used here to define some new subclasses of analytic functions in the open unit disk U. For each of these new function classes, several inclusion relationships are established.

  12. Integrated soil fertility management: Operational definition and consequences for implementation and dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Bationo, A.; Chianu, J.; Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.; Mokwunye, U.; Ohiokpehai, O.; Pypers, P.; Tabo, R.; Shepherd, K.D.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Woomer, P.L.; Sanginga, N.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa depend primarily on mining soil nutrients. The African green revolution aims to intensify agriculture through the dissemination of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM). This paper develops a robust and operational definition of ISFM based on

  13. Material derivatives of boundary integral operators in electromagnetism and application to inverse scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyshyn Yaman, Olha; Le Louër, Frédérique

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the material derivative analysis of the boundary integral operators arising from the scattering theory of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves and its application to inverse problems. We present new results using the Piola transform of the boundary parametrisation to transport the integral operators on a fixed reference boundary. The transported integral operators are infinitely differentiable with respect to the parametrisations and simplified expressions of the material derivatives are obtained. Using these results, we extend a nonlinear integral equations approach developed for solving acoustic inverse obstacle scattering problems to electromagnetism. The inverse problem is formulated as a pair of nonlinear and ill-posed integral equations for the unknown boundary representing the boundary condition and the measurements, for which the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method can be applied. The algorithm has the interesting feature that it avoids the numerous numerical solution of boundary value problems at each iteration step. Numerical experiments are presented in the special case of star-shaped obstacles.

  14. Thermo-Economic Modelling and Process Integration of CO2-Mitigation Options on Oil and Gas Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process associated with large CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere and chemicals to the sea. The taxation of these emissions has encouraged the development of more energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solutions, of which three...... are assessed in this paper. The integration of steam bottoming cycles on the gas turbines or of lowtemperature power cycles on the export gas compression can result either in an additional power output, or in a greater export of natural gas. Another possibility is to implement a CO2-capture unit, which allows...... recovering CO2 that can be used for enhanced oil recovery. In this paper, a North Sea platform is considered as case study, and the site-scale retrofit integration of these three options is analysed, considering thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance indicators. The results illustrate...

  15. Research on the performance evaluation of agricultural products supply chain integrated operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiake; Wang, Xifu; Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural product supply chain integrated operation can ensure the quality and efficiency of agricultural products, and achieve the optimal goal of low cost and high service. This paper establishes a performance evaluation index system of agricultural products supply chain integration operation based on the development status of agricultural products and SCOR, BSC and KPI model. And then, we constructing rough set theory and BP neural network comprehensive evaluation model with the aid of Rosetta and MATLAB tools and the case study is about the development of agricultural products integrated supply chain in Jing-Jin-Ji region. And finally, we obtain the corresponding performance results, and give some improvement measures and management recommendations to the managers.

  16. Efficient Sustainable Operation Mechanism of Distributed Desktop Integration Storage Based on Virtualization with Ubiquitous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid growth of ubiquitous computing, many jobs that were previously manual have now been automated. This automation has increased the amount of time available for leisure; diverse services are now being developed for this leisure time. In addition, the development of small and portable devices like smartphones, diverse Internet services can be used regardless of time and place. Studies regarding diverse virtualization are currently in progress. These studies aim to determine ways to efficiently store and process the big data generated by the multitude of devices and services in use. One topic of such studies is desktop storage virtualization, which integrates distributed desktop resources and provides these resources to users to integrate into distributed legacy desktops via virtualization. In the case of desktop storage virtualization, high availability of virtualization is necessary and important for providing reliability to users. Studies regarding hierarchical structures and resource integration are currently in progress. These studies aim to create efficient data distribution and storage for distributed desktops based on resource integration environments. However, studies regarding efficient responses to server faults occurring in desktop-based resource integration environments have been insufficient. This paper proposes a mechanism for the sustainable operation of desktop storage (SODS for high operational availability. It allows for the easy addition and removal of desktops in desktop-based integration environments. It also activates alternative servers when a fault occurs within a system.

  17. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE OPERATED ON VEGETABLE OILS AS ALTERNATIVE FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajagopal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis was done using a four-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, water-cooled diesel engine, which was interfaced with Engine software. Performance and emission characteristics were evaluated for three non-edible vegetable oils, i.e. thumba, jojoba, neem oil, as well as jojoba methyl ester, to study the effect of injection pressure at 205, 220, 240 and 260 bar with a variation in injection timing at 23°bTDC and 28°bTDC. The performance of jojoba methyl ester improved with an increase in injection pressure. A maximum brake thermal efficiency of 29.72% was obtained with lower emissions compared to the other vegetable oils; this might be explained by low viscosity and better combustion. Further investigations were carried out with a new lubricant, SAE 5W-30, which improved the performance of the CI engine by 1.59%. All of the abovementioned investigations were fruitful and these results are expected to lead to substantial contributions in the development of a viable vegetable oil engine.

  18. Small-scale edible oil milling operations: Alternative business models for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertse, Y.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Danse, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government is aiming to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oil by 2015. The aim of this research was to develop sustainable business models for millers, increase their competitiveness, and enhance food safety and security in Ethiopia within the changing policy context.

  19. Integrated assessment of oil pollution using biological monitoring and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Guitart, Carlos; Pook, Chris; Scarlett, Alan; Readman, James W; Galloway, Tamara S

    2010-06-01

    A full assessment of the impact of oil and chemical spills at sea requires the identification of both the polluting chemicals and the biological effects they cause. Here, a combination of chemical fingerprinting of surface oils, tissue residue analysis, and biological effects measures was used to explore the relationship between spilled oil and biological impact following the grounding of the MSC Napoli container ship in Lyme Bay, England in January 2007. Initially, oil contamination remained restricted to a surface slick in the vicinity of the wreck, and there was no chemical evidence to link biological impairment of animals (the common limpet, Patella vulgata) on the shore adjacent to the oil spill. Secondary oil contamination associated with salvage activities in July 2007 was also assessed. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons and terpanes in shell swabs taken from limpet shells provided an unequivocal match with the fuel oil carried by the ship. Corresponding chemical analysis of limpet tissues revealed increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dominated by phenanthrene and C1 to C3 phenanthrenes with smaller contributions from heavier molecular weight PAHs. Concurrent ecotoxicological tests indicated impairment of cellular viability (p oiled animals. These results illustrate the value of combining biological monitoring with chemical fingerprinting for the rapid identification of spilled oils and their sublethal impacts on biota in situ.

  20. Integration and Operational Experience in CMS Monte Carlo Production in LCG

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; Hernández, Jose M

    2007-01-01

    This note describes integration and operational aspects of the CMS Monte Carlo production in the LHC Computing Grid (LCG). In 2005 the McRunjob MC production system was ported to LCG-2 in order to make use of the distributed computing and storage resources available in LCG for CMS. The full production chain (generation, simulation, digitization with pile-up, reconstruction, injection in the data transfer system and publication for analysis) was implemented. Experience gained during the implementation and operation of the production system in LCG has been used to build ProdAgent, the new MC production system. ProdAgent takes also advantage of the new CMS event data model, event processing framework and data management services. Integration and operational experience with ProdAgent is also described in this note.

  1. A Model-Based Methodology for Integrated Design and Operation of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    and resolved. A new approach isto tackle process intensification and controllability issues in an integrated manner, in the early stages of process design. This integrated and simultaneous synthesis approach provides optimal operation and moreefficient control of complex intensified systems that suffice...... bubble point algorithm is used to compute the reactive vapor-liquid equilibrium data set.The operation of the RDC at the highest driving force and other candidate points is compared through openloop and closed-loop analysis. By application of this methodology it is shown that designing the process atthe......Process intensification is a new approach that has the potential to improve existing processes as well as new designs of processes to achieve more profitable and sustainable production. However, many issues with respect to their implementation and operation is not clear; for example, the question...

  2. Performing derivative and integral operations for optical waves with optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Cun-Li [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Li, Xiao-Lin [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210031 (China); Yang, Hong-Wei, E-mail: phd_hwyang@njau.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing Jiangsu, 210095 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The graded refractive index waveguides can perform Fourier transform for an optical wave. According to this characteristic, simpler optical metamaterials with three waveguides are theoretically proposed, in which all of the waveguides are materials with a positive refractive index. By selecting the appropriate refractive index and structure size, the theory and simulations demonstrated that these metamaterials can perform mathematical operations for the outline of incident optical waves, including the first-order derivative, second-order derivative and the integral. - Highlights: • The derivative and integral operations of optical waves are achieved with a simpler model. • Both negative and positive refractive index boast the same functions. • The mathematical operations can be implemented only by changing the refractive index of the intermediate material. • The results will greatly expand the possible applications, including photon computers, picture processing, video displays and data storage.

  3. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  4. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana; Khan, M. K.; Munive, J. E.

    2014-07-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective.

  5. Top-down Constraints on Emissions: Example for Oil and Gas Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, R.; Banta, R. M.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.; Miller, B. R.; Conley, S. A.; Kofler, J.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Wolter, S.; Guenther, D.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W. P.; Brown, S. S.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Wolfe, D. E.; Bruhwiler, L.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    In many countries, human-caused emissions of the two major long lived greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, are primarily linked to the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). Fugitive emissions of natural gas (mainly CH4) from the oil and gas exploration and production sector may also be an important contributor to natural gas life cycle/greenhouse gas footprint. Fuel use statistics have traditionally been used in combination with fuel and process specific emission factors to estimate CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel-based energy systems (power plants, motor vehicles…). Fugitive emissions of CH4, in contrast, are much harder to quantify. Fugitive emission levels may vary substantially from one oil and gas producing basin to another and may not scale with common activity data, such as production numbers. In the USA, recent efforts by the industry, States and the US Environmental Protection Agency have focused on developing new bottom-up inventory methodologies to assess methane and volatile organic compounds emissions from oil and gas producing basins. The underlying assumptions behind these inventories are multiple and result de facto in large uncertainties. Independent atmospheric-based estimates of emissions provide another valuable piece of information that can be used to evaluate inventories. Over the past year, the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory has used its expertise in high quality GHG and wind measurements to evaluate regional emissions of methane from two oil and gas basins in the Rocky Mountain region. Results from these two campaigns will be discussed and compared with available inventories.

  6. Development of Goat - Palm Oil Integrated Production System : An Assessment Based on Feed Availability and Nutrient Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of goats and palm oil plantation is prospective agricultural production systems that exploit the complement relationship among various components in the system . The main components are the oil palm trees, vegetation underneath the trees, processing plant of palm oil bunch, and the goat . The estimation of carrying capacity of the plantation system is based on the quantitative analysis on nutrient supply from various feed resources in the plantation system and nutrient requirements for goat production . The goat demographic parameters, such as, prolificacy, fertility and fecundity are used to estimate the goat population size, dynamics and structures . The development of production model could be based on a certain production target, such as the number of animals sold or the amount of income (demand driven approach, or based on the availability of certain resources such as feed supply (supply driven approach . Using the demand driven approach, and considering 6000 heads of oneyear old goats to fill the Malaysian market as the production target, it is calculated that a population size of 3,636 does and 810 ha of palm oil plantation are required to meet this production target . In a typically medium-size oil palm plantation system (500 ha of oil palm plantation with one unit of small-scale palm oil bunch processing plant ( l ton/hour, the potency to supply metabolisable energy from various feed resources in the system is 2,778,800 Mcal/year, equivalent to a carrying capacity of 5,155 Goat Units/year . This system could carry 2,951 does and 295 bucks to produce 1,116 heads of one-year old goats annually . A medium-size oil palm plantation without processing plant unit, is potential in supplying metabolisable energy of 1,983,300 Mcal/year, equivalent to a carrying capacity of 3,680 Goat Units/year . In order to fill the export market to Malaysia, a number of 10 units of medium sized plantation with small scale plant processing or a

  7. NASA Research on an Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. There have been attempts to address the resulting inefficiencies with both strategic and tactical tools for metering departure aircraft. This presentation gives an overview of Spot And Runway Departure Advisor with Collaborative Decision Making (SARDA-CDM): an integrated strategic and tactical system for improving surface operations by metering departure aircraft. SARDA-CDM is the augmentation of ground and local controller advisories through sharing of flight movement and related operations information between airport operators, flight operators and air traffic control at the airport. The goal is to enhance the efficiency of airport surface operations by exchanging information between air traffic control and airline operators, while minimizing adverse effects on stakeholders and passengers. The presentation motivates the need for departure metering, and provides a brief background on the previous work on SARDA. Then, the concept of operations for SARDA-CDM is described. Then the preliminary results from testing the concept in a real-time automated simulation environment are described. Results indicate benefits such as reduction in taxiing delay and fuel consumption. Further, the preliminary implementation of SARDA-CDM seems robust for two minutes delay in gate push-back times.

  8. Integrating SAR and derived products into operational volcano monitoring and decision support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Ajadi, O.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-02-01

    Remote sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and its high performance in monitoring of change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to: (1) the high costs associated with radar data; (2) traditionally slow data processing and delivery procedures; and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of these limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar data into operational volcano monitoring decision support systems. Specifically, we present fast data access procedures as well as new approaches to multi-track processing that improve near real-time data access and temporal sampling of volcanic systems with SAR data. We introduce phase-based (coherent) and amplitude-based (incoherent) change detection procedures that are able to extract dense time series of hazard information from these data. For a demonstration, we present an integration of our processing system with an operational volcano monitoring system that was developed for use by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Through an application to a historic eruption, we show that the integration of SAR into systems such as AVO can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  9. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  10. Evaluation of stress and geomechanical characteristics of rocks at Penn West's Pembina CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery pilot operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, K.M.; Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hawkes, C.D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The geologic capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is gaining interest as a viable option to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This paper presented a multidisciplinary research pilot study on CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in Alberta. Minimizing the potential for CO{sub 2} leakage through faults or fractures has become one of the primary safety issues affecting the successful capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. The potential CO{sub 2} leakage paths are controlled by geomechanical parameters, such as the in-situ stress regime, rock stiffness and rock strength, and the integrity of the wellbore seal. Rock mechanical properties control the behaviour of rock when it is subjected to stresses. As such, the pilot study examined the stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks, which are important elements in evaluating the safety of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. The mechanical properties control hydraulic fracturing, induced shear failure, stresses and strains induced in reservoirs due to fluid pressure and temperature changes, and borehole stability, all of which impact CO{sub 2} storage. The pilot study involved the injection of CO{sub 2} into the Upper Cretaceous Cardium Formation sandstone at a depth of about 1650 m. Thick Colorado Group shale overlies and underlies the Cardium sandstone and conglomerate. This paper included an assessment of the stress regime of the Pembina oil field and a review of the relevant rock properties. The minimum horizontal stress in the reservoir was found to be significantly lower than the caprock. Hydraulic fractures induced in the study area would propagate in a vertical plane in a southwest-northeast direction. Available rock elastic properties suggest that conditions in the study area are favourable for fracture containment. Available data indicates that the caprock is strong, which favours the maintenance of caprock integrity as reservoir pressure and temperature

  11. Final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-2, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) in Kern County, California. The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase I Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NPR-2 include the following: royalty income from producing oil and gas leases, rental income from non-producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for sheep grazing (10,044 acres), and town lots for residential or commercial development (16.7 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  12. The Turkish stock market integration with oil prices: Cointegration analysis with unknown regime shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halaç Umut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil prices are often considered as a vital economic factor due to the dependence of the world economy on oil. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the literature on the dynamic relationship between oil prices and stock prices under the presence of possible structural breaks in an emerging market, Turkey. The empirical evidence suggests that the oil prices are important in explaining the stock market movements. Stock prices, oil prices and nominal exchange rates are found as cointegrated after taking structural breaks into account. Moreover, results of parameter stability test are consistent with our findings indicating that relationship between series is strong in the long-run. The results are important in the way that they show the global factors are also dominant on the Turkish stock market.

  13. Design and operation of a continuous integrated monoclonal antibody production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Ulmer, Nicole; Wolf, Moritz; Decker, Lara; Schneider, Veronika; Wälchli, Ruben; Karst, Daniel; Souquet, Jonathan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-07-10

    The realization of an end-to-end integrated continuous lab-scale process for monoclonal antibody manufacturing is described. For this, a continuous cultivation with filter-based cell-retention, a continuous two column capture process, a virus inactivation step, a semi-continuous polishing step (twin-column MCSGP), and a batch-wise flow-through polishing step were integrated and operated together. In each unit, the implementation of internal recycle loops allows to improve the performance: (a) in the bioreactor, to simultaneously increase the cell density and volumetric productivity, (b) in the capture process, to achieve improved capacity utilization at high productivity and yield, and (c) in the MCSGP process, to overcome the purity-yield trade-off of classical batch-wise bind-elute polishing steps. Furthermore, the design principles, which allow the direct connection of these steps, some at steady state and some at cyclic steady state, as well as straight-through processing, are discussed. The setup was operated for the continuous production of a commercial monoclonal antibody, resulting in stable operation and uniform product quality over the 17 cycles of the end-to-end integration. The steady-state operation was fully characterized by analyzing at the outlet of each unit at steady state the product titer as well as the process (HCP, DNA, leached Protein A) and product (aggregates, fragments) related impurities. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  15. Hydrotreating of used oil; Prediction of industrial trickle-bed operation from pilot-plant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, D.U.; Saban, M.D.; Orlovie, M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Tehnolosko-Metalurski Fakultet); Meyn, V.W.; Severin, D.K.; Rahimian, I.G.H. (German Inst. for Petroleum Research, 3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (DE)); Marjanovic, M.V. (Refinery Beograd, Pancevacki put 83, 11001 Beograd (YU))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on oil hydrotreating that was investigated in a pilot trickle-bed reactor (TBR) at 270-350{degrees} C, 5-7 MPa, and 1.1-4.6 liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and with different hydrogen/oil ratios using a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and metals removal were investigated by using a modified power- law kinetic model with a power term for LHSV. It was found that the HDS and HDO reactions can be described by pseudo- first-order kinetics. The removal of metals was found to be primarily due to the physical process of deposition on the catalyst bed. With the use of the kinetic data from a pilot plant, the simulation of an industrial TBR was performed. Simulated HDS and HDO, removal of metals, and prediction of catalyst deactivation agreed well with the industrial data for three charges of catalyst.

  16. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  17. A Novel Integral Operator Transform and Its Application to Some FODE and FPDE with Some Kind of Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced a novel integral transform operator. We proved the existence and the uniqueness of the relatively new operator. We presented some useful properties of the new operator. We presented the application of this operator for solving some kind of fractional ordinary and partial differential equation containing some kind of singularity.

  18. Embodied Energy and GHG Emissions from Material Use in Conventional and Unconventional Oil and Gas Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Environmental impacts embodied in oilfield capital equipment have not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, we present the first open-source model which computes the embodied energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with materials consumed in constructing oil and gas wells and associated infrastructure. The model includes well casing, wellbore cement, drilling mud, processing equipment, gas compression, and transport infrastructure. Default case results show that consumption of materials in constructing oilfield equipment consumes ∼0.014 MJ of primary energy per MJ of oil produced, and results in ∼1.3 gCO2-eq GHG emissions per MJ (lower heating value) of crude oil produced, an increase of 15% relative to upstream emissions assessed in earlier OPGEE model versions, and an increase of 1-1.5% of full life cycle emissions. A case study of a hydraulically fractured well in the Bakken formation of North Dakota suggests lower energy intensity (0.011 MJ/MJ) and emissions intensity (1.03 gCO2-eq/MJ) due to the high productivity of hydraulically fractured wells. Results are sensitive to per-well productivity, the complexity of wellbore casing design, and the energy and emissions intensity per kg of material consumed.

  19. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a holistic approach for the commercialisation of fuel cells for stationary applications. We focus our analyses on microCHP based on SOFC units fired with natural gas. We analyse the interaction of operational strategies under different ownership arrangements, required support...... levels and system integration aspects. The operational strategies, support mechanisms and ownership arrangements have been identified through actor analysis involving experts from Denmark, France and Portugal. With regard to operational strategies, the actor analyses led us to distinguishing between...... a heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro...

  20. Denoising Algorithm Based on Generalized Fractional Integral Operator with Two Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel digital image denoising algorithm called generalized fractional integral filter is introduced based on the generalized Srivastava-Owa fractional integral operator. The structures of n×n fractional masks of this algorithm are constructed. The denoising performance is measured by employing experiments according to visual perception and PSNR values. The results demonstrate that apart from enhancing the quality of filtered image, the proposed algorithm also reserves the textures and edges present in the image. Experiments also prove that the improvements achieved are competent with the Gaussian smoothing filter.

  1. Note on the Choquet Integral as an Interval-Valued Aggregation Operators and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Chae Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an interval-valued capacity is motivated by the goal to generalize a capacity, and it can be used for representing an uncertain capacity. In this paper, we define the discrete interval-valued capacities, a measure of the entropy of a discrete interval-valued capacity, and, Choquet integral with respect to a discrete interval-valued capacity. In particular, we discuss the Choquet integral as an interval-valued aggregation operator and discuss an application of them.

  2. Logistics and operations integration requirements to support Space Station servicing of free flying spacecraft - OMV flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Mcgeehan, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    The logistics of OMV free-flyer servicing are examined, with emphasis on integrating the OMV operations into the overall STS-Space Station system. The depletion rate of consumables and lifetimes of free-flyer components are known quantities, which permits definition of a predictable maintenance schedule. Servicing with an OMV will depend on the position and capabilities of the OMV, Shuttle and Station when free-flyer maintenance is needed. Optimized orbital servicing of free-flyers will involve coordination of and resolution of schedule conflicts among STS, the OMV and the Station. The scheduled availability of any of the three components will be predicted in terms of probabilities that any one of the components will not be needed for another mission while performing the mission they are on.

  3. Logistics and operations integration requirements to support Space Station servicing of free flying spacecraft - OMV flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerome A.; Mcgeehan, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    The logistics of OMV free-flyer servicing are examined, with emphasis on integrating the OMV operations into the overall STS-Space Station system. The depletion rate of consumables and lifetimes of free-flyer components are known quantities, which permits definition of a predictable maintenance schedule. Servicing with an OMV will depend on the position and capabilities of the OMV, Shuttle and Station when free-flyer maintenance is needed. Optimized orbital servicing of free-flyers will involve coordination of and resolution of schedule conflicts among STS, the OMV and the Station. The scheduled availability of any of the three components will be predicted in terms of probabilities that any one of the components will not be needed for another mission while performing the mission they are on.

  4. A conceptual framework and practical guide for assessing fitness-to-operate in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mark A; Hodkiewicz, Melinda R; Dunster, Jeremy; Kanse, Lisette; Parkes, Katharine R; Finnerty, Dannielle; Cordery, John L; Unsworth, Kerrie L

    2014-07-01

    The paper outlines a systemic approach to understanding and assessing safety capability in the offshore oil and gas industry. We present a conceptual framework and assessment guide for understanding fitness-to-operate (FTO) that builds a more comprehensive picture of safety capability for regulators and operators of offshore facilities. The FTO framework defines three enabling capitals that create safety capability: organizational capital, social capital, and human capital. For each type of capital we identify more specific dimensions based on current theories of safety, management, and organizational processes. The assessment guide matches specific characteristics to each element of the framework to support assessment of safety capability. The content and scope of the FTO framework enable a more comprehensive coverage of factors that influence short-term and long-term safety outcomes.

  5. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  6. Risk management in the oil and gas industry : integration of human, organisational and technical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogdalen, Jon Espen

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to provide knowledge and tools for the major hazard risk assessment for offshore installations (and onshore plants) based on an improved understanding of the influence of organisational, human and technical (OMT) factors. This extensive objective was further described by the following sub-goals: 1. Identify and describe human and organisational barriers in risk analysis, 2. Provide knowledge regarding human, organisational and technical factors that influence safety barriers, 3. Define indicators that are suitable for the measurement of barrier performance, 4. Develop models for barrier performance reflecting human, organisational and technical factors These four sub-goals formed the basis for the more specific objectives in the articles. The Deepwater Horizon accident and Macondo blowout were important inputs for several of the articles. One important acknowledgement is that risk management of major hazards differs from managing occupational safety. Another is that managing risks in the oil and gas (O&G) industry demands a high level due to the potential severe consequences. Quantitative risk analyses/assessments (QRAs) are used for risk control in the O&G industry. An important part of the QRA process is to identify and describe barriers in risk analysis. A study of offshore QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011b) showed that there were large differences between the analyses regarding incorporation of human and organisational factors (HOFs). The study divided the QRAs into a four-level classification system. Level 1 QRAs did not describe or comment on HOFs at all. By contrast, relevant research projects were conducted to fulfil the requirements of level 3 analyses. At this level, there was a systematic collection of data related to HOFs. The methods for analyzing the data were systematic and documented, and the QRAs were adjusted according to the status of the HOFs. A second study of QRAs (Skogdalen and Vinnem, 2011a) revealed

  7. Integration of computerized operation support systems on a nuclear power plant environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Oliveira, Mauro V., E-mail: gdjaime@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Sistemas Complexos. Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Automation of certain tasks in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room is expected to result in reduced operators' mental workload, which may induce other benefits such as enhanced situation awareness and improved system performance. The final goal should be higher level of operational safety. Thus, recent works are increasingly assessing automation. The LABIHS compact NPP simulator, though, still operates under strictly manual printed hard-copy procedures, despite of the fact that the simulator incorporates several advancements in design of digitalized Human-Interfaces (HSIs). This work presents the development, implementation and integration of selected components to achieve increased level of computerized/automated operation of the LABIHS compact NPP simulator. Specifically, we discuss three components: (I) Automatic Plant Mode Detection, (II) Automatic Alarm Filtering, and (III) Computerized Procedures. Each one of these components has to be carefully designed/integrated so that one can avoid the undesired effects of some known implementations of automated systems on NPP, such as the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills, which could lead to automation-induced system failures. (author)

  8. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  9. Integrated biomarker response index used in laboratory exposure of the mussel Mytilus edulis to water accommodated fractions of crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Wang, You; Zhang, Xinxin; Hu, Shunxin; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-03-01

    Oil pollution is a serious environmental problem in coastal areas and to set up a quantitative evaluation method in monitoring the environmental pollution is of great importance. Individuals of Mytilus edulis, collected from the coastal area of Qingdao, were thus exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil under controlled lab conditions. Mussels were exposed to different concentrations of WAFs for 96h acute toxicity experiment and 15d chronic toxicity experiment, a 7d restoration experiment was conducted after toxicity experiment as well. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST, GPx and GR) were measured in gills of mussels. The purpose of the study was to screen out a series of sensitive biomarkers and set up an Integrated Biomarker Response index (IBR) for marine oil pollution monitoring. Results showed: (1) WAFs exposure induced the increased activities of CAT, GST, GPx and GR in gills, revealing a stimulation effect on the antioxidant system. Activities of enzymes were more significantly altered in response to higher concentrations of WAFs (2.3 and 5.0 mg.L-1) than lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.1 mg.L-1). After restoration experiment, the activities decreased to the initial levels. (2) IBR was set up base on the laboratory experiment, which showed a positive relationship with WAFs exposure concentrations. Therefore, IBR was suggested to be a potentially useful tool in assessing the oil pollution.

  10. Studies on the viability and membrane integrity of human spermatozoa treated with essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S; Kang, S C

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi fruits, an oil-bearing plant of Apiaceae family, on human sperm viability and membrane integrity. Chemical compositions of the oil were analysed by GC-MS. Thirty compounds representing 91.39% of the total oil were identified. The viability and membrane integrity of human spermatozoa were assessed using minimum effective dose (MED) concentration (125 μg ml(-1)) of the oil. Sperm treated with essential oil showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in viability assessed by eosin-nigrosin and fluorescence dual staining. Moreover, the treated sperm also showed a significant loss (P < 0.05) of functional mitochondria and antioxidant enzyme, catalase (EC 1.11.1.6, CAT), when compared to control. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was also increased (P < 0.05) in treated sperm when compared to control, which is an indicator of loss of binding ability of human spermatozoa to the zona pellucida. The scanning electron microscopic studies demonstrated the loss of membrane integrity in essential oil-treated human spermatozoa, which showed vacuolation, swelling of acrosomal cap, detachment of head portion and tail coiling. Present observations indicate the spermicidal property of essential oil of T. ammi fruits, which could be helpful to develop medicinal preparations as a male contraceptive.

  11. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  12. Pointwise approximation by Bézier variant of integrated MKZ operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Ming

    2007-12-01

    In this paper the pointwise approximation of Bézier variant of integrated MKZ operators for general bounded functions is studied. Two estimate formulas of this type approximation are obtained. The approximation of functions of bounded variation becomes a special case of the main result of this paper. In the case of functions of bounded variation, Theorem B of the paper corrects the mistake of Theorem 1 of the article [V. Gupta, Degree of approximation to functions of bounded variation by Bézier variant of MKZ operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 289 (2004) 292-300].

  13. A deterministic-stochastic approach to compute the Boltzmann collision integral in O(MN) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Alexander; Nguyen, Truong; Wood, Aihua

    2016-11-01

    We developed and implemented a numerical algorithm for evaluating the Boltzmann collision operator with O(MN) operations, where N is the number of the discrete velocity points and M SVD) compression of the collision kernel and approximations of the solution by a sum of Maxwellian streams using a stochastic likelihood maximization algorithm. The developed method is significantly faster than the full deterministic DG velocity discretization of the collision integral. Accuracy of the method is established on solutions to the problem of spatially homogeneous relaxation.

  14. Microencapsulation of citronella oil by complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (b system: operating design, preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Fitrah Rabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citronella oil (CO can be an effective mosquito repellent, but due to its nature which having high volatility, oils rapidly evaporates causing loss of efficacy and shorten the repellent effect. Therefore, microencapsulation technology was implemented to ensure the encapsulated material being protected from immediate contact with environment and offers controlled release. In this study, microencapsulation of CO was done by employing complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (B system and utilized proanthocyanidins as the crosslinker. Remarkably, nearly all material involved in this study are from natural sources which are safe to human and environment. In designing operating process condition for CO encapsulation process, we found that wall ratio of 1:35 and pH 5 was the best operating condition based on zeta potential and turbidity analysis. FT-IR analysis found that gelatin-B had coated the CO droplet during emulsification stage, chitosan started to interact with gelatin-B to form a polyelectrolyte complex in adjust pH stage, CO capsules solidified at cooling process and were hardened during crosslinking process. Final product of CO capsules after settling process was identified at the top layer. Surface morphology of CO capsules obtained in this study were described having diameter varies from 81.63 µm to 156.74 µm with almost spherical in shape.

  15. Pluto: new modulating oil-burner for low-power operation; Pluto: Neuer modulierender Oelbrenner kleiner Leistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wueest, J.

    2002-07-01

    Starting from a existing Kerosene burner, a modulating oil burner suitable for light and oeko oil was developed for low power operation. This burner combines the advantages of vaporising burner, premix burner and surface burner. This burner stands for low pollutant emission, extremely low operating noise for use in living rooms and reliable modulation of load in the range of e.g. 6 to 16,5 kW, or 3 to 9 kW. The paper presents principles of function and most important features. (orig.) [German] Ausgehend von einem bestehenden Kerosinbrenner wurde ein modulierender Oelbrenner mit kleiner Leistung entwickelt. Er vereint die Vorteile von Verdampfungs-, Premix- und Oberflaechen-Brenner. Der modulierende Oelbrenner eignet sich fuer Heizoel EL sowie Oeko-Oel. Er zeichnet sich aus durch niedrige Schadstoffemissionen und geraeuscharmen Betrieb sowie durch zuverlaessige und stoerungsfreie Modulation der Leistung im Bereich von z.B. 6,0 bis 16,5 kW, oder 3 bis 9 kW. Der Vortrag praesentiert das Funktionsprinzip sowie die wesentlichen Merkmale dieses Brenners. (orig.)

  16. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  17. Strategic drivers for oil business model: vertical integration versus spin-off; Direcionadores estrategicos para o modelo de negocios petroliferos: integracao vertical versus spin-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Gregorio da Cruz; Szpigel, Pedro [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The recent spin-offs of Marathon (2011) and ConocoPhillips (2012), as well as other breakups between the upstream and downstream segments announced by the smaller oil companies during the past year, raised questions about one of the main and oldest paradigms of oil industry: the vertical integration. Corporate spin-off is not a new phenomenon in the industry in general, but only very recently has got prominence in the oil industry. The objective of this paper is to analyze the factors that motivate corporate restructuring in the oil industry, leading to strategic decisions that strengthen the vertical integration or that lead to break the value chain. The key point is whether there will be contagion among majors due to the movement of CononoPhillips, starting a new trend in the industry, or whether the restructuring already done will be only restricted to the specific needs of certain oil companies. (author)

  18. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  19. Operation Modeling of Power Systems Integrated with Large-Scale New Energy Power Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most current methods of probabilistic power system production simulation, the output characteristics of new energy power generation (NEPG has not been comprehensively considered. In this paper, the power output characteristics of wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation are firstly analyzed based on statistical methods according to their historical operating data. Then the characteristic indexes and the filtering principle of the NEPG historical output scenarios are introduced with the confidence level, and the calculation model of NEPG’s credible capacity is proposed. Based on this, taking the minimum production costs or the best energy-saving and emission-reduction effect as the optimization objective, the power system operation model with large-scale integration of new energy power generation (NEPG is established considering the power balance, the electricity balance and the peak balance. Besides, the constraints of the operating characteristics of different power generation types, the maintenance schedule, the load reservation, the emergency reservation, the water abandonment and the transmitting capacity between different areas are also considered. With the proposed power system operation model, the operation simulations are carried out based on the actual Northwest power grid of China, which resolves the new energy power accommodations considering different system operating conditions. The simulation results well verify the validity of the proposed power system operation model in the accommodation analysis for the power system which is penetrated with large scale NEPG.

  20. Multi-agents Based Modelling for Distribution Network Operation with Electric Vehicle Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Zong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral part of a smart grid because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. To integrate EVs smoothly into the power systems, a multi-agents system (MAS) with hierarchical organization structure...... is proposed in this paper. The proposed MAS system consists of three types of agents: distribution system operator agent (DSO agent), electric vehicle fleet operator agent (EV FO agent or alternatively called virtual power plant agent) and EV agent. A DSO agent belongs to the top level of the hierarchy...... and its role is to manage the distribution network safely by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy schedule of VPPs. VPP agents belong to the middle level and their roles are to manage the charge periods of the EVs. EV agents sit in the bottom level...

  1. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  2. Virtual- and real-world operation of mobile robotic manipulators: integrated simulation, visualization, and control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ChuXin; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    1992-03-01

    This research is focused on enhancing the overall productivity of an integrated human-robot system. A simulation, animation, visualization, and interactive control (SAVIC) environment has been developed for the design and operation of an integrated robotic manipulator system. This unique system possesses the abilities for multisensor simulation, kinematics and locomotion animation, dynamic motion and manipulation animation, transformation between real and virtual modes within the same graphics system, ease in exchanging software modules and hardware devices between real and virtual world operations, and interfacing with a real robotic system. This paper describes a working system and illustrates the concepts by presenting the simulation, animation, and control methodologies for a unique mobile robot with articulated tracks, a manipulator, and sensory modules.

  3. A universal theory of measure and integral on valuation spaces with respect to diverse implication operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国俊

    2000-01-01

    Valuation spaces with respect to diverse implication operators are investigated in a unified way where the Lebesgue measure is a commonly used measure, and it is proved that all the logic formulas are measurable functions with respect to popularly used implication operations. The concept of t-(α-tautology) is introduced and rules of generalized modus ponens (MP) and hypothetic syllogism (HS) are established in the sense of semantics. The concept of truth degree of a logic formula is introduced and rules of integral MP and integral HS are proposed. Finally, a kind of pseudo-metric is introduced to the set consisting of all logic formulas by establishing a universal logical metric space, making it possible to develop a new type of approximate reasoning arise.

  4. POLAR ICE: Integrating, Distributing and Visualising Ice Information Products for Operators in Polar Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nick; Fleming, Andrew; Cziferszky, Andreas; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Rasmussen, Till; Makynen, Marko; Berglund, Robin; Seitsonen, Lauri; Rudjord, Oystein; Solberg, Rune; Tangen, Helge; Axell, Lars; Saldo, Roberto; Melsheimer, Christian; Larsen, Hans Eilif; Puestow, Thomas; Arhturs, David; Flach, Dominie

    2016-08-01

    The POLAR ICE project has developed a system for integrating and delivering satellite derived ice information products to operators working in the economically and environmentally important Arctic and Antarctic regions. POLAR ICE has been supported by the European Commission's FP7 programme and undertaken by European and Canadian companies and institutes, who are all partners in the Polar View Earth Observation Limited (PVEO) company. It is the aim of PVEO to commercialise the service that has been developed and demonstrated as a part of POLAR ICE.Access to sea ice information derived from satellite earth observation data is critical to support the increasing numbers of Arctic and Antarctic shipping and off-shore operations and to protect the rapidly changing polar environment.To-date the development of sea ice information capabilities has addressed separate elements of complete service chains. In contrast POLAR ICE has linked these separate elements together, filled in known gaps and built a robust integrated service chain.

  5. Boundedness of a class of super singular integral operators and the associated commutators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Calderón, A. P., Zygmund, A., On singular integrals, Amer. J. Math., 1956, 78: 89-309.[2]Fefferman, R., A note on singular integrals, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 1979, 74(2): 266-270.[3]Duoandikoetxea, J., Rubio de Francia, L. J., Maximal and singular integral operators via Fourier transform estimates, Invent. Math., 1986, 84(3): 541-561.[4]Dan, D. S., Pan, Y. B., Singular integral operators with rough kernel, Amer. J. Math., 1997, 119(4): 799-839.[5]Chen, J. C., Fan, D. S., Ying, Y. M., Certain operators with singular kernels, Canadian J. Math., 2003, 55(3):504-532.[6]Frazier, M., Jawerth, B., Weiss, G., Littlewood-Paley Theory and Study of Function Spaces, AMS-CBMS Regional Conf Ser, Vol. 79, Washington D C: Conf. Board Math. Sci., 1991, 41-49.[7]Coifman, R. R., Rochberg, R., Weiss, G., Factorization theorems for Hardy spaces in several variables, Ann.Math., 1976, 103(3): 611-635.[8]Duoandikoetxea, J., Weighted norm inequalities for homogeneous singular integrals, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.,1993, 336(2): 869-880.[9]Alvarez, J., Bagby, R., Kurtz, D. et al., Weighted estimates for commutators of linear operators, Studia Math.,1993, 104(2): 195-209.[10]Hu, G., Lp boundedness for the commutator of a homogeneous singular integral operator, Studia Math., 2002,154(1): 13-27.[11]Lu, S., Wu, Q., Yang, D., Boundedness of commutators on Hardy type spaces, Sci. China Ser. A, 2002, 45(8):984-997.[12]Calderón, A. P., Commutators of singular integral operators, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 1965, 53: 1092-1099.[13]Hofmann, S., An off-diagonal T1 theorem and applications, J. Funct. Anal., 1998, 160(2): 581-622.[14]Colzani, L., Taibleson, M., Weiss, G., Maximal estimates for Cesaro and Riesz means on sphere, Indiana Univ.Math. J., 1984, 33(6): 873-889.[15]Stein, E. M., Harmomic Analysis: Real-Variable Methods, Orthogonality and Osillatory Integrals, Princeton,New Jersy: Princeton University Press, 1993.[16

  6. Operator training simulation for integrating cultivation and homogenisation in protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gerlach

    2015-06-01

    This work shows the design of an OTS where two sequential steps of a recombinant protein production process, a fed-batch cultivation and a high-pressure homogenisation, are integrated. The OTS was evaluated on a user test group and showed that the OTS promoted and developed their understanding of the process, their capability to identify parameters influencing process efficiency and the skills of operating it.

  7. Optimal Operation and Stabilising Control of the Concentric Heat-Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Skogestad, Sigurd; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    A systematic control structure design method is applied on the concentric heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) separating benzene and toluene. A degrees of freedom analysis is provided for identifying potential manipulated and controlled variables. Optimal operation is mapped and active...... structure is finally evaluated by dynamic simulation for proving an acceptable performance. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  8. The business of palliative medicine--part 6: clinical operations in a comprehensive integrated program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Ruth L; Walsh, Declan; LeGrand, Susan B; Davis, Mellar P

    2011-03-01

    The medical care of individuals with advanced disease is complex and has historically been fragmented and suboptimal. Palliative medicine attempts to address these needs. The Harry R. Horvitz Center for Palliative Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic is an established comprehensive integrated program. Structured and seamless clinical operations are important to ensure the best delivery of high-quality medical care and continuity for those affected by life-limiting illness.

  9. Tactical Integration of Conventional and Special Operations Forces in Training for a Complex World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    focused approach developed by George and Bennett to analyze the single case study of OEF to analyze the instances of SOF and CF integration and...21 Andrew Bennett and Alexander L. George, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences (BCSIA Studies in International...Leavenworth, KS, 4; Briscoe et al., Weapon of Choice, 218. 44 Major Roger Crombie, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, March 30

  10. The Integrated National Police in Philippine Counterinsurgency Operations -- The Great Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Controlling Office) I5. SECURITY CLASS. (of title report) Unclassified/ ISa. OECL ASSI FICATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE - 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of...34 2. *The Integrated National Police In Retrospect, The C/INP Journal_1 July-August 1983. 4. Kit G. Machado , "Politics and Dispute-Processing In the...Association, 1972. 4. Hutchinson, S., "The Police Role In Counter-Insurgency Operations," RUSI Journal, 1969. S. Machado , Kit 0., "Politics and Dispute

  11. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  12. An integrated Constraint-based, power Aware control system for Autonomous rover Mission operations

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Daniel; Rodriguez-Moreno, Maria Dolores; Cesta, Amedeo; Oddi, Angelo; Rasconi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at describing an integrated power-aware, model-based autonomous control architecture for planetary rover-based mission operations synthesized in the context of a Ph.D. program on the topic "Autonomy for Interplanetary missions" funded and supported by ESA. The proposed controller implements a single Sense-Act-Plan (SPA) closed-execution loop to safely command the robot activities considered in the context of a specific key mission scenario. Both highly decision making capabili...

  13. INTEGRAL - operating high-energy detectors for five years in space

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite, which studies the Universe in the hard X-ray and soft Gamma-ray domain, has been operational for 5 years now. The X-ray telescopes, which use the coded mask technique, provide unprecedented spectral and imaging resolution. This led to a number of discoveries, such as the distribution of diffuse emission in the Galaxy, the discovery of highly absorbed sources and fast X-ray transients in the Galactic Plane, localization of ~50 Gamma-ray bursts, and the resolution of the cosmic X-ray background around its peak at 30 keV. About 300 previously known X-ray sources have been detected and in addition more than 200 new sources have been discovered. INTEGRAL provides spectra starting at 3 keV and ranging up to several hundred keV. This article gives a brief overview about the major discoveries of INTEGRAL.

  14. The importance of flexible power plant operation for Jiangsu's wind integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of different regulation strategies on wind energy integration into the existing energy system of Jiangsu. The ability of wind integration is defined in terms of the ability to avoid excess electricity production, to conserve primary energy consumption and to reduce...... regulations of Jiangsu’s energy system are compared and analyzed in the range of a wind input from 0% to 42% of the total electricity demand. It is concluded that operating power plants in a flexible way facilitates the promotion of more intermittent wind integration....... CO2 emissions in the system. Firstly, a reference model of Jiangsu’s energy system is built using the energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN based on the year 2009. The model results are then compared to actual values from 2009 to validate their accuracy. Based on the reference model, different...

  15. Optic flow odometry operates independently of stride integration in carried ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Sarah E; Wittlinger, Matthias

    2016-09-09

    Cataglyphis desert ants are impressive navigators. When the foragers roam the desert, they employ path integration. For these ants, distance estimation is one key challenge. Distance information was thought to be provided by optic flow (OF)-that is, image motion experienced during travel-but this idea was abandoned when stride integration was discovered as an odometer mechanism in ants. We show that ants transported by nest mates are capable of measuring travel distance exclusively by the use of OF cues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the information gained from the optic flowmeter cannot be transferred to the stride integrator. Our results suggest a dual information channel that allows the ants to measure distances by strides and OF cues, although both systems operate independently and in a redundant manner. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. On controllability of an integrated bioreactor and periodically operated membrane separation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    to understand the controlled operation of the integrated process, it is convenient to use a model based approach supported by experimental evidence. Recently, an integrated bioreactor and electrically driven membrane separation process (Reverse Electro- Enhanced Dialysis - REED) has been proposed as a method...... for intensification of lactic acid fermentation (Rype, 2003). This fermentation has been studied extensively driven by an increasing number of applications of the potential fermentation products. The main limitation of lactic acid bioproduction is that lactic acid bacteria normally are impaired by product inhibition...... at a certain lactate concentration level. Hence, productivity can be enhanced by the in situ lactate removal from the cultivation broth during pH controlled fermentation. This can be done by means of ion exchange membranes and electrical potential gradients. The novelty of the integrated process lies...

  17. Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood Chips and Sawlogs in Stand Conversion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Harrill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the operational performance and cost of an integrated harvesting system that harvested sawlogs and biomass (i.e., energy wood chips in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus, and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production. A standard time study method was used to determine productivity and costs. Over 26 working days, the integrated system produced 1,316 bone-dry metric tonnes (BDTs of sawlogs, and 5,415.89 BDT of chips, with an average moisture content of 43.2%. Using the joint products allocation costing method, the costs of the integrated system were $29.87/BDT for biomass and $4.26/BDT for sawlogs. Chipping utilization was as low as 41%, directly affecting production and cost of chipping operation. Single-lane, dirt, spur roads were the most costly road type to transport whole trees to a centralized processing site: transportation costs for biomass and sawlogs were increased by $0.08/BDT and $0.02/BDT, respectively, for every 50 meter increase in traveling distance. Diesel fuel price could raise total system cost for each product by $0.78/BDT and $0.08/BDT for each $0.10/liter increase.

  18. Enabling Airspace Integration for High-Density On-Demand Mobility Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric; Kopardekar, Parimal; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    2017-01-01

    Aviation technologies and concepts have reached a level of maturity that may soon enable an era of on-demand mobility (ODM) fueled by quiet, efficient, and largely automated air taxis. However, successfully bringing such a system to fruition will require introducing orders of magnitude more aircraft to a given airspace volume than can be accommodated by the traditional air traffic control system, among other important technical challenges. The airspace integration problem is further compounded by requirements to set aside appropriate ground infrastructure for take-off and landing areas and ensuring these new aircraft types and their operations do not burden traditional airspace users and air traffic control. This airspace integration challenge may be significantly reduced by extending the concepts and technologies developed to manage small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at low altitudethe UAS traffic management (UTM) systemto higher altitudes and new aircraft types, or by equipping ODM aircraft with advanced sensors, algorithms, and interfaces. The precedent of operational freedom inherent in visual flight rules and the technologies developed for large UAS and commercial aircraft automation will contribute to the evolution of an ODM system enabled by UTM. This paper describes the set of air traffic services, normally provided by the traditional air traffic system, that an ODM system would implement to achieve the high densities needed for ODMs economic viability. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for integrating, evaluating, and deploying low-, medium-, and high-density ODM concepts that build on each other to ensure operational and economic feasibility at every step.

  19. Quantum mechanics 1. Path-integral formulation and operator formalism; Quantenmechanik 1. Pfadintegralformulierung und Operatorformalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Hugo [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-11-01

    The first volume of this two-volume textbook gives a modern introduction to the quantum theory, which connects Feynman's path-integral formulation with the traditional operator formalism. In easily understandable form starting from the double-slit experiment the characteristic features and foundations of quantum theory are made accessible by means of the functional-integral approach. Just this approach makes a ''derivation'' of the Schroedinger equation from the principle of the interfering alternatives possible. In the following the author developes the traditional operator formulation of quantum mechanics, which is better suited for practical solution of elementary problems. However he then refers to the functional-integral approach, when this contributes to a better understanding. A further advance of this concept: The functional-integral approach facilitates essentially the later access to quantum field theory. The work is in like manner suited for the self-study as for the deepening accompanying of the course.

  20. Six sigma tools in integrating internal operations of a retail pharmacy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Kwong, Anthony M

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to integrate information and enterprise-wide healthcare delivery system issues specifically within an inpatient retail pharmacy operation in a U.S. community hospital. Six Sigma tools were used to examine the effects to an inpatient retail pharmacy service process. Some of the tools used include service blueprints, cause-effect diagram, gap analysis derived from customer and employee surveys, mistake proofing was applied in various business situations and results were analyzed to identify and propose process improvements and integration. The research indicates that the Six Sigma tools in this discussion are very applicable and quite effective in helping to streamline and integrate the pharmacy process flow. Additionally, gap analysis derived from two different surveys was used to estimate the primary areas of focus to increase customer and employee satisfaction. The results of this analysis were useful in initiating discussions of how to effectively narrow these service gaps. This retail pharmaceutical service study serves as a framework for the process that should occur for successful process improvement tool evaluation and implementation. Pharmaceutical Service operations in the U.S. that use this integration framework must tailor it to their individual situations to maximize their chances for success.