WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated municipal waste

  1. [Integrating technologies for urban communities' municipal solid waste minimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Jing-Ru; Wang, Ru-Song; Zhang, Yi-Shan

    2010-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management of urban communities has difficulties of insufficient source separation and food waste's high moisture content, an integrating technology of manual separation, simple compression of food waste, reclaim of food waste and composting leachate was studied. Manual separating rate was 36.8 kg/h, and would increase when the worker became sophisticated. Community separated food waste had high organic matter content of 44.493%, nutrients N, P, K contents of 2.586%, 0.649% and 1.274%, C/N ratio of 17.427, but 0.07-0.82 times lower heavy metals contents compared to centralized separation of mixed municipal solid waste. Moisture content of food waste was still 78.7%, high enough to have negative impacts of composting processes. Composting leachate processing with biological stabilization and dilution showed a fertilizer efficiency, and dry weight of impatiens irrigated with composting leachate was 1.46-2.49 times of tap water irrigation. Integrating technology based on community's manual separation could decrease 52.6% municipal solid waste.

  2. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  3. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  4. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval

  5. Assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Irkutsk (Russia) using a life cycle assessment-integrated waste management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulokhonova, Alisa; Ulanova, Olga

    2013-05-01

    Continuous growth in the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) and increasing demands for their environmentally-friendly treatment are one of the main consequences of the growing social and economic development rate in modern society. Despite ecologically sustainable trends in waste management systems around the world, open dumps are still the main waste treatment option in Russia. This study aims to help the local municipality administration in Irkutsk (Russia) identify the most appropriate direction for current waste management and its optimization. Within this study four developed MSW management scenarios were assessed and compared with respect to their ecological, economic and social aspects using a life cycle-based integrated waste management model. The evaluation results of these scenarios show that the development of environmental sustainability and the reduction of social effects lead to an increase in handling of costs of waste. The best scenario, regarding both environmental and social aspects, is scenario four, which includes the separate collection and reprocessing of recyclables in combination with an aerobic mechanical-biological pre-treatment of the residual waste before landfilling. However, this scenario is 3.6 times more expensive than the existing system. The results of all assessed scenarios were further analyzed and recommendations were made to design integrated waste management solutions that are optimal not only from the ecological and social points of view, but which are also realistic within the given economic situation.

  6. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Havas, G; Ntzamilis, P

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands.

  7. Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidarakos, E.; Havas, G.; Ntzamilis, P.

    2006-01-01

    A one-year survey was conducted in the greater region of Crete (located at the lower region of the Aegean Sea) for the purpose of identifying waste composition (including chemical and physical characterization), as well as any seasonal variation. The investigation was carried out repeatedly at seven landfills and one transfer station in Crete, in four phases. Each sampling phase corresponded to a season (autumn, winter, spring, summer). ASTM D5231-92(2003) standard method and RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance were used. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: plastics, paper, metals, aluminium, leather-wood-textiles-rubbers, organic wastes, non-combustibles and miscellaneous. Further analysis included proximate and ultimate analysis of combustible materials. Metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury were also investigated. The results show that there has been a significant decrease of organic wastes during the last decade due to the increase of packaging materials, as a result of a change in consumption patterns. Three main waste categories were determined: organic wastes, paper and plastics, which combined represent 76% of the total waste in Crete. Furthermore, a high fraction of glass and a seasonal variation of aluminium indicate a strong correlation of waste composition with certain human activities, such as tourism. There is also a variation between the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition in the region of Crete (2003-2004) and MSW composition suggested in the National Solid Waste Planning (2000) [National Solid Waste Planning, 2000. Completion and particularization of Common Ministerial Act 113944//1944/1997: National Solid Waste Planning, June 2000]. The results of this survey are to be utilized by the regional solid waste authorities in order to establish an integrated waste treatment site, capable of fulfilling the regional waste management demands

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Lebanon: the need for an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, R.; El-Fadel, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.This study focuses on the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Lebanon. It addresses the current status of MSW management in Lebanon in terms of collection, transport and disposal, infers the associated impacts of such practices and discusses mitigation measures and finally proposes basic guidelines for a national strategy for solid waste management in the country. The study is based on available previous investigations and on a field survey of 113 villages in four different countries. The study revealed the absence of an effective environmental policy and poor collection and disposal methods throughout the country, except for the Greater Beirut Area (G A), where better solid waste management practices are employed. Although collection of MSW outside GBA was found to be acceptable by local authorities, resources (labor and equipment) were not used efficiently. Furthermore, treatment of collected waste is almost not available. Waste collected is invariably open dumped and /or open burned outside GBA. The poor quality of the services were reflected by the low budgets available in the solid waste sanitation departments of most surveyed villages. Unlike the situation outside the GBA a solid waste management component can be identified in the GBA. However, until recently, nearly 90 percent of the total waste generated in the GBA is being ultimately disposed of at the landfill. This raises into question the purpose of the sorting-processing-composting facilities as well as the recycling program. Apparently, the current waste management activities, particularly source reduction and recycling have not measured up favorably with the steps outlined in an integrated solid waste management system. The study concludes with a series of policy measures that can constitute the framework for a long-term strategy in order to implement an effective solid waste master plan in Lebanon

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  10. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, G.; Karagiannidis, A.; Zampetoglou, S.; Malamakis, A.; Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Kontogianni, S.; Tchobanoglous, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings

  11. Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, G; Karagiannidis, A; Zampetoglou, S; Malamakis, A; Antonopoulos, I-S; Kontogianni, S; Tchobanoglous, G

    2009-05-01

    The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

  12. Solid waste integrated management proposal in Churuguara and Maparari population axis, Federacion municipality Falcon State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Torres, Magly; Melendez, Angelica; Sanchez, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This research shows a solid waste integrated management proposal in Churuguara and Maparari axis population, Federation municipality Falcon State. The inadequate arrangement of solid waste in these populations lacks of any type of control. It has caused environmental pollution problems that affect public health. For this reason, a diagnosis of the situation was made to classify the solid waste, an optimal way of processing and storing them was shown; the fleet that will offer the service, the routes of collection, the frequency and timetable of them, the waste to recycle and the design of a semi-mechanized landfill site were measured as a technical and economical alternative for the government. In this proposal, there are established strategies to increase the quality of life of the inhabitants of this region that allow to reform, improve and transform the solid waste management within a valid legal frame. Since, this is one of the most important services and it has direct consequences in people's health. It is necessary the community and governmental entities participation in the managerial process of these kinds of waste. (author)

  13. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Johannes G., E-mail: jp.aht.p3@gmail.com [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Arce-Jaque, Joan [GIZ-AHT Project Office SWM4LGUs, c/o DENR, Iloilo City (Philippines); Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P. [General Service Office, City Government, Iloilo City (Philippines)

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  14. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines--what does it need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Johannes G; Arce-Jaque, Joan; Ravena, Neil; Villamor, Salome P

    2012-11-01

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role played by environmental factors in the integration of a transfer station in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C; Gallardo, A; Capuz-Rizo, S F

    2007-01-01

    Transfer stations are an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste management systems. The main criteria used to decide on the location of a transfer station has traditionally been the minimization of transport costs, since it is cheaper to transport great amounts of waste over long distances in large loads than in small ones. In this study, we are going to consider the environmental factor in order to compare the feasibility of using a transfer station integrated within a waste management system. Applying the Life Cycle Assessment technique will enable us to obtain an objective parameter that quantifies the environmental impact of transportation and of operating a transfer station. Taking the current rates of solid wastes generation in the Plana region of Castellón (Spain) as our starting point, in this study we compare the environmental costs involved in the process of taking municipal wastes directly to the nearest waste treatment facility, with those involved in a waste management system integrating a transfer station. Comparing these two cases, an average reduction of 16.8% in the environmental impact can be obtained when a transfer station is incorporated in the waste management system.

  16. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelic, Aleksandra [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Petrovic, Mira, E-mail: mpetrovic@icra.cat [Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Cecchi, Franco [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium ' Chemistry for the Environment' (INCA), Via delle Industrie, I-30135, Marghera-Venice (Italy); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ss-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 {mu}g/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  17. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification–denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. < 20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (< 500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... it reacts with air and produces electricity. The exhausted gases out of the SOFC enter a burner for further fuel combusting and finally the off-gases are sent to a gas turbine to produce additional electricity. Different plant configurations have been studied and the best one found to be a regenerative gas...

  19. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... it reacts with air and produces electricity. The exhausted gases out of the SOFC enter a burner for further fuel combusting and finally the off-gases are sent to a gas turbine to produce additional electricity. Different plant configurations have been studied and the best one found to be a regenerative gas...

  20. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful...

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  2. Integral recycling of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (0-2mm) and industrial powder wastes by cold-bonding pelletization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P; Brouwers, H J H

    2017-04-01

    The cold-bonding pelletizing technique is applied in this study as an integrated method to recycle municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (BAF, 0-2mm) and several other industrial powder wastes. Artificial lightweight aggregates are produced successfully based on the combination of these solid wastes, and the properties of these artificial aggregates are investigated and then compared with others' results reported in literature. Additionally, methods for improving the aggregate properties are suggested, and the corresponding experimental results show that increasing the BAF amount, higher binder content and addition of polypropylene fibres can improve the pellet properties (bulk density, crushing resistance, etc.). The mechanisms regarding to the improvement of the pellet properties are discussed. Furthermore, the leaching behaviours of contaminants from the produced aggregates are investigated and compared with Dutch environmental legislation. The application of these produced artificial lightweight aggregates are proposed according to their properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility of Biomass Briquette Production from Municipal Waste Streams by Integrating the Informal Sector in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Roda D. Romallosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A technical and socio-economic feasibility study of biomass briquette production was performed in Iloilo City, Philippines, by integrating a registered group of the informal sector. The study has shown that the simulated production of biomass briquettes obtained from the municipal waste stream could lead to a feasible on-site fuel production line after determining its usability, quality and applicability to the would-be users. The technology utilized for briquetting is not complicated when operated due to its simple, yet sturdy design with suggestive results in terms of production rate, bulk density and heating value of the briquettes produced. Quality briquettes were created from mixtures of waste paper, sawdust and carbonized rice husk, making these material flows a renewable source of cost-effective fuels. An informal sector that would venture into briquette production can be considered profitable for small business enterprising, as demonstrated in the study. The informal sector from other parts of the world, having similar conditionality with that of the Uswag Calajunan Livelihood Association, Inc. (UCLA, could play a significant role in the recovery of these reusable waste materials from the waste stream and can add value to them as alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR for household energy supply using appropriate technologies.

  4. Proposal for the integration of decentralised composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste into the waste management system of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, I; Saborit-Sánchez, I; Aguilera-Corrales, Y

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and management in Cuba was studied with a view to integrating composting of the organic fractions of MSW into the system. Composting is already included as part of the environmental strategy of the country as an appropriate waste management solution. However, no programme for area-wide implementation yet exists. The evaluation of studies carried out by some Cuban and international organisations showed that organic matter comprises approximately 60-70% of the MSW, with households being the main source. If all organic waste fractions were considered, the theoretical amount of organic waste produced would be approximately 1 Mio. Mg/a, leading to the production of approximately 0.5 Mio. Mg/a of compost. Composting could, therefore, be a suitable solution for treating the organic waste fractions of the MSW. Composting would best be carried out in decentralised systems, since transportation is a problem in Cuba. Furthermore, low technology and low budget composting options should be considered due to the problematic local economic situation. The location for such decentralised composting units would optimally be located at urban agricultural farms, which can be found all over Cuba. These farms are a unique model for sustainable farming in the world, and have a high demand for organic fertiliser. In this paper, options for the collection and impurity-separation in urban areas are discussed, and a stepwise introduction of source-separation, starting with hotel and restaurant waste, is suggested. For rural areas, the implementation of home composting is recommended.

  5. Integrated vermi-pisciculture - an alternative option for recycling of solid municipal waste in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirashree Ghosh [University of Delhi, New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Studies

    2004-05-01

    Vermicomposts as a biofertilizer can be a great option for pond manuring as they never cause any long term harm to the soil like chemical fertilizer. In this study vegetable and horticulture waste was used as an important media for vermiculture. Three separate cemented tanks (6 m{sup 3} each) were used in the system as control tank, vermicompost fertilized tank and inorganic fertilizer manured tank. Monoculture of fish was carried out with cat fish, Clarias batrachus. The produced earthworms were used as fish feed. Regular monitoring of water parameter was conducted in three different ponds. Specifically, the algal biomass variation was quite helpful in analysing the behavior of the ponds. NPK value of soil samples was analyzed intermittently to know the eutrophication level. Despite the hot summer temperature in northern part of India, which is not ideal for fish growth, we have recorded an encouraging growth performance in organic manured pond along with inorganic fertilizer treated and control pond. Among eutrophicated pond, the fish biomass from vermicompost fed pond showed an increasing trend compared to inorganic fertilizer treated pond. Water retention capacity of vermicompost pond soil was better in comparison to other ponds. Result shows that the low cost model by integrating two production system vermiculture and pisciculture could be a commercially and environmentally viable option. (author)

  6. Optimal control of greenhouse gas emissions and system cost for integrated municipal solid waste management with considering a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Fan, Xing; Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests. GHG emission control is placed at the leader level could emphasize the significant environmental concern in MSW management. A bi-level decision-making process based on satisfactory degree is then suitable for solving highly nonlinear problems with computationally effectiveness. The capabilities and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level programming are illustrated by an application of a MSW management problem in Canada. Results show that the obtained optimal management strategy can bring considerable revenues, approximately from 76 to 97 million dollars. Considering control of GHG emissions, it would give priority to the development of the recycling facility throughout the whole period, especially in latter periods. In terms of capacity, the existing landfill is enough in the future 30 years without development of new landfills, while expansion to the composting and recycling facilities should be paid more attention.

  7. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  9. Critical analysis of the integration of residual municipal solid waste incineration and selective collection in two Italian tourist areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Masi, Salvatore; Montanaro, Comasia

    2014-06-01

    Municipal solid waste management is not only a contemporary problem, but also an issue at world level. In detail, the tourist areas are more difficult to be managed. The dynamics of municipal solid waste production in tourist areas is affected by the addition of a significant amount of population equivalent during a few months. Consequences are seen in terms of the amount of municipal solid waste to be managed, but also on the quality of selective collection. In this article two case studies are analyzed in order to point out some strategies useful for a correct management of this problem, also taking into account the interactions with the sector of waste-to-energy. The case studies concern a tourist area in the north of Italy and another area in the south. Peak production is clearly visible during the year. Selective collection variations demonstrate that the tourists' behavior is not adequate to get the same results as with the resident population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Hill, D.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly (∼2500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and ∼1500 g CO 2 eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( Pounds 95/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  11. Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007...

  12. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  13. Thermodynamic analyses of municipal solid waste gasification plant integrated with solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification process can compete...

  14. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. It may seem that the municipal ... 1 John G. Rau and David Wooten (eds), Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook (Mc-. Graw-Hill 1980), pg 12 ... generation of vast amounts of waste daily as a result of human and indus- trial activities9 without the ...

  15. Electric Energy production through Municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agorio Comas, M.; Chediak Nunez, M.; Galan Prado, A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective in this investment Project is to improve the integral management of urban solid waste in the city of Salto, Uruguay, obtaining favorable results for the environment and society, contributing moreover in Sustainable Development.First of all, it is recommended the remediation of the current Open air Municipal dumping site. Simultaneously with the Remediation process, a controlled dumping site with daily covers of the compacted solid waste has been designed, as a transition methodology with a lifetime of 3 years approximately.In addition to this, two sanitary landfills are designed wits29h a total lifetime of 7 years, for the operation after the controlled dumping site is closed. There is also a leachate treatment system to process the effluents of the landfills. In order to optimize the use of the landfills, is proposed the simultaneous implementation of a Separated Urban Solid Waste Collection System (SisRReVa). This consist in separating the Valuable Waste (VW) from wet or organic solid waste in origin (home, stores,etc)and collecting it separately.The VW are separated by type (paper, board, glass, plastic and metal) in a Valuable Waste Classification Plant. This plant is designed to process the VW generated in Salto and collected by the SisRReVa for about ten years from now on. (Author)

  16. characterization and composition analysis of municipal solid waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Keywords: Waste Characterization, Municipal Solid Waste, Waste Composition, Kano, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Solid waste is broadly comprised of non- hazardous domestic, commercial and industrial refuse including household organic waste, hospital and institutional garbage, street sweepings and construction waste ( ...

  17. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Profitable integrated solid waste management system. • Optimal municipal waste collection scheme between the sources and waste collection centres. • Optimal path calculation between waste collection centres and transfer stations. • Optimal waste routing between the transfer stations and processing plants. - Abstract: Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length

  18. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Residents' concerns and attitudes toward a municipal solid waste landfill: integrating a questionnaire survey and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Weiqian; Shang, Zhaoyi; Tai, Jun

    2013-12-01

    The ever-growing industry of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal appeals to the growing need for disposal facilities, and MSW treatment facilities are increasingly an environmental and public health concern. Residents living near MSW management facilities are confronted with various risk perceptions, especially odour. In this study, in an effort to assist responsible decision-makers in better planning and managing such a project, a structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to assess the nearby residents' concerns and attitudes surrounding the Laogang Landfill in Shanghai. Geographic information system techniques and relevance analysis were employed to conduct the spatial analysis of physical perceptions, especially odour annoyance. The findings of the research indicate that a significant percentage of the responding sample was aware of the negative impacts of landfills on the environment and public health, and residents in close proximity preferred to live farther from the landfill. The results from the spatial analysis demonstrated a definite degree of correlation between odour annoyance and distance to the facility and proved that the benefits of the socially disadvantaged have been neglected. The research findings also direct attention to the important role of public participation, information disclosure, transparency in management, and mutual communication to avoid conflicts and build social trust.

  20. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  1. CHALLENGES OF MUNICIPAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN OROSZ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims, tasks and priorities of medium term development plans of national waste management were defined in the National Waste Management Plan, which was made for the period of 2003–2008 in Hungary. Supporting of the European Union is indispensable for carrying out of plan. The most important areas are related to the developing projects of municipal solid waste treatment (increasingthe capacity of landfills, accomplishment of the infrastructure of selective waste collection, building of new composting plants. The national environmental policy does not focus sufficiently on the prevention of waste production. Due to the high expenses of investment and operation the energetic recovery and the incineration of municipal solid waste do not compete with the deposition. We inclined to think that the waste management of Hungary will be deposition-orientated until 2015. The main problems to the next years will be the lack of reprocessing industry of plastic and glass packaging waste. The high number of to-be-recultivated landfills and the attainability of necessary financial sources are also serious problems. There are many questions. What is the future in national waste management? How can we reduce the quantity of dumped waste? What are challenges of national waste management on the short and long term?

  2. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimum municipal solid waste collection using geographical information system (GIS) and vehicle tracking for Pallavapuram municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhan, T E; Abbas Mohaideen, J; Srinivasan, S; Sundaram, V Lenin Kalyana

    2011-03-01

    Waste collection and transportation is the contact point between waste generators and waste management systems. A proposal for an innovative model for the collection and transportation of municipal solid waste (MSW) which is a part of a solid waste management system using a spatial geo database, integrated in a geographical information system (GIS) environment is presented. Pallavapuram is a fast-developing municipality of Chennai city in the southern suburbs about 20 km from Chennai, the state capital of Tamil Nadu in India. The disposal of MSW was previously occurring in an indiscriminate and irrational manner in the municipality. Hence in the present study an attempt was made to develop an engineered design of solid waste collection using GIS with a vehicle tracking system and final disposal by composting with investment costs. The GIS was used to analyse existing maps and data, to digitize the existing ward boundaries and to enter data about the wards and disposal sites. The proposed GIS model for solid waste disposal would give information on the planning of bins, vehicles and the optimal route. In the case of disposal, composting would be a successful strategy to accelerate the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of waste in MSW.

  4. Removal of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from Municipal Waste Water with Integrated Membrane Systems, MBR-RO/NF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Xu; Li, Mingwei; Dong, Jing; Sun, Changhong; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-02-05

    This study focuses on the application of combining membrane bioreactor (MBR) treatment with reverse osmosis (RO) or nanofiltration (NF) membrane treatment for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in municipal wastewater. Twenty-seven PPCPs were measured in real influent with lowest average concentration being trimethoprim (7.12 ng/L) and the highest being caffeine (18.4 ng/L). The results suggest that the MBR system effectively removes the PPCPs with an efficiency of between 41.08% and 95.41%, and that the integrated membrane systems, MBR-RO/NF, can achieve even higher removal rates of above 95% for most of them. The results also suggest that, due to the differences in removal mechanisms of NF/RO membrane, differences of removal rates exist. In this study, the combination of MBR-NF resulted in the removal of 13 compounds to below detection limits and MBR-RO achieved even better results with removal of 20 compounds to below detection limits.

  5. Integrated waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, B. [Global Engineering Services Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The separation of municipal garbage into pulp, compost (animal feed, or ethanol), metals, tin and glass was discussed. The separation process and complete diversion from sanitary landfills is currently possible. This paper briefly described some of the documented processes and the equipment which is currently available. Global Engineering Services Ltd. has combined two existing processes to produce a single integrated waste disposal and recovery system. In this system, a normal composting plant has been combined with a hydro-pulping unit and other methods to process separated materials. This paper focused on the theme of integration and on the principles of conservation of natural resources. It was emphasized that integrated waste processing can be accomplished by implementing various technologies. It was also emphasized that most importantly, principles of conservation must be adopted to reduce energy use and the production of liquid and solid waste. Integrated waste processing methods can then be implemented. The author also suggested the possibility of using existing processes to use recycled materials for the low cost housing projects in Canada and in other developing countries.

  6. Knowledge and technology transfer to improve the municipal solid waste management system of Durango City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén

    2014-09-01

    As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. studies on municipal solid wastes dumping on soil anions, cations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    wastes. The term residual wastes relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for processing. Biodegradable wastes can be commonly found in municipal solid wastes. (MSW) as green wastes, food wastes, paper wastes, biodegradable plastics and slaughter.

  8. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd; Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  10. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  11. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  13. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    % of the organic and degradable material. Source sorting is another way of collecting the household waste in its respective fractions. However, this separation technique is hard to enforce and expensive. Future waste management calls for novel and efficient technologies for the separation of unsorted MSW in order...... generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...

  14. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  15. Power from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidalgo dos Reis, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the energy production potential from urban wastes for several cities in Latin America. Technologies available for transforming wastes into energy are reviewed and the high efficiency and low pollution levels obtained are discussed based on some very successful examples in the developed countries. Several criteria to help plan a plant and choose its location and appropriate size are presented under the framework of environmental and energy constraints. Economic and financial feasibility, barriers to the introduction of new technologies and their transfer to developing countries, and political obstacles created by the lobby that is taking advantage of the present situation are presented. Management of such plants requires that a social communication program be well designed to touch and inform the public about the importance of the plants; it should also emphasize the gains to society. Marketing strategies are presented that will highlight life quality improvement and preservation of the environment to decision makers and the public. A case study for the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, will be discussed in detail, showing how several levels of decision makers are involved in the preparation of the feasibility study and in raising financial resources both inside and outside the country. The study is for a large plant with a capacity of 1,800 ton/day and the generation of 27 MW of electric power

  16. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project...... will develop and implement a methodology to compare and prioritize these technologies and optimizations based on a holistic approach. This will be achieved through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) along with cost/efficiency analysis with focus on the effects of nutrients, pathogens and micropollutants (i...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  17. Effect of municipal liquid waste on corrosion susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation studied the effect of municipal liquid waste discharged into the environment within Kano municipal area on the corrosion susceptibility of galvanized steel pipe burial underground. Six stagnant and six moving municipal liquid waste samples were used for the investigation. The corrosion rate of the ...

  18. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-01-01

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A mathematical model for the municipal solid waste location-routing problem with intermediate transfer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is one of the challenging issues in mega cities due to various interrelated factors such as operational costs and environmental concerns. Cost as one of the most significant constraints of municipal solid waste management can be effectively economized by efficient planning approaches. Considering diverse waste types in an integrated municipal solid waste system, a mathematical model of the location-routing problem is formulated and solved in this study in order to minimize the total cost of transportation and facility establishment.

  20. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  1. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Using life cycle assessment for municipal solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Omid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of a proper waste management system, Tehran Municipality Region 20 is facing economic and environmental problems such as the high costs of a disposal system and source pollution. Life cycle assessment (LCA is a method for collecting and evaluating the inputs, outputs, and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. The current study purposed to provide a stable and optimized system of solid waste management in Tehran Municipality Region 20. Methods: The LCA method was used to evaluate various scenarios and compare the effects on environmental aspects of management systems. Four scenarios were defined based on existing and possible future waste management systems for this region. These scenarios were considered with different percentages for source separation, composting, recycling, and energy recovery. Results: Based on the results of this study, Scenario 4 (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] + municipal recycling facility [MRF] [20%] + energy recovery [10%] + landfilling [26%] was found to be the option with the minimum environmental impact. In the absence of government support and sufficient funds for establishing energy recovery facilities, the third scenario (source separation [14%] + composting [30%] +MRF [20%] + landfilling [36%] is recommended. Conclusion: The results acquired from this investigation will confirm the belief that LCA as an environmental device may be successfully used in an integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS as a support tool for decision-making.

  4. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    % of the organic and degradable material. Source sorting is another way of collecting the household waste in its respective fractions. However, this separation technique is hard to enforce and expensive. Future waste management calls for novel and efficient technologies for the separation of unsorted MSW in order......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather...

  5. Environmental sustainability of ozonating municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e.......g. pharmaceuticals, heavy metals and endocrine disrupters). As part of this work a holistic based prioritisation among technologies and optimisations is to be done. Tools for this prioritisation include life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost/efficiency. The LCA is performed as a comparative LCA and the concept....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the WWTTs, i.e. ozonation....

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Waste Management System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LCA has been defined as a tool for evaluating the environmental burdens and potential impacts that can be applied to municipal solid waste management systems for determine the optimum municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategy.To investigate the Waste Management system strategyof Karaj City we used LCA ...

  7. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling. It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  8. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea-Goldsmith, René; Oakey, John; Simms, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  9. Energy content of municipal solid waste bales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan

    2013-07-01

    Baling technology is a preferred method for temporary storage of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to final disposal. If incineration is intended for final disposal of the bales, the energy content of the baled MSW gains importance. In this study, nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed and several parameters, including total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, moisture content, loss on ignition, gross calorific value and net calorific value (NCV) were determined before the baling and at the end of 10 months of storage. In addition, the relationships between the waste materials and the energy contents of the bales were investigated by the bivariate correlation analyses. At the end, linear regression models were developed in order to forecast the decrease of energy content during storage. While the NCVs of the waste materials before the baling ranged between 6.2 and 23.7 MJ kg(-1) dry basis, they ranged from 1.0 to 16.4 MJ kg(-1) dry basis at the end of the storage period. Moreover, food wastes exhibited the highest negative correlation with NCVs, whereas plastics have significant positive correlation with both NCVs and TCs. Similarly, TOCs and carbon/nitrogen ratios decreased with the increase in food amounts inside the bales. In addition, textile, wood and yard wastes increase the energy content of the bales slightly over the storage period.

  10. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, P.

    1997-12-01

    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Unsaturated flow parameters of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Zheng, Qi-Teng; Chen, H X

    2017-05-01

    Leachate pollution/recirculation and landfill gas emission are the major environmental concerns in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. A good understanding and prediction of MSW unsaturated properties are critical for the design of piping systems and the control of these problems within landfills. This paper reviews the recent studies of unsaturated properties of MSW, including experimental methods, theoretical models and corresponding model parameters. For experimental methods, the sample size is a common and significant limitation and large test apparatuses (e.g., >80cm in diameter) are generally required and valuable. The theoretical models for MSW also have some limitations due to the changes in waste composition and particle size distribution caused by biodegradation. Thus, the available data of intrinsic permeabilities, water retention curves, relative permeabilities and anisotropy of MSW were summarized to investigate the influences of porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. A series of estimation methods were subsequently proposed to determine the parameters of water retention curve like θ Lm , θ Lr , n v and α. The other parameters such as the pore connectivity term (l) and the degree of anisotropy (k) were significantly lacking data, thus only their relationships with porosity were proposed. The results show that it is possible to define the second order effects caused by variations in porosity, waste composition and particle size distribution. However, the estimation methods still need more experimental data for improvement, especially their dependence on waste composition and particle size distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  13. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  14. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  15. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Ponce-Ortega, José María, E-mail: jmponce@umich.mx [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Betzabe González-Campos, J. [Institute of Chemical and Biological Researches, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Serna-González, Medardo [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Adjunct Faculty at the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  16. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J.; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits

  17. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and composition analysis of municipal solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant correlation between estimated population and volume of trash collected. We offered suggestion for effective management strategies and efficient policies for waste reduction, disposal and recycling practices. Keywords: Waste Characterization, Municipal Solid Waste, Waste Composition, Kano, Nigeria ...

  19. Municipal solid waste in Brazil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaia, Raquel Greice de Souza Marotta; Costa, Alyne Moraes; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2017-12-01

    The production of municipal solid waste (MSW) represents one of the greatest challenges currently faced by waste managers all around the world. In Brazil, the situation with regard to solid waste management is still deficient in many aspects. In 2015, only 58.7% of the MSW collected in Brazilian cities received appropriate final disposal. It was only as late as 2010 that Brazil established the National Policy on Solid Waste (NPSW) based on the legislation and programmes established in the 1970s in more developed countries. However, the situation with regard to MSW management has changed little since the implementation of the NPSW. Recent data show that, in Brazil, disposal in sanitary landfills is practically the only management approach to MSW. Contrary to expectations, despite the economic recession in 2015 the total annual amount of MSW generated nationwide increased by 1.7%, while in the same period the Brazilian population grew by 0.8% and economic activity decreased by 3.8%. The article describes the panorama with regard to MSW in Brazil from generation to final disposal and discusses the issues related to the delay in implementing the NPSW. The collection of recyclable material, the recycling process, the application of reverse logistics and the determination of the gravimetric composition of MSW in Brazil are also addressed in this article. Finally, a brief comparison is made between MSW management in Brazil and in other countries, the barriers to developing effective waste disposal systems are discussed and some recommendations for future MSW management development in Brazil are given.

  20. Considerations for Net Zero Waste Installations: Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    solid waste start with reducing the amount of waste generated, re-purposing waste , maximizing recycling ...Occupational Health Network and Information Exchange (DENIX). 2012. SWARWeb – Solid waste annual reporting. Solid Waste Recycling . Web page. Washington...USEPA, http://epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/ waste /SWMGHGreport.html#documentation ------------. 2011. Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling

  1. Life cycle assessment of integrated municipal solid waste management systems, taking account of climate change and landfill shortage trade-off problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Hishinuma, Tatsuo; Ihara, Tomohiko; Genchi, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    Steps taken to counter the climate change problem have a significant impact on the municipal solid waste management (MSW) sector, which must tackle regional environmental problems such as the shortage of sanitary landfills, especially in Japan. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions and final disposal have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, alleviation of both these environmental problems is difficult, and Japanese local municipalities are anxious for action to solve these problems and reduce treatment costs. Although ambitious waste management measures have been enacted in many countries, they appear to lack a holistic view and do not adopt a life cycle approach. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct the MSW management system, taking into account environmental and economic aspects. In the present study, life cycle assessment and mathematical modelling were used to seek ways of redesigning the MSW management system in order to minimize environmental impacts and/or reduce treatment costs. One economic block was selected as the study area (Iwate Prefecture in Japan). The life cycle inventory and costs data for every MSW transportation and treatment process in this region were collected and processed. Then, taking account of geographic information, an optimal solution for the minimization of environmental impact or treatment costs was derived. To solve the trade-off problem, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to find optimal reduction targets for climate change and final disposal.

  2. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  3. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80l to containers of 2400l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60l or 80l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Colón Jordà, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process per...

  5. Waste Management Policy in Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Andy Fefta; Kaewmanee, Pongsathon

    2014-01-01

    Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the probl...

  6. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  7. Agronomic evaluation of Beirut municipal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, Nadim

    1982-06-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste in an environmentally sound manner is a major problem worldwide. The composting of the organic fraction of refuse transforms it into soil amendment that can be recycled on agricultural lands. In order to promote the use of compost among farmers, agronomic investigations have to evaluate the impact of its use on soil properties and plant growth. In a greenhouse experiment, a sample of locally produced compost was applied to a sandy clay soil at rates equivalent to 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha with supplemental addition of NH 4 NO 3 at levels equivalent to 0, 25, 50 and 100 Kg N/ha. Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) and corn (Zea mays L. indentata) were grown as indicator crops and soil properties were determined over a period of 150 days. Plant growth was affected by N starvation until the compost was stabilized in the soil. Nitrogen starvation persisted for a longer period with increasing applications of compost. Supplemental addition of N hastened the decomposition and mobilization of N. Application of solid waste compost increased soil C, N, pH and E.C. Induced salinity was believed to be the cause of detrimental effects caused by high rates of compost on plant yield. The sample of compost that was studied should either be further stabilized in the composting plant, or applied a few months before planting. Fertilizer N should be applied with the compost. (author)

  8. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Kachurkov, Gjorgji; Vasilevski, Goce

    1998-01-01

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  9. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M

    2013-12-01

    The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soils Around Municipal Solid Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy Metal Contamination Of Soils Around Municipal Solid Wastes Dump In Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Environmental Sciences ... Soils around the waste dump were also contaminated as a result of continuous dispersion of heavy metals from the waste dump by run-off water, wind and scavengers.

  11. Engineering properties for high kitchen waste content municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties of municipal solid waste (MSW depend largely on the waste's initial composition and degree of degradation. MSWs in developing countries usually have a high kitchen waste content (called HKWC MSW. After comparing and analyzing the laboratory and field test results of physical composition, hydraulic properties, gas generation and gas permeability, and mechanical properties for HKWC MSW and low kitchen waste content MSW (called LKWC MSW, the following findings were obtained: (1 HKWC MSW has a higher initial water content (IWC than LKWC MSW, but the field capacities of decomposed HKWC and LKWC MSWs are similar; (2 the hydraulic conductivity and gas permeability for HKWC MSW are both an order of magnitude smaller than those for LKWC MSW; (3 compared with LKWC MSW, HKWC MSW has a higher landfill gas (LFG generation rate but a shorter duration and a lower potential capacity; (4 the primary compression feature for decomposed HKWC MSW is similar to that of decomposed LKWC MSW, but the compression induced by degradation of HKWC MSW is greater than that of LKWC MSW; and (5 the shear strength of HKWC MSW changes significantly with time and strain. Based on the differences of engineering properties between these two kinds of MSWs, the geo-environmental issues in HKWC MSW landfills were analyzed, including high leachate production, high leachate mounds, low LFG collection efficiency, large settlement and slope stability problem, and corresponding advice for the management and design of HKWC MSW landfills was recommended.

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Phuntsholing City, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste problem is a major concern in major cities in Bhutan. Despite the lack of reliable data on both waste composition and quantity, no studies have been conducted to identify problems and alternatives to improve the current system. The study objectives are: 1 to determine solid waste composition and generation rate; and 2 to investigate current solid waste management system. Six waste samples were selected in Phuntsholing city from three designated collection spots and from three collection vehicles and analyzed for their composition. Waste generation rate was computed from waste collected by collection vehicles. The investigation was carried out through interviews with municipal authorities, existing document reviews, and field observations. The organic fraction of solid waste composition comprised about 71 percent. The waste generation rate was estimated to 0.40 kg/capita.day. The current management system is inefficient, and recommendations are given to improve the current situation.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper.

  14. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH4 released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to...

  15. Impact Of Municipal Solid Waste On Trace Metal Concentrations In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of municipal solid waste on the levels of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in herbage and soil samples within Abuja municipality was studied. The flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used in the determination of the metals. The average concentration of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the herbage ...

  16. Effect of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) on the productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six rates and a control of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Mg/ha) were used to evaluate the effect of municipal compost on cowpea growth parameters (Plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields and tissue heavy metal concentrations). Plant height, leaf area and heavy metal concentration ...

  17. Assessment of a Planned Municipal Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematic Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) authorities of Sri Lanka contributes to exchange some productive outputs with localities; however it is still not in a successful mode due to limitations and environmental failures in their operation. Most of these local administrations are directly dumping Municipal Solid ...

  18. Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

    2007-04-01

    The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste: Technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic biogasification of organic wastes generates two useful products: a medium-Btu fuel gas and a compost-quality organic residue. Although commercial-scale digestion systems are used to treat municipal sewage wastes, the disposal of solid organic wastes, including municipal solid wastes (MSW), requires a more cost-efficient process. Modern biogasification systems employ high-rate, high-solids fermentation methods to improve process efficiency and reduce capital costs. The design criteria and development stages are discussed. These systems are also compared with conventional low-solids fermentation technology.

  20. Life cycle assessment of potential municipal solid waste management strategies for Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K; Chandel, Munish K

    2017-01-01

    Dumping of municipal solid waste into uncontrolled dumpsites is the most common method of waste disposal in most cities of India. These dumpsites are posing a serious challenge to environmental quality and sustainable development. Mumbai, which generates over 9000 t of municipal solid waste daily, also disposes of most of its waste in open dumps. It is important to analyse the impact of municipal solid waste disposal today and what would be the impact under integrated waste management schemes. In this study, life cycle assessment methodology was used to determine the impact of municipal solid waste management under different scenarios. Six different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current practice of open dumping and partially bioreactor landfilling. The scenarios include landfill with biogas collection, incineration and different combinations of recycling, landfill, composting, anaerobic digestion and incineration. Global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity were assessed as environmental impact categories. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the recycling rate is increased from 10% to 90%, the environmental impacts as compared with present scenario would reduce from 998.43 kg CO 2 eq t -1 of municipal solid waste, 0.124 kg SO 2 eq t -1 , 0.46 kg PO 4 -3 eq t -1 , 0.44 kg 1,4-DB eq t -1 to 892.34 kg CO 2 eq t -1 , 0.121 kg SO 2 eq t -1 , 0.36 kg PO 4 -3 eq t -1 , 0.40 kg 1,4-DB eq t -1 , respectively. An integrated municipal solid waste management approach with a mix of recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion and landfill had the lowest overall environmental impact. The technologies, such as incineration, would reduce the global warming emission because of the highest avoided emissions, however, human toxicity would increase.

  1. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  2. Chemical healthcare waste management in small Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João A; Bila, Danielle M; Ritter, Elisabeth; Braga, Ana Cs

    2012-12-01

    The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) seems to have been solved in developed countries, while in most developing countries the problem persists because the disposal methods are expensive and larger than the budget of small- and medium-sized municipalities. The current study evaluates the encapsulation process for the disposal of medical chemical waste. The experiment was developed in the Piraí municipality (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and the chemical wastes were produced in the local public hospital, as well as the 12 units of primary care health services. Chemical waste generated at health services units may include the liquid waste from cleaning materials and disinfectants, expired and unused pharmaceutical products, and cytotoxins. These are all considered hazardous waste products and they must be disposed of via an authorised system at approved sites (e.g. industrial landfills). The process of encapsulating chemical medical waste in concrete (cement, crushed stones and sand) followed by their disposal at sanitary landfills is a procedure that is not considered in Brazilian Legislation. Despite the oversight, this method of disposal was used in the municipality of Piraí, with the approval of the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Environmental Control. The safety aspects of this method and the limits of its applicability, particularly in small municipalities, were evaluated in this study. The results indicate that, within certain parameters, this method may provide a viable solution for the disposal of HCW in small municipalities.

  3. Scenario Of Solid Waste Management In Hetauda Municipality, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigyan Neupane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to enlighten the solid waste management of Hetauda Municipality in Makwanpur district of an area of 44.5 sq. km. The total human population of the municipality is 84,671 (CBS 2011. Out of 11 wards, 5 wards (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 were selected for the present study. In total 50 households, 10 institutions and 10 commercial sectors were selected from studied wards from which samples of different types of wastes were collected, segregated and weighed. Weight was calculated using a digital spring balance and a bag 0.043 m3 was used for the estimation of volume. Organic wastes were found to be dominant in the household (51.73% and commercial sectors (61.70% whereas in institutions, plastic (50.36% and papers (38.19% were prevailing. The findings revealed that per capita 155.4 gm/person/day household waste was generated in Hetauda Municipality. The residents are also aware of the harmful effects of the wastes, and demand an effective solid waste management services. Though they are aware about the sustainable management of wastes, due to erratic collection of wastes, some of them throw the wastes in the open lands - The local people also participate in the awareness campaigns organized by local NGOs and municipal. Solid waste management strategies are timely need for an effective management of anthropogenic wastes. Regular waste collection, improvement of dumping sites and sufficient number of composting plants are recommended in the municipality. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 105-114 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9214

  4. LIFE-CYCLE EVALUATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a life-cycle evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal soild waste (MSW) management in the U.S. (NOTE: Using integrated waste management, recycling/composting, waste-to-energy, and better control of landfill gas, communities across the U.S. a...

  5. Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis. Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years.

  6. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  7. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  8. Methane generation potential of municipal solid waste in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy potential from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) of two landfills serving four local government areas in Ibadan metropolis was estimated in this study. The characterization of the MSW showed that approximately 74% is made up of organic materials with food wastes constituting the highest portion (35%). The energy ...

  9. generation of biogas from segregates of municipal solid wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The results show that all the substrates demonstrated potentials for biogas production with leaves .... Experimental Design. The experimental design used for the laboratory production of biogas involved the use of various segregates of municipal solid wastes and cow dung ..... Utilization of poultry, cow and kitchen wastes.

  10. Selective Collection Quality Index for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Trentino (an Italian Province located in the northern part of the country is equipped with a management system of municipal solid waste collection at the forefront. Among the most positive aspects, there is a great ability for waste separation at the source and a consequent low production of residual municipal solid waste for disposal. Latest data show a gross efficiency of selective collection that has recently reached 80%, one of the highest values in Italy. This study analyzed the “Trentino system” to identify the main elements that have been at the base of the current efficient model. This provided an opportunity to propose a selective collection quality index (SCQI, including collection efficiency for each fraction, method of collection, quality of the collected materials, presence of the punctual tariff and tourist incidence. A period relevant for the transition of the collection system to the recent one was chosen for the demonstrative adoption of the proposed indicators in order to determine the potential of the index adoption. Results of the analysis of this case study were obtained in a quantitative form thanks to the sub-parameters that characterize the proposed index. This allowed selected collection decision makers to focus intently on a territory to find criticalities to be solved. For instance, the use of the index and its sub-indicators in the case of Trentino identified and comparatively quantified the local problems resulting from the presence of a large museum in a small town, tourism peaks in some valleys, and a delay in the punctual tariff adoption. The index has been proposed with the aim to make available an integrated tool to analyze other areas in Italy and abroad.

  11. Electricity production from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has an increasing production of municipal solid waste that, allied to the current waste management system, makes the search for alternatives of energy recovery essential. Thus, this work aims to study the incineration of municipal solid waste and the electricity production through steam cycles evaluating the influence of municipal solid waste composition. Several scenarios were studied, in which it was assumed that some fractions of municipal solid waste were removed previously. The municipal solid waste generated in Santo André city, São Paulo State, Brazil, was adopted for this study. Simulation results showed that the removal of organic matter and inert components impacts advantageously on the cycle performance, improving their parameters in some cases; in addition, there is the possibility of reusing the separated fractions. The separation of some recyclables, as plastic material, showed disadvantages by the reduction in the electricity generation potential owing to the high calorific value of plastics. Despite the high energy content of them, there are other possible considerations on this subject, because some plastics have a better recovery potential by recycling.

  12. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a municipal...

  13. Treatment and disposal techniques of dangerous municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the qualitative and quantitative features of the different types of dangerous municipal solid wastes, according to Italian law. In the second part the impact on environment and man health is presented. This impact should be minimized by suitable controlled disposal techniques, which differ from other municipal waste treatments. Finally, the paper deals with the most appropriate systems for treatment and disposal of such kind of waste. Particularly, some research activities in the field of metal recovery from used batteries, sponsored by ENEA, and carrying out by private companies, are described. (author)

  14. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  16. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal waste...

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  18. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. → Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. → Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  20. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe

    In response to continuous pressure on resources, and the requirement for secure and sustainable consumption, public authorities are pushing the efficient use of resources. Among other initiatives, the prevention, reduction and recycling of solid waste have been promoted. In this context, reliable...... data for the material and resource content of waste flows are crucial to establishing baselines, setting targets and tracking progress on waste prevention, reduction and recycling goals. Waste data are also a critical basis for the planning, development and environmental assessment of technologies......, compositional analysis techniques have been introduced to analyse waste data more appropriately. Waste was sampled directly from source, in order to attribute the waste data accurately to the geographical areas and types of household generating the waste. Sampling and contamination errors were minimised...

  1. Assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Accra, Ghana: A 'Wasteaware' benchmark indicator approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro-Appiah, Kwaku; Scheinberg, Anne; Mensah, Anthony; Afful, Abraham; Boadu, Henry Kofi; de Vries, Nanne

    2017-11-01

    This article assesses the performance of the city of Accra, Ghana, in municipal solid waste management as defined by the integrated sustainable waste management framework. The article reports on a participatory process to socialise the Wasteaware benchmark indicators and apply them to an upgraded set of data and information. The process has engaged 24 key stakeholders for 9 months, to diagram the flow of materials and benchmark three physical components and three governance aspects of the city's municipal solid waste management system. The results indicate that Accra is well below some other lower middle-income cities regarding sustainable modernisation of solid waste services. Collection coverage and capture of 75% and 53%, respectively, are a disappointing result, despite (or perhaps because of) 20 years of formal private sector involvement in service delivery. A total of 62% of municipal solid waste continues to be disposed of in controlled landfills and the reported recycling rate of 5% indicates both a lack of good measurement and a lack of interest in diverting waste from disposal. Drains, illegal dumps and beaches are choked with discarded bottles and plastic packaging. The quality of collection, disposal and recycling score between low and medium on the Wasteaware indicators, and the scores for user inclusivity, financial sustainability and local institutional coherence are low. The analysis suggests that waste and recycling would improve through greater provider inclusivity, especially the recognition and integration of the informal sector, and interventions that respond to user needs for more inclusive decision-making.

  2. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  3. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  4. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  5. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product in differ......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...... from true landfills. Hence, the computer tool is verified in terms of mass balances and sensitivity analyses. The mass balances agree exactly and the sensitivity analyses show that different types of waste product components behave differently in different types of landfills. Emission of e.g. toluene...

  6. Assessing musculoskeletal disorders among municipal waste loaders of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Pradeep; Chokhandre, Praveen; Bansod, Dhananjay

    2017-10-06

    The study aims to assess the impact of municipal waste loading occupation upon developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and thereby disabilities among waste loaders. Additionally, the study has identified the potential risk factors raising MSDs and disabilities. A cross-sectional case-control design survey was conducted in 6 out of 24 municipal wards of Mumbai during March-September 2015. The study population consisted of municipal waste loaders (N = 180) and a control group (N = 180). The Standardized Modified Nordic questionnaire was adopted to measures the MSDs and thereby disabilities in the past 12 months. A Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method was applied to assess the impact of waste loading occupation on developing MSDs and disabilities. Waste loaders had a significantly higher risk of developing MSDs as well as disabilities than the control group particularly for low back, hip/ thigh upper back and shoulder. Propensity Score Matching results revealed that the MSDs were significantly higher among waste loaders for hip/thigh (22%), low back (19%), shoulder (18%), and upper back (15%) than matched control group. Likewise, MSDs-related disabilities were found to be significantly higher among waste loaders for low back (20%), hip/ thigh (18%) upper back (13%) and shoulder (8%) than the control group. Duration of work, substance use and mental health were found to be the potential psychosocial factors for developing the risk of MSDs and disabilities. The municipal waste loading occupation raised the risk of MSDs and related disabilities among waste loaders compared to the control group. The preventive and curative measures are strongly recommended to minimize the burden of MSDs and disabilities. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):875-886. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Financial compensation owed to municipalities that host radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Renata Amaral da

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities with viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits fro, low and medium activity. It was used as methodology the frameweork of normative act in the Resolution n. 96, August 10th, 2010. ('Model of Calculation for Financial Compensation due to Municipalities') where there are establidhed the parameters for the wastes, the facilities and the deployment sites. The calculation was made according with interim storage or definitive disposal of solid wastes, e.e. personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks etc) resins and filters used in waste water treatment from nuclear and radioactivity facilities. SOme examples of countries in which compensation, financial or not, was practiced in favor of municipalities due to construction of waste deposits were sown and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation bweween the stakeholders. Were also presented other forms of financial compensation in Brazil due to large-scale industrial activities that result in potential risk for the surrounding population and environment, as oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used the waste inventory designed by RMBN project (Waste Repository of Low and Medium Activity) developed in CDTN (2009) which presents the implementation of a repository for disposal of radioactive waste. Based on these data it was possible to develop a case study, establishing four scenarios for initial/interim storage and final disposal of wastes. The results reached monthly values that ranged from 2,6 to 79,8 thousand Brazilian Reais, from which it was performed a critical analysis of the range of parameters and the apportionment of the amount due. Likewise, these values were compared with the budget revenues of some previously selected municipalities and were examined divergent points in the normative act as well. (author)

  8. Microbiological air quality at municipal waste sorting plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulski Karol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste plants can be a source of biological contamination of the environment, depending on the method of operation and the type of collected waste. The aim of this study was the quantitative characteristics of airborne microorganisms at the Barycz municipal waste sorting plant in Cracow. Bioaerosol measurements of indoor and outdoor air of the municipal waste sorting plant were performed during the summer season using a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor. The highest concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosol was observed in the medium fraction sorting room (129.02×103 cfu·m-3 and 116.21×103 cfu·m-3, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of bacterial and fungal aerosol between indoor and outdoor air. The calculations showed a significant correlation between the concentration of bioaerosol and particulate matter. Based on the analysis of bioaerosol particle size distribution, it was found that the concentration of bacteria and fungi has a maximum value in the diameter range 3.3-7.0 μm. The study confirmed that the municipal waste sorting plants can be causing exposure to microbiological agents.

  9. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troschinetz, Alexis M.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors

  10. Integrated solid waste management of Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota (Hennepin County) integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM system.

  11. Solid municipal waste management: Systems and reference technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, G.; Mura, A.

    1993-03-01

    The management of solid municipal wastes comprises simple methods such as dumping into suitably controlled waste disposal sites, and more complex solutions, which can include waste segregation, some form of materials and/or energy recovery, and the use of combined cycle combustion systems. All these methods, however, require environmental protection systems with custom designed techniques, equipment and safeguards. This paper reviews the technical-economic aspects of different pollution control options currently available to meet the specific requirements of various waste management alternatives

  12. Fiscal Instruments for the Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW in the Mexican Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Mendezcarlo Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation (municipal waste in the cities is, as we all know, one of the main current environmental issues. Responsibility for this kind of pollution is not only the companies’ but also the homeowners’ and the general public’s, who must redirect their behavior towards a responsible consumption, not only regarding the choices of environmentally friendly products and services but should also strive to influence the reduction of environmental damage caused by the waste itself.  The goal of this research work is to make clear that the local government (in Mexico’s case, the municipalities has the unavoidable duty of raising awareness of this issue by using tools to encourage responsible waste management, such as fiscal instruments, which in addition results in the extra benefit of raising public funds to neutralize the problem. 

  13. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a “Low-tech” waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling...... and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative...

  14. Energy potential of municipal solid waste incineration in urban areas of China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Chinese cities from 1996 to 2020. In China, with improving the standard of living recently, the extreme increase of the municipal solid waste generation (MSWG)

  15. Searching quality data for municipal solid waste planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-08-01

    Effective waste reduction and recycling is predicated upon credible data on refuse generation and disposal. Despite improvements in the quality of data for municipal solid wastes (MSW) disposal, dependable generation and recycling statistics to support planning, regulation and administration are lacking. The available aggregates on national waste production from two sources do not conform to each other and fail to serve the requirements of local solid waste planning. As recycling estimates will be difficult to discern, the collection of generation data based on weighing waste samples at generator sites has been portrayed as the key for developing sustainable local databases. The coefficients developed from the databases for the various categories of residential, commercial, industrial and institutional wastes can be used as variables for waste generation models.

  16. Paradigm shift needed - municipal solid waste management in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Florina J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the current state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM in Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia, by analyzing a legal framework, quantities of generated waste, collection systems, transportation, final disposal, separate collection of recyclables, and waste minimization incentives. The analysis is mostly based on the available data of public utility company „Gradska čistoća“, the only provider of municipal solid waste (MSW services i.e. collection, transportation, and disposal. Key features, problems and goals of MSWM system in Belgrade are discussed, and the efficiency of the existing separate collection system of recyclables is reviewed. Finally, some further guidelines are given in order to assure paradigm shift in the next period.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Fei-Baffoe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in urban population due to the influx of the citizenry in search for better conditions of life has resulted in poor environmental conditions in most urban and peri-urban settlements in the country. Municipal solid waste management (MSW for that matter has become problematic within Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis as the city is being inundated with so much filth which has proven to be very difficult and seemingly impossible for the municipal authorities to tackle. This study investigates the nature of solid waste problem in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis. A mixed methodological approach including field investigation, questionnaire survey, and structured and face-to-face interviews were employed in the gathering of data for the study. The key findings established to be the factors affecting effective solid waste management in the metropolis are irregular solid waste collection, inadequate operational funding, inappropriate technologies, inadequate staffing, inadequate skip, and lack of cooperation on the part of the citizenry.

  18. Forecast future production of municipal waste on the basis of a panel data model in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djemaci, Brahim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the factors that influenced the production of municipal waste in Algeria. It carries an estimate of future quantities of waste on the basis of data from 48 departments from 1997 to 2008. We use econometric projection of the waste to determine the factors that influence the production of waste. The analysis shows that the production of municipal waste in Algeria is related to several factors: population density, the retail trade. The projection of future municipal waste amo...

  19. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with examples suggested for various residual streams. A methodology is presented to consider individual waste-to-energy or waste-to-product system synergies, evaluating the economic and environmental issues associated with each system. Steps included in the methodology include identifying waste streams, specific waste components of interest, and conversion technologies, plus steps for determining the economic and environmental effects of using wastes and changes due to transport, administrative handling, and processing. In addition to presenting the methodology, technologies for various MSW input streams are categorized as commercialized or demonstrated to provide organizations that are considering processes for MSW with summarized information. The organization can also follow the methodology to analyze interesting processes. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  20. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  1. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard to these waste streams a wide variety of treatments exist: reuse and recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, and land disposal are the most common ones, pyrolysis and gasification...

  2. Municipal Solid Waste - Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MSW DST was initially developed in the 1990s and has evolved over the years to better account for changes in waste management practices, waste composition, and improvements in decision support tool design and functionality. The most recent version of the tool is publicly ava...

  3. Municipal solid waste flow and waste generation characteristics in an urban--rural fringe area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hara, Yuji; Sekiyama, Makiko; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2009-12-01

    In the urban-rural fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, rapid urbanization is creating a land-use mixture of agricultural fields and residential areas. To develop appropriate policies to enhance recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), current MSW management was investigated in the oboto (local administrative district) of Bang Maenang in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok. The authors conducted a structural interview survey with waste-related organizations and local residents, analysed household waste generation, and performed global positioning system (GPS) tracking of municipal garbage trucks. It was found that MSW was collected and treated by local government, private-sector entities, and the local community separately. Lack of integrated management of these entities complicated waste flow in the study area, and some residences were not served by MSW collection. Organic waste, such as kitchen garbage and yard waste, accounted for a large proportion of waste generation but was underutilized. Through GPS/GIS analysis, the waste collection rate of the generated waste amount was estimated to be 45.5- 51.1% of total generation.

  4. Thermal treatment of municipal waste: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Waste generation, like a shadow accompanies all kinds of human activities. For a long time waste was ignored as of no consequence. Nevertheless in recent times the presence of Waste was felt by the adverse impact it began to have on human life. Attention was given to waste disposal. Various methods of disposal were developed. Actually a process of evolution was set in this area. Starting with Dumpsite it developed in to sanitary land fill. Adverse impact was beginning to be seen in leachate contaminating ground water, and long term emission of methane contributing to climate change. This set the thinking to seek other solutions. Waste was begun to be seen as a resource instead of a nuisance to be disposed off. Bio-methanation of waste for recovery of methane rich biogas was developed. The concept of thermal treatment of waste for disposal came in to being in order to reduce volume of disposal as only the ash will be disposed instead of the whole volume of waste when waste is subjected to thermal treatment. However, it was beset with certain pollution problems which needed to be addressed. Suitable pollution abatement systems were developed. In the meantime, with the increase in global population and lifestyle changes across the globe, demand for natural resources went up rapidly resulting in pressure on the finite resources of the earth. Emphasis shifted to recovery of value from waste while disposing. Recovery of Recyclables, and energy came in to focus. RDF technology was developed facilitating this making it possible to recover recyclables like plastics, metals etc besides generating the prepared fuel RDF for energy recovery. (Author)

  5. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...

  6. Pozzolanic characteristics of municipal solid waste ash | Sanewu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where conventional stabilizing agents like cement and lime have been used, they have considerably increased the cost of construction. It is with this backdrop that this paper describes the pozzolanic characteristics of municipal solid waste ash (MSWA) and its use as a stabilizing agent. The total elemental concentration in ...

  7. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rivers State is one of the major oil producing States in Nigeria. Its capital, Port Harcourt and sub-urban areas have witnessed an increased influx of migrants in recent time. Consequently, the consumption of goods and services has also increased leading to generation of unprecedented quantities of municipal solid waste.

  9. Evaluation of some heavy metals concentration in municipal waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Delta State, a major Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The aim was to evaluate some heavy metals concentration in municipal wastes dumpsites that are presently used for intensive horticultural crops production. The heavy metals studied were; Iron (Fe); Lead (Pb); Mercury (Hg); Cromium (Cr); Nickel ...

  10. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  11. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems,

  12. Management of solid municipal wastes. Gestion de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The book analyzes in detail the problematic that exists today with the solid municipal wastes: legislation, sanitary landfills, recycling, materials recovery, anaerobic digestion, gasification and the problem in the European Community. The book has 17 chapters corresponding to the course, imported at CIEMAT by the Institute of Energy Studies.

  13. Effect of municipal solid waste ash on comprehensive strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blocks were moulded in a CINVA-Ram machine by replacing 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% of municipal solid waste ash (MSW ash) as a stabilizing agent. The compressive strengths of individual blocks were obtained after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days. The 2%MSW ash replacement gave the highest compressive strength and ...

  14. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half...... matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination....

  15. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  16. Generation of biogas from segregates of municipal solid wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spp, Escherichia coli, Methanobacterium spp and Methanococcus spp were the most active organisms involved in the biodigestion/biogas generation process. It can be concluded from the study that municipal solid wastes are a potential energy source for biogas generation that could be optimized at industrial scales.

  17. Safe disposal of municipal wastes in Nigeria: perspectives on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safe disposal of municipal waste is imperative for the realisation of several fundamental human rights, most especially the right to life and the right to a healthy environment. Nigeria is a signatory to and has ratified the African Charter on Human and People's Rights (ACHPR). Ratification of the ACHPR comes with the ...

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  19. Actual problems of municipal cleaner’s waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konko¾ová Patrícia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In paper are evaluated social and economical changes in water economy with emphasis on complex evaluation of municipal cleaner’s waste waters with respect of legislative, position of ownerskip relationskips and financial security of public experiences of water economy.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  1. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  2. FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS DURING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal treatment is an interesting strategy to dispose of municipal solid waste: it reduces the volume and weight of the material dumped in landfills and generates alternative energy. However, the process emits pollutants, such as dioxins and furans. The present study evaluated MSW gasification-combustion integrated technologies in terms of dioxin and furan emission; and compared the obtained data with literature results on incineration, to point out which operational features differentiate the release of pollutants by these two processes. The results show that the process of integrated gasification and combustion emitted 0.28 ng N-1 m-3, expressed in TEQ (Total Equivalent Toxicity, of PCDD/F, less than the maximum limits allowed by local and international laws, whereas incineration normally affords values above these limits and requires a gas treatment system. The distinct operational conditions of the two thermal processes, especially those related to temperature and the presence of oxygen and fixed carbon, led to a lower PCDD/F emission in gasification.

  3. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development, and.... Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at...

  4. 78 FR 20035 - Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... regulations allowing RD&D Permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states...

  5. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  6. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  7. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source Reduction Measurement in the U.S. AGENCY... Subjects Environmental protection, municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization, MSW management, recycling... efficacy and scope of the MSW Characterization Report called ``Municipal Solid Waste in the United States...

  8. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to New Hampshire's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria in 40 CFR...

  9. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7, 2012...

  10. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted an...

  11. 78 FR 5288 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Massachusetts's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... INFORMATION: A. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste...

  12. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010 New...

  13. Financial compensation due to municipalities that host radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Renata A. da; Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities where there is viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits from low and medium activity. Were used like base structure de Resolution No. 96 of August, 10, 2010, entitled 'Model of Calculation For Financial Compensation to Municipalities' where are determinate those principal characteristics by the waste and deposits, such as the half-life, activity level, type of deposits (initial, intermediate or final), costs for construction and maintenance of deposits, demography, between others. The calculation was made according to the temporally or definitive storage for solids waste like personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks, etc) resins and filters used in wastewater treatment, between others, from of nuclear and radioactivity facilities. There are presented some countries that do the compensation, financial or not, for some municipalities for the construction of waste deposits and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation between the stake holders, in other words, the local population and the companies. Also are presented others forms of financial compensation in Brazil in consequence of activities in large scale which result in potential risk for the surrounding population and for the environment, like compensation for oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used on methodology the inventory of waste presented on RMBN project (Repository of Waste of Low and Medium Activity) developed by the CDTN which present the implementation of a repository for final storage to radioactive waste. With this was possible to develop a case study with the creation of four scenarios. Values were found which initially range from R$2,6 thousand to R$79,8 thousand for month. Finally are analyzed the possible influences which that values may have on the municipality budget revenue and some divergent points about the resolution. (author)

  14. Financial compensation due to municipalities that host radioactive waste deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da; Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.br, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br, E-mail: vbmartins@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to perform calculation about the financial compensation due to municipalities where there is viability for construction of radioactive waste deposits from low and medium activity. Were used like base structure de Resolution No. 96 of August, 10, 2010, entitled 'Model of Calculation For Financial Compensation to Municipalities' where are determinate those principal characteristics by the waste and deposits, such as the half-life, activity level, type of deposits (initial, intermediate or final), costs for construction and maintenance of deposits, demography, between others. The calculation was made according to the temporally or definitive storage for solids waste like personal protection equipment (gloves, shoes, masks, etc) resins and filters used in wastewater treatment, between others, from of nuclear and radioactivity facilities. There are presented some countries that do the compensation, financial or not, for some municipalities for the construction of waste deposits and in some cases, the way that occurred the negotiation between the stake holders, in other words, the local population and the companies. Also are presented others forms of financial compensation in Brazil in consequence of activities in large scale which result in potential risk for the surrounding population and for the environment, like compensation for oil and natural gas, hydropower plants and mining. Were used on methodology the inventory of waste presented on RMBN project (Repository of Waste of Low and Medium Activity) developed by the CDTN which present the implementation of a repository for final storage to radioactive waste. With this was possible to develop a case study with the creation of four scenarios. Values were found which initially range from R$2,6 thousand to R$79,8 thousand for month. Finally are analyzed the possible influences which that values may have on the municipality budget revenue and some divergent points about the resolution. (author)

  15. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating the efficiency of municipalities in collecting and processing municipal solid waste: a shared input DEA-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Nicky; De Jaeger, Simon

    2012-10-01

    This paper proposed an adjusted "shared-input" version of the popular efficiency measurement technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that enables evaluating municipality waste collection and processing performances in settings in which one input (waste costs) is shared among treatment efforts of multiple municipal solid waste fractions. The main advantage of this version of DEA is that it not only provides an estimate of the municipalities overall cost efficiency but also estimates of the municipalities' cost efficiency in the treatment of the different fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). To illustrate the practical usefulness of the shared input DEA-model, we apply the model to data on 293 municipalities in Flanders, Belgium, for the year 2008. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Process control in municipal solid waste incinerators: survey and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, R; Baxter, D

    2004-06-01

    As there is only rare and scattered published information about the process control in industrial incineration facilities for municipal solid waste (MSW), a survey of the literature has been supplemented by a number of waste incineration site visits in Belgium and The Netherlands, in order to make a realistic assessment of the current status of technology in the area. Owing to the commercial character, and therefore, the confidentiality restrictions imposed by plant builders and many of the operators, much of the information collected has either to be presented in a generalized manner, and in any case anonymously. The survey was focused on four major issues: process control strategy, process control systems, monitors used for process control and finally the correlation between the 850 degrees C/2 s rule in the European waste incineration directive and integrated process control. The process control strategies range from reaching good and stable emissions at the stack to stabilizing and maximizing the energy output from the process. The main indicator to be monitored, in cases in which the focus is controlling emissions, is the oxygen content in the stack. Keeping the oxygen concentration in a determined range (usually between 8 and 12 vol.%) ensures stable and tolerated concentrations of the gaseous emissions. In the case for which stabilization of energy production is the principal aim, the main controlled parameter is the steam temperature and flow-rate, which is usually related to the fuel energetic input. A lot of other parameters are used as alarm criteria, the most common of which is the carbon monoxide concentration. The process control systems used most commonly feature partially automated classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. New and innovative process control systems, such as fuzzy-logic control systems, are still unknown to most plant managers while their performance is reported to be unsatisfactory in plants in which such systems

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Management in China: Analysis and Recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ruofei; Liu, Sibei

    2010-01-01

    As the fast development of the urbanization and the growth of GDP in China, there is and will be more and more demands for energy consumption. In the meantime, it also creates a growing number of municipal solid waste (MSW), especially in the recent years, MSW has experienced a dramatic increase. However, the MSW management system is poor and cause many pollution problems in the cities of China, especially in the middle and small cities, at the aspects of waste collection, waste sorting, recy...

  20. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  1. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg).

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R.; Mokhtarani, N.; Mokhtarani, B.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years

  3. How to integrate the informal recycling system into municipal solid waste management in developing countries: Based on a China’s case in Suzhou urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Fan; Qu, Lili; Wen, Zongguo; Xue, Yanyan; Zhang, Huanan

    2016-01-01

    China and lots of other developing countries have been facing an increase in population and immense economic development that lead to an enormous growth in solid waste generation, and many developing countries aspire to achieve modern waste management systems. Domestic recyclable resources (DRR) are

  4. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper reports the evaluation of households' usage of the current solid waste management system (SWMS) within the city of Ilorin, central Nigeria and investigates the determi within the city of Ilorin, central Nigeria and investigates the determinants of household's willingness nants of household's willingness nants of ...

  5. municipal solid waste of dar es salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methane yields decreased by 30-50%. The mixed waste category constituting a substrate concentration of 6 g VS [-1. F V was degraded by 65% and gave a yield of 428 ml CH4 per gram VS added. This study concludes that individual fractions of MSW of Dar es salaam city are suitable as feedstocks for biogas digesters.

  6. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  7. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...

  8. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models

  9. Co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste With Other Waste Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Several characteristics make anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) difficult. By co-digestion of OFMSW with several other waste types it will be possible to optimize the anaerobic process by waste management. The co-digestion concept involves the treatment...... of several waste types in a single treatment facility. By combining many types of waste it will be possible to treat a wider range of organic waste types by the anaerobic digestion process (figure 1). Furthermore, co-digestion enables the treatment of organic waste with a high biogas potential that makes...... the operation of biogas plants more economically feasible (Ahring et al., 1992a). Thus, co-digestion gives a new attitude to the evaluation of waste: since anaerobic digestion of organic waste is both a waste stabilization method and an energy gaining process with production of a fertilizer, organic waste...

  10. Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swapan; Bhattacharyya, Bidyut Kr

    2015-09-01

    Optimization of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management systems suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous way that increase waste collection and transportation cost in the waste management system. Therefore, a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. In this paper, we propose an optimal MSW collection and transportation scheme that focus on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. We first formulize the MSW collection and transportation problem into a mixed integer program. Moreover, we propose a heuristic solution for the waste collection and transportation problem that can provide an optimal way for waste collection and transportation. Extensive simulations and real testbed results show that the proposed solution can significantly improve the MSW performance. Results show that the proposed scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modern technologies of processing municipal solid waste: investing in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, A.; Berezyuk, M.; Savchenko, N.; Rumyantseva, E.

    2017-06-01

    The problem of effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management is known to all the municipal entities of the Russian Federation. The problem is multifaceted and complex. The article analyzes the dynamics of municipal solid waste formation and its utilization within the territory of the EU and Russia. The authors of the paper suggest a project of a plant for processing municipal solid waste into a combustible gas with the help of high temperature pyrolysis. The main indicators of economic efficiency are calculated.

  12. Bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes: background and contemporary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D; Ricke, Steven C

    2002-08-01

    Global population increases, coupled with intensive animal and livestock production practices, have resulted in the generation, accumulation, and disposal of large amounts of wastes around the world. Aerosolization of microbial pathogens, endotoxins, odors, and dust particles is an inevitable consequence of the generation and handling of waste material. Bioaerosols can be a source of microbial pathogens, endotoxins, and other allergens. Given the close proximity of population centers to concentrated animal-rearing operations and municipal treatment facilities in many parts of the world, there is concern regarding the occupational and public health impacts associated with the exposure to bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes. Major advances have been made in our understanding of bioaerosol characteristics, identifying the hazards, and identifying possible human and animal health links with aerosolized pathogens and allergens. However, significant knowledge and technology gaps still exist. These include a lack of clear understanding of the fate and transport of bioaerosols, especially within the open environment, an inability to accurately predict the health risks associated with bioaerosolized pathogens, and a lack of standardized bioaerosol sampling protocols, and efficient samplers. This review synthesizes the information related to bioaerosols and addresses the contemporary issues associated with bioaerosols from municipal and animal wastes, with a focus on pathogens.

  13. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  14. Between hype and veracity; privatization of municipal solid waste management and its impacts on the informal waste sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Kiran; Burton, Paul; Dedekorkut-Howes, Aysin

    2017-01-01

    The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste. Resultantly, the long important stakeholder, the informal sector has been sidelined and left to face the adverse impacts of privatization. There is hardly any recognition of its contributions or any attempt to integrate it within the formal waste management systems. The study investigates the impacts of privatization on the waste pickers in waste recycling operations. Highlighting the other dimension of waste collection and management in urban India the study focuses on the waste pickers and small time informal scrap dealers and this is done by taking the case study of Amritsar city, which is an important historic centre and a metropolitan city in the state of Punjab, India. The paper develops an analytical framework, drawing from literature review to analyze the impacts. In conclusion, it supports the case for involving informal waste sector towards achieving sustainable waste management in the city. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Cost-estimation of Mechanical Pre-treatment Lines of Municipal Solid Waste in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Āriņa Dace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of refuse derived fuel from municipal solid waste in future shall play a strategic role in an integrated waste management system. The amount of landfilled biodegradable materials thus will be diminished according to provisions of the 1999 Waste Landfill Directive. The aim of this article is to evaluate cost effectiveness based on cost evaluation of the different complication of the waste pre-treatment equipment complectation and based on regenerable waste quantities in Latvia. The comparison of cost estimates is done in 3 scenarios considering potential waste quantities in Latvia: Scenario I - planned annual waste quantity is 20 kT; Scenario II - 40 kT and Scenario III - 160 kT. An increase in amount of waste and processing capacity means the decrease in costs of mechanical pre-treatment of 1 ton of waste. Thus, costs of mechanical sorting line under different scenarios with capacities of 10 t h-1, 20 t h-1 and 80 t h-1 are EUR 32 per t, EUR 24 per t and EUR 15 per t, respectively. Most feasible cost for a set of mechanical pre-treatment equipment for the capacity of 10 t h-1 is EUR 32 per t by using rotating drum screener with the following manual sorting. Mechanical pre-treatment equipment of unsorted municipal waste is economically nonbeneficial, when the use of fine (biologically degradable fraction is not possible. As the sorting of biodegradable kitchen waste is not developed under the current waste management system in Latvia, the lines for mechanical pre-treatment of household waste would be better to install in landfills.

  16. Planning of municipal solid waste management under dual uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Guo H; Nie, Xianghui; Chen, Yumin; Lin, Qianguo

    2010-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a complex and multidisciplinary problem, involving a number of impact factors associated with various uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid interval-parameter possibilistic programming (IPP) approach was developed and applied for planning municipal solid waste management under dual uncertainties. The IPP improves upon the existing management approaches by allowing possibility distributions of the lower and upper bounds of some interval parameters in the objective function and interval information in the modelling coefficients to be effectively incorporated within its optimization. By introducing the concept of possibilistic interval numbers, the dual uncertainties can be communicated into the optimization process and the resulting solutions, such that the generated decision schemes can effectively reflect the highly complex system features under uncertainty. The results of the case study indicate that useful information can be obtained for providing feasible decision schemes for waste flow allocation. Different decision schemes can be generated by adjusting waste flow allocation patterns within the solution intervals. Lower decision variable values should be used to obtain lower system cost of waste treatment and disposal under advantageous conditions, and higher decision variable values should be used under demanding conditions (worst case conditions). A strong desire to acquire the lower system cost will lead to the decreased probability of meeting the treatment and disposal requirements (i.e. the increased risk of unforeseen conditions); willingness to accept the upper limit of the system cost will guarantee that waste treatment and disposal requirements are met.

  17. Survey of minipower plant for municipal solid waste firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkkiniemi, R.; Hyoety, P.; Saiha, E.

    1999-01-01

    Dumping of municipal waste to disposal areas has caused environmental problems, and this has led to more sophisticated disposal systems and high prices. That and a general demand to reduce the quantity of waste require new solutions, and a question has been arisen whether combustion could be used to treat waste. This project is concentrating to bum waste in a small-scale power plant. The background is one 10-MW pilot in Tampere city based on smelting furnace and a 0.3-MW pyrolyse furnace. The results of these from the viewpoint of operation and effluent were satisfactory and the burning process used is in line with the latest regulations. The second aspect is the economy of waste handling. The minipower plant is designed for reasonable small municipalities, abt 20 000 inhabitants or 1 - 20 MW heat input. According to several feasibility studies this method is the cheapest way to handle waste. A local heat demand is used to support the economy. The prices of products, heat and power, and cost are of the same level as the market prices. Thus, we expect a economical and environmentally safe operation with the minipower plant and it will also give a hint to solve a higher capacity demand of one unit. (orig.)

  18. Waste Management Policy In Tourism Area of Saensuk Municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsathon Kaewmanee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saensuk Municipality is a famous tourism city in Thailand, especially Bangsaen beach. In supporting the tourism activity, it has waste managing method by using new generation administrator and technologies. However, the waste problem happened in Saensuk Municipality is included the human resource ability, technical facility, and the amount of waste. By using the qualitative descriptive method and doing a series of interview to selected informants, the researcher studied and analyzed the problem, factors, and solutions of the issue. This study found that the nature of the beach and the visitor behavior is among the reason behind the large amount of waste daily in the site. Moreover, the regulation by the local government is sufficient to cover the issue if implemented fully. The study shows that the city had implemented the good governance idea in several instances, and giving the waste management to the private sector is one of the optionsto resolve the problem since the quality of the work could be improved. Keywords:waste management,public policy, tourism area, Thailand

  19. Evaluation of environmental impacts from municipal solid waste management in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas H; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A new computer based life cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) was used to evaluate a municipal solid waste system with the purpose of identifying environmental benefits and disadvantages by anaerobic digestion of source-separated household waste and incineration. The most important processes that were included in the study are optical sorting and pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion with heat and power recovery, incineration with heat and power recovery, use of digested biomass on arable soils and finally, an estimated surplus consumption of plastic in order to achieve a higher quality and quantity of organic waste to the biogas plant. Results showed that there were no significant differences in most of the assessed environmental impacts for the two scenarios. However, the use of digested biomass may cause a potential toxicity impact on human health due to the heavy metal content of the organic waste. A sensitivity analysis showed that the results are sensitive to the energy recovery efficiencies, to the extra plastic consumption for waste bags and to the content of heavy metals in the waste. A model such as EASEWASTE is very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences of different waste management strategies and technologies, and can be used for most waste material fractions existing in household waste.

  20. Recovery of ethanol from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for disposal of MSW that reduce the potential for groundwater or air pollution will be essential in the near future. Seventy percent of MSW consists of paper, food waste, yard waste, wood and textiles. These lignocellulosic components may be hydrolyzed to sugars with mineral acids, and the sugars may be subsequently fermented to ethanol or other industrial chemicals. This chapter presents data on the hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic fraction of MSW with concentrated HC1 and the fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. Yields, kinetics, and rates are presented and discussed. Design and economic projections for a commercial facility to produce 20 MM gallons of ethanol per year are developed. Novel concepts to enhance the economics are discussed

  1. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the...

  2. Fuel-related Emissions from the Croatian Municipal Solid Waste Collection System in 2013: Mixed Municipal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Grbeš

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste removal (collection and landfilling in the Republic of Croatia is the responsibility of the municipalities and local governments in 21 administrative units (counties. They entrust the respective economic activity to 208 private and public companies specialized in waste collection and treatment. Organised waste collection affects 99 % of the population. The mixed waste from households and enterprises is at various frequencies collected at the door (kerbside collection and transported by truck to a landfill, or processing plant. This article aims to estimate fuel consumption and fuel-related airborne emissions from the collection of mixed municipal waste in Croatia in 2013. The input data and emission results are shown for Croatia and each Croatian county, in total, and relative to the number of inhabitants and mass of collected waste. Annual consumption of diesel for the collection of mixed waste is estimated at 10.6 million litres. At the county level, fuel consumption ranges from 87 thousand litres to 2.2 million litres, on average 504 thousand litres per county. Total emission of CO2 is estimated at 28 000 t, which at county level ranges from 231 to 5711 t. Relative emission ranges from 3.3 to 13 kg CO2 per capita (average 6.6 kg per capita, or 8.6–28.1 kg t−1 of municipal waste (average 17 kg CO2 per ton of municipal waste. The average values of CO2 emission from MSW collection that should also be the target values are 7–9 kg for mixed waste, and 8–15 kg CO2 for separate waste streams. Apart from CO2 emission, this research estimates emission of other, diesel combustion related compounds, such as NOx, CO, lubricant related CO2, NMVOC, PM, f-BC, N2O, SO2, NH3, Pb, ID[1,2,3-cd]P, B[k]F, B[b]F, B[a]P, as well as total distance of transport.

  3. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastics/rubber recycling units. (2) Your unit does not combust any other municipal solid waste. (j) Cement... municipal waste combustion unit is subject to a federally enforceable permit limiting municipal solid waste... daily records of the amount of municipal solid waste combusted. (b) Small power production units. Your...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units For the following municipal waste combustion units You must...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit, then...

  6. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  7. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.-T.; Lu, W.-J.

    2009-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including......, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used...... where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection....

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by th eir use it is possible to reduce the waste......, waste is subject to chemical treatments through air or/and steam utilization; the result is a synthesis gas, called “Syngas” which is principally composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Traces of hydrogen sulfide could also be present which can easily be separated in a desulfurization reactor...... studied to optimize the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification...

  9. An efficient method of material recycling of municipal plastic waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Michálková, Danuše; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2004), s. 975-979 ISSN 0141-3910. [IUPAC Microsymposium on Degradation, Stabilisation and Recycling of Polymers /42./. Prague, 14.07.2003-17.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : recycling * municipal plastic waste * compatibilisation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  10. Use of additive compatibilization for recycling of municipal plastics waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Michálková, Danuše

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, 7/8 (2002), s. 534-537 ISSN 0032-2725. [UNIDO Workshop on Environmentally Degradable Plastics . Lodz-Pabianice, 04.06.2001-08.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4050008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : municipal plastics waste * recycling * compatibilization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.703, year: 2002

  11. A NEW APPROACH ABOUT WASTE INTEGRATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dragomir

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An important problem about the environment protection în our country is a good wastes management, who referon the collecting, transport, treatment, processing and turn to account of these wastes. There are two importantstypes of wastes : municipally wastes (household and the wastes who result from trade, institutions, construction,demolition, mud from purging station and another category industries.

  12. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Recycling an Action along with Resistive Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Tirgar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In the current situation, it seems that municipal solid waste recycling despite hygienic, economic and environmental aspects is important from sociopolitical aspect. The aim of this study was to determine waste recycling condition and the knowledge of households about resistive economics, as an action along with a policy.Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among 330 family of Amirkola city in Mazandaran province during 2013. The samples were collected from 33 regions using cluster sampling method. The data was collected by means of researcher-made data collection sheet and analyzed using descriptive statistical indices and Chi- square test, and p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The results showed that the mean (SD of age were 39.1 (10.9 years and 176 (53% female. More than half of households (56.9% were recycling municipal solid waste (plastic, paper, glass, and food residue which the share of plastic, and paper were the highest. Only 59 (29% were familiar with resistive economics, but there was not any significant relation between waste recycling and their awareness of resistive economics.Conclusion: The limitation of knowledge about resistive economics, and their weakness of practice about waste recycling imply that the authorities should have definite programs in order to increase family information and participations in social issues.

  14. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.S. [CSI Resource Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, and geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste management as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Japanese have not defined a specific hierarchical preference for alternative waste management practices, i.e., waste reduction, reuse and recycling, combustion, composting, and landfill disposal. However, in marked contrast to the US approach, the Japanese system relies heavily on waste combustion, with and without energy recovery. {open_quotes}Discards{close_quotes}, as the term is used in this paper, refers to all materials considered used and spent by residential and commercial generators. That which is discarded (whether recyclable or nonrecyclable) by a municipality is referred to as MSW. This paper provides an overview of MSW management practices and private-sector recycling in Japan. Estimates of the total generation of residential and commercial discards and their disposition are also presented. Such an overview of Japanese practices can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of US integrated solid waste management programs. Of the estimated 61.3 to 72.1 million tons of residential and commercial discards generated in Japan during its 1989 fiscal year (April 1, 1989, through March 31, 1990), an estimated 55 to 64 percent was incinerated; 15 to 28 percent was recycled (only 2 to 3 percent through municipal recycling activities); less than 0.1 percent was composted or used as animal feed; and 17 to 20 percent was landfilled. Including ash disposal, 26 to 30 percent, by weight, of the gross discards were landfilled.

  15. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare Babatunde Femi

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This p...

  18. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  20. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can...... codigestion to identify applications of. codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal...... wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes. industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey...

  1. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m −3 ) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m −3 ). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m −3 as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale

  3. To study the municipal solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The solid waste management is a very complicated specially when it must be environmental friendly. In the present life, power energy is being more expensive than ever before and human off spring is struggling td acquire cheap ways of getting energy. At the same time, he is facing another problem of waste disposal pollution in the environment, which is a by-product of his industries and population, and when it would be hazardous to life, it will be a more serious problem. In this study, an idea is made to use garbage as an alternate fuel and the analysis of ingredients is done to compare it with the usual fuel i.e. coal. On the other hand, municipal waste (garbage) disposal will be automatically solved. (author)

  4. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  5. Exergy analysis of aluminum recovery from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Allegrini, Elisa; Laner, D.

    Two main challenges, associated with the recovery of aluminum from state-of-the-art municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, are yield as well as quality losses of metallic aluminum due to particle surface oxidation and presence of impurities. Yet, in the framework of life cycle assessment...... (LCA) a direct measure for expressing the quality of primary and secondary resources is missing. In view of a possible solution, exergy has been proposed as a concept to evaluate the quality of resources. In this paper, LCA and exergy analyses for two waste treatment approaches are conducted...... in parallel to each other, with a goal to evaluate the added value of exergy for LCA studies in the resource recovery context. The functional unit is the treatment of 1 ton MSW. Two alternative approaches for recovering aluminum from MSW directed to a waste-to-energy plant are considered. A) MSW is treated...

  6. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW...

  7. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 900...

  8. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... 40 CFR 258.4. III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews This action approves State solid waste...

  9. Enhancing municipal solid waste recycling through reorganizing waste pickers: A case study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Luo, Zhanbin; Yang, Yongjun; Liu, Gang-Jun; Ma, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Waste pickers (WPs) play an indispensable role by helping to control municipal solid waste (MSW). However, they constitute the entry-level workforce of the waste recycling industry and receive little attention from the general public. In China, approximately 4 million WPs make their living by collecting MSW recyclable materials. To assess the role of WPs, an extensive social survey including urban management decision-makers, recycling industrial circle insiders, WPs, as well as common citizen respondents has been conducted in the city of Nanjing, China. The results confirmed that 70-80% of recyclable MSW materials were collected by WPs in the informal sector, which are an integral component of the waste recycling system. In Nanjing, the recyclable material collected annually by WPs is about 505,000 tons, which creates annual economic value of about 78.6-84.7 million USD. However, WPs account for only 6.8-7.3% of the entire industrial chain of the recycling economy. In Nanjing, WPs are able to save an annual MSW disposal cost of about 17.6-22.0 million USD. The resource recovery rate is also increased by 1.9-8.0%. The survey results support the experience of establishing a community-based semi-official picker organizational framework, accompanied by relevant laws, regulations, and preferential policies that would improve the resource recovery rate and pickers' living and working conditions in order to achieve more effective and hazard-free MSW resource utilization. It is anticipated that the results of this research will be instrumental for the improvement of the MSW recycling system and WP management in other cities in China and other developing countries.

  10. Municipal solid waste management in China: status, problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Tan, Soon Keat; Gersberg, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition in China, providing an overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and some suggestions for improving MSW systems in the future. In China, along with urbanization, population growth and industrialization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been increasing rapidly. The total MSW amount increased from 31.3 million tonnes in 1980 to 212 million tonnes in 2006, and the waste generation rate increased from 0.50 kg/capita/day in 1980 to 0.98 kg/capita/year in 2006. Currently, waste composition in China is dominated by a high organic and moisture content, since the concentration of kitchen waste in urban solid waste makes up the highest proportion (at approximately 60%) of the waste stream. The total amount of MSW collected and transported was 148 million tonnes in 2006, of which 91.4% was landfilled, 6.4% was incinerated and 2.2% was composted. The overall MSW treatment rate in China was approximately 62% in 2007. In 2007, there were 460 facilities, including 366 landfill sites, 17 composing plants, and 66 incineration plants. This paper also considers the challenges faced and opportunities for MSW management in China, and a number of recommendations are made aimed at improving the MSW management system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Full-scale biodrying process of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębicka Marlena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in the full-scale waste biodrying reactor. The studied facility includes in the biological stage a rectangular-shaped, galvanized steel reactor equipped with a module for active aeration connected with a stove and a bio-filter for removing odours. The undersize fraction (Ø <80 mm of the municipal solid waste (MSW that undergoes mechanical pretreatment is treated by 14th days in the 150 m3 capasity reactor. Initial moisture content of the untreated waste was 54.65%. Moisture content was declined gradually during biodrying process. Temperature changes during 14th days of biodrying process were monitored with the maximum temperature 70°C. To assess the degree of stabilization of the biodried waste, the determination of the O2 uptake was measured. The oxygen demand of untreated waste was 53.16 mg O2/g d.m. and after 14th days for biodried waste oxygen consumption was 19.78 mg O2/g d.m. The results obtained in studies by respirometric dynamic method of oxygen uptake (expressed as O2/96h parameter had been compared to the results performed using the static method, where AT4 is the applied indicator.

  12. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Waste Collection Service in Gorkha Municipality of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan Maskey; Mrinila Singh

    2017-01-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a growing problem in urban areas of Nepal where municipalities are severely constrained by budget to manage it effectively. Collecting fees from the public can aid finance for improving waste management service. This study evaluates willingness to pay (WTP) by 401 households, selected using a stratified sampling method from all 15 wards of Gorkha municipality of Nepal for improved waste collection service and the factors influencing it. We employed a contin...

  13. Toxicological assessment of closed municipal solid-waste landfill impact to the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jūratė Žaltauskaitė; Iveta Vaitonyte

    2017-01-01

    The large number of municipal solid waste landfills in Lithuania poses a serious environmental threat to the quality of soil, surface and ground water. The physicochemical characteristics and toxicity of closed Panevėžys municipal solid-waste landfill leachate and its impact to soil and surface water were assessed. Landfill leachate is complex mixture of various inorganic and organic compounds. The toxicity of municipal solid waste landfill leachate and surface water was evaluated using bioas...

  14. Evaluation of composting as a strategy for managing organic wastes from a municipal market in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinas Masó, Montserrat; Bonmatí Blasi, August

    2008-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate alternatives to the solid waste management of a Central American municipal market located in Estelí, Nicaragua. The municipal solid waste from the local market is the second largest contributor to the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. Waste from the market without any previous sorting or treatment is open dumped. The options evaluated in this study were windrow composting, windrow composting with yard waste, bokashi and vermicompost. Significant differences between the properties of composts produced were found; however, all of them reduce the initial waste volume and are potential useful agronomic products for a survival agrarian milieu.

  15. Renewable municipal waste barometer - EurObserv'ER - November 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    7,7 Mtoe of primary energy produced from the combustion of renewable municipal waste in the European Union in 2009. Approximately half the energy produced in Union European's municipal waste incineration plants is obtained from fermentescible waste (ie biomass waste). To date, incineration is still the main energy conversion channel for renewable municipal waste, for in 2009, biomass energy output stood at 7.7 million toe, which is a 3.3% increase on 2008. Furthermore, this amount could be doubled, assuming a constant level of waste, by investing in modernisation and combustion efficiency improvements

  16. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  17. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez, Antoni; González, Aina; Puig, Ignasi

    2011-03-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process performance and the characteristics of the compost obtained when compared with that of composting OFMSW without diapers. The experiments demonstrated that the composting process presented similar trends in terms of evolution of routine parameters (temperature, oxygen content, moisture and organic matter content) and biological activity (measured as respiration index). In relation to the quality of both composts, it can be concluded that both materials were identical in terms of stability, maturity and phytotoxicity and showed no presence of pathogenic micro-organisms. However, compost coming from OFMSW with a 3% of disposable diapers presented a slightly higher level of zinc, which can prevent the use of large amounts of diapers mixed with OFMSW.

  18. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  20. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Luong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW management is currently one of the major environmental problems facing by Vietnam. Improper management of MSW has caused adverse impacts on the environment, community health, and social-economic development. This study attempts to provide a review of the generation and characterization, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW to evaluate the current status and identify the problems of MSW management practices in Vietnam. Finally, this study is concluded with fruitful recommendations which may be useful in encouraging the responsible agencies to work towards the further improvement of the existing MSW management system.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21Citation:  Luong, N.D., Giang, H.M., Thanh, B.X. and Hung, N.T.  2013. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.17-21

  1. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakallioglu, T.; Bakirdoven, M.; Temizel, I. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Demirel, B., E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Copty, N.K.; Onay, T.T.; Uyguner Demirel, C.S. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Karanfil, T. [Environmental Engineering and Earth Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Leaching potential of 3 different types of nano-ZnO in real fresh MSW was investigated. • Batch tests were conducted at different pH, ionic strength and ZnO concentrations. • Most of the added nano-ZnO mass was retained within the solid waste matrix. • The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. • A kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed to analyze ZnO behavior. - Abstract: Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix.

  2. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  4. Development of demand forecasting tool for natural resources recouping from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Atiq Uz; Lehmann, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable waste management requires an integrated planning and design strategy for reliable forecasting of waste generation, collection, recycling, treatment and disposal for the successful development of future residential precincts. The success of the future development and management of waste relies to a high extent on the accuracy of the prediction and on a comprehensive understanding of the overall waste management systems. This study defies the traditional concepts of waste, in which waste was considered as the last phase of production and services, by putting forward the new concept of waste as an intermediate phase of production and services. The study aims to develop a demand forecasting tool called 'zero waste index' (ZWI) for measuring the natural resources recouped from municipal solid waste. The ZWI (ZWI demand forecasting tool) quantifies the amount of virgin materials recovered from solid waste and subsequently reduces extraction of natural resources. In addition, the tool estimates the potential amount of energy, water and emissions avoided or saved by the improved waste management system. The ZWI is tested in a case study of waste management systems in two developed cities: Adelaide (Australia) and Stockholm (Sweden). The ZWI of waste management systems in Adelaide and Stockholm is 0.33 and 0.17 respectively. The study also enumerates per capita energy savings of 2.9 GJ and 2.83 GJ, greenhouse gas emissions reductions of 0.39 tonnes (CO2e) and 0.33 tonnes (CO2e), as well as water savings of 2.8 kL and 0.92 kL in Adelaide and Stockholm respectively.

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Economic Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Management of Toyohashi City, Japan: Evidences from Environmental Kuznets Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Yuzuru; Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Hossain, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    The study of Toyohashi cityfs economic growth and resultant growth in municipal solid waste management were empirically examined by the relation between city economic growth, city expenditure for solid waste management and municipal solid waste. The growth in the economy and the population has increased discharge of municipal solid waste in Toyohashi city. The economic size of the city is identified as a strong explanatory variable. Various kinds of municipal solid waste were generated with ...

  8. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  9. A municipal waste incineration plant with waste transportation by railway; Une usine de valorisation thermique des dechets urbains avec liaison ferroviaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The new incineration plant for municipal waste of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland features quite specific aspects. It is designed to yearly process 160,000 t of municipal refuse from 145 municipalities. 60 MW of heat produced in the two 40 MW ovens are fed into the Lausanne district heating network and the remaining 20 MW are used for power generation. The electricity produced corresponds to the consumption of 18,000 households. To avoid pollution in the plant neighbourhood, the major part of the waste reaches the plant through a 3.8 km tunnel, the transportation facility being an underground train. At the supply end of the tunnel, which is located in an industrial area, containers full of waste are readily transferred from the collecting lorries to the railway wagons. This transfer is done without any crane. The incineration plant as well as ventilation and lighting in the building are highly integrated and automatically controlled.

  10. Change in the Mass of Municipal Waste Collected from Households in Individual Voivodships

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zbroński

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of change in the mass of municipal waste collected in households of individual voivodships, after Poland accession to the European Union was realized in the paper. The estimated mass of waste collected in Poland was about 10 million tonnes per year, 72% of which was from household waste, 23% came from public and commercial waste and 5% originated from municipal services in the years 2005-2015. At the time in Poland, total municipal waste collected in households was resulting in 8...

  11. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation. In these cases electricity and ethanol are the products considered, but other products and attempts at symbiosis can be made. The four technologies are in various states of commercial development. To highlight their relative complexities some adjustable parameters which are important for the operability of each process are discussed. While these technologies need to be considered for specific locations and circumstances, generalized economic and environmental information suggests relative comparisons for newly conceptualized processes. The results of industrial ecology-based analysis suggest that anaerobic digestion may improve seven emission categories, while fermentation, gasification, and incineration successively improve fewer emissions. A conceptual level analysis indicates that gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation alternatives lead to positive economic results. In each case the alternatives and their assumptions need further analysis for any particular community. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    -combustion in existing power plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production were concluded to be the most favourable options with respect to their environmental impacts (particularly global warming) and energy performance. The optimization of the energy and environmental performance of the waste...... for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co...

  13. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  14. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  15. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.castelli@unikore.it [Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kore University of Enna, 94100 Enna (Italy); Maugeri, Michele [Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Catania, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

  16. Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele

    2014-02-01

    In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the "Cozzo Vuturo" landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for "fresh" and "degraded waste" have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  18. Integrated solid waste management of Sevierville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Sevierville, Tennessee integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  19. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily 134 Cs and 137 Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added 133 Cs (stable nuclide) or 134 Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, 133 Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. 134 Cs behaved in a similar fashion as 133 Cs. We found through TG–DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. - Highlights: • Behaviors of Cs on the incineration of the model waste were investigated. • More Cs was moved to fly ash with increasing of equivalence ratio and temperature. • Chemical forms of Cs in the fly ash

  20. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  1. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  2. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the ...

  3. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government.

  4. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  5. The impact of municipal solid waste disposal in Ado- Ekiti metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    material are often referred to as Municipal Solid Waste. (MSW). Municipal Solid Waste is useless ... Ekiti is not an exemption. The environmental impact assessments of heavy metals. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ... All data generated were analyzed statistically by calculating mean, coefficient of correlation, alienation and ...

  6. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  7. Life-cycle assessment of the municipal solid waste management system in Hangzhou, China (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Lu, Wen-Jing; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    With the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts and benefits of the current municipal solid waste management system and two modified systems, EASEWASTE, a life-cycle-based model, was used to evaluate the waste system of Hangzhou city in China. An integrated model was established, including waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment, disposal and accompanying external processes. The results showed that CH(4) released from landfilling was the primary pollutant contributing to global warming, and HCl and NH(3) from incineration contributed most to acidification. Material recycling and incineration with energy recovery were important because of the induced savings in material production based on virgin materials and in energy production based on coal combustion. A modified system in which waste is transported to the nearest incinerators would be relatively better than the current system, mainly due to the decrease of pollution from landfilled waste and the increase in energy production from waste avoiding energy production by traditional power plants. A ban on free plastic bags for shopping was shown to reduce most environmental impacts due to saved oil resources and other materials used in producing the plastic bags. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. LCA methodology and a model like EASEWASTE are very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences, and can be used for decision support and strategic planning in developing countries such as China where pollution control has become increasingly important with the rapid increase of waste generation as well as the increasing public awareness of environmental protection.

  8. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A.; Euler, H.; Klopotek, F.; Kellner, C. [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Class I Nitrogen Oxides Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa,b,c 3 Table 3 to Subpart BBBB of Part... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 60, Subpt. BBBB, Table 3 Table... Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa,b,c Municipal waste combustion technology Limits for class I municipal...

  10. SOLID WASTE OPTIONS FOR MUNICIPAL PLANNERS - VERSION 3.1 - A SOFTWARE TOOL FOR PRELIMINARY PLANNING - USER DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities face many challenges in managing nonhazardous solid waste. For instance, landfills are reaching capacity throughout the country, tipping fees are increasing, and regulations affecting the disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) are being promulgated ...

  11. An exploration into municipal waste charges for environmental management at local level: The case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sastre Sanz, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population. The qualitative benchmarking of municipal waste charges shows that flat fees are frequent, whereas variable fees are set according to criteria that are weakly related to waste generation. The average fee per household is €82.2 per year, which does not provide full cost recovery. The current configuration of municipal waste charges penalises taxpayers contributing to source separation of waste, while subsidising less environmentally friendly behaviours. In this sense, municipal waste charges in Spain are far from applying the polluter pays principle. Furthermore, it is argued that municipal waste charges are ineffective for promoting the proper application of the so-called 'waste hierarchy'.

  12. Analysis of municipal waste generation rate in Poland compared to selected European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klojzy-Karczmarczyk, Beata; Makoudi, Said

    2017-10-01

    The generated municipal waste rates provided in the planning documents are a tool for forecasting the mass of waste generated in individual waste management regions. An important issue is the decisive separation of two concepts: waste generated and waste collected. The study includes analysis of the generation rate for Poland with division into urban and rural areas. The estimated and projected rate of municipal waste generation for Poland provided in subsequent editions of National Waste Management Plans (KPGO) changed since 2000 within wide range from about 300 to more than 500 kg per capita in an individual year (kg/pc/year). Currently, the National Waste Management Plan for the years 2017-2022 estimates municipal waste generation rate at approx. 270 kg/per capita/year with a projected increase to 330 kg/per capita/year in 2030. Most European countries adopt higher municipal waste generation rate, often exceeding 600 kg/per capita/year. The objective of the paper is therefore to analyze the causes of this difference in the declared values. The morphological composition of municipal waste stream in Poland and in selected European countries (e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland) was analyzed. At present it is not possible to balance the value of the generation rate with the rate of waste collection in Poland. The conducted analyzes allow for determining a number of reasons for variation of the rate value in particular countries, mostly morphological composition of municipal waste, inclusion of household-like waste from infrastructure facilities or not and amount of waste collected in rural areas. The differences in the generation rates and provided possible reasons indicate the need to harmonize the methodology for estimating rates of municipal waste generation in various countries, including Poland.

  13. Analysis of municipal waste generation rate in Poland compared to selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generated municipal waste rates provided in the planning documents are a tool for forecasting the mass of waste generated in individual waste management regions. An important issue is the decisive separation of two concepts: waste generated and waste collected. The study includes analysis of the generation rate for Poland with division into urban and rural areas. The estimated and projected rate of municipal waste generation for Poland provided in subsequent editions of National Waste Management Plans (KPGO changed since 2000 within wide range from about 300 to more than 500 kg per capita in an individual year (kg/pc/year. Currently, the National Waste Management Plan for the years 2017-2022 estimates municipal waste generation rate at approx. 270 kg/per capita/year with a projected increase to 330 kg/per capita/year in 2030. Most European countries adopt higher municipal waste generation rate, often exceeding 600 kg/per capita/year. The objective of the paper is therefore to analyze the causes of this difference in the declared values. The morphological composition of municipal waste stream in Poland and in selected European countries (e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland was analyzed. At present it is not possible to balance the value of the generation rate with the rate of waste collection in Poland. The conducted analyzes allow for determining a number of reasons for variation of the rate value in particular countries, mostly morphological composition of municipal waste, inclusion of household-like waste from infrastructure facilities or not and amount of waste collected in rural areas. The differences in the generation rates and provided possible reasons indicate the need to harmonize the methodology for estimating rates of municipal waste generation in various countries, including Poland.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Systems Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolorchimeg Byamba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted in Ulaanbaatar (UB, Mongolia with a view of finding ways of making its municipal solid waste management (MSWM more efficient by minimizing the negative impact of waste on the environment and public health whilst increasing its resource efficiency in a manner that is economically and financially viable. In this study, “Wasteaware” benchmark indicators were applied to assess the current system for MSWM in UB according to its physical and governance features. Data were obtained from site visits, interviews with the key stakeholders, and consulting of official documents and reports. The results of benchmark indicators showed that, in terms of Public Health, Environmental Control and Institutional Aspects, UB had surpassed the levels of low- and lower-middle-income countries and sufficed the prerequisites for modernizing its waste management system. However, there are still some major steps ahead to fully transition to a modern system. Our study brought significant contributions by filling the existing literature gaps for UB and identified its key strengths and areas for improvement. We conclude that an improvement in data collection and reporting, and widespread consultation with all stakeholders would impact positively on the improvement of the efficiency of the MSWM in UB and other developing countries.

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  16. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  17. Change in the Mass of Municipal Waste Collected from Households in Individual Voivodships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zbroński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of change in the mass of municipal waste collected in households of individual voivodships, after Poland accession to the European Union was realized in the paper. The estimated mass of waste collected in Poland was about 10 million tonnes per year, 72% of which was from household waste, 23% came from public and commercial waste and 5% originated from municipal services in the years 2005-2015. At the time in Poland, total municipal waste collected in households was resulting in 89% of the mixed waste stream and in 11% of the selected waste stream. The general and periodic changes in the mass of mixed and selected municipal waste collected in households were analyzed on the basis of data by Central Statistical Office. The greatest amount mixed municipal waste was collected in the Masovian Voivodship (15% and the least in Świętokrzyskie Voivodship (2%, but the majority selected municipal waste was collected in the Silesian Voivodship (17%, whole the least amount – in Podlasie Voivodship (2%. In addition, the maximum periodic and annual rates of change in the mass of collected waste in individual voivodships the years 2005-2015 have also been determined. The greatest increase in the periodic rate of change in the mass of mixed municipal waste was recorded in the Lesser Poland Voivodship (26% and the biggest decrease in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship (-15%, while the greatest increase in the periodic rate of change in the mass of selected municipal waste was found in the Lodz Voivodship (22 times and the smallest increase in the Opole Voivodship (5 times.

  18. Epidemiological risks of endoparasitoses spread by municipal waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudlová A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasite germs (cysts, oocysts, protozoa, and helminth eggs as an indirect detection factor of endoparasitoses circulation in the environment, was examined in raw municipal wastewater, sludge and biologically cleaned waste water. Examination of municipal wastewater and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in east Slovakia, from various fractions of municipal wastewater, confirmed 35.87 % positivity of samples for the endoparasitic germs. Among of all analysed samples 11.09 % were protozoan oo(cysts and 20.87 % were helminth eggs. 3.91 % of samples showed positivity to both the helminth eggs and protozoan oo(cysts. In the raw wastewater the protozoa comprised of Giardia spp. (1.08 % and Entamoeba spp. (1.08 %. The helminth eggs primarily consisted of Ascaris spp. (4.35 % and strongyle-type eggs (3.26 %. No germs of protozoa or helminths were found in the treated wastewater. However, the highest presence of the germs was found in drained stabilised sludge. The average number of oo(cysts/kg was 2.86±0.24 and the average number of helminth eggs/kg was 5.77±0.09. In all kinds of sludge, obtained during the process of wastewater treatment, there were protozoan (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp. and helminths eggs (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis spp., or strongyle-type eggs presented. In drained (condensed stabilised sludge the eggs of Capillaria spp. and Toxocara spp. were also detected. From the epidemiological aspect the sewage sludge, due to high concentration of protozoal oo(cysts or helminth eggs, represents a significant epidemiological risk for the endoparasitoses dissemination.

  19. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  3. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  4. PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Paolucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification could play an important role in the treatment of municipal solid wastes. However, some problems may arise when using unsorted materials due to the difficulties of obtaining a feed with consistent physical characteristics and chemical properties. To overcome this problem, a new type of gasifier consisting of three stages, namely a pyrolytic stage followed by gasification and a reforming stage, was considered. Theoretical calculations made on the proposed gasification scheme shows better performance than a previously studied two-stage gasifier because of its ability of reaching the same final temperature of the syngas with a lower oxygen injection and a better oxygen partition ratio between the stages. The reduced amount of oxygen allows to obtain an improved syngas quality with higher return in the final products, such as hydrogen, electricity and so on.

  5. Decolorization and toxicity of municipal waste by horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellamatrice Priscila Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Municipal Station of Americana, SP, Brazil, treats a volume of 400 l s-1 of effluent, of domestic and textile origin, and produces about 20 t of sludge per day. The plant horseradish, which contains high amount of peroxidases, was able to decolorize this effluent in 2 h and the solid waste in 2 days, at concentrations of 10 and 50%, respectively. However, there was an increase in the toxicity for the bioassays with Hydra attenuatta, Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds, indicating formation of more toxic substances. Since horseradish showed the ability to decolorize these residues, it can be used as pre-treatment resulting in a sludge of less complex composition.

  6. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Endreddy Manikanta; Yasobant, Sandul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Waste management is a necessary activity around the world, but involves a variety of health hazards. In a developing country like India, municipal solid waste is collected manually requiring heavy physical activity. Among all occupational health issues, musculoskeletal problems are common among waste collectors in the form of nonfatal injuries because of the presence of such risk factors (lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing). We have thus conducted this study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among municipal solid waste (MSW) workers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using probability proportionate to size sampling, recruited 220 MSW workers from the Chennai Municipal Corporation, India for this study. A pretested validated questionnaire has been used to collect data on demographic and occupational history and information on musculoskeletal pain. Data analysis was performed using R software (3.0.1 version). Results: 70% of the participants reported that they had been troubled with musculoskeletal pain in one or more of the 9 defined body regions during the last 12 months, whereas 91.8% had pain during the last 7 days. Higher prevalence of symptoms in knees, shoulders, and lower back was found to be 84.5%, 74.5%, and 50.9% respectively. Female illiterate workers with lower socioeconomic status were found to have higher odds for MSDs. Similarly, higher body mass index having no physical activity increases the chance of odds having MSDs. Conclusion: The higher percentage of musculoskeletal symptoms among MSW workers could be attributed to the long duration of employment, the low job control, and the nature of their job, which is physically demanding. A workplace of health promotion model integration can minimize the reported high prevalence, and a prospective cohort study could be recommended further. PMID:26985409

  8. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endreddy Manikanta Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waste management is a necessary activity around the world, but involves a variety of health hazards. In a developing country like India, municipal solid waste is collected manually requiring heavy physical activity. Among all occupational health issues, musculoskeletal problems are common among waste collectors in the form of nonfatal injuries because of the presence of such risk factors (lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing. We have thus conducted this study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among municipal solid waste (MSW workers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using probability proportionate to size sampling, recruited 220 MSW workers from the Chennai Municipal Corporation, India for this study. A pretested validated questionnaire has been used to collect data on demographic and occupational history and information on musculoskeletal pain. Data analysis was performed using R software (3.0.1 version. Results: 70% of the participants reported that they had been troubled with musculoskeletal pain in one or more of the 9 defined body regions during the last 12 months, whereas 91.8% had pain during the last 7 days. Higher prevalence of symptoms in knees, shoulders, and lower back was found to be 84.5%, 74.5%, and 50.9% respectively. Female illiterate workers with lower socioeconomic status were found to have higher odds for MSDs. Similarly, higher body mass index having no physical activity increases the chance of odds having MSDs. Conclusion: The higher percentage of musculoskeletal symptoms among MSW workers could be attributed to the long duration of employment, the low job control, and the nature of their job, which is physically demanding. A workplace of health promotion model integration can minimize the reported high prevalence, and a prospective cohort study could be recommended further.

  9. The buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are numerous locations throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex where wastes have been buried in the ground or stored for future disposal. Much of this buried waste is contaminated with hazardous and radioactive materials. An extensive research program has been initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop and demonstrate advanced remediation techniques for DOE Complex buried waste. The purpose of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), is to develop a scientifically sound and deployable remediation system consisting of advanced technologies which address the buried waste characteristics of the DOE Complex. This comprehensive remediation system win include technologies for the entire remediation cycle (cradle-to-grave). Technologies developed and demonstrated within the BWID will be transferred to the DOE Complex sites with buried waste, to private industry, and to universities. Multidirectional technology transfer is encouraged by the BWID. Identification and evaluation of plausible technological solutions are an ongoing activity of the BWID. A number of technologies are currently under development throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, and universities. Technology integration mechanisms have been established by BWID to facilitate collaborative research and demonstration of applicable remedial technologies for buried waste. Successful completion of the BWID will result in the development of a proven and deployable system at the INEL and other DOE Complex buried waste sites, thereby supporting the DOE Complex's environmental restoration objectives

  10. Integrated scheduled waste management system in Kuala Lumpur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... requirements, packaging requirements, impact of scheduled wastes, recycling of scheduled wastes and recommendations. Besides ... specifically excludes municipal solid waste and municipal sewage. Scheduled wastes are ... scheduled waste generated in Kuala Lumpur (KL) and service provided for ...

  11. Integrated economic model of waste management: Case study for South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and discusses the developed integrated economic model of municipal waste management of the Czech Republic, which was developed by authors as a balanced network model for a set of sources (mostly municipalities of municipal solid waste connected with a set of chosen waste treatment facilities processing their waste. Model is implemented as a combination of several economic submodels including environmental and economic point of view. It enables to formulate the optimisation problem in a concise way and the resulting model is easily scalable. Model involves submodels of waste prevention, collection and transport optimization, submodels of waste energy utilization (incineration and biogas plants and material recycling (composting and submodel of landfilling. Its size (number of sources and facilities depends only upon available data. Its application is used in the case study of the South Moravia region with verification of using time series waste data. The results enable to improve decision making in waste management sector.

  12. Thermo-Catalytic Reforming of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadi, Miloud; Jaeger, Nils; Greenhalf, Charles; Santos, Joao; Conti, Roberto; Hornung, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) refers to a heterogeneous mixture composed of plastics, paper, metal, food and other miscellaneous items. Local authorities commonly dispose of this waste by either landfill or incineration which are both unsustainable practices. Disposing of organic wastes via these routes is also becoming increasingly expensive due to rising landfill taxes and transport costs. The Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process, is a proposed valorisation route to transform organic wastes and residues, such as MSW, into sustainable energy vectors including (H 2 rich synthesis gas, liquid bio-oil and solid char). The aim herein, was to investigate the conversion of the organic fraction of MSW into fuels and chemicals utilising the TCR technology in a 2kg/h continuous pilot scale reactor. Findings show that MSW was successfully processed with the TCR after carrying out a feedstock pre-treatment step. Approximately, 25wt.% of the feedstock was converted into phase separated liquids, composed of 19wt.% aqueous phase and 6wt.% organic phase bio-oil. The analysis of the bio-oil fraction revealed physical and chemical fuel properties, higher heating value (HHV) of 38MJ/kg, oxygen content <7wt.% and water content <4wt.%. Due to the bio-oil's chemical and physical properties, the bio-oil was found to be directly miscible with fossil diesel when blended at a volume ratio of 50:50. The mass balance closure was 44wt.% synthesis gas, with a H 2 content of 36vol% and HHV of 17.23MJ/Nm 3 , and 31 wt.% char with a HHV of 17MJ/kg. The production of high quantities of H 2 gas and highly de-oxygenated organic liquids makes downstream hydrogen separation and subsequent hydro-deoxygenation of the produced bio-oil a promising upgrading step to achieve drop-in transportation fuels from MSW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  14. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  15. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  16. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  17. Municipal solid waste source-separated collection in China: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Jun; Zhang Weiqian; Che Yue; Feng Di

    2011-01-01

    A pilot program focusing on municipal solid waste (MSW) source-separated collection was launched in eight major cities throughout China in 2000. Detailed investigations were carried out and a comprehensive system was constructed to evaluate the effects of the eight-year implementation in those cities. This paper provides an overview of different methods of collection, transportation, and treatment of MSW in the eight cities; as well as making a comparative analysis of MSW source-separated collection in China. Information about the quantity and composition of MSW shows that the characteristics of MSW are similar, which are low calorific value, high moisture content and high proportion of organisms. Differences which exist among the eight cities in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are presented in this paper. Only Beijing and Shanghai demonstrated a relatively effective result in the implementation of MSW source-separated collection. While the six remaining cities result in poor performance. Considering the current status of MSWM, source-separated collection should be a key priority. Thus, a wider range of cities should participate in this program instead of merely the eight pilot cities. It is evident that an integrated MSWM system is urgently needed. Kitchen waste and recyclables are encouraged to be separated at the source. Stakeholders involved play an important role in MSWM, thus their responsibilities should be clearly identified. Improvement in legislation, coordination mechanisms and public education are problematic issues that need to be addressed.

  18. Post-closure care of engineered municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Amalendu; Bhattacharya, Abhik

    2015-03-01

    Post-closure care is divided into perpetual care (PPC) and long-term care (LTC). Guidelines for post-closure care and associated costs are important for engineered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. In many states in the USA, landfill owners are required to set aside funds for 30-40 years of LTC. Currently there are no guidelines for PPC, which is also required. We undertook a pilot study, using two landfills (note: average landfill capacity 2.5 million MT MSW waste) in Wisconsin, to establish an approach for estimating the LTC period using field data and PPC funding need. Statistical analysis of time versus concentration data of selected leachate parameters showed that the concentration of most parameters is expected to be at or below the preventive action limit of groundwater and leachate volume will be very low, within 40 years of the LTC period. The gas extraction system may need to be continued for more than 100 years. Due to lack of data no conclusion could be made regarding adequacy of the LTC period for the groundwater monitoring system. The final cover must be maintained for perpetuity. The pilot study shows that although technology is available, the financial liability of maintaining a 'Dry Tomb' design for landfills is significantly higher than commonly perceived. The paper will help landfill professionals to estimate realistic post-closure funding and to develop field-based policies for LTC and PPC of engineered MSW landfills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to understand the gasification performance of municipal solid waste (MSW by means of thermodynamic analysis. Thermodynamic analysis is based on the assumption that the gasification reactions take place at the thermodynamic equilibrium condition, without regard to the reactor and process characteristics. First, model components of MSW including food, green wastes, paper, textiles, rubber, chlorine-free plastic, and polyvinyl chloride were chosen as the feedstock of a steam gasification process, with the steam temperature ranging from 973 K to 2273 K and the steam-to-MSW ratio (STMR ranging from 1 to 5. It was found that the effect of the STMR on the gasification performance was almost the same as that of the steam temperature. All the differences among the seven types of MSW were caused by the variation of their compositions. Next, the gasification of actual MSW was analyzed using this thermodynamic equilibrium model. It was possible to count the inorganic components of actual MSW as silicon dioxide or aluminum oxide for the purpose of simplification, due to the fact that the inorganic components mainly affected the reactor temperature. A detailed comparison was made of the composition of the gaseous products obtained using steam, hydrogen, and air gasifying agents to provide basic knowledge regarding the appropriate choice of gasifying agent in MSW treatment upon demand.

  20. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of mixing systems for biogasification of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Two mixing systems were tested for the efficiencies prevention of the formation of fibrous mats and stringers during the anaerobic digestion of a slurried mixture of preprocessed municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the production of methane gas. The first system was a mechanical agitation, a vessel centered rotary shaft with four blades at each of two levels to drive the slurry downward. The second system included three equidistantly placed gas gun assemblies that each produced bubbles at a constant rate to draw the slurry upward. The microbial culture was healthy in most tests, however, the mixing systems were not effective in preventing excessive fibrous mat and stringer formations. The energy recovered was only 50% of the energy available in the solid waste, and only four times greater than the mixing energy expended for that test. The solids accumulations were generally the same for the two mixing systems when they had common test conditions. In all tests, the percent solids for the top level were higher than those for the middle and bottom levels.

  2. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heating value prediction for combustible fraction of municipal solid waste in Semarang using backpropagation neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuriati, Ainie; Setiabudi, Wahyu; Nur, Muhammad; Istadi, Istadi

    2015-12-01

    Backpropgation neural network was trained to predict of combustible fraction heating value of MSW from the physical composition. Waste-to-Energy (WtE) is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The influence of the heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW) is very important on the implementation of WtE systems. As MSW is heterogeneous material, direct heating value measurements are often not feasible. In this study an empirical model was developed to describe the heating value of the combustible fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its physical composition of MSW using backpropagation neural network. Sampling process was carried out at Jatibarang landfill. The weight of each sorting sample taken from each discharged MSW vehicle load is 100 kg. The MSW physical components were grouped into paper wastes, absorbent hygiene product waste, styrofoam waste, HD plastic waste, plastic waste, rubber waste, textile waste, wood waste, yard wastes, kitchen waste, coco waste, and miscellaneous combustible waste. Network was trained by 24 datasets with 1200, 769, and 210 epochs. The results of this analysis showed that the correlation from the physical composition is better than multiple regression method .

  4. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  5. A review on automated sorting of source-separated municipal solid waste for recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundupalli, Sathish Paulraj; Hait, Subrata; Thakur, Atul

    2017-02-01

    A crucial prerequisite for recycling forming an integral part of municipal solid waste (MSW) management is sorting of useful materials from source-separated MSW. Researchers have been exploring automated sorting techniques to improve the overall efficiency of recycling process. This paper reviews recent advances in physical processes, sensors, and actuators used as well as control and autonomy related issues in the area of automated sorting and recycling of source-separated MSW. We believe that this paper will provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art and will help future system designers in the area. In this paper, we also present research challenges in the field of automated waste sorting and recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava County on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of air quality deterioration through emissions of toxic gas resulted from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste. The paper discusses in detail the qualitative and quantitative effects of municipal waste landfills of the main urban settlements in Suceava County (Suceava City municipal landfill and Gura Humorului, Rădăuţi, Siret, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban waste landfills on air quality. The dispersion of methane emitted from the largest MSW landfill in the county, the Suceava municipal landfill respectively, is also presented, taking into account seasonal, daytime and nighttime meteorological parameters

  7. The Impact of the Information Logistics Flows on the Processes of Municipal Wastes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samohovych Oleksandr S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying the impact of information incompleteness and asymmetry, irrational behavior of actors on the processes of municipal wastes management. It has been found that, at the present moment in Ukraine, quality of the transfer of information flows on the municipal wastes management between the State authority, local government bodies, enterprises, and the public stays at a low level. The urban sanitation schemes are being adopted and waste management technologies are being introduced at the local level, but the local government bodies have not been provided with sufficient information to make optimal decisions. Acting independently, the market mechanism would not be able to overcome the asymmetry of information in the short terms, and the State intervention would be needed to correct the information inadequacy of the municipal waste market. Prospect for future research will be determining conditions for an effective distribution of information flows in the process of municipal wastes management.

  8. Integral urban solid waste management program in a Mexican university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, R M; Turpin, S; Polanco, G; De Latorre, A; Delfín, I; Raygoza, I

    2008-01-01

    The Azcapotzalco campus of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM-A) has implemented an Integral Urban Solid Waste Management Program, "Segregation for a Better UAM Environment" (Separacción por un mejor UAMbiente). This program is directed to create awareness and involve the academic community of the UAM-A concerning the problem of solid wastes, at the same time fulfilling the local environmental legislation. The program consists in separating solid wastes into two classes: (1) recoverable wastes (glass and PET bottles, aluminum cans, Tetrapak packages) and (2) other wastes (non-recoverable). During the past three years, thanks to this program, the amount of solid wastes delivered monthly to municipal collecting services has been considerably reduced. In this period, UAM-A has sent to recycling: 2.2 tons of glass bottles; 2.3 tons of PET bottles; 1.2 tons of Tetrapak packages and 27.5 kg of aluminum cans.

  9. VERMICOMPOSTING AS AN ALTERNATIVE WAY OF BIODEGRADABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Sosnecka; Małgorzata Kacprzak; Agnieszka Rorat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of vermicomposting as a method of bioconversion of organic wastes, inter alia sewage sludge, biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes and green wastes. Vermicomposting is a biological process in which earthworms are employed to cooperate with microorganisms in order to convert organic wastes into a valuable product. It is considered as a relatively low cost and environmentally-friendly method of waste treatment. Nevertheless, as each b...

  10. Bioconversion of MSW [municipal solid waste] paper to fuel ethanol: A waste reduction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, M.

    1993-10-01

    Research is described which has developed a process for converting waste papers to ethanol. Representative waste papers mechanically separated from municipal solid waste including office papers and paperboard packaging were subjected to enzymatic liquefaction followed by saccharification combined with fermentation to yield 350-400 liters ethanol per ton of waste paper. With a 0.5% sulfuric acid pretreatment, yield can increase to 460 l/ton, or ca 90% of the theoretical maximum. One of the key components in the process is the on-site manufacture of the needed cellulase enzymes. An excellent cellulase inducer derived from waste newspaper has been identified, as well as other inducers made from whole wheat flour which supply nutrients and buffers valuable in saccharification and fermentation. Flow charts and mass balances are presented for a demonstration plant receiving 4 tons/d of waste paper and a full scale plant processing 400 tons/d. The profitability of the full scale plant is calculated, detailing capital and operating costs, income, and other important elements which define investment. A total investment for the full scale plant is estimated at $58.5 million. At an ethanol price of 30[cents]/l and tipping fees of $60-65/ton, such a plant would give a return on investment of ca 20%. Capital and operating costs may be reduced significantly by partnering with a nearby enterprise which has available excess steam and/or electricity. Enough municipal waste-derived paper is available in Ontario to displace 10% of gasoline upon bioconversion to ethanol. Substitution of 10% of Ontario gasoline consumption by ethanol would provide a market of 1.2 billion l/y, requiring a new industry of 20-24 full size plants. 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. A facility location model for municipal solid waste management system under uncertain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinay; Bhurjee, A K; Karmakar, Subhankar; Dikshit, A K

    2017-12-15

    In municipal solid waste management system, decision makers have to develop an insight into the processes namely, waste generation, collection, transportation, processing, and disposal methods. Many parameters (e.g., waste generation rate, functioning costs of facilities, transportation cost, and revenues) in this system are associated with uncertainties. Often, these uncertainties of parameters need to be modeled under a situation of data scarcity for generating probability distribution function or membership function for stochastic mathematical programming or fuzzy mathematical programming respectively, with only information of extreme variations. Moreover, if uncertainties are ignored, then the problems like insufficient capacities of waste management facilities or improper utilization of available funds may be raised. To tackle uncertainties of these parameters in a more efficient manner an algorithm, based on interval analysis, has been developed. This algorithm is applied to find optimal solutions for a facility location model, which is formulated to select economically best locations of transfer stations in a hypothetical urban center. Transfer stations are an integral part of contemporary municipal solid waste management systems, and economic siting of transfer stations ensures financial sustainability of this system. The model is written in a mathematical programming language AMPL with KNITRO as a solver. The developed model selects five economically best locations out of ten potential locations with an optimum overall cost of [394,836, 757,440] Rs. 1 /day ([5906, 11,331] USD/day) approximately. Further, the requirement of uncertainty modeling is explained based on the results of sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Separate collection of plastic waste, better than technical sorting from municipal solid waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Alexander; Pretz, Thomas; Jansen, Michael; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U

    2017-02-01

    The politically preferred solution to fulfil legal recycling demands is often implementing separate collection systems. However, experience shows their limitations, particularly in urban centres with a high population density. In response to the European Union landfill directive, mechanical biological waste treatment plants have been installed all over Europe. This technology makes it possible to retrieve plastic waste from municipal solid waste. Operators of mechanical biological waste treatment plants, both in Germany and the Netherlands, have started to change their mechanical separation processes to additionally produce plastic pre-concentrates. Results from mechanical biological waste treatment and separate collection of post-consumer packaging waste will be presented and compared. They prove that both the yield and the quality of plastic waste provided as feedstock for the production of secondary plastic raw material are largely comparable. An economic assessment shows which conditions for a technical sorting plant are economically attractive in comparison to separate collection systems. It is, however, unlikely that plastic recycling will ever reach cost neutrality.

  14. ANALYZING CERTAIN CHRACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN THE PROCES S OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábriel Györgyi T #336;ZSÉR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the regulations of Act XLIII/2000 on Waste Management to implement the strategic objectives and targets in the Act for the prevalence of the basic waste management principles a National Waste Management Plan II will be worked out and then accepted by the Parliament as part of the National Environmental Protection Programme. On the basis of the national plan the administrative bodies of environmental protection in accordance with the regional settlement and d evelopment programmes make a regional waste management project with the inclusion of the regional, local authorities, and other authorities concerned as well as the non governmental organisations for environmental protection. In our research we analyze the correlation between municipal solid waste per capita and urbanisation level. We have conducted similar calculations in the filed of population density and income. The study was carried out on a micro region level. Our analysis can help determine the framework conditions and factors that influence waste generation, and therefore should be taken into consideration when designing waste policies .

  15. [Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy.

  16. Municipal solid waste management planning considering greenhouse gas emission trading under fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

    2014-03-15

    Waste management activities can release greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere, intensifying global climate change. Mitigation of the associated GHG emissions is vital and should be considered within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic integer programming (FPIM) model has been developed for waste management facility expansion and waste flow allocation planning with consideration of GHG emission trading in an MSW management system. It can address the interrelationships between MSW management planning and GHG emission control. The scenario of total system GHG emission control is analyzed for reflecting the feature that GHG emission credits may be tradable. An interactive solution algorithm is used to solve the FPIM model based on the uncertainty-averse preferences of decision makers in terms of p-necessity level, which represents the certainty degree of the imprecise objective. The FPIM model has been applied to a hypothetical MSW planning problem, where optimal decision schemes for facility expansion and waste flow allocation have been achieved with consideration of GHG emission control. The results indicate that GHG emission credit trading can decrease total system cost through re-allocation of GHG emission credits within the entire MSW management system. This will be helpful for decision makers to effectively determine the allowable GHG emission permits in practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C; Lopez Torres, Matilde; Alvarez, Haydee; Pellon Arrechea, Alexis; Garcia, Jorge Alejandro; Diaz Aguirre, Susana; Fernandez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vias landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana

  18. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  19. A review on technological options of waste to energy for effective management of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The present study reviewed the current global scenario of WTE technological options (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling with gas recovery) for effective energy recovery and the challenges faced by developed and developing countries. This review will provide a framework for evaluating WTE technological options based on case studies of developed and developing countries. Unsanitary landfilling is the most commonly practiced waste disposal option in the developing countries. However, developed countries have realised the potential of WTE technologies for effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM). This review will help the policy makers and the implementing authorities involved in MSWM to understand the current status, challenges and barriers for effective management of municipal solid waste. This review concluded WTE as a potential renewable source of energy, which will partly meet the energy demand and ensure effective MSWM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste management: I. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with e...

  1. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well...

  2. An evaluation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste during co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting is a bioxidative process carried out under controlled conditions which utilizes naturally occurring microorganisms for organic waste recycling. In this study, a 60 days cocomposting experiment of different treatment consisting of municipal solid wastes and plant wastes with cow dung, poultry dropping and swine ...

  3. Co-digestion of agricultural and municipal waste to produce energy and soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In agriculture, manure and cotton gin waste are major environmental liabilities. Likewise, grass is an important organic component of municipal waste. These wastes were combined and used as substrates in a two-phase, pilot-scale anaerobic digester to evaluate the potential for biogas (methane) produ...

  4. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  5. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Kenisha, E-mail: k.garnett@cranfield.ac.uk [Institute for Environment, Health, Risks and Futures, School of Environment, Energy and Agri-food, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cooper, Tim, E-mail: t.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk [School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  6. A Survey of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in 22 Regions of Tehran With Solid Waste Reduction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Abduli

    2015-07-01

    Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one conducted from 2010 to 2014. Relevant officials of the waste recovery in 22 regions of Tehran were approached in order to collect data about municipal solid waste generation through interviewing, filling out questionnaires, conducting field visits from Aradkooh Disposal and Processing Complex and collecting information on disposal and destiny of wastes. Then the data were compiled and analyzed. Results: Total solid waste generation in Tehran from 2010 to 2014 amounted to respectively 3389662, 3399344, 3449338 and 3245157 Metric Tons, categorized into three groups of municipal, companies and townships and hospital wastes. Most of the generated waste produced in Tehran was that of households and commercial (known as municipal waste from 22 Regions of Tehran. Based on the surveys conducted, per capita solid waste generation of 11 regions of Tehran ranged from 550 to 1000 grams and in other 11 ones from 1000 to 1521 grams per capita per day. The lowest and highest waste generation rate belonged respectively to region 13 with 556 grams and region 12 with 1521 grams per capita per day in 2011. Conclusion: Comparing per capita generation of municipal solid waste in different municipal regions in Tehran with maximum acceptable capacity of waste generation indicates the deviation of waste generation of all Tehran regions from the standard acceptable amount. Therefore, not only is it necessary to plan and take strategic measures to reduce Tehran waste generation but also these programs and measures should be specific to each region considering its specifications and solid waste quality and quantity.

  7. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single-family and multi-family house areas), the individual percentage composition of food waste, paper, and glass was significantly different between the housing types. This indicates that housing type is a critical......Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both......-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating,comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste...

  8. A Management Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Systems and Its Application to Food Waste Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Thyberg, Krista; Tonjes, David

    2015-01-01

    Waste management is a complex task involving numerous waste fractions, a range of technological treatment options, and many outputs that are circulated back into society. A systematic, interdisciplinary systems management framework was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation, and maintenance of sustainable waste systems. It aims not to replace existing decision-making approaches, but rather to enable their integration to allow for inclusion of overall sustainability concerns and ...

  9. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and contaminated from Hg emissions produced by this incinerator. However the increase of Hg measured in downwind direction of the incinerator should be monitored for future potential risk.

  10. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelle, P.A.; Aneja, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO 3 - -N -1 dry weight, NH 3 -N∼23,080mg Nkg -1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N∼41,700mg Nkg -1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9ngNm -2 s -1 . Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±l.7ngNm -2 s -1 . The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0ng Nm -2 s -1 . An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space (%WFPS) were observed

  11. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  12. Integrating climate change into governance at the municipal scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is a new and voluntary planning area in Denmark and it is per- ceived as an interdisciplinary field affecting several professions. CC is integrated into bureaucratised municipal organisations characterised by a fragmented organisational structure and strong institutional...... traditions and perceptions. This article examines dif- ferent approaches to CC governance and the institutional dynamics that occur in the integration process within eight Danish municipalities in the initial phase of integrating CC. The results show three different governance approaches related to climate...... change planning: experimental, negotiation and standardisation. This article contributes with insights into the intra-institutional dynamics at the local level when climate plans are to be implemented in practice, and it adds perspectives on the role of locally established networks rather than...

  13. Research paper 2000-B-8: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    End-of-pipe options are needed whenever recycling and source reduction can not cope with waste streams at acceptable costs. One of the disposal options is waste incineration. The incineration of waste was considered 'clean' for a long time. In the 1970's and 1980's it proved that the incineration of municipal waste was a significant source of air pollution. Notorious pollutants were hydrogen chloride, hydrogen florid, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulate matter, 'heavy metals' and dioxines and furans. Most notorious and issue of public anxiety in some countries were emissions of dioxines and that might cause cancer and birth defects. Municipal waste is domestic waste from households and comparable waste from markets and companies. Consent is present that in the long history of waste incinerators, incineration in plants started in Europe around 1900, important steps to secure health and the environment have been taken and will be taken in the future. Debates are still going on the level of emissions that is negligible and acceptable. Also in the European arena waste management is about knowledge, perceptions, uncertainties and negotiations. Arguments are on the right level of ambition and the right level of fine-tuning where precautionary measures are discussed. The European Union decided to issue two European Directives on the atmospheric emissions from municipal waste incineration in 1989. This chapter focuses on the implementation and effects of the 1989 Directives. In section 2 of this chapter we summarize the bargaining on the 1989 European Directives. Section 2 indicates that characteristics of municipal waste incineration and the level of pre-existing national regulation sectors in individual member states played decisive roles. When the 1989 Directives came into force, the requirements had to be integrated in the national legislation in European Member States. In section 3 Germany and the Netherlands will prove

  14. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia

    2017-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf...

  15. Notice of Approval of the Renewable Fuel Standard Program Municipal Solid Waste Separation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's response documents and federal register notices on Fiberight's plan to separate recyclables from municipal solid waste intended for use as feedstock for renewable fuel production at its biorefinery in Blairstown, Iowa.

  16. Fuels from solid municipal wastes. Combustibles procedentes de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the refuse derived fuel treatment, through German, Spanish, British and Italian experience. calonifif value of refuse derived fuel, management of municipal wastes and project in the future are presented. (Author)

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), Emission Guidelines (EG) and Compliance Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn about the NSPS for municipal solid waste landfills by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations text, fact sheets, background information documents, related rules and compliance information.

  18. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2017-05-01

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m 3 , while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10 -4 and 6.7×10 -3 cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO 2 and NH 3 , contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested

  1. Small-scale hybrid plant integrated with municipal energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, B.H.; Fossum, M.; Belsnes, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a research program started in 2001 to optimize environmental impact and cost of a small-scale hybrid plant based on candidate resources, transportation technologies and conversion efficiency, including integration with existing energy distribution systems. Special attention is given to a novel hybrid energy concept fuelled by municipal solid waste. The commercial interest for the model is expected to be more pronounced in remote communities and villages, including communities subject to growing prosperity. To enable optimization of complex energy distribution systems with multiple energy sources and carriers a flexible and robust methodology must be developed. This will enable energy companies and consultants to carry out comprehensive feasibility studies prior to investment, including technological, economic and environmental aspects. Governmental and municipal bodies will be able to pursue scenario studies involving energy systems and their impact on the environment, and measure the consequences of possible regulation regimes on environmental questions. This paper describes the hybrid concept for conversion of municipal solid waste in terms of energy supply, as well as the methodology for optimizing such integrated energy systems. (author)

  2. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AS AN SOURCE OF WASTE HEAT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the possibility of useing treated wastewater from municipal waste water treatment plant as a waste heat source. Presented and calculated theoretical possibilities of receiving heat takes into account the indirect and direct method. A variant case study was carried out on the example of municipal mechanical and biological wastewater treatment plant Ruptawa belonging to Jastrzębskie Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji (voivodship Silesia, Jastrzębie City.

  3. A System Dynamics Model to Predict Municipal Waste Generation and Management Costs in Developing Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khatib, I.A.; Eleyan, D.; Garfield, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilized system dynamics modeling as a new analytical approach to predict both the municipal waste generated and the associated disposal costs in developing areas. This approach facilitates the decomposition of general waste into its main components to enable municipalities to manage recyclables and find out the feasibility of performing recycling better rather than disposal by performing comparative disposal cost analysis. This study is different from previous work as it only cons...

  4. Assessing total and volatile solids in municipal solid waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is broadly generated in everyday activities and its treatment is a global challenge. Total solids (TS) and volatile solids (VS) are typical control parameters measured in biological treatments. In this study, the TS and VS were determined using the standard methods, as well as introducing some variants: (i) the drying temperature for the TS assays was 105°C, 70°C and 50°C and (ii) the VS were determined using different heating ramps from room tempature to 550°C. TS could be determined at either 105°C or 70°C, but oven residence time was tripled at 70°C, increasing from 48 to 144 h. The VS could be determined by smouldering the sample (where the sample is burnt without a flame), which avoids the release of fumes and odours in the laboratory. However, smouldering can generate undesired pyrolysis products as a consequence of carbonization, which leads to VS being underestimated. Carbonization can be avoided using slow heating ramps to prevent the oxygen limitation. Furthermore, crushing the sample cores decreased the time to reach constant weight and decreased the potential to underestimate VS.

  5. Solid Waste In Municipalities of Agreste Pernambucano: Environmental Education Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana B. Lima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The homo sapiens that dominates occupying actions on earth should be a citizen with socio-environmental responsibility; their omission and neglect reverberate throughout the ecosystem. To achieve the balance between different ecological systems there is a global consensus for sustainable development, it is strongly anchored in environmental education with government support. The objective of this research was to evaluate the knowledge and actions about the A3P and the significance of the 5Rs of sustainability, together with 20 public managers from two municipalities in the Agreste region of Pernambuco, using questionnaires with closed questions. From a total of respondents 100% (n20, they reported that they did not know information about the A3P Environmental Agenda. 70% (n14 reported that cities are not adequately prepared for solid waste to dispose. These information obtained in the research demonstrates that although there is a figure of the environmental manager, it is often not able to fulfill the goals in the governmental sphere..

  6. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  7. Development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Vesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment. The aim of this study was to present a new solutions of the system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes, which enable simplification and improvement of the process together with the reduction of total costs. Methods: The description of  the problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment as well as an alternative solution for the decentral fractioning of such wastes was presented. The influence onto the environment as well as the efficiency of the costly mechanical sorting of wastes was queried. The nowadays used principles of sorted and unsorted waste disposal were elucidated and their advantages and disadvantages evaluated. Results and conclusions: Based on this evaluation an innovative and future oriented development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes was presented. The new developed systems aim at the achievement of an easier, less costly and environment-friendlier process for the disposal of municipal wastes from apartment buildings.

  8. A mathematical model for municipal solid waste management - A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K M; Yeung, C L; Xiong, Z R; Chung, S H

    2016-12-01

    With the booming economy and increasing population, the accumulation of waste has become an increasingly arduous issue and has aroused the attention from all sectors of society. Hong Kong which has a relative high daily per capita domestic waste generation rate in Asia has not yet established a comprehensive waste management system. This paper conducts a review of waste management approaches and models. Researchers highlight that mathematical models provide useful information for decision-makers to select appropriate choices and save cost. It is suggested to consider municipal solid waste management in a holistic view and improve the utilization of waste management infrastructures. A mathematical model which adopts integer linear programming and mixed integer programming has been developed for Hong Kong municipal solid waste management. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to simulate different scenarios which provide decision-makers important information for establishing Hong Kong waste management system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Municipal solid waste recycling and the significance of informal sector in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzner, Roland; Salhofer, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    The informal sector is active in the collection, processing and trading of recyclable materials in urban China. Formal waste management organisations have established pilot schemes for source separation of recyclables, but this strategy is still in its infancy. The amounts of recyclables informally picked out of the municipal solid waste stream are unknown as informal waste workers do not record their activities. This article estimates the size and significance of the current informal recycling system with a focus on the collection of recyclables. A majority of the reviewed literature detects that official data is displaying mainly 'municipal solid waste collected and transported', whereas less information is available on 'real' waste generation rates at the source. Based on a literature review the variables, the 'number of informal waste workers involved in collection activities', the 'amounts collected daily per informal collector' and the 'number of working days' are used to estimate yearly recyclable amounts that are informally diverted from municipal solid waste. The results show an interval of approximately 0.56%-0.93% of the urban population or 3.3-5.6 million people involved in informal waste collection and recycling activities in urban China. This is the equivalent to estimated informal recycling rates of approximately 17-38 w/w% of the municipal solid waste generated. Despite some uncertainties in these assessments, it can be concluded that a significant share of recyclables is collected and processed by informal waste workers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A multi-objective model for sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdar Harijani, Ali; Mansour, Saeed; Karimi, Behrooz

    2017-04-01

    The efficient management of municipal solid waste is a major problem for large and populated cities. In many countries, the majority of municipal solid waste is landfilled or dumped owing to an inefficient waste management system. Therefore, an optimal and sustainable waste management strategy is needed. This study introduces a recycling and disposal network for sustainable utilisation of municipal solid waste. In order to optimise the network, we develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model in which the economic, environmental and social dimensions of sustainability are concurrently balanced. The model is able to: select the best combination of waste treatment facilities; specify the type, location and capacity of waste treatment facilities; determine the allocation of waste to facilities; consider the transportation of waste and distribution of processed products; maximise the profit of the system; minimise the environmental footprint; maximise the social impacts of the system; and eventually generate an optimal and sustainable configuration for municipal solid waste management. The proposed methodology could be applied to any region around the world. Here, the city of Tehran, Iran, is presented as a real case study to show the applicability of the methodology.

  12. Municipal waste incineration and emissions trading; Die Einbeziehung von Siedlungsabfallverbrennungsanlagen in den Emissionsrechtehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, Martin [ITAD und VKU (Germany). AG Klimaschutz und Abfallwirtschaft

    2011-11-15

    The task of energetic waste recovery is the disposal of nonrecyclable waste in an environmentally sound way, while recovering as much of the energetic content as possible. The objective therefore is to reach a complete combustion of the biogenic and fossil carbon, thus transforming it into carbon dioxide. Hence the amount of greenhouse gas emitted solely depends on the amount and type of waste incinerated. Taking into account the climate neutrality of the biogenic fraction and the fossil fuels substituted, the German WtE-plants are contributing to climate protection by relieving it of a burden of around 4 billion each year. For these reasons municipal waste incineration plants are not included in the emissions trading scheme. Since the term 'municipal waste' is not defined within the acts, it is vital to settle for an interpretation including all wastes stemming from municipal wastes. Otherwise plants accepting presorted or conditioned municipal waste are prone to an inclusion in the emissions trading scheme. This would not only cause costs for the emission allowances without any sensible steering effects, but also face the operator with numerous reporting-, measuring and sampling obligations. This would lead to shifts in waste mass flows but also cause waste fees to increase. (orig.)

  13. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication

  14. Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2010-09-01

    Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas.

  15. Optimized Metal Recovery from Fly Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Switzerland plays a pioneering role in sustainable waste management with a long tradition of waste incineration and the prohibition to landfill unburnt municipal solid waste since 2000. In recent years, the focus has been laid on further reduction of pollutants from incineration residues because the revised Swiss Waste Ordinance prescribes the recovery of metals from fly ash starting in 2021. Fly ash collected in the heat recovery section and the electrostatic precipitator contains high conce...

  16. A GIS BASED ROUTE OPTIMIZATION FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY ON INDAPUR MUNICIPALITY.

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Lawand; S. S. Bansode; Dr. P. D. Nemade

    2017-01-01

    This paper emphasizes on existing solid waste management practices in Indapur municipal area of Pune district of Maharashtra state, India. Exponential growth of population and in round development of society and industries are responsible for increased solid waste generation in city. Whereas uncontrollable and mismanaged solid waste cause adverse environmental impacts on public health and are basis of other socio-economic problems too. For reducing the expenditure on Solid Waste Management (S...

  17. Individual Attitude toward Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste in Lagos, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Tunmise A. Otitoju

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes of the waste generators in the community appears to be critical as their points of understanding in waste recycling eventually play a significant role in providing answers to municipal solid waste management problems in Lagos State. Individual involvement has a direct bearing on an effective recycling practice. This study investigates factors influencing individual waste recycling performance and their likelihood to participation in Lagos State. This paper presents the results of th...

  18. Energy and emissions benefits of renewable energy derived from municipal solid waste: Analysis of a low carbon scenario in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew Tin; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility study on the energy and GHG emission reduction for WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) in Malaysia. • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from WtE strategies analysed using IPCC guideline. • Scenario analysis by comparison of different WtE strategies. • Impact of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Ineffective waste management that involves dumping of waste in landfills may degrade valuable land resources and emit methane gas (CH 4 ), a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The incineration of waste also emits polluted chemicals such as dioxin and particle. Therefore, from a solid waste management perspective, both landfilling and incineration practices pose challenges to the development of a green and sustainable future. Waste-to-energy (WtE) has become a promising strategy catering to these issues because the utilisation of waste reduces the amount of landfilled waste (overcoming land resource issues) while increasing renewable energy production. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the energy and carbon reduction potential in Malaysia for various WtE strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW). The material properties of the MSW, its energy conversion potential and subsequent greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are analysed based on the chemical compositions and biogenic carbon fractions of the waste. The GHG emission reduction potential is also calculated by considering fossil fuel displacement and CH 4 avoidance from landfilling. In this paper, five different scenarios are analysed with results indicating a integration of landfill gas (LFG) recovery systems and waste incinerator as the major and minor WtE strategies shows the highest economical benefit with optimal GHG mitigation and energy potential. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of moisture content of MSW towards energy potential and GHG emissions are performed. These evaluations of Wt

  19. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S

    2009-07-01

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  20. Waste-to-energy, municipal solid waste treatment, and best available technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenfeng; Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an urgently important task of many countries. This objective of this study is to present a novel group multi-attribute decision analysis method for prioritizing the MSW treatment alternatives based on the interval-valued fuzzy set theory....... This study allows multiple stakeholders to participate in the process of decision-making and they are also allowed to use linguistic variables to rate the alternatives and determine the weights of the evaluation criteria. The interval-valued fuzzy group decision making trail and evaluation laboratory...... (DEMATEL) method was developed to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria by considering the independent relationships among these criteria. The multi-actor interval-valued fuzzy grey relational analysis was developed to rank the waste-to-energy scenarios. Four alternative processes for MSW...

  1. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries. Part A: The evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Kanjogera, Jennifer Bangirana; Soós, Reka; Briciu, Cosmin; Smith, Stephen R; Whiteman, Andrew D; Spies, Sandra; Oelz, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2.5 models per city, each applying to different elements of municipal solid waste management - that is, street sweeping, primary collection, secondary collection, transfer, recycling, resource recovery and disposal or a combination. Operator models were analysed in detail for 28 case studies; the article summarises evidence across all elements and in more detail for waste collection. Operators fall into three main groups: The public sector, formal private sector, and micro-service providers including micro-, community-based and informal enterprises. Micro-service providers emerge as a common group; they are effective in expanding primary collection service coverage into poor- or peri-urban neighbourhoods and in delivering recycling. Both public and private sector operators can deliver effective services in the appropriate situation; what matters more is a strong client organisation responsible for municipal solid waste management within the municipality, with stable political and financial backing and capacity to manage service delivery. Revenue collection is also integral to operator models: Generally the municipality pays the operator from direct charges and/or indirect taxes, rather than the operator collecting fees directly from the service user.

  2. A Management Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Systems and Its Application to Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Thyberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a complex task involving numerous waste fractions, a range of technological treatment options, and many outputs that are circulated back into society. A systematic, interdisciplinary systems management framework was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation, and maintenance of sustainable waste systems. It aims not to replace existing decision-making approaches, but rather to enable their integration to allow for inclusion of overall sustainability concerns and address the complexity of solid waste management. The framework defines key considerations for system design, steps for performance monitoring, and approaches for facilitating continual system improvements. It was developed by critically examining the literature to determine what aspects of a management framework would be most effective at improving systems management for complex waste systems. The framework was applied to food waste management as a theoretical case study to exemplify how it can serve as a systems management tool for complex waste systems, as well as address obstacles typically faced in the field. Its benefits include the integration of existing waste system assessment models; the inclusion of environmental, economic, and social priorities; efficient performance monitoring; and a structure to continually define, review, and improve systems. This framework may have broader implications for addressing sustainability in other disciplines.

  3. Melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.-S.; Lin, K.-L.; Lee, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a novel approach for melting municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, based on self-propagating reactions, by using energy-efficient simulated waste-derived thermite. The self-propagating characteristics, the properties of the recycled alloy and slag and the partitioning of heavy metals during the process are also studied. Experimental results demonstrate that the mix ratio of fly ash to the starting mixture of less than 30% supports the development of the self-propagating reaction with a melting temperature of 1350-2200 deg. C. Furthermore, metallic iron (or alloy) and the slag were retrieved after activation of the thermite reactions among the starting mixtures. It was noted that more than 91 wt.% of iron was retrieved as alloy and the rest of non-reductive oxides as slag. During the thermite reactions, the partition of heavy metals to the SFA and flue gas varied with the characteristics of the target metals: Cd was mainly partitioned to flue gas (75-82%), and partition slightly increased with the increasing fly ash ratio; Pb and Zn, were mainly partitioned to the SFA, and the partition increased with increasing fly ash ratio; Cu was partitioned to the SFA (18-31%) and was not found in the flue gas; and moreover stable Cr and Ni were not identified in both the SFA and flue gas. On the other hand, the determined TCLP leaching concentrations were all well within the current regulatory thresholds, despite the various FA ratios. This suggests that the vitrified fly ash samples were environmental safe in heavy metal leaching. The results of this study suggested that melting of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by waste-derived thermite reactions was a feasible approach not only energy-beneficial but also environmental-safe

  4. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  5. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  6. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation

  7. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia, E-mail: iraia.oribe@deusto.es; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  8. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  9. Global warming factors modelled for 40 generic municipal waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Global warming factors (kg CO2-eq.-tonne—1 of waste) have been modelled for 40 different municipal waste management scenarios involving a variety of recycling systems (paper, glass, plastic and organics) and residual waste management by landfilling, incineration or mechanical—biological waste...... treatment. For average European waste composition most waste management scenarios provided negative global warming factors and hence overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions: Scenarios with landfilling saved 0—400, scenarios with incineration saved 200—700, and scenarios with mechanical...

  10. Modeling and prediction of regional municipal solid waste generation and diversion in Canada using machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannangara, Miyuru; Dua, Rahul; Ahmadi, Leila; Bensebaa, Farid

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop models for accurate prediction of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and diversion based on demographic and socio-economic variables, with planned application of generating Canada-wide MSW inventories. Models were generated by mapping residential MSW quantities with socio-economic and demographic parameters of 220 municipalities in the province of Ontario, Canada. Two machine learning algorithms, namely decision trees and neural networks, were applied to build the models. Socio-economic variables were derived from Canadian Census data at regional and municipal levels. A data pre-processing and integration framework was developed in Matlab® computing software to generate datasets with sufficient data quantity and quality for modeling. Results showed that machine learning algorithms can be successfully used to generate waste models with good prediction performance. Neural network models had the best performance, describing 72% of variation in the data. The approach proposed in this study demonstrates the feasibility of creating tools that helps in regional waste planning by means of sourcing, pre-processing, integrating and modeling of publically available data from various sources. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Automated Monitoring and Management System of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Based on the Industrial OMRON Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarev, S. N.; Sereda, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of the programmable logic integrated circuits (PLC) for creating the software and hardware complexes of the medium complexity is an economically sound solution. The application of the OMRON controller to solve the monitoring and management tasks of safety of the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill with the use of technology of the filtrate recirculation and the landfill maps irrigation is shown in the article. The article contains the technical solution connected with the implementation of the 2162059RU invention patent for the municipal solid waste landfill management in the Kurgan region of Russia. The calculation of maps and ponds was made with consideration of the limited sanitary and protection zone. The GRUNDFOS dosing and reactor equipment was proposed to use in the project.

  12. Assessing soil pollution from a municipal waste dump in Islamabad, Pakistan. A study by INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.

    2010-01-01

    INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad. Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga, Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed. (author)

  13. Biofiltration treatment of odors from municipal solid waste treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Mi; Chen, Rong; Li, Zhengyue; Qian, Guangren; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2009-07-01

    An in situ compost biofilter was established for the treatment of odors from biostabilization processing of municipal solid waste. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in odors and their components were measured. Biofilter media was characterized in terms of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic matter (OM), pH value and determination of bacterial colony structure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the main components of the produced gas were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) along with other alkanes, alkenes, terpenes, and sulphur compounds. The compost biofilter had remarkable removal ability for alkylated benzenes (>80%), but poor removal for terpenes ( approximately 30%). Total VOC concentrations in odors during the biostabilization process period ranged from 0.7 to 87 ppmv, and the VOC removal efficiency of the biofilter varied from 20% to 95%. After about 140 days operation, TN, TC, TP and OM in compost were kept almost stable, but the dissolved N, NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N experienced an increase of 44.5%, 56.2% and 76.3%, respectively. Dissolved P decreased by 27.3%. The pH value experienced an increase in the early period and finally varied from 7.38 to 8.08. Results of bacterial colony in packing material indicated that bacteria and mold colony counts increased, but yeasts and actinomyces decreased along with biofilter operation, which were respectively, 3.7, 3.4, 0.04 and 0.07 times of their initial values.

  14. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Fff of... - Municipal Waste Combustor Units (MWC Units) Excluded From Subpart FFF 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... day of municipal solid waste at the following MWC site:Ogden-Martin Systems of Tulsa, Incorporated... Harrisburg, PA. (c) Lancaster County Solid Waste Management Authority, Conoy Township, Lancaster County, PA... Existing facilities with an MWC unit capacity greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid waste at the...

  16. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tsai, Jia-Lin; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes-bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash-were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the cytotoxicity of the incineration ashes would affect the digestive systems of animals. Ion-coupled plasma analyses indicated that the baghouse ash extract possessed the highest pH and heavy metal concentration, its cytotoxicity was also the highest. In contrast, the bottom ash and the scrubber residue exhibited very low cytotoxicities. The cytotoxicities of mixtures of baghouse ash and scrubber residue toward the three tested cell lines increased as the relative ratio of the baghouse ash increased, especially for the Vero cells. The slight cytotoxicity of the scrubber residue arose mainly from the presence of Cr species, whereas the high cytotoxicity of the baghouse ash resulted from its high content of heavy metals and alkali ions. In addition, it appears that the dissolved total organic carbon content of these ash wastes can reduce the cytotoxicity of ash wastes that collect in animal cells.

  18. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  19. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  20. Exergy analysis of biogas production from a municipal solid waste landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Nanaki, E.; Koroneos, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the energy area, intensive efforts are being made over the last years to bridge the supply area with renewable energy sources and the demand side with energy conservation. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste landfills can play a contributing role in the solution of problems of both waste...

  1. Long term effect of municipal solid waste amendment on soil heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the impact of amendment using untreated municipal solid wastes on the trace element contents of periurban areas soils was carried out in Ngaoundere. Waste samples were collected in November and soil samples were collected in November, January, April and July. Heavy metal total concentrations in ...

  2. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing phosp...

  3. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  4. Waste prevention impacts on small municipalities: Three experiences from northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Mariaelena; Bosio, Luigi; Cavallo, Roberto; Gianolio, Umberto; Marengo, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Waste management is an important issue all over the world and it will become even more urgent in the near future due to the increase of global volumes of waste. Waste prevention is at the top of the European waste hierarchy, followed by reuse, recycling, other recovery (including energy recovery), and safe disposal. In Italy, municipalities are the authorities that concretely choose the prevention actions to be applied in their territory and therefore they are crucial in promoting a decrease in waste amounts. In our research we investigated costs and benefits of prevention actions in three small municipalities in the north of Italy. We found that the "Pay as You Throw" (PAYT) scheme is an effective action in preventing waste production, with many instances, on analyzing the collection data. The specific effect of the other actions (such as the awareness raising campaigns) is difficult to isolate, even if we found positive impacts. We analyzed some external drivers, such as the migration effect, in order to understand the real effectiveness of the implemented actions. One of the objectives of the study was to comprehend the consequences of political choices at a bigger scale than the individual municipality. Analyzing the results obtained in three typical small Italian municipalities, this study suggests that local authorities, with their choices, can greatly affect the efficacy of selected waste collection and waste prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The impact of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Victor H Argentino de Morais; Matheus, Dácio R

    2018-01-01

    Social factors have not been sufficiently explored in municipal solid waste management studies. Latin America has produced even fewer studies with this approach; technical and economic investigations have prevailed. We explored the impacts of socioeconomic factors on municipal solid waste generation in Greater Sao Paulo, which includes 39 municipalities. We investigated the relations between municipal solid waste generation and social factors by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Student's t-test (at p ← 0.01) proved significance, and further regression analysis was performed with significant factors. We considered 10 socioeconomic factors: population, rural population, density, life expectancy, education (secondary, high and undergraduate level), income per capita, inequality and human development. A later multicollinearity analysis resulted in the determination of inequality (r p = 0.625) and income per capita (r p = 0.607) as major drivers. The results showed the relevance of considering social aspects in municipal solid waste management and isolated inequality as an important factor in planning. Inequality must be used as a complementary factor to income, rather than being used exclusively. Inequality may explain differences of waste generation between areas with similar incomes because of consumption patterns. Therefore, unequal realities demand unequal measures to avoid exacerbation, for example, pay-as-you-throw policies instead of uniform fees. Unequal realities also highlight the importance of tiering policies beyond the waste sector, such as sustainable consumption.

  6. Laboratory test investigations on soil water characteristic curve and air permeability of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianyong; Wu, Xun; Ai, Yingbo; Zhang, Zhen

    2018-04-01

    The air permeability coefficient has a high correlation with the water content of municipal solid waste. In this study, continuous drying methodology using a tension meter was employed to construct the soil water characteristic curve of municipal solid waste (M-SWCC). The municipal solid waste air permeability test was conducted by a newly designed apparatus. The measured M-SWCC was well reproduced by the van Genuchten (V-G) model and was used to predict the parameters of typical points in M-SWCC, including saturated water content, field capacity, residual water content and water content at the inflection point. It was found that the M-SWCC was significantly influenced by void ratio. The final evaporation and test period of M-SWCC increase with the increase in void ratio of municipal solid waste. The evolution of air permeability coefficient with water content of municipal solid waste depicted three distinct characteristic stages. It was observed that the water contents that corresponded to the two cut-off points of the three stages were residual water content and water content at the inflection point, respectively. The air permeability coefficient of municipal solid waste decreased with the increase of the water content from zero to the residual water content. The air permeability coefficient was almost invariable when the water content increased from residual water content to the water content at the inflection point. When the water content of municipal solid waste exceeded the water content at the inflection point, the air permeability coefficient sharply decreased with the increase of water content.

  7. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-01-01

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem

  8. Investigation of Municipal Solid Waste to Alcohol Conversion for Army Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    T.J. Laughlin, M.V. Kilgore, Jr., C.L Lishawa, W.E. Meyers, and M.H. Eley, *1The Bioconversion of Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge to Ethanol...Meyers. and M.H. Eley, ’Mhe Bioconversion of Municipal Solid Waste mad Sewage Sludge to Ethanol," Biotuchnol. Advan. Process. Munic. Wastes Fueis Chen...FL from 1978 to 198V.3 The RefCoM facility used a continuously mixed digester and accepted up to 1000 tons per day of MSW and sewage sludge . The

  9. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, Sarika

    2006-01-01

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management

  10. Municipal solid waste management planning for Xiamen City, China: a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Guohe; Zhao, Shan; Cheng, Guanhui; Wu, Yinghui; Zhu, Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a stochastic fractional inventory-theory-based waste management planning (SFIWP) model was developed and applied for supporting long-term planning of the municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Xiamen City, the special economic zone of Fujian Province, China. In the SFIWP model, the techniques of inventory model, stochastic linear fractional programming, and mixed-integer linear programming were integrated in a framework. Issues of waste inventory in MSW management system were solved, and the system efficiency was maximized through considering maximum net-diverted wastes under various constraint-violation risks. Decision alternatives for waste allocation and capacity expansion were also provided for MSW management planning in Xiamen. The obtained results showed that about 4.24 × 10 6  t of waste would be diverted from landfills when p i is 0.01, which accounted for 93% of waste in Xiamen City, and the waste diversion per unit of cost would be 26.327 × 10 3  t per $10 6 . The capacities of MSW management facilities including incinerators, composting facility, and landfills would be expanded due to increasing waste generation rate.

  11. Bio-methanation of municipal solid wastes for ecological balance and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadangi, Subhash Ch.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of bio-methanation of municipal solid wastes for over all improvement of environment and for converting wastes into wealth, the national planners should make all out efforts to implement the concept on a large scale to meet the challenges of future demands of energy, ecology and sustainable development. The huge quantity of methane generated from MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) after treatment and desulfuration is utilised to generate electric power. Hence, development of methane resource as an alternative to energy source has attracted attention in recent years in many parts of the world. Methane is a much more powerful green house gas as its adverse impacts are felt more intensely due to its higher residence and higher potency in the atmosphere. The article highlights the process of bio-methanation of municipal solid wastes and planning for ecological balance and sustainable development

  12. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  13. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  14. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P; Kumar, S; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-01

    In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435-44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177-56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region's existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs

  16. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  17. Towards a zero waste : assessing solid waste management in the Ledzokuku Krowor Municipal Assembly in the Greater-Accra Region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Acquah, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore solid waste management in the Ledzokuku Krowor Municipal Assembly in the Greater-Accra Region of Ghana. The various actors in solid waste management are identified as well as the roles they play. The study also explores Public Private Partnership as a tool in managing solid waste and the outcome of strategies used in managing solid waste in the Municipality. This is followed by a discussion on the challenges faced in solid waste management that prevents the strate...

  18. Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Velis, C.A.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of ‘integrated sustainable waste management’ to examine how cities in developing countries have been tackling their solid waste problems. The history of related concepts and terms is reviewed, and ISWM is clearly differentiated from integrated waste management, used mostly

  19. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  20. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material recycling

  1. Waste management in the Sebideng District Municipality : a strategy for improved service delivery / Khathutshelo Elias Masindi.

    OpenAIRE

    Masindi, Khathutshelo Elias

    2009-01-01

    Waste, that is any matter whether gaseous, liquid or solid or any combination thereof, originating from any residential, commercial or industrial area identified as undesirable or superfluous by-product, emission, residue or remainder of any process or activity tends to be a hazard to the environment. Waste is generated in all processes which transform materials from one state, form or medium to another. The management of waste in the Sedibeng District Municipality is a very complex problem. ...

  2. Developing a Sustainability Assessment Model to Analyze China’s Municipal Solid Waste Management Enhancement Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Li; Vilas Nitivattananon; Peng Li

    2015-01-01

    This study develops a sustainability assessment model for analysis and decision-making of the impact of China’s municipal solid waste management enhancement strategy options based on three waste treatment scenarios: landfill disposal, waste-to-energy incineration, and a combination of a material recovery facility and composting. The model employs life cycle assessment, health risk assessment, and full cost accounting to evaluate the treatment scenarios regarding safeguarding public health, p...

  3. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration For Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Akoore, Alfred Akelibilna

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is a common practice of waste management tool in most developed countries, for the purpose of converting mass and volumes of waste into a very useful energy content. The aim of this study was to compare the costs benefits of waste incineration for Accra Brewery boiler plant and to investigate also the availability of waste and it´s compositions in Accra, as well as to determine the feasibility of using this waste as a source of fuel to the waste incineration plant. T...

  5. Survey Data About Recycling Electronic Waste in the Municipality of Medianeira - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Abreu Bueno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work had as its theme the management of electronic waste in the municipality of Medianeira-PR and will aim to address and verify that the computer companies and electronics installed in the municipality of Medianeira are allocating their waste correctly, whether the population has knowledge of this residue as well to have access to collection points to make the allocation of junk. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaire administered to the population and enterprises throughout the municipality. It was found that although companies have concern about waste disposal and direct them to the company responsible for separating and processing all the garbage collected, the population has little information on the correct destination, much has improved, with respect the creation of instruments to regulate the problem of electronic waste in the municipality and the development of campaigns and programs to the population to which it directs the waste to collection points to ensure the best utilization of this waste, to minimize the costs of public with the final disposition and allow the improvement of environmental conditions and quality of life of residents. Keywords: Waste, Collection, Environment, Environmental education.

  6. Inclusion of climate change strategies in municipal Integrated Development Plans: A case from seven municipalities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankolo X. Lethoko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has made it clear that anthropogenic greenhouse gasses are the main cause of observed global warming that leads to climate change. Climate change is now a global reality. In the South African political set-up, local municipalities are the structures that are in direct contact with communities and they draw up Integrated Development Plans (IDPs, which are reviewed and upgraded annually. The article seeks to investigate the extent to which climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are embedded IDPs in seven vulnerable municipalities in the Limpopo Province. The article conducted an in-depth content analysis of the IDPs of the seven municipalities and the results have revealed that these municipalities have not included adaptation and mitigation strategies adequately in their IDPs despite being the most vulnerable municipalities in the province. The article concludes that these municipalities have not as yet institutionalised climate change in their daily operations, planning and decision making. To this end, the paper recommends that local municipalities should include climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in their IDPs. Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; mitigation; Integrated Development Plan; vulnerable municipalities

  7. Future industrial and municipal waste management in poland the polish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowskl, J.; Sorum, L.; Hustad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Poland now face a very interesting discussion on modern waste treatment methods, although the waste problems are very oil. This paper presents a total waste management view from the formation process to recycling, utilisation and land filling. The average municipal solid waste (MSW) annual per capita generation in poland is 250 kg per person, which is half of the waste amount generated in norway and one third of the amount in Usa. The present low per capita generation, large variations in MSW properties and an expected growth in the standard of living make the decisions regarding future polish waste management systems very important. Waste management must be handled carefully to prevent a rapid growth of waste generation - this is the p olish challenge , both mow and for the future. Three different possibilities for future waste management systems for rural areas, small cities and larger cities are discussed in the paper. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  9. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  10. ANALYTICAL APPROACH FOR PREDICTING BIOGAS GENERATION IN A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Ojolo, A. I. Bamgboye, B. S. Ogunsina, S. A. Oke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing worldwide interest in the effective utilisation of municipal solid wastes as an avenue of reducing its high cost of clearing. Municipal solid wastes are usefully converted into a medium grade fuel (biogas to reduce its nuisance value to the environment. In this paper, the potential of vegetable (putriscible component of municipal solid wastes was examined in terms of biogas production. The vegetable component of the waste was used as substrate in a batch-fed 200 dm3 capacity anaerobic digester, which was consecutively loaded with a 10-20 kg ranged weight of vegetable. The total solid (TS of substrate was 8-10% over a retention period of 40 days. The temperature of the substrate during bio-digestion was maintained within 29ºC and 33ºC. The average biogas yield varied from 5.15 dm3/kgTS to 5.83 dm3/kgTS. From the digestion experiments, a regression equation, called the municipal solid wastes energy value model, was derived. This model estimates the biogas production from municipal solid wastes. For the predictive model formulation, a relationship between retention time and the daily/total biogas yield was explored. The polynomial function significantly represents the models formulated for the different quantity of substrate loaded. This strongly suggests that the polynomial series is best suited to predict the relationship between retention time and the quantity of substrate loaded for the experiment. This tool is useful in optimising biogas production from energy materials, and requires further validation and refinement. Hopefully, this study advances this increasingly growing area of municipal solid wastes research.

  11. Quantification of food waste in public catering services - A case study from a Swedish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Persson Osowski, Christine; Malefors, Christopher; Björkman, Jesper; Eriksson, Emelie

    2017-03-01

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33g waste per portion served (13%) to 131g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher

  12. AWARENESS LEVEL STUDY FOR IMPLEMENTING SEPARATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PROGRAM IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARANDAS, JALISCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Santiago-Olivares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arandas municipality government in Jalisco, has been looking for solutions to the problem of its municipal solid waste (MSW disposal for some years. Nowadays there is a “dumping site" where these residues are deposited without any established control, promoting the generation of vermin and rodents such as: flies, cockroaches, rats, mouses, etc.; adding up to the air, soil and water pollution. The solution starts with the separation of municipal solid waste from the generation sites, but it does not make any sense to separate the waste if there is not a subsequent treatment system established. The population awareness for garbage separation at home is quite necessary, because if it is not carried out correctly, it won’t be able to give an effective further treatment to the municipal solid waste MSW generated. In countries and municipalities where garbage separation is already practiced, it was because the community is forced to do so, whether their garbage is not collected if it is not properly separated, or by the implementation of economic fines. With the support of the H. Ayuntamiento de Arandas and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas, was carried out a study to determine the level of awareness that the population of Arandas has about the necessity to separate garbage at home. For this purpose, a survey was designed and applied to parents or guardians of students from educational institutions: CONALEP Arandas, UDG Regional High School, CBTIS and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas. The research carried out was quantitative and descriptive type, where the selection of the sample was “for convenience” (to optimize time and costs in the application of the survey. According to the results obtained in the survey analysis, it was observed that Arandas population was concerned about the preservation of environment and they are willing to do garbage

  13. Integration of biogas in municipal energy planning and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedergaard, N.; Oertenblad, H. [Herning Municipal Utilities, Herning (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The first biogas plants in Denmark were based on local initiatives and a great deal of idealism. The break through with technically well functioning plants came at the end of the 80`ies. The plants were based on animal manure, and the development came together with the growing environmental demands and the legislation concerning storage capacity and distribution of the manure. This contributed to an increasing interest in joint biogas plants, mainly from the agricultural sector, but also from the industry. Today Denmark has 19 biogas plants in operation, all based on manure co-digested with wastes from the food industry, and 15 farm-scale plants. Only three of the joint plants are owned by a municipality, one plant in Aarhus and two in Herning. (au)

  14. Dynamic visualisation of municipal waste management performance in the EU using Ternary Diagram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomberger, R; Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2017-03-01

    This contribution describes the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The framework of current municipal waste management including recycling targets, etc. is given by the Waste Framework Directive - 2008/98/EC. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe's transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management. The Package also includes a revised legislative proposal on waste that sets ambitious recycling rates for municipal waste for 2025 (60%) and 2030 (65%). Additionally, the new calculation method for monitoring the attainment of the targets should be applied. In 2014, ca. 240 million tonnes of municipal waste were generated in the EU. While in 1995, 17% were recycled and composted, 14% incinerated and 64% landfilled, in 2014 ca. 71% were recovered but 28% landfilled only. Considering the treatment performance of the individual EU member states, the EU 28 can be divided into three groups, namely: "Recovery Countries", "Transition Countries" and "Landfilling Countries". Using Ternary Diagram Method, three types of visualization for the municipal waste management performance have been investigated and extensively described. Therefore, for better understanding of municipal waste management performance in the last 20years, dynamic visualisation of the Eurostat table-form data on all 28 member states of the EU has been carried out in three different ways: 1. "Performance Positioning" of waste management unit(s) at a specific date; 2. "Performance dynamics" over a certain time period and; 3. "Performance development" expressed as a track(s). Results obtained show that the Ternary Diagram Method is very well suited to be used for better understanding of past developments and coherences, for monitoring of

  15. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Strategic municipal solid waste management: A quantitative model for Italian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition of new plan waste management based on incineration. • Profitability of waste facilities based on economic and financial indicators. • The amount of wastes generated are considered not annually constant and with a regional detail. • A sensitivity analysis is used to test some of the initial assumptions. • Regional strategies are proposed for optimize benefits from correct waste management. - Abstract: Current economic crisis brought to light the structural deficiencies of European economy. This paper aims to improve the performances of a policy on sustainable municipal solid waste management strategies. Specifically, the attention is focused on Italian country that reports a high rate of landfilling. Waste to Energy plant is an attractive technological option in municipal solid waste, but it is a subject of intense debate. Incinerators require effective and efficient controls to avoid emissions of harmful pollutants into the air, land and water, which may influence human health and environment. To address waste management situation, this study uses a multi-objective mathematical programming. A new plan is presented to evaluate and quantify the effects of initiatives for diversion of current waste from landfill. In an attempt to better simulate realistic waste management scenarios, the amount of waste generated is not annually constant and changes are accounted in waste diversion rates. Moreover, due to the geographical characteristics of Italy, the realization of new facilities is replicated with a regional detail. In this paper economic and financial indicators are used to define the profitability of waste facilities. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is used to test some of the initial assumptions. Once identified the efficient Waste to Energy plant, regional strategies of waste management are proposed to optimize financial and environmental benefits of the sector. The proposed waste management framework provides a concrete scheme

  17. Citizens' attitude to reuse of municipal solid waste. A practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquera, B. [Universidad de Oviedo, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Avda. del Cristo, s/n 33071 , Asturias Oviedo (Spain); Del Brio, J.A. [Universidad de Oviedo, Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial, Avda. Manuel Llaneza, 75 33208, Asturias Gijon (Spain); Muniz, M. [Ingeniero Tecnico Industrial, C/ Aguado, 277A, Asturias Gijon (Spain)

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the opinion of the citizens of Gijon who use the services of a cleaning firm (EMULSA) about the possible implementation of a more complex management of municipal solid waste in this city. We will study the citizens' views about environmental problems caused by municipal solid waste. We analyze different matters related to the functions of EMULSA and the citizens' attitudes to a separate collection of paper, cardboard, glass and batteries. A main goal of this article is to study if the knowledge about damage caused on the natural environment by municipal solid waste and the availability of special containers influences citizen's attitudes.

  18. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  19. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Cost recovery of municipal solid waste management in small cities of inland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Hu, Shunong

    2014-04-01

    Financial performance of waste management, the key for efficiency and sustainability, has rarely been studied in China, especially for small cities. Through questionnaires and interviews, we conducted such a case study in several cities aiming to fill the gap and improve waste service. We found that labour accounts for more than half to three-quarters of the operation cost, followed by fuel and vehicle maintenance. The waste service heavily relies on budget transfer of the municipality. User fees collected recover less than half of total operation cost at best, even if the collection rate is relatively high. The low cost recovery is mainly due to low fee rates, unchanged for years owing to public pressure. Public complaint seems to be justified by the finding that the service only accounts for 5-10% of municipal revenue annually and even lower in government spending. Contrary to general perception, per capita waste generation in small cities is not less than big ones. Waste composition is dominated by kitchen wastes, with fractions of recyclables and combustibles much lower than big cities. These findings have implications on the waste management strategy: commercial incineration or recycling may not be economically viable for small cities. The article concludes that user fees might better serve, and be designed for, behaviour change than for cost recovery. Municipalities need to first improve cost efficiency and transparency of waste services to gain public trust and support in order to tackle the biggest challenge facing developing countries, cost recovery.

  1. Policy Mixes to Achieve Absolute Decoupling: A Case Study of Municipal Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Montevecchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effectiveness of environmental policies is of primary importance to address the unsustainable use of resources that threatens the entire society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate on the effectiveness of environmental policy instruments to decouple waste generation and landfilling from economic growth. In order to do so, the paper analyzes the case study of the Slovakian municipality of Palarikovo, which has drastically improved its waste management system between 2000 and 2012, through the utilization of differentiated waste taxes and awareness-raising and education campaigns, as well as targeting increased recycling and municipal composting. We find evidence of absolute decoupling for landfilled waste and waste generation, the latter being more limited in time and magnitude. These policy instruments could therefore play an important role in municipalities that are still lagging behind in waste management. More specifically, this policy mix was effective in moving away from landfilling, initiating recycling systems, and to some extent decreasing waste generation. Yet, a more explicit focus on waste prevention will be needed to address the entirety of the problem effectively.

  2. Waste management in the regional level: Example of municipalities Pljevlja and Žabljak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivančanin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of proper disposal of all types of solid waste and its inadequate treatment is one of the most dominant spatial-ecological problems of modern society, and as such seriously threatens the quality of basic environmental media and public health. The aim is to point out opportunities for sustainable development of Pljevlja and Zabljak Municipalities through the development of waste management system that will control waste generation, educe the impact of waste on the environment, improve resource efficiency, ensure the proper disposal, stimulate investment in public-private sector and maximize the economic opportunities arising from waste. The subject of this paper is to find an effective model of sustainable waste management in the municipalities of Zabljak and Pljevlja, with the main objective of rational use of space, as a limited resource, and reduce overall costs of waste treatment. The studied area that includes the administrative boundaries of these municipalities in the north of Montenegro, among to traffic geographical and functional correlation, present an area that is in the official republic documents (Spatial Rlan of Montenegro until 2020, 2008 recognized as a region in which envisages the construction of regional sanitary landfills and transfer stations network. In this sense, the work will represent the implementation of policies on waste management in Montenegro, in accordance with the recommendations, directives and EU guidelines.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal waste ashes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ash residues of wastes from some major waste dumps in Lagos, Nigeria, were determined. The total amounts of the PAH in the ashes were in the range of 0.06 – 0.4 mg/g. The ash from the waste dump that contains the highest level also displayed greatest ...

  4. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage whereas in Sweden the technology is now so advanced that energy in the form of heat and electricity has commercially been recovered from waste. This study examines waste-toenergy development and its success factors in Sweden with a view to ...

  5. Studying municipal solid waste generation and composition in the urban areas of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Dulal, Ichharam; Yangden, Dechen; Tenzin, Ugyen M; Herat, Sunil; Shon, Hokyong; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2010-06-01

    Bhutan lacks the solid waste data which are essential parameters for planning and scheduling of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. The first ever large-scale research survey on solid waste generation and characterization in the urban areas of Bhutan was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008 using the method of waste sampling at source. The MSW generation rates in the urban centres were 0.53 kg capita(-1) day(- 1), which consists predominantly of organic waste materials of up to 58% indicating a great opportunity for composting. Domestic waste from the households contributed the maximum (47%) component of the total MSW generated from the urban centres followed by wastes from the commercial establishments. Attempt to study the correlation between household monthly income and the waste per capita generation rates did not yield any conclusive result.

  6. Public participation as a mechanism for promoting sustainable waste management service delivery in Sedibeng District Municipality / Nompazamo Alma Ludidi

    OpenAIRE

    Ludidi, Nompazamo Alma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the extent of public participation in waste management, willingness of the community to assist the municipality in waste management and how the officials involve the community as partners in waste management. Waste management has become a big environmental challenge in Sedibeng District Municipality due to rural- urban drift leading to population increase in the region. In cities and towns where there is population increase there is excessive gener...

  7. Role of NGO’s in Solid Waste Management: A Study in Different Municipalities of Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Raghumani Singh; Mithra Dey

    2015-01-01

    The quantity of solid waste produced in city depends on the type of the city, its population, living standards of the residents and degree of commercialization and various activities prevailing in the city. The generation of waste mainly depends on the increase in population and the type of activity. Improper municipal solid waste management (MSWM) causes various health hazards and leads to environmental degradation. The present paper highlights the existing status of the municipal solid wast...

  8. Is a Finnish municipality going to accept the radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, I.

    1997-01-01

    The article reviews the methods and results of the questionnaire study collecting information on the public attitudes with regard to radioactive waste disposal in Finland. The study started in December 1996 and concentrated on the population living in the areas of radioactive waste disposal site investigations, Eurajoki, Aeaenekoski and Kuhmo. The items of the questionnaire asked about the impacts of the radioactive waste disposal on the environment, and also on public health and general safety. The results addressed the importance of the relevant and comprehensive information of the radioactive waste management to the public. The study is a part of the Publicly administrated nuclear waste management programme (JYT2) in Finland

  9. EMISSIONS FROM CO-COMBUSTION OF COAL AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN DOMESTIC CENTRAL HEATING BOILER

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Maria Cieślik; Tomasz Konieczny

    2017-01-01

    Co-combustion of coal and solid municipal waste is a social phenomenon. It constitutes an important emission source of harmful air pollutants. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned co-combustion of coal and different types of municipal solid waste (including wastepaper, PE, PVC) in the domestic CH (central heating) boiler (18-kW power) equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. The aim of this research was to compare the parameters of flue gas, content of dust (fly ash) and gas...

  10. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Kuchibanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO’s recommended standards.

  11. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg -1 ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg -1 ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  12. Effect of biochars produced from solid organic municipal waste on soil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, P; Bansode, R R; Hassan, O A; Rehrah, Dj; Ravella, R; Reddy, M R; Watts, D W; Novak, J M; Ahmedna, M

    2017-05-01

    New value-added uses for solid municipal waste are needed for environmental and economic sustainability. Fortunately, value-added biochars can be produced from mixed solid waste, thereby addressing solid waste management issues, and enabling long-term carbon sequestration. We hypothesize that soil deficiencies can be remedied by the application of municipal waste-based biochars. Select municipal organic wastes (newspaper, cardboard, woodchips and landscaping residues) individually or in a 25% blend of all four waste streams were used as feedstocks of biochars. Three sets of pyrolysis temperatures (350, 500, and 750 °C) and 3 sets of pyrolysis residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) were used for biochar preparation. The biochar yield was in the range of 21-62% across all feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions. We observed variations in key biochar properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density and surface area depending on the feedstocks and production conditions. Biochar increased soil pH and improved its electrical conductivity, aggregate stability, water retention and micronutrient contents. Similarly, leachate from the soil amended with biochar showed increased pH and electrical conductivity. Some elements such as Ca and Mg decreased while NO 3 -N increased in the leachates of soils incubated with biochars. Overall, solid waste-based biochar produced significant improvements to soil fertility parameters indicating that solid municipal wastes hold promising potential as feedstocks for manufacturing value-added biochars with varied physicochemical characteristics, allowing them to not only serve the needs for solid waste management and greenhouse gas mitigation, but also as a resource for improving the quality of depleted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experience of using municipal solid waste in the energy industry (An Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The status of municipal solid waste (MSW) utilization for energy purposes in Europe, the United States, and China is revealed, showing that MSW has long been among alternative fuels abroad and is widely used as a renewable energy source. Energy utilities often deal with the construction and operation of thermal waste-to-energy facilities. Currently, thanks to the use of the best available technologies (BAT), among which are incineration in mechanical grate stokers and in vertex fluidized-bed furnaces, and multistage gas treatment, the problems of environmentally safe operation of facilities for MSW-to-energy utilization have been fully resolved. The main research is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of these facilities, primarily, by increasing steam parameters and organizing its intermediate superheating. It is shown that a high efficiency of converting the MSW energy potential into electricity can also be reached by integrating MSW incinerators into the heat flow scheme of thermal power plants, whose main fuel is coal or gas. Examples are given of active foreign MSW-to-energy facilities improved to increase electricity efficiency to 30% and more.

  14. Material flow and sustainability analyses of biorefining of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents material flow and sustainability analyses of novel mechanical biological chemical treatment system for complete valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW). It integrates material recovery facility (MRF); pulping, chemical conversion; effluent treatment plant (ETP), anaerobic digestion (AD); and combined heat and power (CHP) systems producing end products: recyclables (24.9% by mass of MSW), metals (2.7%), fibre (1.5%); levulinic acid (7.4%); recyclable water (14.7%), fertiliser (8.3%); and electricity (0.126MWh/t MSW), respectively. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) and non-recyclable other waste, char and biogas from MRF, chemical conversion and AD systems, respectively, are energy recovered in the CHP system. Levulinic acid gives profitability independent of subsidies; MSW priced at 50Euro/t gives a margin of 204Euro/t. Global warming potential savings are 2.4 and 1.3kg CO 2 equivalent per kg of levulinic acid and fertiliser, and 0.17kg CO 2 equivalent per MJ of grid electricity offset, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa ER31JA03.009...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits ER31JA03.006...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  18. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690 What...

  1. Process and design considerations for the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, S.R.; Bastuk, B. [Larsen Engineers, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Full scale experience exists and justifies implementing anaerobic digestion for pretreatment of high strength industrial waste water and side streams. Anaerobic treatment of sludge and manure have demonstrated cost effective, environmentally sound treatment of these wastes. Recent attention has focused on the potential for anaerobically treating high solids municipal solid wastes to assist in meeting state waste reduction goals and provide a new renewable source of energy. This paper focuses on the fundamental facility design and process protocol considerations necessary for a high solids anaerobic digesting facility. The primary design and equipment considerations are being applied to a 5 to 10 ton per day demonstration anaerobic digestion facility in Bergen, New York.

  2. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Olof

    2001-01-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that the

  3. Calculation of financial compensation due of municipalities hosting nuclear waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Renata A. da, E-mail: renata.amaral@ufrj.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B., E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Impactos Ambientais

    2011-07-01

    The present work evaluates the math from monthly financial transfers to municipalities with technical viability for building of initial or intermediate repository for storing of radioactivity nuclear waste: gloves, sneakers, mask, resins and filters came from thermonuclear facilities. Several aspects have been considered as the geological factors of the site as presence of capable faults, groundwater vulnerability, infiltration of seawater. Also, it was take into account socioeconomic factors: population density, costs for construction, maintenance and operation of repository; size and activity of waste; among others. Hereafter, we have presented the key features of low and average activity repository and high activity repository even as initial, intermediate and final repository and the possible environment impact. The methodology for calculation of financial compensation of municipalities was established by CNEN will be applied for a specific assumed municipality. The analysis of financial compensation due to the specific nuclear waste deposit and the possible guidelines for the use of that compensation by the municipality will be analyzed. In addiction, it will be compared the model for compensation used for nuclear wastes with other plants receiving permanent wastes from cemeteries and sanitary landfills, where the land should not be allowed for the human activities the same as: crops, livestock and buildings. Also, comparison with royalties and indemnities were paid by facilities of energy production as hydroelectric dams as well as petroleum and gas exploration plants. The destination of financial compensation transfer to the municipality is in charge of the city administration. The compensation could be applied of investments in education and culture, health, sanitation works, improvement of public transport, environment, among others. It will be discussed the cost-benefit relation for the assumed municipality. (author)

  4. Calculation of financial compensation due of municipalities hosting nuclear waste deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Renata A. da; Simoes, Francisco Fernando L.; Martins, Vivian B.

    2011-01-01

    The present work evaluates the math from monthly financial transfers to municipalities with technical viability for building of initial or intermediate repository for storing of radioactivity nuclear waste: gloves, sneakers, mask, resins and filters came from thermonuclear facilities. Several aspects have been considered as the geological factors of the site as presence of capable faults, groundwater vulnerability, infiltration of seawater. Also, it was take into account socioeconomic factors: population density, costs for construction, maintenance and operation of repository; size and activity of waste; among others. Hereafter, we have presented the key features of low and average activity repository and high activity repository even as initial, intermediate and final repository and the possible environment impact. The methodology for calculation of financial compensation of municipalities was established by CNEN will be applied for a specific assumed municipality. The analysis of financial compensation due to the specific nuclear waste deposit and the possible guidelines for the use of that compensation by the municipality will be analyzed. In addiction, it will be compared the model for compensation used for nuclear wastes with other plants receiving permanent wastes from cemeteries and sanitary landfills, where the land should not be allowed for the human activities the same as: crops, livestock and buildings. Also, comparison with royalties and indemnities were paid by facilities of energy production as hydroelectric dams as well as petroleum and gas exploration plants. The destination of financial compensation transfer to the municipality is in charge of the city administration. The compensation could be applied of investments in education and culture, health, sanitation works, improvement of public transport, environment, among others. It will be discussed the cost-benefit relation for the assumed municipality. (author)

  5. Municipal Awareness as an Integral Part for Enhancing Citizen Satisfaction of Malaysian Municipal Councils, Batu Pahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Bello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study critically analysed the existing literature on municipal awareness relevancy of municipal councils’ service delivery for the purpose of enhancing citizen satisfaction. The purpose of the study is the investigation of citizen satisfaction level of municipal services through the use of municipal awareness. The Material and methods were carried out using secondary data and were meticulously and critically analysed to come up with reliable results. The study shows the relevance of the public awareness, citizen satisfaction and municipal council performance in Malaysia. It is evidence in the research that citizen consent is important before municipal services should be provided in the local community. The research study highlighted many discrepancies in many kinds of literature related to the existing research study, evidence-based analysis were carried out to buttress importance and significance of the related study to the research work. The literature was reviewed to ascertain the current happening in the area of municipal council service delivery. The study shows that many municipal councils in Malaysia provide adequate and satisfactory services to their citizens’. The results of the study also revealed that municipal awareness plays an important role on citizen satisfactions of municipal service delivery. It is also evident that adequate provision of services has direct bearing with municipal councils. The study concludes that municipal service delivery can be enhanced through citizen awareness campaign, to sensitise the local community on various aspects of service delivery including maintenance of the facilities provided. The study also concludes that local Authorities lack of awareness section affects their performance in service delivery process. The study recommends that municipal councils need to consults the citizen for their needs and wants; awareness campaign needs to be regularly carried out to maintain cordial

  6. Gravimetric composition of the rejects coming from the segregation process of the municipal recyclable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, J M B M; Gohr Pinheiro, I; Carmo, J L

    2018-04-01

    Rejects from selective collection are municipal solid waste (MSW) not used for recycling and are, therefore, destined for the landfill in Brazil. Knowledge of the composition and generation of this waste is important for strategically planning public policies that minimize its generation and its negative environmental impacts. However, this portion of MSW is not very well known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the rejects from the sorting process of the selective waste collection in the municipality of Blumenau, in the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. The studied rejects came from the largest cooperative in the city, and its composition was sorted into 17 categories of 101 samples over the course of one year, with a total of 3893 kg of analyzed rejects. The waste collected by the selective collection of the municipality was evaluated monthly to determine which part of this quantity became rejects and to determine the composition and seasonality of these rejects. The study found that 30.5% of the waste sorted by the cooperative was rejected. Among these rejects, the presence of materials that could be marketed by the cooperative was verified. Hazardous and/or legally prohibited waste were also identified, as were organics, construction and demolition waste, health care waste, electronics, textiles, footwear, batteries, and bulbs. Seasonal analysis indicated a concerning constant generation of health care waste. Aside from that, there was an increase in the generation of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) during the Christmas period, when a large part of the population discards their EEE. This information is important for the enforcement of the MSW management structure as well as for educational campaigns aimed at the correct separation of waste that should be sent for selective collection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting...... was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of −6 to 8mPEMg−1ww...... from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly....

  8. Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: the case of Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ThiKimOanh, Le; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van Buuren, Joost Cl; van der Vorst, Jack Gaj; Rulkens, Wim H

    2015-04-01

    Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future given available infrastructure and cost factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. SEPARATE COLLECTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE IN KNOWLEDGE AND SOCIAL PARTICIPATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Beata Jakubus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of knowledge and social participation of inhabitants of Darłowo city in the process of municipal waste segregation. Assessment was based on populations surveys. Populace was divided into groups according to age and education. Each group consisted of 100 persons. On the basis of the obtained result one may state that the residents showed quite satisfactory knowledge related to necessity of wastes segregation. Moreover, respondents can correctly distinguish essential fractions of municipal wastes as: paper, glass, plastics and metals. Among surveyed groups, the youngest, represented by young of 18–25 age, revealed the lowest degree of knowledge and participation in waste segregation. The obtained data of surveys indicate that, in inhabitants’ opinion, information about the segregation principles is given in satisfactory way by local self-government. However at the same time this kind of information was not precise enough.

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  11. Stakeholder-based SWOT analysis for successful municipal solid waste management in Lucknow, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Mohanty, C.S.; Pushpangadan, P.; Singh, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation is a case study of Lucknow, the main metropolis in Northern India, which succumbs to a major problem of municipal solid waste and its management. A qualitative investigation using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT) has been successfully implemented through this community participation study. This qualitative investigation emphasizes the limited capabilities of the municipal corporation's resources to provide proper facilitation of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services without community participation in Lucknow city. The SWOT analysis was performed to formulate strategic action plans for MSWM in order to mobilize and utilize the community resources on the one hand and municipal corporation's resources on the other. It has allowed the introduction of a participatory approach for better collaboration between the community and municipal corporation in Lucknow (India). With this stakeholder-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting the possible 'threats' into 'opportunities' and changing the 'weaknesses' into 'strengths' regarding a community-based MSWM programme. By this investigation, concrete strategic action plans were developed for both the community and municipal corporation to improve MSWM in Lucknow

  12. Stakeholder-based SWOT analysis for successful municipal solid waste management in Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P K; Kulshreshtha, K; Mohanty, C S; Pushpangadan, P; Singh, A

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation is a case study of Lucknow, the main metropolis in Northern India, which succumbs to a major problem of municipal solid waste and its management. A qualitative investigation using strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis (SWOT) has been successfully implemented through this community participation study. This qualitative investigation emphasizes the limited capabilities of the municipal corporation's resources to provide proper facilitation of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services without community participation in Lucknow city. The SWOT analysis was performed to formulate strategic action plans for MSWM in order to mobilize and utilize the community resources on the one hand and municipal corporation's resources on the other. It has allowed the introduction of a participatory approach for better collaboration between the community and municipal corporation in Lucknow (India). With this stakeholder-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting the possible "threats" into "opportunities" and changing the "weaknesses" into "strengths" regarding a community-based MSWM programme. By this investigation, concrete strategic action plans were developed for both the community and municipal corporation to improve MSWM in Lucknow.

  13. Integrated test schedule for buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.T.; McDonald, J.K.

    1992-05-01

    The Integrated Test Schedule incorporates the various schedules the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports into one document. This document contains the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order schedules for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Reservation, Oak Ridge Reservation, and Fernald Environmental Materials Center. Included in the Integrated Test Schedule is the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration ''windows of opportunity'' schedule. The ''windows of opportunity'' schedule shows periods of time in which Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program-sponsored technology demonstrations could support key decisions in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. Schedules for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored technology task plans are categorized by technology area and divided by current fiscal year and out-year. Total estimated costs for Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration-sponsored Technology Task Plans for FY-92 through FY-97 are $74.756M

  14. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna; Walery, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior

  15. Municipal waste management and groundwater contamination processes in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Emilio Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Coronel Moldes, Argentina, waste management practices consist in municipal waste being tipped directly onto an area of sand dunes at the municipal waste disposal site (MWDS. Moreover, untreated liquid waste from septic tanks and latrines from urban areas are discharged in the same place. This co-disposal waste management is very common in many regions of Argentina and its impact on the groundwater of Coronel Moldes has not been evaluated. The study area is located in the vicinity of a MWDS in a flatlands environment that is typical of Argentina. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts on groundwater quality of current waste management practices in order to consider the requirement for new guidelines for sustainable groundwater management. Three groundwater monitoring wells were installed up-, across- and down-gradient of the MWDS. The principal aquifer is formed by sandy silt sediments (loess. Groundwater levels in the area of the MWDS are between 5.6 m and 7.8 m. The Vulnerability index indicates that groundwater in this area has a high vulnerability. Groundwater in the vicinity of the MWDS shows elevated electrical conductivity, high concentrations of Cl-, Na+, and HCO3- ions, COD, BOD5 and aerobic bacteria and less dissolved oxygen than the background values indicating the presence of organic matter. Municipal waste management represents a significant omission in current groundwater protection policy at Coronel Moldes. Strict supervision of solid and liquid municipal waste disposal needs to be instigated in order to ensure that the groundwater remains free of contamination and to allow a sustainable environmental management.

  16. Influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity of leachate from municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Grellier, S.; Robain, Henri; Bellier, Gérard; Skhiri, N.

    2006-01-01

    A bioreactor landfill is designed to manage municipal solid waste, through accelerated waste biodegradation, and stabilisation of the process by means of the controlled addition of liquid, i.e. leachate recirculation. The measurement of electrical resistivity by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows to monitor water content present in the bioreactors. Variations in electrical resistivity are linked to variations in moisture content and temperature. In order to overcome this ambiguity...

  17. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  18. Gamma radiation sterilization of municipal waste for reuse as a carrier for inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, N.M.; Nhan, D.D.; Quynh, T.M.; Thuan, V.V.; Toan, P.V.

    1998-01-01

    This study aims at: i) analytical evaluation for heavy metals, phenols and microorganism as well as fungus contamination of municipal waste from Hanoi City (Vietnam); ii) application gamma radiation technology to disinfect the material for re-using it as a carrier for microbial inoculant. The study was conducted with the municipal waste which was primarily processed at a waste treatment station and it contains main components such as total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silica of 36.8%, 0.45%, 0.81%, 0.65% and 25.4%, respectively. The content of heavy metals such as Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr etc. of the waste was quantified by the XRF technique and it was found to be 169.4, 0.2, 18.6, 40.8, 149.4, 365.1 and 101.4 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The phenolic contamination content of the waste was evaluated by GC-FPD technique and it is lower than the detection limit (0.1 mg/kg) of the FPD. Total aerobic microorganisms and fungus populations in the waste were found to be 1.4.10 8 cell.g -1 and 0.54.10 6 CFU.g -1 , respectively, while pathogen was not found. Irradiation technology was applied to disinfect the material and experimental results show that the effective dose (D eff ) in this case should be as high as 50-55 kGy. It appeared that the municipal waste from Hanoi city with its high organic matter content followed by irradiation disinfection is quite suitable for the re-use as a carrier in biofertilizers. The irradiation disinfected municipal waste based inoculant are expected to be able to store for a long period of time before the contaminating microorganisms and fungus could recover

  19. Regional Energy Potential of Municipal Solid Waste in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    1997-01-01

    MSW energy recovery in Croatia by thermal treatment in waste and landfill gas plants, similar to some 1200 such plants operating worldwide, could reduce waste impact on health and environment, and simultaneously substitute approximate 300000 tonnes of imported hard coal. (author)

  20. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  1. The municipal districts and the hazardous and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    The contamination of soil, water, air and flora due to increasing of hazardous wastes and population is discussed; the classification of wastes is analysed; the partition of competence in environmental area according to the constitution is explained; solutions to adjust industrial development with preservation of environment are suggested [pt

  2. Predicting the calorific value of refuse derived fuel from the characteristics of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an

    2006-01-01

    The Imposing need to manage the municipal solid waste generated by society in a proper manner has urged municipalities to look into new management methods, which are not only environmentally friendly but also economically profitable. One such way is by converting this waste material into fuel. Currently, Kajang in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, generates about 700 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) a day. Due to rapid development, lack of land area for new landfill and the environmental impact of raw landfills, the local municipal council has collaborated with a local company in the management of this waste. The company has proposed to convert the MSW to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). In view of this, a pilot plant to convert MSW to RDF was erected by the company and begun operation in January 2002. This pilot plant has the capability of converting 15 tons of MSW to 5 tons of RDF. At the same time studies, have been carried out to assess the plant performance, the flue gas analysis, and also the MSW and RDF characteristic. This paper will highlight the findings of the MSW and RDF characterization work carried out over the past year. Sampling and analysis was carried in accordance with ASTM standards. Results of the waste analysis showed that the calorific value of the resulting RDF could be predicted from the physical characteristics as well as the moisture content. Regression analysis on the available data has been used to create equations relating the proximate composition and moisture content of the incoming municipal solid waste to the calorific value of the RDF

  3. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Waste Collection Service in Gorkha Municipality of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Maskey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is a growing problem in urban areas of Nepal where municipalities are severely constrained by budget to manage it effectively. Collecting fees from the public can aid finance for improving waste management service. This study evaluates willingness to pay (WTP by 401 households, selected using a stratified sampling method from all 15 wards of Gorkha municipality of Nepal for improved waste collection service and the factors influencing it. We employed a contingent valuation method to elicit households’ WTP, logit regression model to determine factors influencing WTP and tobit regression model to determine factors influencing the maximum amount households are willing to pay for improved waste collection service. Majority of households (61% are willing to pay an average amount of NRs. 73.38 (0.72 US$ per month. Factors that significantly influence households’ WTP are monthly household income, education of household head, environmental awareness and waste collection service. Except for education of household head, all these factors significantly influence the maximum amount of money households are willing to pay. Concerned stakeholders and policy makers should consider these traits of households before enforcing a waste collection fee.

  4. Comparative study of municipal solid waste generation and composition in Shiraz city (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Norouzian Baghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exponential growths of population and urbanization, and the development of social economy have resulted in an increase in the amount of MSW generation throughout the world. Objective: The present study aimed to survey qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid waste in Shiraz city and comparative these results with the world scenario of solid wastes generation for improving the sustainable management of solid waste. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in nine municipality regions Shiraz with a total population of approximately 1,549,354 people. Basic data was gathered through Shiraz waste management organization. Then generation (per capita and constituent percent of the solid waste were evaluated based on the sampling and field analyzing from reliable guidelines. Data were analyzed with Stata-13 and Excel statistical software. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test used for the normality of variables. Means were compared by Student T test and Mann-Whitney test. Findings: The rate of solid waste generated in the Shiraz city was 222.65 kg per person per year in 2014. Statistical analysis showed that the variables of organic materials, paper and cardboard, glass and metal between developed and developing countries were a significant difference (P0.05. Conclusion: Solid waste per capita in Shiraz city (about 600 g/day was near to the average amount of solid waste generation in Iran and other developing countries. Due to the high content of organic material in municipal solid waste of Shiraz, minimization of these material and separation of dry and wet solid wastes must be noted from the people and municipalities.

  5. Inter-Municipal Cooperation in Waste Management: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołsut Bartłomiej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to present the scale of inter-municipal cooperation in waste management in Poland in the light of the role of three key factors of cooperation. The first shows spatial regularities in the distribution of inter-municipal bodies involved in waste management in Poland, both in the system of voivodeships and historical-cultural regions. The second is institutional conditions confirming the scale of the Europeanisation of public policies taking place in Poland. It embraces the implementation of the EU legal framework in the Polish legal system and the cooperative behaviour of municipalities as a result of those changes. The third is a negative verification of the assumptions of the economic theory upholding the role of financial motivation in establishing cooperation (looking for savings and economies of scale to reduce unit cost; the presented results do not corroborate this type of motivation.

  6. A service network design model for multimodal municipal solid waste transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inghels, D.A.M.; Dullaert, W.E.H.; Vigo, D.

    2016-01-01

    A modal shift from road transport towards inland water or rail transport could reduce the total Green House Gas emissions and societal impact associated with Municipal Solid Waste management. However, this shift will take place only if demonstrated to be at least cost-neutral for the decision

  7. Effect of municipal solid waste ash on the strength of earthen bricks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different amounts of Municipal Solid Waste Ash (MSWA) on the strength characteristics of the walls subjected to compressive loads. The soil used for making the bricks was stabilized using MSWA applied at the rate of 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% of the weight of soil.

  8. Modernising solid waste management at municipal level : institutional arrangements in urban centres of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majale, C.

    2011-01-01

    The task of municipal problem solving has become a team sport that has spilled beyond the borders of government agencies and now engages a far more extensive network of social actors - public as well as private, non-profit and profit. Solid waste management is one of the key tasks associated

  9. A LABORATORY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE GASEOUS EMISSIONS AND SOLIDS DECOMPOSITION DURING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a materials flow analysis performed for composting municipal solid waste (MSW) and specific biodegradable organic components of MSW. (NOTE: This work is part of an overall U.S. EPA project providing cost, energy, and materials flow information on diffe...

  10. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, P

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  11. Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is used for its inertisation, reduction of its volume and the conversion of its energy content into heat and/or electricity. Operation and control of modern large scale MSW combustion (MSWC) plants is determined by economic and environmental objectives

  12. Quantifying Methane Abatement Efficiency at Three Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were conducted at three municipal solid waste landfills to compare fugitive methane emissions from the landfill cells to the quantity of collected gas (i.e., gas collection efficiency). The measurements were conducted over a multi-week sampling campaign using EPA Oth...

  13. Carbon speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in relation to facilitated metal leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The release of inorganic and organic contaminants from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is controlled to a large extent by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and in particular by the reactive humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) subfractions of DOC. The properties of

  14. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  15. Properties of municipal solid waste incineration ashes with respect to their separation temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Pavlík, Z.; Tydlitát, V.; Volfová, P.; Švarcová, Silvie; Šyc, Michal; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2012), s. 1041-1048 ISSN 0734-242X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * fly ash * municipal solid waste incinerator * pozzolanic activity * hydration heat * separation temperature * building industry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2012

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Wood Pallets - What's Happening in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Robert J. Bush; Vijay S. Reddy

    1997-01-01

    This article on pallet disposal and Municipal Solid Waste sites includes material presented by Dr. Bush at the recent NWPCA Recycling Meeting. This is the first in a two-part series; the second discusses pallet disposal in construction and demolition sites.

  17. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  18. Co-digestion of municipal organic wastes with night soil and cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogas, which is principally composed of methane and carbon dioxide, can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation of biomass such as manure, night soil, sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes. Furthermore, the solid residuals of fermentation (the digested slurry) might be reused as fertilizer, to enhance the fertility of the ...

  19. Trigeneration System Based on Municipal Waste Gasification, Fuel Cell and an Absorption Chiller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsaros, Giannis; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The present work focuses on the design of a novel tri-generation system based on municipal solid wastes gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and an ammonia-water absorption chiller. Trigeneration systems can be implemented in buildings such as hospitals, where there is a continuous and large demand...

  20. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghdam, Ehsan Fathi; Kinnunen, V.; Rintala, Jukka A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), biowaste (BW), sewage sludge (SS), and co-digestion of BW and SS. Average methane yields of 386 ± 54, 385 ± 82, 198 ± 14, and 318 ± 59 L CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) were obtained for OFMS...

  1. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  2. Co-digestion of municipal organic wastes with night soil and cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    or simply municipal bio-waste, which is used as feedstock for biogas production; represents an .... water vapor, sulfur and a hundreds of other contaminants .... bacteria. This is why the structure for biogas production is generally built underground, to keep the temperature as constant as possible (Sibisi and Green, 2005).

  3. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which has been treated electrodialytically for the removal of heavy metals, may have changed characteristics compared to untreated fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH static leaching...

  4. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  8. EMISSION TEST REPORT- FIELD TEST OF CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL, CAMDEN COUNTY MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of parametric test to evaluate the injection powdered activated carbon to control volatile pollutants in municipal waste combustor (MWC) flue gas. he tests were conducted at a spray dryer absorber/electrostatic precipitator (SD/ESP)-equipped MWC in Camden...

  9. The potential of biogas production from municipal solid waste in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Tadesse; Gebrehiwot, Mulat; Ambelu, Argaw; Van Gerven, Tom; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the potential of organic municipal solid waste generated in an urban setting in a tropical climate to produce biogas. Five different categories of wastes were considered: fruit waste, food waste, yard waste, paper waste, and mixed waste. These fractions were assessed for their efficiency for biogas production in a laboratory-scale batch digester for a total period of 8 weeks at a temperature of 15-30 °C. During this period, fruit waste, food waste, yard waste, paper waste, and mixed waste were observed to produce 0.15, 0.17, 0.10, 0.08, and 0.15 m(3) of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, respectively. The biogas produced and caloric value of each feedstock was in the range of 1.25 × 10(-3) m(3) (17 kWh)/cap/day (paper waste) to 15 × 10(-3) m(3) (170 kWh)/cap/day (mixed waste). Paper waste produced the least (waste produced the highest methane yield (10 × 10(-3) m(3) (178 kWh)/cap/day). Thus, mixed waste was found to be more efficient than other feedstocks for biogas and methane production; this was mainly related to the better C/N ratio in mixed waste. Taking the total waste production in Jimma into account, the total mixed organic solid waste could produce 865 × 10(3) m(3) (5.4 m(3)/capita) of biogas or 537 × 10(3) m(3) (3.4 m(3)/capita) of methane per year. The total caloric value of methane production potential from mixed organic municipal solid waste was many times higher than the total energy requirement of the area.

  10. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana, E-mail: rotchana.in@gmail.com [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, KlongLuang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Abdul Salam, P., E-mail: salam@ait.ac.th [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, KlongLuang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Kumar, S., E-mail: kumar@ait.ac.th [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, KlongLuang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Untong, Akarapong, E-mail: akarapong_un@hotmail.com [School of Tourism Development, Maejo University, Chiangmai (Thailand)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  11. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period

  12. A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verge, Ashley; Rowe, R Kerry

    2013-12-01

    A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a 4 Table 4 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion... Part 60—Model Rule—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unit a For...

  14. Life Cycle Assessment Modelling of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Existing and Proposed Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Batool Syeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Dumping of indiscriminate municipal solid waste (MSW remarkably contributes to global warming (GW. Life Cycle Assessment modelling may be a useful tool for assessing the best waste management option regarding GW potential. The current study evaluates the contribution of an existing MSW management (MSWM system to greenhouse gases in Gulberg Town, Lahore, Pakistan. This research also presents a comparison of scenarios with different waste management options. Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used to conduct the study. EASETECH has been used for modelling. The short-term scenarios (STSs have been developed to promote the thinking of integration of treatment technologies in the current waste management system within a few months. The results show that the major contribution to the total emissions comes from the anaerobic digestion of organic material from open waste dumps. Currently, recycling is the best treatment option for reducing the CO2-eq values in the study area. It was clarified that recycling is the best option for reducing the CO2-eq values, whereas biogasification comes in second in terms of savings and reduction. The integration of recycling and biogasification techniques would be a good solution.

  15. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... for each source was calculated in relation to the total mass flow into the waste water plant, making it possible to evaluate the absolute and relative importance of each type of source. The sources investigated accounted for about 12% of the influx of DEHP, the predominating phthalate, to the waste water...

  16. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  18. Production of gaseous fuel by pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, T. H.; Ringer, H. N.; Bridges, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant tests were conducted on a simulated solid waste which was a mixture of shredded newspaper, wood waste, polyethylene plastics, crushed glass, steel turnings, and water. Tests were conducted at 1400 F in a lead-bath pyrolyser. Cold feed was deaerated by compression and was dropped onto a moving hearth of molten lead before being transported to a sealed storage container. About 80 percent of the feed's organic content was converted to gaseous products which contain over 90 percent of the potential waste energy; 12 percent was converted to water; and 8 percent remained as partially pyrolyzed char and tars. Nearly half of the carbon in the feed is converted to benzene, toluene and medium-quality fuel gas, a potential credit of over $25 per ton of solid waste. The system was shown to require minimal preprocessing and less sorting then other methods.

  19. [Toxicologic evaluation of purified municipal and industrial waste water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Tolstopiatova, G V; Byshovets, T F; Andrienko, L G; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh N; Poviĭchuk, E R; Teteneva, I A

    1993-07-01

    Analysis of waters sewage in Kiev and of waste water of a textile and se wing enterprise in Chernigov has shown that treatment by biological method and with activated carbon was fairely efficient in toxicity reduction.

  20. CHARACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL WASTE BIODEGRADABLE FRACTION AND EVALUATION OF ITS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Meller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in Renewable Energy Sources initiated the use of biogas as an energy generating material. Biodegradable waste coming from different streams is an important resource for biogas production. The studies were conducted on 20–80 mm fraction of municipal waste separated by rotary screen in the technological process of The Waste Recovery and Storage Plant in Leśno Górne. Morphological composition of the examined waste and their parameters determining their usefulness for composting and fermentation were analysed. On the basis of organic carbon content, the amount of biogas that may be produced from 1 kg of waste was estimated. An approximate amount of biogas which can be obtained in the process of methane fermentation from energy piles, formed from 10 000 Mg of waste was also calculated. Depending on the temperature it was from. 2.8 to 3.8 mln m3.