WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated military human

  1. Psychological Safety During Military Integrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan

    Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Integrated Military Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios ; Culture Work-Life Balance Special Programs Integrated Military Systems (IMS) Capabilities Facilities

  3. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  4. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2014-12-01

    Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses) on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70), interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines.

  6. An integrated service excellence model for military test and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to introduce an Integrated Service Excellence Model (ISEM) for empowering the leadership core of the capital-intensive military test and evaluation facilities to provide strategic military test and evaluation services and to continuously improve service excellence by ensuring that all activities ...

  7. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M.; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 dos...

  8. review article how unique is south african military integration?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roy Licklider

    Rutgers University. The study of civil war ... South Africa has a strong case to be the poster child of military integration after civil violence.6 In a .... One aspect of the South African response to this problem was unique: a. Defence White Paper ...

  9. Human Rights and Military Conduct: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, George

    2000-01-01

    .... Human rights concerns have been particularly salient in the Western Hemisphere, where military dictatorships overthrew civilian regimes in much of the Southern Cone and Andes in the 1960s and 1970s, and where U.S...

  10. The US-Nigerian Military Cooperation: US Africom As A Mentor For Nigeria’s Military Efforts At Promoting Respect For Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A MENTOR FOR NIGERIA’S MILITARY EFFORTS AT PROMOTING RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS By Mohammed Asuekome Imam, Major, Nigerian Air Force BSc...security aspects should be integrated into the local environment to mentor military personnel on international best practices.30 This could provide...Similarly, a mentor team from US AFRICOM could periodically visit detention facilities to observe how terror suspects are being treated and then provide

  11. GENERAL MILITARY HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND SPECIAL FORCES HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. A COMPARATIVE OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Emil PATRICHI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The switch from conscript’s army to an all volunteer force military brought new challenges for the military organization. This is more obvious in the human resource domain than in any other area. In the competition to recruit and retain quality personnel, the military organizations should strategically align the human resource management to the overall strategy. The challenges are greater for the Special Forces because the need for a rigorous selection process to recruit from within the military. The rift already in place between the conventional military and the Special Forces need to be overcome to transform the strain relationship into a positive sum game..

  12. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do

  13. Integrating occupational therapy in treating combat stress reaction within a military unit: An intervention model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindi, Shahar; Galili, Giora; Volovic-Shushan, Shani; Adir-Pavis, Shirly

    2016-01-01

    Combat stress reaction (CR) is a syndrome with a wide range of symptoms including changes in soldiers' behaviors, emotional and physiological responses, avoidance and a decrease in both personal and military functioning. The short-term goal in treating CR is a speedy return to healthy functioning, whereas the long-term goal is to prevent the development of PTSD. Previous research has indicated that the achievement of this short-term goal affects the achievement of the long-term goal and vice versa. Effective treatment requires intervention by trained professionals proficient in reinforcing personal and functional identity without psychiatric labelling. The present paper presents a therapeutic model integrating OT in treating CR within a military setting. The model emphasizes the importance of preventing fixation to the role of 'patient' and a rapid return to maximal functioning. Based on Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation, which aims to promote adaptive and efficient functioning by engaging soldiers in tasks supporting their military identity, empowering functionality, and increasing their perceived competency. The model emphasizes the therapeutic milieu within a military environment. Practical application of this model focuses on interdisciplinary aspects and client-focused application. The paper describes an assessment process for each soldier entering the CR unit and a treatment model integrating OT.

  14. Conscientious objection to military service in international human rights instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskaitė, Ernesta

    2010-01-01

    Current debates on conscientious objection to military service reveal a conflict between conscription and individual freedom of conscience; they question the scope of human rights and liberties as well as raise an issue of their extension. The majority of member states of UN and CoE officially recognize a right to conscientious objection. However, the flow of complaints to international human rights monitoring bodies demonstrates absence of a general consensus on the concept, origin and legal...

  15. Human-Systems Integration Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to baseline a Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) document as a companion to the NASA-STD-3001 and Human Integration Design...

  16. Integrating Military and Veteran Culture in Social Work Education: Implications for Curriculum Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Julie; Weiss, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the conceptual question of how to best integrate military culture and issues into social work education. Military service members, veterans, and their families are returning to civilian communities with the ending of conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and seeking community-based providers for health and mental health…

  17. review article how unique is south african military integration?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roy Licklider

    The military cultures of these groups varied from the hierarchical ones of a modern army to the individualistic ones of guerrilla fighters. Education ... Sierra Leone, while others were more autonomous, like South Africa and Lebanon.

  18. Integrity of a common operating picture in military situational awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of qualification of a common operating picture (COP) directly impacts the situational awareness of military Command and Control (C2). Since a commander is reliant on situational awareness information in order to make decisions regarding...

  19. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  20. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational

  1. Integrated disaster relief logistics: a stepping stone towards viable civil-military networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Peter; Rietjens, Sebastiaan Bas

    2016-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen a significant rise in all forms of disasters and this has resulted in military and humanitarian organisations becoming more frequently engaged in the provision of support to those affected. Achieving an efficient and effective logistic preparation and response is one of the key elements in mitigating the impact of such events, but the establishment of mechanisms to deliver an appropriately integrated civil-military approach remains elusive. Not least because of the high percentage of assistance budgets spent on logistics, this area is considered to represent fertile ground for developing improved processes and understanding. In practice, the demands placed on civilian and military logisticians are broadly similar, as is the solution space. Speaking a common language and using common concepts, it is argued, therefore, that the logistic profession should be in the vanguard of the development of an improved civil-military interface. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  2. Integration of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the close integration of the civil and military nuclear fuel cycles in Russia. Individual processing facilities, as well as the flow of nuclear material, are described as they existed in the 1980s and as they exist today. The end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union weakened the ties between the two nuclear fuel cycles, but did not separate them. Separation of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles would facilitate Russia's integration into the world's nuclear fuel cycle and its participation in international non-proliferation regimes

  3. Abolishing the Security Dilemma: Why we need to integrate the militaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cornelia Beyer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the Security Dilemma can in fact be abolished by integrating the militaries into one common global organisation, possibly under one common command. The existence and workings of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO are an approximate example of this ideal in a geographically limited space. For illustrating this argument, this article discusses the logic of the Prisoners Dilemma, as the intellectual model underlying the Security Dilemma, and proposes an alternative version of the Prisoners Dilemma. It is then argued that the Security Dilemma only persists in a politically and economically ever farther integrated world because the international militaries are not integrated and hence partial anarchy persists at least in the military realm. The solution to remaining international conflicts, such as arguably one between NATO and Russia recently, would be to expand NATO to include “threatening” states’ militaries until all militaries are joined in a global organisation, a truly global NATO. Finally, revised non-violent functions for NATO, as well as a global welfare state and an early warning system for civil wars, are proposed and discussed.

  4. The Disintegration of the Military Integration Process in South Sudan (2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Anne Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that military integration served a critical purpose in 2006, arguably preventing large-scale conflict within South Sudan and ensuring a level of stability prior to the CPA-mandated referendum on self-determination in 2011. Nonetheless, integration was poorly-conceived and implemented, and received limited support from third party actors that were more focused on rightsizing the SPLA and transforming it into a conventional, professional military. The de facto open-door nature of South Sudan’s integration process created incentives for armed rebellion, while failed rightsizing initiatives increased pressure on the military integration process as the most expedient way of mitigating the threat these groups posed to stability. Integration thus became an end in and of itself rather than a transitional measure to contain former combatants while the government worked out a more long-term solution for South Sudan’s security sector. Consequently, the SPLA was in a state of arrested development, preventing efforts to transform the military from gaining traction, and making the force more likely to fragment along factional lines during periods of heightened political competition.

  5. DefenseLink.mil - Special Report - Military Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commemorates 60 Years Of Armed Forces Integration WASHINGTON, Aug. 6, 2008 – Marking the 60th anniversary of the integration of the armed services is a reminder of "how far we've come toward living up to , Aug. 6, 2008 - As the Defense Department commemorated 60 years of integration, President Harry S

  6. The College Choice Process of the Women Who Gender Integrated America's Military Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Stacy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1976 and again in 1995, several brave women chose to enroll at--and thereby to "gender integrate"--America's military colleges. In 1976, women were admitted to the Department of Defense (DOD) service academies after an Act of Congress changed a law so as to allow for their matriculation. Beginning in 1995, women were admitted to state-supported…

  7. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  8. Human Emotional State and its Relevance for Military VR Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizzo, Albert; Morie, Jacquelyn F; Williams, Josh; Pair, Jarrell; Buckwalter, J. G

    2005-01-01

    .... Real world military training often naturally includes stress induction that aims to promote a similarity of internal emotional stimulus cues with what is expected to be present on the battlefield...

  9. The Tatmadaw and Human Rights: Changing a Military Mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES A paper submitted to the Naval War College faculty in partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Joint Military...partial satisfaction of the requirements of the Department of Joint Military Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views...soldiers continued to conduct “large-scale abuses such as land confiscation, informal taxation, and forced labour .” 26 However, in the current

  10. Of Iron or Wax? The Effect of Economic Integration on the Reliability of Military Alliances***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vobolevičius Vincentas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze what determines if a military alliance represents a credible commitment. More precisely, we verify if economic integration of military allies increases the deterrent capability of an alliance, and its effectiveness in the case of third-party aggression. We propose that growing intra-alliance trade creates audience costs and sunk costs for political leaders who venture to violate conditions of an alliance treaty. Therefore, intensive trade can be regarded as a signal of allies’ determination to aid one another in the case of third party aggression, and a deterrent of such aggression. Regression analysis of bilateral fixed-term mutual defense agreements concluded between 1945 and 2003 reveals that large trade volumes among military allies indeed reduce the likelihood that their political leaders will breach alliance commitments. Intra-alliance trade also displays a number of interesting interaction effects with the other common predictors of military alliance reliability such as shared allies’ interests and values, symmetry of their military capabilities, their geographic location and domestic political institutions.

  11. Integral Transportation Systems in Military Transport Aircraft Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supply of goods, equipment and soldiers by militwy transportaircraft can serve as a support to airborne landing operation,support to encircled forces, and support to forces leadinga gue1rilla war. Transport aircraft are designed in such a wayas to be able to cany containers, pallets, most of land vehiclesand helicopters. Militwy transport aircraft can be grouped intothose that were originally designed for military transp01t andthose that are modified civilian aircraft and helicopters. Supplypallets can be wooden, metal, can be airdropped in "taxiing","low-flight", and can also be fitted with a parachute or"retrorocket" for reducing the ground impact. Pallets canamong other things carry liquids, heavy combat and ca1rier vehicles,artillery and rocket weapons and valious containers.Pallets are usually pe1manently deformed at ground impact.Nowadays, high precision of airdrop has been achieved. Containersare used to carry various equipment, food, fue~ weapons,ammunition etc. It is to be expected that the containers,wmoured combat and other vehicles will be redesigned so asto provide more efficient transport and fast a!Tangement ofhigh-mobility units, whereas the form of the future militarytransport aircraft will not undergo substantial changes. By adjustingand standardising the transporlation vehicles, integraltransportation means and cwgo, the overall combat efficiencywill be increased, the a~rangement time especially shortenedand the air supply safety increased.

  12. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING FOR MILITARY SOLDIER AT ISKANDAR MUDA MILITARY COMMAND (A Theocentrical Humanism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the process of soldier's mental development in Iskandar Muda Military Command, both seen from the selection process to be soldier in educational institutions as well as in the unit assignment. This research is expected to find the development pattern in accordance with the challenging tasks for the National Military (TNI ahead. By using a qualitative approach, this research has achieved several findings: 1 in the selection process, a soldier was just demanded to fundamentally have religious understanding without a standard point for depth understanding of religion, 2 in the first stage of education, the subject matter of religion only a broad outline of religious teachings, 3 religious activities is not part of military trainings curriculum, but it is merely education administrators’ policy, 4 the soldiers in unit deemed to have knowledge of the religion and an unwavering faith. Despite the fact that soldiers’ religious knowledge is still very low, while the faith is generally used as the symbolic emphasis that is less discussed. As a result, it is feared that mentality weakness when facing a tough task, both faced with the sophistication of tools, strategies and mental demands in modern warfare in the future.

  13. Colleges' Experiences: Integrating Support Services for Military Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2017-01-01

    To improve the educational experiences and outcomes of student veterans, the Kisco Foundation developed the Kohlberg Prize in 2015. Two cohorts of colleges were awarded competitive grants to enhance their veterans services. This piece examines the process of creating integrated services for student veterans through the institutionalization of…

  14. Integration in the Ranks: Explaining the Effects of Social Pressure and Attitudinal Change on U.S. Military Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Jr., Richard J

    2006-01-01

    When compared to other organizations in the American bureaucracy, and perhaps American society as a whole, the military is generally regarded as having been one of the pioneers of racial integration...

  15. Integrative Lifecourse and Genetic Analysis of Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    dog breeds and in particular to the MWDs because they are unlike other canine cohorts in their “ evolutionary ”/human-purposed selection/breeding (on...bioinformatics and evolutionary analyses. In this reporting period, Dr. Alvarez was the communicating author on a comprehensive book chapter on...Methods and Principles in Medicinal Chemistry series, Wiley-VCH, In press. (Appendix 9) Fenger J. M., Rowell, J. L., Zapata, I., London C. A

  16. Cognitive Desegregation: Unmasking Human Sexuality in the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    President Obama provided clear leadership and guidance to the military to remove discrimination based on sexual orientation. 4 During that same...identified transgendered persons in service.20 Along those same lines, this paper will not address inclusion of intersexed persons or others with non...in American culture. 20 Transgendered individuals appear or behave in ways that do not conform to the gender role ascribed to their particular sex

  17. Improving human papilloma virus vaccination rates throughout military treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Rachel; Lemmon, Keith; Trivedi, Nidhi J; Hansen, Shana

    2018-03-07

    The four objectives of this study were to (1) educate military healthcare providers on HPV disease and vaccine, (2) assess short term recall of information presented at educational sessions, (3) assess provider comfort level with the vaccine, and (4) assess improvement in HPV vaccination rates. Standardized interactive educational sessions were conducted at military primary care clinics with pre- and post-educational quizzes administered before and immediately following the sessions. Provider attitudes were assessed using Likert scale questionnaires. Vaccination rates in children and young adolescents ages 11-18 at one of the participating regions that had a champion and started a Quality Improvement (QI) project were assessed at baseline, at 3-months and at 6-months post sessions. 200 providers were reached at 48 primary care clinics during May 2014 through October 2015 with 200 quizzes and Likert scale questionnaires returned. There was increase in knowledge following the educational sessions as revealed in the pre- and post- test scores [t(57) = -5.04, p knowledge recall and comfort level in answering parents' questions was seen. We found that educational sessions can improve HPV vaccination rates in military clinics that have a vaccine champion for up to 3-months. Further research into the effects of having clinic vaccine champions is critical. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Human Performance Modeling in Military Simulation: Current State of the Art and the Way Ahead (2002 TTCP HUM Group Meeting)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... This report examines the requirements for human performance modeling within the military, assesses the state of the practice in current operational models, documents ongoing human performance research and development (R and D...

  19. Data-Driven Modeling of Target Human Behavior in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Military Operations Elizabeth Mezzacappa, Ph.D. Gordon Cooke, MEME Gladstone Reid, MSBMS Robert DeMarco, MSBMS Charles Sheridan BA John...stress, and human behavior modeling and simulation issues. GORDON COOKE, MEME , is a Principal Investigator at the TBRL. He was also a Chief

  20. Educating nurses to care for military veterans in civilian hospitals: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda; Andrew, Sharon; Fossey, Matt

    2016-12-01

    In the UK, military veterans will receive care by civilian nurses in civilian hospitals. We propose that the nurses providing this care require an understanding of the unique experiences and specific health needs of veterans to deliver evidence-based care. To conduct an integrative review of published literature to explore how nursing programmes prepare nurses to care for the military veteran population in civilian hospitals. A systematic search was undertaken of a range of electronic databases, Google Scholar and hand searching of Military and Veteran health journals. Papers that focused on education of civilian nurses about veteran health and included primary research or description of practice-based innovations were included in the review. The search generated sixteen papers that were focused on nurse education in higher education institutions. Several papers focused on simulation as a teaching method for veteran-specific health issues or curriculum developments with educational innovations such as online courses. Six papers focusing in continuing professional education of nurses in the clinical setting were included as supplementary information. All papers reviewed were US focused and dated between January 2011 and September 2015. Our search concluded that there is a gap in knowledge in this subject area within a UK context, therefore our review includes UK background information to support the US findings. Civilian nurses need educational preparation to understand the specific needs of veterans. Educational institutions in the US have responded to nationwide initiatives to undertake that preparation. More empirical studies need to be undertaken to develop, test and evaluate educational innovations for preparing students and nurses delivering care to military veteran in civilian healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  2. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  3. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  4. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Tech: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris

    2002-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  5. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Technology: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris M

    2003-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  6. Integration of Military and Civilians Space Assets: Legal and National Security Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waldrop, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    .... While international space law is very permissive with regard to military uses of space, there are considerable legal and security implications resulting from military and civilian dependence on the same space services...

  7. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  8. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farris, Ronald K.; Medema, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve lineup verifications, containment closure verifications, safety and equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R and D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet. (author)

  9. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  10. Visualisation of Massive Military Datasets: Human Factors, Applications, and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    we have been confronted with data of new kinds at a rate faster than our human brains can manage to turn into information. “Visualisation” means the...because variation of these kinds do not have the qaulities of textons. Figure 2.5 A trivial Icon Map in which there is a data attribute, shown as...information management is to ensure that the right information is available to the right person, at the right time, and shown in such a way that the person

  11. SysBioCube: A Data Warehouse and Integrative Data Analysis Platform Facilitating Systems Biology Studies of Disorders of Military Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowbina, Sudhir; Hammamieh, Rasha; Kumar, Raina; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Yang, Ruoting; Mudunuri, Uma; Jett, Marti; Palma, Joseph M; Stephens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    SysBioCube is an integrated data warehouse and analysis platform for experimental data relating to diseases of military relevance developed for the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Systems Biology Enterprise (SBE). It brings together, under a single database environment, pathophysio-, psychological, molecular and biochemical data from mouse models of post-traumatic stress disorder and (pre-) clinical data from human PTSD patients.. SysBioCube will organize, centralize and normalize this data and provide an access portal for subsequent analysis to the SBE. It provides new or expanded browsing, querying and visualization to provide better understanding of the systems biology of PTSD, all brought about through the integrated environment. We employ Oracle database technology to store the data using an integrated hierarchical database schema design. The web interface provides researchers with systematic information and option to interrogate the profiles of pan-omics component across different data types, experimental designs and other covariates.

  12. Integrative Health and Healing as the New Health Care Paradigm for the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Richard P

    2015-10-01

    Background: The field of integrative health and healing (IH 2 ) is emerging out of the dark recesses of "voodoo" stereotypes and into the light as a new and much needed health care paradigm. It is a philosophy of health and healing that seeks to place patients as the preeminent players in health management, disease prevention, and injury recovery. There is an emphasis of patient responsibility, which includes a holistic approach that merges allopathic with complementary medicine. Objective: The aim of this article is to explore the historical origins of integrative medicine and investigate the future role of the IH 2 paradigm. Methods: This article reviews current available data and information regarding complementary and alternative medicine utilized in civilian and military populations as the basis for a new paradigm for a system of care-a system that empowers patients. Conclusions: The current U.S. health care system is reactive and disease-based, with a focus on reductionism. This system is not serving us well. IH 2 is a new model of cost-effective patient-centered health care.

  13. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  14. Exploring human error in military aviation flight safety events using post-incident classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brionny J; O'Hare, David P A

    2013-08-01

    Human error classification systems theoretically allow researchers to analyze postaccident data in an objective and consistent manner. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework is one such practical analysis tool that has been widely used to classify human error in aviation. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy (CET) is another. It has been postulated that the focus on interrelationships within HFACS can facilitate the identification of the underlying causes of pilot error. The CET provides increased granularity at the level of unsafe acts. The aim was to analyze the influence of factors at higher organizational levels on the unsafe acts of front-line operators and to compare the errors of fixed-wing and rotary-wing operations. This study analyzed 288 aircraft incidents involving human error from an Australasian military organization occurring between 2001 and 2008. Action errors accounted for almost twice (44%) the proportion of rotary wing compared to fixed wing (23%) incidents. Both classificatory systems showed significant relationships between precursor factors such as the physical environment, mental and physiological states, crew resource management, training and personal readiness, and skill-based, but not decision-based, acts. The CET analysis showed different predisposing factors for different aspects of skill-based behaviors. Skill-based errors in military operations are more prevalent in rotary wing incidents and are related to higher level supervisory processes in the organization. The Cognitive Error Taxonomy provides increased granularity to HFACS analyses of unsafe acts.

  15. Integration of Military and Civilians Space Assets: Legal and National Security Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waldrop, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    .... From a military perspective, intentional reliance on civilian systems must address, inter alia, national security concerns, contractual obligations, licensing restrictions, liability, and long-term...

  16. Technology innovation, human resources and dysfunctional integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Arne Stjernholm; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    (Internet technology), which transcends the traditional business of the company in question. It illustrates what goes wrong when innovative human resources do not succeed in becoming integrated into the rest of the host organization and therefore may become trapped by their own passion in a position as self...

  17. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  18. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  19. Public humanization policies: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Márcia Adriana Dias Meirelles; Lustosa, Abdon Moreira; Dutra, Fernando; Barros, Eveline de Oliveira; Batista, Jaqueline Brito Vidal; Duarte, Marcella Costa Souto

    2015-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the scientific literature on Public Humanization Policies, available in online periodicals, from 2009 to 2012, in the health field. This is an integrative literature review conducted in the Virtual Health Library databases: Latin-America and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Portal Capes. Data were collected in July 2013. To this end, the following Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Humanization of Care," "Public Policies," "National Humanization Policy". The sample consisted of 27 articles about the investigated theme. From the publications selected for the research, three categories emerged according to their respective approaches: National Human-ization Policy: history and processes involved in its implementation; National Humanization Policy: health professionals contribution; Humanization and in the care process. The study showed that the National Humanization Policy is an important benchmark in the development of health practices. For this reason, there is a pressing multiplication of related reflections on ways to promote human-ization in health services.

  20. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  1. Validation of human factor engineering integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Apart from hundreds of thousands of human-machine interface resources, the control room of a nuclear power plant is a complex system integrated with many factors such as procedures, operators, environment, organization and management. In the design stage, these factors are considered by different organizations separately. However, whether above factors could corporate with each other well in operation and whether they have good human factors engineering (HFE) design to avoid human error, should be answered in validation of the HFE integrated system before delivery of the plant. This paper addresses the research and implementation of the ISV technology based on case study. After introduction of the background, process and methodology of ISV, the results of the test are discussed. At last, lessons learned from this research are summarized. (authors)

  2. Integrated biodosimetry in large scale radiological events. Opportunities for civil military co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Port, M.; Eder, S.F.; Lamkowski, A.; Majewski, M.; Abend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological events like large scale radiological or nuclear accidents, terroristic attacks with radionuclide dispersal devices require rapid and precise medical classification (''triage'') and medical management of a large number of patients. Estimates on the absorbed dose and in particular predictions of the radiation induced health effects are mandatory for optimized allocation of limited medical resources and initiation of patient centred treatment. Among the German Armed Forces Medical Services the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology offers a wide range of tools for the purpose of medical management to cope with different scenarios. The forward deployable mobile Medical Task Force has access to state of the art methodologies summarized into approaches such as physical dosimetry (including mobile gammaspectroscopy), clinical ''dosimetry'' (prodromi, H-Modul) and different means of biological dosimetry (e.g. dicentrics, high throughput gene expression techniques, gamma-H2AX). The integration of these different approaches enables trained physicians of the Medical Task Force to assess individual health injuries as well as prognostic evaluation, considering modern treatment options. To enhance the capacity of single institutions, networking has been recognized as an important emergency response strategy. The capabilities of physical, biological and clinical ''dosimetry'' approaches spanning from low up to high radiation exposures will be discussed. Furthermore civil military opportunities for combined efforts will be demonstrated.

  3. U.S. foreign policy, the south american integration, and the case of the military bases in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Cavicchioli, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the nature of the conflict generated in South America by the adoption of the new military agreement between the U.S. and Colombia. The article will evaluate the political and the geostrategic implications of this agreement, especially its repercussions for the regional integration process of South America. It will also analyze the stances of the local actors in order to consider prospective scenarios, and will assess the U.S. approach to South American int...

  4. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets

  5. Advancing U.S. Strategic Communication through Greater Civilian-Military Coordination and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ADVANCING U.S. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION THROUGH GREATER CIVILIAN-MILITARY COORDINATION AND INTERGRATION by Wendy A. Kolls U.S... products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power." Department af Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms...the "British street," the "American street," and the "Israeli street.ŗ Selling "Brand America" If the " product " was America, then the thinking in

  6. Single, Integrated, Service-Centric Model of Military Health System Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    of the research is to establish what the model of governance of the Military Health System should be. That, with other recommendations, should be the...foundation for the impending transformation. The research found that the model of governance should be a single service model with regional health...commands that support the geographic combatant commander (GCC). With an organization based on the presented model of governance , the Military Health

  7. The Joint Military Medical Executive Skills initiative: an impressive response to changing human resource management rules of engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Confronted with a sudden and substantial change in the rules regarding who could command a military medical treatment facility (MTF), the Military Health System (MHS) responded to the challenge with an impressive human resource management solution-the Joint Medical Executive Skills Program. The history, emergence, and continuing role of this initiative exemplifies the MHS's capacity to fulfill the spirit and intent of an arduous Congressional mandate while enhancing professional development and sustaining the career opportunities of medical officers. The MHS response to the Congressional requirement that candidates for MTF command demonstrate professional administrative skills was decisive, creative, and consistent with the basic principles of human resource management. The Joint Medical Executive Skills Program is a management success story that demonstrates how strategic planning, well-defined skills requirements, and structured training can assure a ready supply of qualified commanders for the military's MTFs.

  8. Human-Systems Integration (HSI) Methodology Development for NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Human-Systems Integration (HSI) refers to design activities associated with ensuring that manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, safety, health...

  9. Global human capital: integrating education and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; KC, Samir

    2011-07-29

    Almost universally, women with higher levels of education have fewer children. Better education is associated with lower mortality, better health, and different migration patterns. Hence, the global population outlook depends greatly on further progress in education, particularly of young women. By 2050, the highest and lowest education scenarios--assuming identical education-specific fertility rates--result in world population sizes of 8.9 and 10.0 billion, respectively. Better education also matters for human development, including health, economic growth, and democracy. Existing methods of multi-state demography can quantitatively integrate education into standard demographic analysis, thus adding the "quality" dimension.

  10. Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2015-01-01

    The NASA/SP-2015-3709, Human Systems Integration (HSI) Practitioner's Guide, also known as the "HSIPG," provides a tool for implementing HSI activities within the NASA systems engineering framework. The HSIPG is written to aid the HSI practitioner engaged in a program or project (P/P), and serves as a knowledge base to allow the practitioner to step into an HSI lead or team member role for NASA missions. Additionally, this HSIPG is written to address the role of HSI in the P/P management and systems engineering communities and aid their understanding of the value added by incorporating good HSI practices into their programs and projects. Through helping to build a community of knowledgeable HSI practitioners, this document also hopes to build advocacy across the Agency for establishing strong, consistent HSI policies and practices. Human Systems Integration (HSI) has been successfully adopted (and adapted) by several federal agencies-most notably the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-as a methodology for reducing system life cycle costs (LCCs). These cost savings manifest themselves due to reductions in required numbers of personnel, the practice of human-centered design, decreased reliance on specialized skills for operations, shortened training time, efficient logistics and maintenance, and fewer safety-related risks and mishaps due to unintended human/system interactions. The HSI process for NASA establishes how cost savings and mission success can be realized through systems engineering. Every program or project has unique attributes. This HSIPG is not intended to provide one-size-fits-all recommendations for HSI implementation. Rather, HSI processes should be tailored to the size, scope, and goals of individual situations. The instructions and processes identified here are best used as a starting point for implementing human-centered system concepts and designs across programs and projects of varying types, including

  11. Integrating spaceflight human system risk research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria; Shelhamer, Mark; Canga, Michael

    2017-10-01

    NASA is working to increase the likelihood of exploration mission success and to maintain crew health, both during exploration missions and long term after return to Earth. To manage the risks in achieving these goals, a system modelled after a Continuous Risk Management framework is in place. ;Human System Risks; (Risks) have been identified, and 32 are currently being actively addressed by NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). Research plans for each of HRP's Risks have been developed and are being executed. Inter-disciplinary ties between the research efforts supporting each Risk have been identified; however, efforts to identify and benefit from these connections have been mostly ad hoc. There is growing recognition that solutions developed to address the full set of Risks covering medical, physiological, behavioural, vehicle, and organizational aspects of exploration missions must be integrated across Risks and disciplines. This paper discusses how a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space is being applied as the backbone for bringing together sometimes disparate information relevant to the individual Risks. The resulting interrelated information enables identification and visualization of connections between Risks and research efforts in a systematic and standardized manner. This paper also discusses the applications of the visualizations and insights into research planning, solicitation, and decision-making processes.

  12. Human Factors Issues in the Use of Virtual and Augmented Reality for Military Purposes - USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... military virtual reality research facilites. The articles lists key research personnel, current research projects, a selection of literature by affiliated researchers, and laboratory facilities available...

  13. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  14. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  15. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    OpenAIRE

    SOKOLOVIC VLADA S.; ANDREJIC MARKO D.; LJUBOJEVIC SRDJAN D.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In a situation when government expenditures for defense are more restrictive, any investment in the acquisition of arms and military equipment (AME) is a question that does not allow errors in decisions. Accordingly, the economic analysis of the investment must be detailed and unavoidable. In the past, the initial cost of procurement of AME was often the primary, and sometimes the only one criterion in decision-making. Neglecting the analysis of costs throughout the life of asset...

  16. DMHRSwhy? The Value of the Defense Medical Human Resource System-Internet (DMHRSi) to the Military Health System (MHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRACT The Military Health System (MHS) uses a variety of systems and processes to manage its most important asset ???its people. Chief among the...Health System (MHS) uses a variety of systems and processes to manage its most important asset …its people. Chief among the systems employed to do...enhanced multi-service market FTE full-time equivalent HRM human -resource management LCA labor cost assignment MEPRS Medical Expense

  17. Integrated Approach to Peace & Human Security in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanity has made remarkable progress during the past two centuries in advancing peace, democracy, human rights, economic development and social equality. The evolution of human relations has progressed far from the time when physical violence, war and conquest were the predominant form of international relations. Diplomacy has evolved from political negotiations at the conference table to mutually beneficial economic exchange and creative cultural integration. But the ideal of peace and human security for all human beings remains elusive, distant and utopian. Violence and insecurity persist and social harmony is threatened by the competition for political supremacy, markets, jobs and scarce resources. Thousands of nuclear weapons remain armed and on alert. Existential ecological threats increase daily. The roots of war and violence remain intact, even if their most horrendous expressions have receded from view. The permanent abolition of war and achievement of human security for all cannot be attained by narrowly conceived political alliances or collective security agreements. The negative concept of peace as the absence of war needs to be replaced by a positive conception of peace as the essential condition for the fullest development of human potential. The narrow concept of security in military and political terms needs to be replaced by an inclusive conception that views security as an emergent property of effective and harmonious social organization founded on the ultimate value of the human being. Peace and security are fundamental attributes of society as a whole. They can only be achieved by a comprehensive, integrated approach that addresses the roots of violence and disharmony in all forms—political, military, economic, social, cultural and ecological. This will require radical democratization of international institutions, establishment of an effective global legal process, abandonment of outmoded conceptions of national

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Is the Civil-Military Integration Policy That Is the Basis for Technology Investment Agreements? A Appendix A to Part 37 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY...

  19. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 34: Linear Integrated Circuits. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on linear integrated circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in…

  20. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  1. Royal Military College of Canada SLOWPOKE-2 facility. Integrated regulating and instrumentation system (SIRCIS) upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.P.; Nielsen, K.S.; Kelly, D.G.; Weir, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada has operated the only digitally controlled SLOWPOKE reactor since 2001 (Version 1.0). The present work describes ongoing project development to provide a robust digital reactor control system that is consistent with Aging Management as summarized in the Facility's Life Cycle Management and Maintenance Plan. The project has transitioned from a post-graduate research activity to a comprehensively managed project supported by a team of RMCC professional and technical staff who have delivered an update of the V1.1 system software and hardware implementation that is consistent with best Canadian nuclear industry practice. The challenges associated with the implementation of Version 2.0 in February 2012, the lessons learned from this implementation, and the applications of these lessons to a redesign and rewrite of the RMCC SLOWPOKE-2 digital instrumentation and regulating system (Version 3) are discussed. (author)

  2. Morphological integration in the gorilla, chimpanzee, and human neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlegi, Mikel; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2018-06-01

    Although integration studies are important to understand the evolution of organisms' traits across phylogenies, vertebral integration in primates is still largely unexplored. Here we describe and quantify patterns of morphological integration and modularity in the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) in extant hominines incorporating the potential influence of size. Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 546 subaxial cervical vertebrae from 141 adult individuals of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens. Integration and modularity, and the influence of size effects, were quantified using geometric morphometric approaches. All subaxial cervical vertebrae from the three species show a strong degree of integration. Gorillas show the highest degree of integration; conversely, humans have the lowest degree of integration. Analyses of allometric regression residuals show that size is an important factor promoting integration in gorillas, with lesser influence in chimpanzees and almost no effect in humans. Results point to a likely ancestral pattern of integration in non-human hominines, whereby the degree of integration decreases from cranial to caudal positions. Humans deviate from this pattern in the cranialmost (C3) and, to a lesser extent, in the caudalmost (C7) vertebrae, which are less integrated. These differences can be tentatively related to the emergence of bipedalism due to the presence of modern human-like C3 in australopiths, which still preserve a more chimpanzee-like C7. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The medical humanities and the perils of curricular integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaroli, Neville; Ellwood, Constance

    2012-12-01

    The advent of integration as a feature of contemporary medical curricula can be seen as an advantage for the medical humanities in that it provides a clear implementation strategy for the inclusion of medical humanities content and/or perspectives, while also making its relevance to medical education more apparent. This paper discusses an example of integration of humanities content into a graduate medical course, raises questions about the desirability of an exclusively integrated approach, and argues for the value of retaining a discrete and coherent disciplinary presence for the medical humanities in medical curricula.

  4. Differential neural network configuration during human path integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E. G. F; Burles, Ford; Bray, Signe; Levy, Richard M.; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a fundamental skill for navigation in both humans and animals. Despite recent advances in unraveling the neural basis of path integration in animal models, relatively little is known about how path integration operates at a neural level in humans. Previous attempts to characterize the neural mechanisms used by humans to visually path integrate have suggested a central role of the hippocampus in allowing accurate performance, broadly resembling results from animal data. However, in recent years both the central role of the hippocampus and the perspective that animals and humans share similar neural mechanisms for path integration has come into question. The present study uses a data driven analysis to investigate the neural systems engaged during visual path integration in humans, allowing for an unbiased estimate of neural activity across the entire brain. Our results suggest that humans employ common task control, attention and spatial working memory systems across a frontoparietal network during path integration. However, individuals differed in how these systems are configured into functional networks. High performing individuals were found to more broadly express spatial working memory systems in prefrontal cortex, while low performing individuals engaged an allocentric memory system based primarily in the medial occipito-temporal region. These findings suggest that visual path integration in humans over short distances can operate through a spatial working memory system engaging primarily the prefrontal cortex and that the differential configuration of memory systems recruited by task control networks may help explain individual biases in spatial learning strategies. PMID:24808849

  5. “Pool it or lose it?” – a contrastive analysis of discourses concerning EU military integration and demilitarisation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinikoski Saila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates that justification for EU military integration is sought with imperatives related to the economy, security, EU integration, and demands of citizens of the Member States. However, EU Treaties in terms of the improvement of military capabilities are not considered as a justification, but the European Union appears to be more of a power-enhancing realist actor rather than a normative one. As a counterexample to the European discourses, I discuss the case of the demilitarisation of the Åland Islands, in which case treaties perfectly justify demilitarization. I conclude that the development of European military integration is justified by political imperatives, but the demilitarization of the Åland Islands is supported with reference to agreements, which illustrate the differences in justifying military force and its absence. It is concluded that while the European Union appears as a realist actor in terms of defence, Finland complies with the image of a normative power as far as the Åland Islands are concerned.

  6. [Humanities in medical education: between reduction and integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taehee

    2015-09-01

    Reductive logic has been a major reasoning style in development of modern biomedical sciences. However, when "medical humanities" is developed by reductive reasoning, integrative and holistic values of humanities tend to be weakened. In that sense, identity and significance of "medical humanities" continue to be controversial despite of its literal clarity. Humanities in medical education should be established by strengthening humanistic and socialistic aspects of regular medical curriculum as well as developing individual "medical humanities" programs.

  7. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  8. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  9. Human Rights and United States Military Humanitarian and Civic Assistance in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    hearts and minds of local populations by seeing to the provision of their basic needs, such as potable water and healthcare. These projects, many...Socialist Deputy Questions U.S. Troop Presence,” G1. 102 Ibid.; “Deputy Aguas Rejects U.S. Military Presence,” [text] Quito, Quito Radio [Spanish], 2300 GMT...online: www.humanrights- usa.net/statements/0425RtoD.htm Accessed 3 September 2003. “Deputy Aguas Rejects U.S. Military Presence,” [text] Quito, Quito

  10. CyberCIEGE Scenario Illustrating Integrity Risks to a Military-Like Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fielk, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    .... This thesis asked if a Scenario Definition File (SDF) for the CyberCIEGE game could be developed to educate and train players in Information Assurance on matters related to information integrity in a networking environment...

  11. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  12. An Integrative Introduction to Human Augmentation Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alicea, Bradly

    2018-01-01

    Human Augmentation (HA) spans several technical fields and methodological approaches, including Experimental Psychology, Human-Computer Interaction, Psychophysiology, and Artificial Intelligence. Augmentation involves various strategies for optimizing and controlling cognitive states, which requires an understanding of biological plasticity, dynamic cognitive processes, and models of adaptive systems. As an instructive lesson, we will explore a few HA-related concepts and outstanding issues. ...

  13. EVALUATION OF MILITARY ACTIVITY IMPACT ON HUMANS THROUGH A PROBABILISTIC ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT. EXAMPLE OF A FORMER MISSILE BASE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy ОREL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current article provides a methodology focused on the assessment of environmental factors after termination of military activity and uses a former missile base as an example. The assessment of environmental conditions is performed through an evaluation of the risks posed by the hazardous chemicals contained by underground and surface water sources and soil to human health . Moreover, by conducting deterministic and probabilistic risk assessments, the article determines that the probabilistic assessment provides more accurate and qualitative information for decision-making on the use of environmental protection measures, which often saves financial and material resources needed for their implementation.

  14. Framing Cultural Attributes for Human Representation in Military Training and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to give a special thank you to my loving wife Tabitha and my wonderful three boys, Jalen, Teo and...How long have you been in the military? Thirteen years 3. What occupational community do you belong to in your branch of service? KC 130 pilot 4

  15. Human capital, innovation, and climate policy: An integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study the climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital incre...

  16. A Commander’s Guide for Conducting Integration Operations in the San Antonio Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Conducting Integration Operations 27 Denzin , Norman and Lincoln , Yvonna. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks...the Defense. (1998). “Program Decision Memorandum.” August 18, 1998. Phillips, Donald. (1992). Lincoln on Leadership. Warner Books. New York. 1992

  17. Human Systems Integration: Requirements and Functional Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Barry; Gershzohn, Gary; Boltz, Laura; Wolf, Russ; Schultz, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This deliverable was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy and Simulation Integrated Product Teams. This document contains high-level pilot functionality for operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. Based on the derived pilot functions the associated pilot information and control requirements are given.

  18. Military Deception Reconsidered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Charmaine L

    2008-01-01

    ...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...

  19. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  20. Integration of effects on human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    It seems possible that several hundred millions of humans could die from the direct effects of nuclear war. The indirect effects could result in the loss of one to several billions of humans. How close the latter projection would come to loss of all humans is problematical, but the current best estimation is that this result would not follow from the physical and societal perturbations currently projected to occur after a large-scale nuclear war. One important issue of scale to keep in mind is the difference between estimating that on a global scale the bases for human support would be undetermined for a particular fraction of the population (e.g., estimating insufficient food to support more than a certain fraction of the current population), and predicting the survival strategies of small groups of people. Projections of global-scale population losses do not mean that even in those areas in which humans would be expected to die, all would suffer the same fate. No analysis have been attempted here concerning the capability of selected humans on a relatively small scale (e.g., individual, family, community level) to find a successful strategy for survival. That a person or group in a combatant country might find a way to escape the effects of radiation, societal disruptions, climatic alterations, and the host of other potential disruptions, and still continue to survive seems possible, even in devastated areas. That billions of people could do so in the absence of a sufficient food support base is impossible. Thus, one needs to distinguish carefully between possible survival strategies on a small scale, and the physical limitations of support for massive numbers of people on a large scale

  1. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  2. Human paleoecological integration in subarctic eastern Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, François B.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Holmes, Charles E.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-11-01

    We contribute to the understanding of megafauna extinction and human dispersal in subarctic eastern Beringia by focusing on changes in the trophic dynamics of the large mammal community as well as the ecological role of humans as a predator and competitor. We reconstruct habitat use by megafauna and humans throughout the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary based on zooarchaeological data and stable isotope ratios of collagen. Our results are consistent with habitat heterogeneity and availability being important factors in the changing abundance of large herbivores. We argue that an increase in herbivore diversity and biomass at the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and a relative lack of competitors favored the initial human colonization of subarctic eastern Beringia. As herbivore resources dwindled later in the Late Glacial, people increasingly relied on bison and wapiti. By efficiently extracting some of the highest-ranked resources in the landscape, people are likely to have contributed to the trophic displacement or regional extirpation of other large predators. The ecological patterns that we observe in subarctic eastern Beringia are consistent with a mixture of both top-down and bottom-up controls over biotic turnover.

  3. Integrating Humanism and Behaviorism: Toward Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1974-01-01

    The current emphasis on performance criteria in training programs and in professional services poses a threat to the humanistically oriented helper. This article suggests a behavioral humanism as the desired solution to the dilemma and proposes some guidelines for formulating and implementing such a synthetic system. (Author)

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  5. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  6. Night vision imaging systems design, integration, and verification in military fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Cantiello, Maurizio; Toscano, Mario; Fiorini, Pietro; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the developmental and testing activities conducted by the Italian Air Force Official Test Centre (RSV) in collaboration with Alenia Aerospace, Litton Precision Products and Cranfiled University, in order to confer the Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS) capability to the Italian TORNADO IDS (Interdiction and Strike) and ECR (Electronic Combat and Reconnaissance) aircraft. The activities consisted of various Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) activities, including Night Vision Goggles (NVG) integration, cockpit instruments and external lighting modifications, as well as various ground test sessions and a total of eighteen flight test sorties. RSV and Litton Precision Products were responsible of coordinating and conducting the installation activities of the internal and external lights. Particularly, an iterative process was established, allowing an in-site rapid correction of the major deficiencies encountered during the ground and flight test sessions. Both single-ship (day/night) and formation (night) flights were performed, shared between the Test Crews involved in the activities, allowing for a redundant examination of the various test items by all participants. An innovative test matrix was developed and implemented by RSV for assessing the operational suitability and effectiveness of the various modifications implemented. Also important was definition of test criteria for Pilot and Weapon Systems Officer (WSO) workload assessment during the accomplishment of various operational tasks during NVG missions. Furthermore, the specific technical and operational elements required for evaluating the modified helmets were identified, allowing an exhaustive comparative evaluation of the two proposed solutions (i.e., HGU-55P and HGU-55G modified helmets). The results of the activities were very satisfactory. The initial compatibility problems encountered were progressively mitigated by incorporating modifications both in the front and

  7. Human Papillomavirus Genome Integration and Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinatti, L M; Walline, H M; Carey, T E

    2018-06-01

    We conducted a critical review of human papillomavirus (HPV) integration into the host genome in oral/oropharyngeal cancer, reviewed the literature for HPV-induced cancers, and obtained current data for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, we performed studies to identify HPV integration sites and the relationship of integration to viral-host fusion transcripts and whether integration is required for HPV-associated oncogenesis. Viral integration of HPV into the host genome is not required for the viral life cycle and might not be necessary for cellular transformation, yet HPV integration is frequently reported in cervical and head and neck cancer specimens. Studies of large numbers of early cervical lesions revealed frequent viral integration into gene-poor regions of the host genome with comparatively rare integration into cellular genes, suggesting that integration is a stochastic event and that site of integration may be largely a function of chance. However, more recent studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) suggest that integration may represent an additional oncogenic mechanism through direct effects on cancer-related gene expression and generation of hybrid viral-host fusion transcripts. In HNSCC cell lines as well as primary tumors, integration into cancer-related genes leading to gene disruption has been reported. The studies have shown that integration-induced altered gene expression may be associated with tumor recurrence. Evidence from several studies indicates that viral integration into genic regions is accompanied by local amplification, increased expression in some cases, interruption of gene expression, and likely additional oncogenic effects. Similarly, reported examples of viral integration near microRNAs suggest that altered expression of these regulatory molecules may also contribute to oncogenesis. Future work is indicated to identify the mechanisms of these events on cancer cell behavior.

  8. Human Factors methods concerning integrated validation of nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskarsson, Per-Anders; Johansson, Bjoern J.E.; Gonzalez, Natalia

    2010-02-01

    The frame of reference for this work was existing recommendations and instructions from the NPP area, experiences from the review of the Turbic Validation and experiences from system validations performed at the Swedish Armed Forces, e.g. concerning military control rooms and fighter pilots. These enterprises are characterized by complex systems in extreme environments, often with high risks, where human error can lead to serious consequences. A focus group has been performed with representatives responsible for Human Factors issues from all Swedish NPP:s. The questions that were discussed were, among other things, for whom an integrated validation (IV) is performed and its purpose, what should be included in an IV, the comparison with baseline measures, the design process, the role of SSM, which methods of measurement should be used, and how the methods are affected of changes in the control room. The report brings different questions to discussion concerning the validation process. Supplementary methods of measurement for integrated validation are discussed, e.g. dynamic, psychophysiological, and qualitative methods for identification of problems. Supplementary methods for statistical analysis are presented. The study points out a number of deficiencies in the validation process, e.g. the need of common guidelines for validation and design, criteria for different types of measurements, clarification of the role of SSM, and recommendations for the responsibility of external participants in the validation process. The authors propose 12 measures for taking care of the identified problems

  9. Human Factors methods concerning integrated validation of nuclear power plant control rooms; Metodutveckling foer integrerad validering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, Per-Anders; Johansson, Bjoern J.E.; Gonzalez, Natalia (Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information Systems, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    The frame of reference for this work was existing recommendations and instructions from the NPP area, experiences from the review of the Turbic Validation and experiences from system validations performed at the Swedish Armed Forces, e.g. concerning military control rooms and fighter pilots. These enterprises are characterized by complex systems in extreme environments, often with high risks, where human error can lead to serious consequences. A focus group has been performed with representatives responsible for Human Factors issues from all Swedish NPP:s. The questions that were discussed were, among other things, for whom an integrated validation (IV) is performed and its purpose, what should be included in an IV, the comparison with baseline measures, the design process, the role of SSM, which methods of measurement should be used, and how the methods are affected of changes in the control room. The report brings different questions to discussion concerning the validation process. Supplementary methods of measurement for integrated validation are discussed, e.g. dynamic, psychophysiological, and qualitative methods for identification of problems. Supplementary methods for statistical analysis are presented. The study points out a number of deficiencies in the validation process, e.g. the need of common guidelines for validation and design, criteria for different types of measurements, clarification of the role of SSM, and recommendations for the responsibility of external participants in the validation process. The authors propose 12 measures for taking care of the identified problems

  10. Vertical Integration and the Military - A Strategic Approach to the Outsourcing Decisions in the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wild, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    .... Also, a preference for outsourcing military activities is often expressed. This MBA project investigates how applicable economic principles that govern the sourcing decision in the commercial world are to the...

  11. Integrative Review of Breastfeeding Duration and Influencing Factors Among Women Serving Active Duty in the U.S. Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Andrea L

    To determine what is known about breastfeeding duration among active-duty servicewomen and to identify factors related to military employment that facilitate or inhibit breastfeeding. Literature searches using CINAHL and MEDLINE were conducted with the keywords military and breastfeeding for articles published from January 2000 through May 2016. Abstracts and full-text research articles were retrieved and analyzed that met the inclusion criteria: English language, U.S. active-duty military personnel, peer-reviewed, and identified facilitators and/or barriers to breastfeeding. Eight studies were analyzed for quality and content; analysis was guided by Cooper's five stages of review synthesis processes. Findings indicated that although breastfeeding initiation rates are similar to those for civilians, military women may discontinue sooner. Perception of military work as a barrier is associated with shorter duration, and enlisted personnel were less likely to breastfeed to 12 months than commissioned officers. Military women experienced work-related barriers: lack of proper facilities for pumping, pressures and obligations related to rank, conflicts between mother/soldier demands, physical fitness/weight standards, concerns related to exposure to hazardous material, and prolonged separations from their infants. Most women in the military serve during their childbearing years when they may want to breastfeed. Strategies to promote breastfeeding include advocacy for policy changes, education of servicewomen and supervisors/commanders, and implementation of a breastfeeding class that addresses military-specific factors. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan. Revision A January 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes the portfolio of Human Research Program (HRP) research and technology tasks. The IRP is the HRP strategic and tactical plan for research necessary to meet HRP requirements. The need to produce an IRP is established in HRP-47052, Human Research Program - Program Plan, and is under configuration management control of the Human Research Program Control Board (HRPCB). Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) is essential to enabling extended periods of space exploration because it provides knowledge and tools to mitigate risks to human health and performance. Risks include physiological and behavioral effects from radiation and hypogravity environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral or psychological factors. The Human Research Program (HRP) delivers human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. Without HRP results, NASA will face unknown and unacceptable risks for mission success and post-mission crew health. This Integrated Research Plan (IRP) describes HRP s approach and research activities that are intended to address the needs of human space exploration and serve HRP customers and how they are integrated to provide a risk mitigation tool. The scope of the IRP is limited to the activities that can be conducted with the resources available to the HRP; it does not contain activities that would be performed if additional resources were available. The timescale of human space exploration is envisioned to take many decades. The IRP illustrates the program s research plan through the timescale of early lunar missions of extended duration.

  13. Human REsource Management (HRM Aspects in the Military Medical System. A Critical View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Valentin Pandelache

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to research in the field, the fundamental element of every health system is represented by the institutional framework. The malfunction of the latter may be determined by either the political, or by the social and economic context. The decisions at the political level sometimes harshly affect health policies and their pace of progress. The HR support of the health sector during crisis has been affected as a consequence of arbitrary changes of the rules made by those who provide policies. This fact has determined a sudden and major reduction and a massive flee of personnel from the health sector, with negative effects on the health status of Romanians. With a view to all this, the aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the military health system.

  14. Combined effect of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 and HMB supplementation on muscle integrity and cytokine response during intense military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Hoffman, Jay R; Shemesh, Elad; Stout, Jeffrey R; Church, David D; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Zelicha, Hila; Shelef, Ilan; Chen, Yacov; Frankel, Hagai; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the coadministration of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) calcium (CaHMB) to CaHMB alone on inflammatory response and muscle integrity during 40 days of intense military training. Soldiers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: CaHMB with BC30 (CaHMBBC30; n = 9) or CaHMB with placebo (CaHMBPL, n = 9). A third group of participants served as a control (CTL; n = 8). During the first 28 days soldiers were garrisoned on base and participated in the same training tasks. During the final 2 wk soldiers navigated 25-30 km per night in difficult terrain carrying ~35 kg of equipment. All assessments (blood draws and diffusion tensor imaging to assess muscle integrity) were conducted before and ~12 h after final supplement consumption. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze all blood and muscle measures. Significant attenuations were noted in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, CX3CL1, and TNF-α for both CaHMBBC30 and CaHMBPL compared with CTL. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were significantly attenuated for CaHMBBC30 compared with CTL only. A significant decrease in apparent diffusion coefficients was also observed for CaHMBBC30 compared with CaHMBPL. Results provide further evidence that HMB supplementation may attenuate the inflammatory response to intense training and that the combination of the probiotic BC30 with CaHMB may be more beneficial than CaHMB alone in maintaining muscle integrity during intense military training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) in its free acid form was reported to attenuate inflammation and maintain muscle integrity during military training. However, this formulation was difficult to maintain in the field. In this investigation, soldiers ingested HMB calcium (CaHMB) with Bacillus coagulans (BC30) or CaHMB alone during 40 days of training. Results indicated that CaHMB attenuated the inflammatory response and that BC30 combined with

  15. The philosophy and method of integrative humanism and religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper titled “Philosophy and Method of Integrative Humanism and Religious Crises in Nigeria: Picking the Essentials”, acknowledges the damaging effects of religious bigotry, fanaticism and creed differences on the social, political and economic development of the country. The need for the cessation of religious ...

  16. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  17. The principle of systemic integration in human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachovitsa, Adamantia

    International lawyers and courts consider the principle of systemic integration to be a potential answer to difficulties arising from the fragmentation of public international law. This article questions the application of this approach in the context of human rights treaties. It is argued, first,

  18. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  19. "Wide-Awake Learning": Integrative Learning and Humanities Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the development of integrative learning and argues that it has an important role to play in broader conceptions of the undergraduate curriculum recently advanced in the UK. It suggests that such a focus might also provide arts and humanities educators with a hopeful prospect in difficult times: a means by which the distinctive…

  20. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  1. Factors Associated With Medical School Entrants' Interest in Military Financial Assistance in Exchange for a Service Obligation: The Michigan State University College of Human Medicine Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Dean G; Oberst, Kathleen

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. military offers comprehensive scholarships to medical students to help offset costs in exchange for either reserve or active duty service commitments. Our goal was to describe to what degree newly admitted students to Michigan State University's College of Human Medicine were aware of and interested in these opportunities. We surveyed 176 newly admitted students at the beginning and immediately following a presentation on military medicine opportunities. We collected anonymous paper surveys from program attendees and entered the data into Stata v13.1. The project was submitted for institutional review board review and deemed to not involve human subjects. Tests of association were performed using Chi-square test of independence and Fisher's exact test where needed. Our cohort was 49% female, 51% male, and over 90% were less than 30 years of age. Only 14% reported having family involved in the military. Our results indicated that over 90% of students were aware of these programs but less than 3% took advantage of the offerings. Despite 65% reporting somewhat or significant concerns over debt, financial concerns were not statistically associated with scholarship interest level. Instead, having a family member in the military was the most significant positive predictor of interest (47% compared with 17%, p benefits of military service aside from financial support. Career vignettes and summaries may offer better insight into the service experience for those lacking familiarity thereby potentially increasing interest and applications. Focus groups with current scholarship awardees may inform recruitment strategies. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Information-integration category learning and the human uncertainty response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Boomer, Joseph; Smith, J David; Ashby, F Gregory

    2011-04-01

    The human response to uncertainty has been well studied in tasks requiring attention and declarative memory systems. However, uncertainty monitoring and control have not been studied in multi-dimensional, information-integration categorization tasks that rely on non-declarative procedural memory. Three experiments are described that investigated the human uncertainty response in such tasks. Experiment 1 showed that following standard categorization training, uncertainty responding was similar in information-integration tasks and rule-based tasks requiring declarative memory. In Experiment 2, however, uncertainty responding in untrained information-integration tasks impaired the ability of many participants to master those tasks. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that the deficit observed in Experiment 2 was not because of the uncertainty response option per se, but rather because the uncertainty response provided participants a mechanism via which to eliminate stimuli that were inconsistent with a simple declarative response strategy. These results are considered in the light of recent models of category learning and metacognition.

  3. Humane Letters: Notes on the Concept of Integrity and the Meanings of Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for an analysis of integrity and contends that attempting to describe wholeness precisely and incisively is not necessarily a contradiction in terms. The author makes some distinctions about integrity using two moves, one inspired by Plato, and one by Aristotle. The author uses the phrase "humane letters" to name…

  4. Integrating medical humanities into a pharmaceutical care seminar on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of a medical humanities teaching module that focuses on pharmaceutical care for dementia patients.Design. Visual and textual dementia narratives were presented using a combination of teacher and learner-centered approaches with the aim being to highlight patients' and caregivers' needs for empathy and counselling.Assessment. As gauged from pre- and post-experience questionnaires, students highly rated this approach to teaching medical humanities. In-class presentations demonstrated students' increased sensitivity to patient and caregiver needs, while objective learning outcomes demonstrated students' increased knowledge and awareness.Conclusions. Pharmacy students were open to and successfully learned from reading and discussing patient and caregiver narratives, which furthers the discussion on the value of integrating the medical humanities into the curricula of pharmacy and other health sciences.

  5. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of human and machine intelligence in space systems is outlined with respect to the contributions of artificial intelligence. The current state-of-the-art in intelligent assistant systems (IASs) is reviewed, and the requirements of some real-world applications of the technologies are discussed. A concept of integrated human-machine intelligence is examined in the contexts of: (1) interactive systems that tolerate human errors; (2) systems for the relief of workloads; and (3) interactive systems for solving problems in abnormal situations. Key issues in the development of IASs include the compatibility of the systems with astronauts in terms of inputs/outputs, processing, real-time AI, and knowledge-based system validation. Real-world applications are suggested such as the diagnosis, planning, and control of enginnered systems.

  6. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  7. Human systems integration in remotely piloted aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-12-01

    The role of humans in remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) is qualitatively different from manned aviation, lessening the applicability of aerospace medicine human factors knowledge derived from traditional cockpits. Aerospace medicine practitioners should expect to be challenged in addressing RPA crewmember performance. Human systems integration (HSI) provides a model for explaining human performance as a function of the domains of: human factors engineering; personnel; training; manpower; environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH); habitability; and survivability. RPA crewmember performance is being particularly impacted by issues involving the domains of human factors engineering, personnel, training, manpower, ESOH, and habitability. Specific HSI challenges include: 1) changes in large RPA operator selection and training; 2) human factors engineering deficiencies in current RPA ground control station design and their impact on human error including considerations pertaining to multi-aircraft control; and 3) the combined impact of manpower shortfalls, shiftwork-related fatigue, and degraded crewmember effectiveness. Limited experience and available research makes it difficult to qualitatively or quantitatively predict the collective impact of these issues on RPA crewmember performance. Attending to HSI will be critical for the success of current and future RPA crewmembers. Aerospace medicine practitioners working with RPA crewmembers should gain first-hand knowledge of their task environment while the larger aerospace medicine community needs to address the limited information available on RPA-related aerospace medicine human factors. In the meantime, aeromedical decisions will need to be made based on what is known about other aerospace occupations, realizing this knowledge may have only partial applicability.

  8. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  9. Restriction of Human Rights in the Military: The Standard of Legitimacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelemen, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    In democratic countries common standards available from international and domestic law, court decisions, scholarly works and other sources have formed on the the contents of individual human rights...

  10. Net Zero Fort Carson: Integrating Energy, Water, and Waste Strategies to Lower the Environmental Impact of a Military Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military bases resemble small cities and face similar sustainability challenges. As pilot studies in the U.S. Army Net Zero program, 17 locations are moving to 100% renewable energy, zero depletion of water resources, and/or zero waste to landfill by 2020. Some bases target net z...

  11. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  12. The role of the military in combating human trafficking: a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human trafficking is a complex and diverse crime affecting both individuals and countries across the world. As a significant facet of transnational organised crime and one of the most lucrative criminal enterprises globally, human trafficking was ranked as the second most profitable crime around the world in 2015, making it ...

  13. MILITARY LAW PRACTITIONERS AND ACADEMIC DISCOURSE: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the various security forces, policy reviews and the introduction of a human ...... Military legal practitioners must become experts in the land, air, maritime and cyber- ... private military companies, non-governmental organisations, transnational.

  14. An Integrated Simulation Tool for Modeling the Human Circulatory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Ken'ichi; Kitamura, Tadashi

    This paper presents an integrated simulation of the circulatory system in physiological movement. The large circulatory system model includes principal organs and functional units in modules in which comprehensive physiological changes such as nerve reflexes, temperature regulation, acid/base balance, O2/CO2 balance, and exercise are simulated. A beat-by-beat heart model, in which the corresponding electrical circuit problems are solved by a numerical analytic method, enables calculation of pulsatile blood flow to the major organs. The integration of different perspectives on physiological changes makes this simulation model applicable for the microscopic evaluation of blood flow under various conditions in the human body.

  15. Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian F.; Robinson, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing effort named HESTIA (Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement), led at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to promote a cross-subsystem approach to developing Mars-enabling technologies with the ultimate goal of integrated system optimization. HESTIA also aims to develop the infrastructure required to rapidly test these highly integrated systems at a low cost. The initial focus is on the common fluids architecture required to enable human exploration of mars, specifically between life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) subsystems. An overview of the advancements in both integrated technologies, in infrastructure, in simulation, and in modeling capabilities will be presented, as well as the results and findings of integrated testing,. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth), minimization of surface hardware and commodities is paramount. Hardware requirements can be minimized by reduction of equipment performing similar functions though for different subsystems. If hardware could be developed which meets the requirements of both life support and ISRU it could result in the reduction of primary hardware and/or reduction in spares. Minimization of commodities to the surface of mars can be achieved through the creation of higher efficiency systems producing little to no undesired waste, such as a closed-loop life support subsystem. Where complete efficiency is impossible or impractical, makeup commodities could be manufactured via ISRU. Although, utilization of ISRU products (oxygen and water) for crew consumption holds great promise of reducing demands on life support hardware, there exist concerns as to the purity and transportation of commodities. To date, ISRU has been focused on production rates and purities for

  16. Special Aspects of Specialist Training for Military Industrial Complex (Incentives, Conception, Integral Quality Indicator and Practical Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies special concepts of so-called mentally structured approach to training the elite specialists of technical profile to be employed by the military industrial complex (MIC.Training of MIC-oriented specialists concerns specialties related to its special status of a dual technology “industrial locomotive”. This, in turn, requires specialized teaching aids, which in their harmonized body are capable to provide training the generalists (multi-discipline specialists to meet a number of specific requirements imposed by this status.One of the features of mentally structured approach that provides the maximum efficiency of training the MIC technical elite is a conceptual statement that it is not only a user or a student (the subjects of the cognitive process who needs to be fitted in the specialty content of a particular subject matter. The syllabus itself (i.e. the objects of a subject matter also needs to be finetuned or adapted to psychophysiological capabilities of users (students in accordance with entitative functioning principles of memory and thinking.In other words, the concept of mentally structured presentation of information materials is that they should not be a projection of subject matter logics only, but also a projection of logics of mental (psychophysiological capability of users or students being subjects of cognitive process. Stated differently, the bridge needs to be built from two harmoniously augmenting each other sides, both from the side of human mental capabilities and from the side of content complexity of the subject matter studied.For this purpose, a special analysis of the operation aspects of the human brain functional systems has been conducted. It was found that functional asymmetry of cerebral hemyspheres has a fractal-quantum logical structure for processing information arriving at the brain input.Dextrocerebral structural components form, primarily, a logical structure of so-called mental fractals

  17. Humans and Autonomy: Implications of Shared Decision Making for Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    before such systems become part of large-scale operational environments. Effects of emotional response to autonomous systems, ethical software constraints...consolidation and software constructs to represent emotions and temperament to make the robotic agent more accessible to its human teammate (Kelley 2014...agent’s human-like qualities (Rao and Georgeff 1995; Chen and Barnes 2014). Two recent ARL-sponsored projects demonstrate progress toward more- mature

  18. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.; Bainbridge, W.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco and Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA)

  19. Human and machine perception communication, interaction, and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Cantoni, Virginio; Setti, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    The theme of this book on human and machine perception is communication, interaction, and integration. For each basic topic there are invited lectures, corresponding to approaches in nature and machines, and a panel discussion. The lectures present the state of the art, outlining open questions and stressing synergies among the disciplines related to perception. The panel discussions are forums for open debate. The wide spectrum of topics allows comparison and synergy and can stimulate new approaches.

  20. Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    comprehension. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1977. Craik , F.I.M., and Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning A...Table 5.9 presents summary data regarding the performance levels and memory and search processes of individual subjects. The first row in Table 5.9...R-2256-ARP A June 1979 ARPA Order No.: 189-1 9020 Cybernetics Technology Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and

  1. INTEGRATION MECHANISMS OF IMPROVEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A. Akimenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions, the efficiency of business processes of an organization is determined by the quality of the staff. Therefore, actual is the creation and application of new approaches to the management of human re-sources. The article presents a comparative analysis of management practices and their impact on the effectiveness of personnel management, the mechanism of their integration to improve the efficiency of the process.

  2. Space Medicine in the Human System Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of integration of space medicine in the human system of lunar exploration. There is a review of historical precedence in reference to lunar surface operations. The integration process is reviewed in a chart which shows the steps from research to requirements development, requirements integration, design, verification, operations and using the lessons learned, giving more information and items for research. These steps are reviewed in view of specific space medical issues. Some of the testing of the operations are undertaken in an environment that is an analog to the exploration environment. Some of these analog environments are reviewed, and there is some discussion of the benefits of use of an analog environment in testing the processes that are derived.

  3. Human-Centered Design as an Integrating Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy André Boy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What is research today? Good research has to be indexed within appropriate mechanisms to be visible, considered and finally useful. These mechanisms are based on quantitative research methods and codes that are often very academic. Consequently, they impose rigorous constraints on the way results should be obtained and presented. In addition, everything people learn in academia needs to be graded. This leads to standard packaging of what should be learned and results in making people executants and not creators nor inventors. In other words, this academic standardization precludes freedom for innovation. This paper proposes Human-Centered Design (HCD as a solution to override these limitations and roadblocks. HCD involves expertise, experience, participation, modeling and simulation, complexity analysis and qualitative research. What is education today? Education is organized in silos with little attempt to integrate individual academic disciplines. Large system integration is almost never learned in engineering schools, and Human- Systems Integration (HSI even less. Instead, real-life problemsolving requires integration skills. What is design research? We often hear that design has nothing to do with research, and conversely. Putting design and research together, as complementary disciplines, contributes to combine creativity, rigorous demonstration and validation. This is somehow what HCD is about.

  4. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory and Integrated Internet/telephone Technologies to Support Military Obesity and Weight Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Obesity - Cushing’s Syndrome (97%) - Hypothyroidism - Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (10-80%) - Growth Hormone Deficiency - Drug-Induced Weight Gain...interventions and two methods of follow up counseling on weight loss in overweight active duty military service members after 3 months. Participants...different weight control behaviors (dietary fat, fruits and vegetables, portion control, beverage choices, exercise) and weight loss after 3 months

  5. THE DEMOCRATIC CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Oštraković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society

  6. Operator role definition and human-system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses operator role definition and human-system integration from a perspective of systems engineering and allocation of functions. Current and traditional allocation of tasks/functions can no longer by applied to systems that are significantly more sophisticated and dynamic than current system designs. For such advanced and automated designs, explicit attention must be given to the role of the operator in order to facilitate efficient system performance. Furthermore, such systems will include intelligent automated systems which will support the cognitive activities of the operator. If such systems share responsibility and control with the human operator, these computer-based assistants/associates should be viewed as intelligent team members. As such, factors such as trust, intentions, and expectancies, among team members must be considered by the systems designer. Such design considerations are discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the area of dynamic allocation of functions, and the need for models of the human operator in support of machine forecast of human performance. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) model is discussed as an example of a cognitive model capable of functioning beyond a rule-based behavioral structure

  7. Detecting Deception in the Military Infosphere: Improving and Integrating Human Detection Capabilities with Automated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-25

    the coders. Figure 1 la shows the basic Analyzer screen before any specific template is selected. Eft , *NN __ N O... ............... .. ]. . iiii...eyes and comers of the mouth, and reductions in gesturing or other gross body movements like foot tapping . D-DIMS captures facial and gross body

  8. Human-robot interaction modeling and simulation of supervisory control and situational awareness during field experimentation with military manned and unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Metcalfe, Jason; Brewster, Benjamin; Manteuffel, Christopher; Jaswa, Matthew; Tierney, Terrance

    2010-04-01

    The proliferation of intelligent systems in today's military demands increased focus on the optimization of human-robot interactions. Traditional studies in this domain involve large-scale field tests that require humans to operate semiautomated systems under varying conditions within military-relevant scenarios. However, provided that adequate constraints are employed, modeling and simulation can be a cost-effective alternative and supplement. The current presentation discusses a simulation effort that was executed in parallel with a field test with Soldiers operating military vehicles in an environment that represented key elements of the true operational context. In this study, "constructive" human operators were designed to represent average Soldiers executing supervisory control over an intelligent ground system. The constructive Soldiers were simulated performing the same tasks as those performed by real Soldiers during a directly analogous field test. Exercising the models in a high-fidelity virtual environment provided predictive results that represented actual performance in certain aspects, such as situational awareness, but diverged in others. These findings largely reflected the quality of modeling assumptions used to design behaviors and the quality of information available on which to articulate principles of operation. Ultimately, predictive analyses partially supported expectations, with deficiencies explicable via Soldier surveys, experimenter observations, and previously-identified knowledge gaps.

  9. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  10. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  11. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  12. Preanalytical Variables Affecting the Integrity of Human Biospecimens in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Vaught, Jim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory are due to preanalytical errors. Preanalytical variability of biospecimens can have significant effects on downstream analyses, and controlling such variables is therefore fundamental for the future use of biospecimens in personalized...... medicine for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. CONTENT: The focus of this review is to examine the preanalytical variables that affect human biospecimen integrity in biobanking, with a special focus on blood, saliva, and urine. Cost efficiency is discussed in relation to these issues. SUMMARY: The quality...

  13. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  14. THERP and HEART integrated methodology for human error assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Francesco; Giardina, Mariarosa; Tomarchio, Elio

    2015-11-01

    THERP and HEART integrated methodology is proposed to investigate accident scenarios that involve operator errors during high-dose-rate (HDR) treatments. The new approach has been modified on the basis of fuzzy set concept with the aim of prioritizing an exhaustive list of erroneous tasks that can lead to patient radiological overexposures. The results allow for the identification of human errors that are necessary to achieve a better understanding of health hazards in the radiotherapy treatment process, so that it can be properly monitored and appropriately managed.

  15. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  16. Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Tretter, Felix; Braun, Hans A.; Buchheim, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Fuchs, Thomas; Hasler, Felix; Hastedt, Heiner; Hinterberger, Thilo; Northoff, Georg; Rentschler, Ingo; Schleim, Stephan; Sellmaier, Stephan; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge, rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather aggravate them by the complexity problem. The present article is devoted to methodological and epistemic problems that obstruct the development of human neuroscience. We neither discuss ontological questions (e.g., the nature of the mind) nor review data, except when it is necessary to demonstrate a methodological issue. As regards intradisciplinary methodological problems, we concentrate on those within neurobiology (e.g., the gap between electrical and chemical approaches to neurophysiological processes) and psychology (missing theoretical concepts). As regards interdisciplinary problems, we suggest that core disciplines of neuroscience can be integrated using systemic concepts that also entail human-environment relations. We emphasize the necessity of a meta-discussion that should entail a closer cooperation with philosophy as a discipline of systematic reflection. The atomistic reduction should be complemented by the explicit consideration of the embodiedness of the brain and the embeddedness of humans. The discussion is aimed at the development of an explicit methodology of integrative human neuroscience, which will not only link different fields and levels, but also help in understanding clinical phenomena. PMID:27965548

  17. Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Tretter, Felix; Braun, Hans A; Buchheim, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Fuchs, Thomas; Hasler, Felix; Hastedt, Heiner; Hinterberger, Thilo; Northoff, Georg; Rentschler, Ingo; Schleim, Stephan; Sellmaier, Stephan; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge , rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather aggravate them by the complexity problem. The present article is devoted to methodological and epistemic problems that obstruct the development of human neuroscience. We neither discuss ontological questions (e.g., the nature of the mind) nor review data, except when it is necessary to demonstrate a methodological issue. As regards intradisciplinary methodological problems, we concentrate on those within neurobiology (e.g., the gap between electrical and chemical approaches to neurophysiological processes) and psychology (missing theoretical concepts). As regards interdisciplinary problems, we suggest that core disciplines of neuroscience can be integrated using systemic concepts that also entail human-environment relations. We emphasize the necessity of a meta-discussion that should entail a closer cooperation with philosophy as a discipline of systematic reflection. The atomistic reduction should be complemented by the explicit consideration of the embodiedness of the brain and the embeddedness of humans. The discussion is aimed at the development of an explicit methodology of integrative human neuroscience , which will not only link different fields and levels, but also help in understanding clinical phenomena.

  18. An Integrated Framework for Human-Robot Collaborative Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Weihua; Thobbi, Anand; Gu, Ye

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated learning framework that enables humanoid robots to perform human-robot collaborative manipulation tasks. Specifically, a table-lifting task performed jointly by a human and a humanoid robot is chosen for validation purpose. The proposed framework is split into two phases: 1) phase I-learning to grasp the table and 2) phase II-learning to perform the manipulation task. An imitation learning approach is proposed for phase I. In phase II, the behavior of the robot is controlled by a combination of two types of controllers: 1) reactive and 2) proactive. The reactive controller lets the robot take a reactive control action to make the table horizontal. The proactive controller lets the robot take proactive actions based on human motion prediction. A measure of confidence of the prediction is also generated by the motion predictor. This confidence measure determines the leader/follower behavior of the robot. Hence, the robot can autonomously switch between the behaviors during the task. Finally, the performance of the human-robot team carrying out the collaborative manipulation task is experimentally evaluated on a platform consisting of a Nao humanoid robot and a Vicon motion capture system. Results show that the proposed framework can enable the robot to carry out the collaborative manipulation task successfully.

  19. 75 FR 50791 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed information is... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations...

  20. 75 FR 70344 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More... account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed...

  1. 76 FR 30751 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations... account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed... license the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights...

  2. 75 FR 62173 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms... account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More...

  3. 76 FR 58332 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control... account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed... of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights, and arms...

  4. Human midsagittal brain shape variation: patterns, allometry and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Colom, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Midsagittal cerebral morphology provides a homologous geometrical reference for brain shape and cortical vs. subcortical spatial relationships. In this study, midsagittal brain shape variation is investigated in a sample of 102 humans, in order to describe and quantify the major patterns of correlation between morphological features, the effect of size and sex on general anatomy, and the degree of integration between different cortical and subcortical areas. The only evident pattern of covariation was associated with fronto-parietal cortical bulging. The allometric component was weak for the cortical profile, but more robust for the posterior subcortical areas. Apparent sex differences were evidenced in size but not in brain shape. Cortical and subcortical elements displayed scarcely integrated changes, suggesting a modular separation between these two areas. However, a certain correlation was found between posterior subcortical and parietal cortical variations. These results should be directly integrated with information ranging from functional craniology to wiring organization, and with hypotheses linking brain shape and the mechanical properties of neurons during morphogenesis. PMID:20345859

  5. Integrated Human Test Facilities at NASA and the Role of Human Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tri, Terry O.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated human test facilities are a key component of NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). Over the past several years, the ALSP has been developing such facilities to serve as a large-scale advanced life support and habitability test bed capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. These facilities-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support and habitability systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces-are currently in the development stage at the Johnson Space Center. These major test facilities are comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment, which will be outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support and habitability functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by these integrated human test facilities, the overall system architecture of the facilities, the current development status of the facilities, and the role that human design has played in the development of the facilities.

  6. Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Schaffner, Stephen F; Yu, Fuli; Peltonen, Leena; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bonnen, Penelope E; Altshuler, David M; Gibbs, Richard A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Deloukas, Panos; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah; Inouye, Michael; Jia, Xiaoming; Palotie, Aarno; Parkin, Melissa; Whittaker, Pamela; Yu, Fuli; Chang, Kyle; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora R; Ren, Yanru; Wheeler, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna Marie; Barnes, Chris; Darvishi, Katayoon; Hurles, Matthew; Korn, Joshua M; Kristiansson, Kati; Lee, Charles; McCarrol, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Keinan, Alon; Montgomery, Stephen B; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Soranzo, Nicole; Bonnen, Penelope E; Gibbs, Richard A; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Keinan, Alon; Price, Alkes L; Yu, Fuli; Anttila, Verneri; Brodeur, Wendy; Daly, Mark J; Leslie, Stephen; McVean, Gil; Moutsianas, Loukas; Nguyen, Huy; Schaffner, Stephen F; Zhang, Qingrun; Ghori, Mohammed J R; McGinnis, Ralph; McLaren, William; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L; Schaffner, Stephen F; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Grossman, Sharon R; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Hostetter, Elizabeth B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Adebamowo, Clement A; Foster, Morris W; Gordon, Deborah R; Licinio, Julio; Manca, Maria Cristina; Marshall, Patricia A; Matsuda, Ichiro; Ngare, Duncan; Wang, Vivian Ota; Reddy, Deepa; Rotimi, Charles N; Royal, Charmaine D; Sharp, Richard R; Zeng, Changqing; Brooks, Lisa D; McEwen, Jean E

    2010-09-02

    Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations, and sequenced ten 100-kilobase regions in 692 of these individuals. This integrated data set of common and rare alleles, called 'HapMap 3', includes both SNPs and copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). We characterized population-specific differences among low-frequency variants, measured the improvement in imputation accuracy afforded by the larger reference panel, especially in imputing SNPs with a minor allele frequency of human disease, and serves as a step towards a high-resolution map of the landscape of human genetic variation.

  7. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  8. NASA Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH): Revitalization of Space-Related Human Factors, Environmental and Habitability Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane; Pickett, Lynn; Tillman, Barry; Foley, Tico

    2007-01-01

    This chart illustrates the contents for NASA's Human Integration Design Handbook, which is being developed as a new reference handbook for designing systems which accomodate the capabilities and limitations of the human crew.

  9. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  10. Unifying Human Centered Design and Systems Engineering for Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Guy A.; McGovernNarkevicius, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Despite the holistic approach of systems engineering (SE), systems still fail, and sometimes spectacularly. Requirements, solutions and the world constantly evolve and are very difficult to keep current. SE requires more flexibility and new approaches to SE have to be developed to include creativity as an integral part and where the functions of people and technology are appropriately allocated within our highly interconnected complex organizations. Instead of disregarding complexity because it is too difficult to handle, we should take advantage of it, discovering behavioral attractors and the emerging properties that it generates. Human-centered design (HCD) provides the creativity factor that SE lacks. It promotes modeling and simulation from the early stages of design and throughout the life cycle of a product. Unifying HCD and SE will shape appropriate human-systems integration (HSI) and produce successful systems.

  11. Military Classics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history. Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art...Beginning with the reign of King Henry VIII, Barnett’s work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume...native clans led by Shaka , to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent

  12. An Integrated Hybrid Transportation Architecture for Human Mars Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Chai, Patrick R.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture that uses both chemical and electric propulsion systems on the same vehicle to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By applying chemical and electrical propulsion where each is most effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper presents an integrated Hybrid in-space transportation architecture for piloted missions and delivery of cargo. A concept for a Mars campaign including orbital and Mars surface missions is described in detail including a system concept of operations and conceptual design. Specific constraints, margin, and pinch points are identified for the architecture and opportunities for critical path commercial and international collaboration are discussed.

  13. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT BY PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION / REINTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents some opportunities for the development of human resources by means of professional insertion / reinsertion. It is about an intervention project, more precisely the establishment of a Centre for Career Counselling and Professional Requalification (CORP within the University “Eftimie Murgu” of Reşita. The objective was the promotion of an inclusive society able to facilitate the access and integration on the labour market of the young unemployed. By its activities, the project forwards an inclusive model of social inclusion of the professionally inactive young people through individualised programmes of qualification - requalification, support and professional counselling. By its results the project contributed to the stimulation of the participation of young unemployed persons to the social, economic and educational life, the consideration of the importance of the role played by education and professional training among the youth.

  14. Safety culture' is integrating 'human' into risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Taiji

    2014-01-01

    Significance of Fukushima nuclear power accident requested reconsideration of safety standards, of which we had usually no doubt. Risk assessment standard (JIS B 9702), Which was used for repetition of database preparation and cumulative assessment, defined allowable risk and residual risk. However, work site and immediate assessment was indispensable beside such assessment so as to ensure safety. Risk of casualties was absolutely not acceptable in principle and judgments to approve allowable risk needed accountability, which was reminded by safety culture proposed by IAEA and also identified by investigation of organizational cause of Columbia accident. Actor of safety culture would be organization and individual, and mainly individual. Realization of safety culture was conducted by personnel having moral consciousness and firm sense of mission in the course of jobs and working daily with sweat pouring. Safety engineering/technology should have framework integrating human as such totality. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Woo Chang

    2004-05-01

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs

  16. Integrated Human Factors Design Guidelines for Sound Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Woo Chang [Kumoh National Univ. of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-15

    Digital MMI, such as CRT, LCD etc., has been used increasingly in the design of main control room of the Korean standard nuclear power plants following the YGN units 3 and 4. The utilization of digital MMI may introduce various kind of sound interface into the control room design. In this project, for five top-level guideline items, including Sound Formats, Alarms, Sound Controls, Communications, and Environments, a total of 147 detail guidelines were developed and a database system for these guidelines was developed. The integrated human factors design guidelines for sound interface and the database system developed in this project will be useful for the design of sound interface of digital MMI in Korean NPPs.

  17. Vertically integrated analysis of human DNA. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, M.

    1997-10-01

    This project has been oriented toward improving the vertical integration of the sequential steps associated with the large-scale analysis of human DNA. The central focus has been on an approach to the preparation of {open_quotes}sequence-ready{close_quotes} maps, which is referred to as multiple-complete-digest (MCD) mapping, primarily directed at cosmid clones. MCD mapping relies on simple experimental steps, supported by advanced image-analysis and map-assembly software, to produce extremely accurate restriction-site and clone-overlap maps. We believe that MCD mapping is one of the few high-resolution mapping systems that has the potential for high-level automation. Successful automation of this process would be a landmark event in genome analysis. Once other higher organisms, paving the way for cost-effective sequencing of these genomes. Critically, MCD mapping has the potential to provide built-in quality control for sequencing accuracy and to make possible a highly integrated end product even if there are large numbers of discontinuities in the actual sequence.

  18. Integrating human resources and program-planning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E

    1989-06-01

    The integration of human resources management (HRM) strategies with long-term program-planning strategies in hospital pharmacy departments is described. HRM is a behaviorally based, comprehensive strategy for the effective management and use of people that seeks to achieve coordination and integration with overall planning strategies and other managerial functions. It encompasses forecasting of staffing requirements; determining work-related factors that are strong "motivators" and thus contribute to employee productivity and job satisfaction; conducting a departmental personnel and skills inventory; employee career planning and development, including training and education programs; strategies for promotion and succession, including routes of advancement that provide alternatives to the managerial route; and recruitment and selection of new personnel to meet changing departmental needs. Increased competitiveness among hospitals and a shortage of pharmacists make it imperative that hospital pharmacy managers create strategies to attract, develop, and retain the right individuals to enable the department--and the hospital as a whole--to grow and change in response to the changing health-care environment in the United States. Pharmacy managers would be greatly aided in this mission by the establishment of a well-defined, national strategic plan for pharmacy programs and services that includes an analysis of what education and training are necessary for their successful accomplishment. Creation of links between overall program objectives and people-planning strategies will aid hospital pharmacy departments in maximizing the long-term effectiveness of their practice.

  19. Action and language integration: from humans to cognitive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The topic is characterized by a highly interdisciplinary approach to the issue of action and language integration. Such an approach, combining computational models and cognitive robotics experiments with neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and linguistic approaches, can be a powerful means that can help researchers disentangle ambiguous issues, provide better and clearer definitions, and formulate clearer predictions on the links between action and language. In the introduction we briefly describe the papers and discuss the challenges they pose to future research. We identify four important phenomena the papers address and discuss in light of empirical and computational evidence: (a) the role played not only by sensorimotor and emotional information but also of natural language in conceptual representation; (b) the contextual dependency and high flexibility of the interaction between action, concepts, and language; (c) the involvement of the mirror neuron system in action and language processing; (d) the way in which the integration between action and language can be addressed by developmental robotics and Human-Robot Interaction. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Medieval Iceland, Greenland, and the New Human Condition: A case study in integrated environmental humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steven; Ogilvie, A. E. J.; Ingimundarson, Jón Haukur; Dugmore, A. J.; Hambrecht, George; McGovern, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper contributes to recent studies exploring the longue durée of human impacts on island landscapes, the impacts of climate and other environmental changes on human communities, and the interaction of human societies and their environments at different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the paper addresses Iceland during the medieval period (with a secondary, comparative focus on Norse Greenland) and discusses episodes where environmental and climatic changes have appeared to cross key thresholds for agricultural productivity. The paper draws upon international, interdisciplinary research in the North Atlantic region led by the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) and the Nordic Network for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies (NIES) in the Circumpolar Networks program of the Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE). By interlinking analyses of historically grounded literature with archaeological studies and environmental science, valuable new perspectives can emerge on how these past societies may have understood and coped with such impacts. As climate and other environmental changes do not operate in isolation, vulnerabilities created by socioeconomic factors also beg consideration. The paper illustrates the benefits of an integrated environmental-studies approach that draws on data, methodologies and analytical tools of environmental humanities, social sciences, and geosciences to better understand long-term human ecodynamics and changing human-landscape-environment interactions through time. One key goal is to apply previously unused data and concerted expertise to illuminate human responses to past changes; a secondary aim is to consider how lessons derived from these cases may be applicable to environmental threats and socioecological risks in the future, especially as understood in light of the New Human Condition, the concept transposed from Hannah Arendt's influential framing of the human condition that is

  1. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  2. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  3. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  4. National Integration in Humanities and Development: The Way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the following concepts nation and its attributes; national integration, development and social studies education. The paper also discusses the concept of national integration, theories of nation al integration and the problems of national integration in Nigeria. It further discusses the factors of disunity and ...

  5. DigitalHuman (DH): An Integrative Mathematical Model ofHuman Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA

  6. [Intersectoral experience to bridge the gap between human resources in public health and the technical-operational level for Peruvian Voluntary Military Service members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaní-Romaní, Franco; Curisinche-Rojas, Maricela; Arteaga, Norka Rojas; Lopez, Pedro Riega; Cabezas, César

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between human resources and technical-operational education that limits the Peruvian health system's ability to implement public health interventions. The Peruvian Ministry of Health, through the National Health Institute and the Ministry of Defense, implemented a Public Health Training Program addressed to young full-time military servicemen, on the basis of the competency profile of a public health technician. The program consists of seven thematic units given in 390 hours, 200 of which correspond to classroom and field practices. Between July 2014 and December 2015, the program has been carried out in 10 venues of the three armed forces, training and certifying 405 young servicemen. The intervention provides the military service with an additional educational benefit, making it more appealing as a chance for development and opens up a line of work in the public health sector for young people in more remote areas. This experience seeks to increase public health-trained human resources to a technical-operational level. In collaboration with regional governments, graduates are expected to be welcomed and included in the public health system.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    sponses (n=10). 3.5. Factors Associated with Syphilis Status Syphilis seropositivity was increased by older age , HIV in- fection and the...multiple sexual partnerships in the same week and HIV testing outside of military facilities (pɘ.05). Increasing age , positive HIV status and rural...population (15-49 years of age ) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the

  8. Integrating human and machine intelligence in galaxy morphology classification tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melanie R.; Scarlata, Claudia; Fortson, Lucy F.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, B. D.; Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Dickinson, Hugh; Masters, Karen L.; Marshall, Philip J.; Wright, Darryl

    2018-06-01

    Quantifying galaxy morphology is a challenging yet scientifically rewarding task. As the scale of data continues to increase with upcoming surveys, traditional classification methods will struggle to handle the load. We present a solution through an integration of visual and automated classifications, preserving the best features of both human and machine. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a system through a re-analysis of visual galaxy morphology classifications collected during the Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) project. We reprocess the top-level question of the GZ2 decision tree with a Bayesian classification aggregation algorithm dubbed SWAP, originally developed for the Space Warps gravitational lens project. Through a simple binary classification scheme, we increase the classification rate nearly 5-fold classifying 226 124 galaxies in 92 d of GZ2 project time while reproducing labels derived from GZ2 classification data with 95.7 per cent accuracy. We next combine this with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm that learns on a suite of non-parametric morphology indicators widely used for automated morphologies. We develop a decision engine that delegates tasks between human and machine and demonstrate that the combined system provides at least a factor of 8 increase in the classification rate, classifying 210 803 galaxies in just 32 d of GZ2 project time with 93.1 per cent accuracy. As the Random Forest algorithm requires a minimal amount of computational cost, this result has important implications for galaxy morphology identification tasks in the era of Euclid and other large-scale surveys.

  9. A changing climate: impacts on human exposures to O3 using an integrated modeling methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predicting the impacts of changing climate on human exposure to air pollution requires future scenarios that account for changes in ambient pollutant concentrations, population sizes and distributions, and housing stocks. An integrated methodology to model changes in human exposu...

  10. An Acquisition Approach to Adopting Human Systems Integration in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This report provides guidance on how the railroad industry can develop safer systems by acquiring new equipment based on human-centered design practices, or Human Systems Integration (HSI). If a railroads system design approach is focused on prope...

  11. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  12. Integrated biodosimetry in large scale radiological events. Opportunities for civil military co-operation; Integrierte Biodosimetrie bei radiologischen Grossschadensereignissen. Moeglichkeiten fuer zivil-militaerische Zusammenarbeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, M.; Eder, S.F.; Lamkowski, A.; Majewski, M.; Abend, M. [Institut fuer Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radiological events like large scale radiological or nuclear accidents, terroristic attacks with radionuclide dispersal devices require rapid and precise medical classification (''triage'') and medical management of a large number of patients. Estimates on the absorbed dose and in particular predictions of the radiation induced health effects are mandatory for optimized allocation of limited medical resources and initiation of patient centred treatment. Among the German Armed Forces Medical Services the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology offers a wide range of tools for the purpose of medical management to cope with different scenarios. The forward deployable mobile Medical Task Force has access to state of the art methodologies summarized into approaches such as physical dosimetry (including mobile gammaspectroscopy), clinical ''dosimetry'' (prodromi, H-Modul) and different means of biological dosimetry (e.g. dicentrics, high throughput gene expression techniques, gamma-H2AX). The integration of these different approaches enables trained physicians of the Medical Task Force to assess individual health injuries as well as prognostic evaluation, considering modern treatment options. To enhance the capacity of single institutions, networking has been recognized as an important emergency response strategy. The capabilities of physical, biological and clinical ''dosimetry'' approaches spanning from low up to high radiation exposures will be discussed. Furthermore civil military opportunities for combined efforts will be demonstrated.

  13. Military necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, N.

    2017-01-01

    It is often said that international humanitarian law (IHL) “accounts for” military necessity, but its meaning and normative consequences have remained obscure. This thesis develops a theory that offers a coherent explanation of the process through which IHL generates its rules. To

  14. Military radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs

  15. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  16. Human trafficking education for nurse practitioners: Integration into standard curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    of human trafficking among students enrolled in a nurse practitioner program. Informed nurse practitioners have the ability to identify, treat, and refer victims of trafficking. As an integral part of the health care team, nurse practitioners should receive trafficking education as part of the standard course curricula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating Human and Machine Intelligence in Galaxy Morphology Classification Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melanie Renee

    thus solved both the visual classification problem of time efficiency and improved accuracy by producing a distribution of independent classifications for each galaxy. While crowd-sourced galaxy classifications have proven their worth, challenges remain before establishing this method as a critical and standard component of the data processing pipelines for the next generation of surveys. In particular, though innovative, crowd-sourcing techniques do not have the capacity to handle the data volume and rates expected in the next generation of surveys. These algorithms will be delegated to handle the majority of the classification tasks, freeing citizen scientists to contribute their efforts on subtler and more complex assignments. This thesis presents a solution through an integration of visual and automated classifications, preserving the best features of both human and machine. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a system through a re-analysis of visual galaxy morphology classifications collected during the Galaxy Zoo 2 (GZ2) project. We reprocess the top-level question of the GZ2 decision tree with a Bayesian classification aggregation algorithm dubbed SWAP, originally developed for the Space Warps gravitational lens project. Through a simple binary classification scheme we increase the classification rate nearly 5-fold classifying 226,124 galaxies in 92 days of GZ2 project time while reproducing labels derived from GZ2 classification data with 95.7% accuracy. We next combine this with a Random Forest machine learning algorithm that learns on a suite of non-parametric morphology indicators widely used for automated morphologies. We develop a decision engine that delegates tasks between human and machine and demonstrate that the combined system provides a factor of 11.4 increase in the classification rate, classifying 210,803 galaxies in just 32 days of GZ2 project time with 93.1% accuracy. As the Random Forest algorithm requires a minimal amount of computational

  18. Modeling the integration of bacterial rRNA fragments into the human cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Karsten B; Gajer, Pawel; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2016-03-21

    Cancer is a disease driven by the accumulation of genomic alterations, including the integration of exogenous DNA into the human somatic genome. We previously identified in silico evidence of DNA fragments from a Pseudomonas-like bacteria integrating into the 5'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes in stomach cancer sequencing data. The functional and biological consequences of these bacterial DNA integrations remain unknown. Modeling of these integrations suggests that the previously identified sequences cover most of the sequence flanking the junction between the bacterial and human DNA. Further examination of these reads reveals that these integrations are rich in guanine nucleotides and the integrated bacterial DNA may have complex transcript secondary structures. The models presented here lay the foundation for future experiments to test if bacterial DNA integrations alter the transcription of the human genes.

  19. Human Systems Integration Assessment of Network Centric Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quashnock, Dee; Kelly, Richard T; Dunaway, John; Smillie, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    .... FORCEnet is the operational construct and architectural framework for Naval Network Centric Warfare in the information age that integrates warriors, sensors, networks, command and control, platforms...

  20. We "Must" Integrate Human Rights into the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that educators need to teach about human rights issues, such as social and economic rights, in the social studies curriculum because these issues are disregarded throughout the country. Defines human rights, discusses the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and provides two lessons. (CMK)

  1. Understanding human action: integrating meanings, mechanisms, causes, and contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Repko, A.F.; Newell, W.H.; Szostak, R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are capable of understanding an incredible variety of actions performed by other humans. Even though these range from primary biological actions like eating and fleeing, to acts in parliament or in poetry, humans generally can make sense of each other’s actions. Understanding other people’s

  2. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: an integrated mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-03-30

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ≈ 1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH)(2)] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb(2)O(SO(4))]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    test hypotheses they developed about how people walk. An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to define Human Locomotor Control W911NF-14-R-0009...An Integrated Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination...Gait and Balance Analysis System to Define Human Locomotor Control Report Title Walking is a complicated task that requires the motor coordination across

  4. Boundary management and integration framework for a joint cyber defence capability for military forces: analysis and synthesis from a through-life capability management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available friendly use. Psychological Operations (PO). Psychological activities, including political, economic and military actions, in peace, military operations other than war, and war, directed to an enemy and/or foreign friendly and neutral audiences... into information/intelligence presented in the form of situation pictures to decision makers at different levels and positions (C2 nodes) throughout the organisation. These layers are capped by the cognitive layer, which as the name suggests, addresses...

  5. Integrated modeling of natural and human systems - problems and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J.; Gunnink, J.; Hughes, A.; Moore, R. V.; Peach, D.

    2009-12-01

    Governments and their executive agencies across the world are facing increasing pressure to make decisions about the management of resources in light of population growth and environmental change. In the UK and the Netherlands, for example, groundwater is becoming a scarce resource for large parts of its most densely populated areas. At the same time river and groundwater flooding resulting from high rainfall events are increasing in scale and frequency and sea level rise is threatening the defences of coastal cities. There is also a need for affordable housing, improved transport infrastructure and waste disposal as well as sources of renewable energy and sustainable food production. These challenges can only be resolved if solutions are based on sound scientific evidence. Although we have knowledge and understanding of many individual processes in the natural sciences it is clear that a single science discipline is unable to answer the questions and their inter-relationships. Modern science increasingly employs computer models to simulate the natural, economic and human system. Management and planning requires scenario modelling, forecasts and “predictions”. Although the outputs are often impressive in terms of apparent accuracy and visualisation, they are inherently not suited to simulate the response to feedbacks from other models of the earth system, such as the impact of human actions. Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) are increasingly employing advances in Information Technology to visualise and improve their understanding of geological systems. Instead of 2 dimensional paper maps and reports many GSOs now produce 3 dimensional geological framework models and groundwater flow models as their standard output. Additionally the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of the Netherlands have developed standard routines to link geological data to groundwater models, but these models are only aimed at solving one specific part of the earth

  6. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: An integrated mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahtab [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hashimoto, Yohey [Department of Bioresource Science, Mie University, 1577 Kurima-machiya, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Moon, Deok Hyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Soo, E-mail: sslee97@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ok, Yong Sik, E-mail: soilok@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eggshell and calcined eggshell immobilized Pb in the shooting range soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcined eggshell was more effective on Pb immobilization compared to eggshell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchangeable Pb fractions were transformed to carbonate bound fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcined eggshell stabilized Pb by enwrapping into calcium silicate hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Pb toxicity can be reduced by applying eggshell and calcined eggshell. - Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to {approx}1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0-47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH){sub 2}] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb{sub 2}O(SO{sub 4})]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  7. Immobilization of lead in a Korean military shooting range soil using eggshell waste: An integrated mechanistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Hashimoto, Yohey; Moon, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Eggshell and calcined eggshell immobilized Pb in the shooting range soil. ► Calcined eggshell was more effective on Pb immobilization compared to eggshell. ► Exchangeable Pb fractions were transformed to carbonate bound fractions. ► Calcined eggshell stabilized Pb by enwrapping into calcium silicate hydrate. ► Soil Pb toxicity can be reduced by applying eggshell and calcined eggshell. - Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of eggshell and calcined eggshell on lead (Pb) immobilization in a shooting range soil. Destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques were employed to determine the mechanism of Pb immobilization. The 5% additions of eggshell and calcined eggshell significantly decreased the TCLP-Pb concentration by 68.8% due mainly to increasing soil pH. Eggshell and calcined-eggshell amendments decreased the exchangeable Pb fraction to ∼1% of the total Pb in the soil, while the carbonate-associated Pb fraction was increased to 40.0–47.1% at >15% application rates. The thermodynamic modeling on Pb speciation in the soil solution predicted the precipitation of Pb-hydroxide [Pb(OH) 2 ] in soils amended with eggshell and calcined eggshell. The SEM-EDS, XAFS and elemental dot mapping revealed that Pb in soil amended with calcined eggshell was associated with Si and Ca, and may be immobilized by entrapping into calcium-silicate-hydrate. Comparatively, in the soil amended with eggshell, Pb was immobilized via formation of Pb-hydroxide or lanarkite [Pb 2 O(SO 4 )]. Applications of amendments increased activities of alkaline phosphatase up to 3.7 times greater than in the control soil. The use of eggshell amendments may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  8. New business with the new military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  9. Mortality in British military participants in human experimental research into chemical warfare agents at Porton Down: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C; Linsell, L; Keegan, T J; Langdon, T; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Maconochie, N E S; Doyle, P; Beral, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate any long term effects on mortality in participants in experimental research related to chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Design Historical cohort study. Data sources Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. Participants 18 276 male members of the UK armed forces who had spent one or more short periods (median 4 days between first and last test) at Porton Down and a comparison group of 17 600 non-Porton Down veterans followed to 31 December 2004. Main outcome measures Mortality rate ratio of Porton Down compared with non-Porton Down veterans and standardised mortality ratio of each veteran group compared with the general population. Both ratios adjusted for age group and calendar period. Results Porton Down veterans were similar to non-Porton Down veterans in year of enlistment (median 1951) but had longer military service (median 6.2 v 5.0 years). After a median follow-up of 43 years, 40% (7306) of Porton Down and 39% (6900) of non-Porton Down veterans had died. All cause mortality was slightly greater in Porton Down veterans (rate ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, Pchemical exposure and cause specific mortality. The mortality in both groups of veterans was lower than that in the general population (standardised mortality ratio 0.88, 0.85 to 0.90; 0.82, 0.80 to 0.84). Conclusions Mortality was slightly higher in Porton Down than non-Porton Down veterans. With lack of information on other important factors, such as smoking or service overseas, it is not possible to attribute the small excess mortality to chemical exposures at Porton Down. PMID:19318699

  10. Human Computation An Integrated Approach to Learning from the Crowd

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Human computation is a new and evolving research area that centers around harnessing human intelligence to solve computational problems that are beyond the scope of existing Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms. With the growth of the Web, human computation systems can now leverage the abilities of an unprecedented number of people via the Web to perform complex computation. There are various genres of human computation applications that exist today. Games with a purpose (e.g., the ESP Game) specifically target online gamers who generate useful data (e.g., image tags) while playing an enjoy

  11. Human Systems Integration Synthesis Model for Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    33  b.   Diesel .......................................................................................35  c.  Gas Turbine ...acquire systems capable of maximizing the output of the Navy’s Human Capital. The term Human Capital is defined by Kaplan and Norton (2004, p. 13) as...Machine—engines: steam, diesel, gas turbine , or nuclear Prior to establishing a ship’s speed requirements, one must understand the forces that

  12. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  13. EDUCATIONAL NETWORKING: HUMAN VIEW TO CYBER DEFENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Networks play more and more important role for human life and activity, both in critical occupations (aviation, power industry, military missions etc.), and in everyday life (home computers, education, leisure). Interaction between human and other elements of human-machine system have changed, because they coincide in the information habitat. Human-system integration has reached new level of defense needs. The paper will introduce features of information society in respect of a human and corr...

  14. Integration of Lightning- and Human-Caused Wildfire Occurrence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilar, Lara; Nieto Solana, Hector; Martín, M. Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Fire risk indices are useful tools for fire prevention actions by fire managers. A fire ignition is either the result of lightning or human activities. In European Mediterranean countries most forest fires are due to human activities. However, lightning is still an important fire ignition source...... probability models at 1 × 1 km grid cell resolution in two regions of Spain: Madrid, which presents a high fire incidence due to human activities; and Aragón, one of the most affected regions in Spain by lightning-fires. For validation, independent fire ignition points were used to compute the Receiver...

  15. The Inter-American Human Rights Court; Some Recent Decisions Affecting the Independence of Partner Nations Military Justice Systems, and Their Impact on the Future of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Protección de los Derechos Humanos ,” Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City, MX, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, 2012, accessed...Military Jurisdiction,” 77. 82 Sergio García Ramírez, “Admisión de la Competencia Contenciosa de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos ...Recepción Nacional del Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos y Admisión de la Competencia Contenciosa de la Corte Interamericana, (DF, México

  16. Tensions and Dilemmas about Education in Human Rights in Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magendzo, Abraham

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that incorporating human rights issues into the curriculum causes tensions, especially in nations with histories of military dictatorships. Describes human rights education in Chile and other Latin American nations. Discusses whether human rights should be a separate curriculum subject or integrated into all courses. (CFR)

  17. Analysis of Biota to Evaluate the Risks Associated with Chemical Warfare Materiel Present in Sea-Disposed Military Munitions to Human Health and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of 100-lb M47A series bombs containing sulfur mustard were disposed in the ocean following World War II yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth where most discarded military munitions (DMM) were disposed. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project was conducted to evaluate the risk from chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in DMM to human health, measuring ecological differences between the disposal area and nearby but otherwise similar areas, and evaluating the most efficient platforms for surveying DMM sea-disposal sites located at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect data. Shrimp were collected and analyzed to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of CWM, energetics and metals from munitions. No CWM was detected in H. ensifer tissue samples, indicating bioaccumulation is not occurring. Low levels of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-­dinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrobenzene, arsenic, copper, and lead were detected and the concentrations were not significantly different at DMM and control sites. No visible deformities, eroded fins, lesions, or tumors were observed on the shrimp living in the vicinity of M47A bombs. Given these results and under current and potential future uses of the HUMMA study area, health risks to likely receptors are within EPA acceptable levels. Photographic data and benthic infauna analysis were used to study benthic organisms that lived on or near munitions. There was no statistically distinguishable difference between organism distributions in dense and sparse munitions fields. Conventional munitions were found to have the greatest number of benthic infauna individuals, with control sites generally having the least number of individuals. This is consistent with the benthic macro-fauna analysis, which shows that munitions provide habitat.

  18. [How to integrate humanization and technology in nursing training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dagmar Estermann

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the current incorporation of the subject of humanization of care in the current context of Brazilian nursing. The relation between nursing and technology is approached, in this study, from a historical perspective. The study also develops the proposition of "human re-signification", having as reference the concept of Cyborg, considering the way this concept has been employed in the contemporary cultural and feminist theoretical framework.

  19. The Integration Hypothesis of Human Language Evolution and the Nature of Contemporary Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru eMiyagawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa, Berwick, & Okanoya (Frontiers 2013 put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, which holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis.

  20. Integrating Human Terrain reasoning and tooling in C2 systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N. de; Grand, N. le; Kwint, M.; Reniers , F.; Anthonie van Lieburg, A. van

    2010-01-01

    Within an operational staff the ‘core business’ of the Intelligence Cell is to initiate, collect, process, analyze and disseminate relevant information. This Intelligence Preparation of the Environment addresses the environmental evaluation, threat evaluation and results in an integrated overview of

  1. Human Resource Challenges to Integrating HIV Pre-Exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    These challenges paralleled current challenges related to integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ..... is not additional work but is rather another HIV ... should be added to performance contracts (terms of ... stress and burnout, difficulty adhering to time- ... Similarly, the role of ... (diploma level) nursing officers or clinical.

  2. Integrating Chinese and African Culture into Human Resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally recognized that culturally insensitive attitudes and behaviours stemming from ... when they integrate Chinese and African cultures in managing HR activities like hiring, promoting, ... Key Words: China, Africa, Culture, Investment, job satisfaction, performance, value orientations ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Status Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  4. Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) Dynamics Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM) is a statistically cleansed sub-set of the data contained in the EHRI data warehouse. It...

  5. [Civilian-military coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  6. Military radiobiology: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.I.; Conklin, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Acute medical consequences affecting military personnel fall into two major classes: early events affecting performance and later more lethal events associated with single and combined injuries. If cells survive the radiation insult, they have the capability for repair. But the patient must survive fluid loss, infection, and bleeding defects until this can occur. Although no one can ever eliminate the incomprehensible destruction of human life associated with the use of nuclear weapons, significant medical advances can be achieved that will increase the performance and recovery of persons exposed to these weapons. Furthermore, these medical advances will go far toward improving the life and functioning of persons undergoing radiotherapy, trauma, accidental exposures, or a variety of other clinical situations. In the near future, the military battlefield will move into another dimension - space. Once outside the geomagnetic shield of the earth, military prsonnel will be exposed to a formidable array of new radiations. Among the new radiations will be high solar energy, solar particles and flares, and heavy nuclei from galactic cosmic arrays. Associated stresses will be microgravity, vibration, and isolation. To protect man in these new environments will truly challenge our ingenuity. This book looks at various medical consequences we face as a result of nuclear energy

  7. Latin American Civil-Military Relationships in a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has historically speaking been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil p...

  8. Military, Transitioning Democracy and Rights: The Case of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Windi Arini

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia embarks on transitioning period in 1998 after 32 years under authoritarian regime led by General Suharto. Since then the country has seen rapid changes particularly in relation to the Indonesian military (TNI). The military no longer plays role in day-to-day politics and has been returned to the barrack. New laws were enacted aiming at reforming the military and increase their professionality. Despite these positive notes, however, the military has been involved in several human rig...

  9. Becoming Earth Independent: Human-Automation-Robotics Integration Challenges for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Future exploration missions will require NASA to integrate more automation and robotics in order to accomplish mission objectives. This presentation will describe on the future challenges facing the human operator (astronaut, ground controllers) as we increase the amount of automation and robotics in spaceflight operations. It will describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. This presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  10. Human integration as a fundamental anthropological problem in Neo-Humanistic education / Song-Guk Joh

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Song-Guk

    1997-01-01

    Neo-Humanistic education (or "humanistic education" in Neo-Humanist terms) is an irrationalistic educational movement which developed in the USA during the 1960s and 1970s on the basis of Progressivism, Existentialism, Humanistic Psychology, Romantic criticism and some religious movements. Neo-Humanistic Education attempts to effect human integration as the most important goal in the context of education. This research focuses on human integration as a fundamental anthropological problem i...

  11. An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0037 An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain-States Adrian Lee UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON...to 14-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Neuroscience and Engineering Approach to Classifying Human Brain- States 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...specific cognitive states remains elusive, owing perhaps to limited crosstalk between the fields of neuroscience and engineering. Here, we report a

  12. Regional Integration Through Military Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction …peace is the goal for which all nations should strive, and where this breaks down, internationally agreed and non-violent mechanisms, including effective arms control regimes, must be employed. (Mandela, 1994) This statement, made by the late President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela...

  13. Psychiatry's Role in the Management of Human Trafficking Victims: An Integrated Care Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mollie; Salami, Temilola; Coverdale, John; Nguyen, Phuong T

    2018-03-01

    Human trafficking is an outrageous human rights violation with potentially devastating consequences to individuals and the public health. Victims are often underrecognized and there are few guidelines for how best to identify, care for, and safely reintegrate victims back into the community. The purpose of this paper is to propose a multifaceted, interdisciplinary, and interprofessional guideline for providing care and services to human trafficking victims. Databases such as PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for papers outlining human trafficking programs with a primary psychiatric focus. No integrated care models that provide decisional guidelines at different points of intervention for human trafficking patients and that highlight the important role of psychiatric consultation were found. Psychiatrists and psychologists are pivotal to an integrated care approach in health care settings. The provision of such a comprehensive and integrated model of care should facilitate the identification of victims, promote their recovery, and reduce the possibility of retraumatization.

  14. Development of an integrated system for estimating human error probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Morzinski, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project had as its main objective the development of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), knowledge-based expert system that would provide probabilistic estimates for potential human errors within various risk assessments, safety analysis reports, and hazard assessments. HRA identifies where human errors are most likely, estimates the error rate for individual tasks, and highlights the most beneficial areas for system improvements. This project accomplished three major tasks. First, several prominent HRA techniques and associated databases were collected and translated into an electronic format. Next, the project started a knowledge engineering phase where the expertise, i.e., the procedural rules and data, were extracted from those techniques and compiled into various modules. Finally, these modules, rules, and data were combined into a nearly complete HRA expert system.

  15. Design and management of production systems: Integration of human factors and ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...

  16. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  17. Engineering planetary exploration systems : Integrating novel technologies and the human element using work domain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, C.; Naikar, N.; Neerincx, M.

    2008-01-01

    The realisation of sustainable space exploration and utilisation requires not only the development of novel concepts and technologies, but also their successful integration. Hardware, software, and the human element must be integrated effectively to make the dream for which these technologies were

  18. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  19. Integrated Human and Animal Disease Control for Tanzanian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research focuses on two agro-ecological zones of the cattle corridor in Tanzania - Ngorongoro and Kibaha/Kilosa districts - and will be led by a regional scientific network, the ... They will look at interactions between human and animal health, environmental change, gender, and other socio-economic conditions.

  20. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  1. Integrating Digital Humanities into the Library and Information Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Sarah Leila

    2015-01-01

    Digital Humanities (DH) is a hot topic, in demand and on the rise. This article begins with excerpts from job listings that were posted to the American Library Association's job list in a two-month span in spring 2015 and they seem to indicate that DH is an increasingly important competency and interest for academic librarians who perform…

  2. Exploring Anthropology’s Value to Military Strategy Since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    anthropological study of military culture, MA2 : anthropological study for the military, in endeavors such as the Human Terrain System concept, where teams of...Anthropology The AAA has judged MA2 as the least ethical category of military anthropology by means of its code of ethics, CEAUSSIC reports, and...open debates on its blog. The lighting rod system most associated with MA2 is the Human Terrain Team, (HTT) employed under the Human Terrain System

  3. Science and Ecological Economics: Integrating of the Study of Humans and the Rest of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate the study of humans and the rest of nature as the basis for the creation of a sustainable and desirable future. It seeks to dissolve the barriers between the traditional disciplines and achieve a true "consilience" of all the sciences and humanities. This consilient,…

  4. Moving NASA Beyond Low Earth Orbit: Future Human-Automation-Robotic Integration Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of current human spaceflight operations. It will also describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. Additionally, there are many implications regarding advanced automation and robotics, and this presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  5. Suicide in the military environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide of soldiers has its own specifics, because not only it represents the tragedy for the individuals and their family, but also has great psychological effect on social environment and military unit in which it occurs. Suicide can be caused by variety of factors, as reported in the literature. The case reviewed in this article presents multilateral determination of suicide, with particular stress on the character of each individual and social interaction of soldiers. Psychological complex of basic inferiority, low educational level, family problems, and poor integration into military unit could be considered the leading determinants of this suicide. This emphasizes the importance of certain preventive measures such as more rigorous psychological selection for specific military duty, and the education of non-commissioned officers for better recognition and understanding of pre-suicidal syndrome.

  6. Military-Specific Exposure Factors Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lurker, Peter

    1998-01-01

    ...) provides many factors needed in the assessment of human health risk that were derived from general population studies or studies involving relatively small groups that may not be representative of military populations...

  7. Integrating social sciences and humanities in interdisciplinary research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2016-01-01

    drivers for embedding SSH research in interdisciplinary research. By analysing recent policy initiatives, the article shows how policymakers across the world continue to be ambivalent regarding the role of the SSH. While many stakeholders acknowledge the need to integrate SSH research in solving key...... societal challenges, such as climate change, migration or national security, funding for SSH is limited and tends to focus on strategic interventions and instrumental solutions. By accounting for the diversity of interdisciplinary collaborations the article recommends a more context-sensitive approach...

  8. Requirements for AMLCDs in U.S. military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Desjardins, Daniel D.

    1995-06-01

    Flat panel displays are fast becoming a significant source of more defense for less money. Military instruments have begun to use color active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs). This is the beginning of a significant transition from electromechanical, CRT. dichroic LCD, and electroluminescent display designs to the AMLCD designs. We have the opportunity with this new technology to establish common products capable of meeting user requirements for sunlight-readable, color and grayscale capable, high-sharpness high-pixel count, flat panel displays for military applications. The Wright Laboratory is leading the development of recommended best practice, draft guidance standard, and performance specifications for this new generation, the flat panel cockpit display generation, of display modules based on requirements for U.S. military aircraft and ground combat human system interfaces. These requirements are similar in many regards to those in both the civil aviation and automotive industries; accordingly, commonality with these civil applications is incorporated where possible, against the requirements for military combat applications. The performance requirement may be achieved by two approaches: militarization of displays made to low requirements of a large volume civil products manufacturer like Sharp or integration of displays made to high requirements by a niche market commercial vendor, like Optical Imaging Systems, Litton Systems Limited, ImageQuest Inc., and Planar Advanced Inc. teamed with Xerox PARC and Standish Industries. [Note that the niche market companies listed are commercial off-the shelf vendors, albeit for high requirement low volume customers.] Given that the performance specifications can be met for a particular military product by either approach, the choice is based on life cycle cost and a thin analysis based on initial costs alone is not acceptable as it ignores the fact that military product life cycles and procurements are 20-60 years

  9. Constellation Program Human-System Integration Requirements. Revision E, Nov. 19, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) in this document drive the design of space vehicles, their systems, and equipment with which humans interface in the Constellation Program (CxP). These requirements ensure that the design of Constellation (Cx) systems is centered on the needs, capabilities, and limitations of the human. The HSIR provides requirements to ensure proper integration of human-to-system interfaces. These requirements apply to all mission phases, including pre-launch, ascent, Earth orbit, trans-lunar flight, lunar orbit, lunar landing, lunar ascent, Earth return, Earth entry, Earth landing, post-landing, and recovery. The Constellation Program must meet NASA's Agency-level human rating requirements, which are intended to ensure crew survival without permanent disability. The HSIR provides a key mechanism for achieving human rating of Constellation systems.

  10. Human Resource Management in COSO Internal Control: Integrated Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Gürhan

    2010-01-01

    COSO perceives human resource management (HRM) as an organizational governance technic. Because COSO aims to increase efficency and effectiveness of business operations, reliability of financial reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Therefore, for example, in COSO HRM policy and practices should enable organizations to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Moreover, HRM is to find out best-ability and capable employees for managerial positions. In addition, or...

  11. Parvovirus B19 integration into human CD36+ erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovitz, Tyler; Wong, Susan; Young, Neal S; Oliveira, Thiago; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome. Computational analysis of integration patterns revealed strong correlations with gene intronic regions, H3K9me3 sites, and the identification of 41 base pair consensus sequence with an octanucleotide core motif. The octanucleotide core has homology to a single region of B19V, adjacent to the P6 promoter TATA box. We present the first direct evidence that B19V infection of erythroid progenitor cells disrupts the human genome and facilitates viral DNA integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prolonged Integration Site Selection of a Lentiviral Vector in the Genome of Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Wang, Yong; Li, Rui-Fu; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Jing; Peng, Dai-Zhi

    2017-03-03

    BACKGROUND Lentiviral vectors have been successfully used for human skin cell gene transfer studies. Defining the selection of integration sites for retroviral vectors in the host genome is crucial in risk assessment analysis of gene therapy. However, genome-wide analyses of lentiviral integration sites in human keratinocytes, especially after prolonged growth, are poorly understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, 874 unique lentiviral vector integration sites in human HaCaT keratinocytes after long-term culture were identified and analyzed with the online tool GTSG-QuickMap and SPSS software. RESULTS The data indicated that lentiviral vectors showed integration site preferences for genes and gene-rich regions. CONCLUSIONS This study will likely assist in determining the relative risks of the lentiviral vector system and in the design of a safe lentiviral vector system in the gene therapy of skin diseases.

  13. Integration sites of Epstein-Barr virus genome on chromosomes of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuu, K.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang-Wuu, S. [Institute of Genetics, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis. The viral genome is present in more than 95% of the African cases of Burkitt lymphoma and it is usually maintained in episomal form in the tumor cells. Viral integration has been described only for Nanalwa which is a Burkitt lymphoma cell line lacking episomes. In order to examine the role of EBV in the immortalization of human Blymphocytes, we investigated whether the EBV integration into the human genome is essential. If the integration does occur, we would like to know whether the integration is randomly distributed or whether the viral DNA integrates preferentially at certain sites. Fourteen in vitro immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a biotinylated EBV BamHI w DNA fragment as probe. The episomal form of EBV DNA was found in all cells of these cell lines, while only about 65% of the cells have the integrated viral DNA. This might suggest that integration is not a pre-requisite for cell immortalization. Although all chromosomes, except Y, have been found with integrated viral genome, chromsomes 1 and 5 are the most frequent EBV DNA carrier (p<0.05). Nine chromosome bands, namely, 1p31, 1q31, 2q32, 3q13, 3q26, 5q14, 6q24, 7q31 and 12q21, are preferential targets for EBV integration (p<0.001). Eighty percent of the total 938 EBV hybridization signals were found to be at G-band-positive area. This suggests that the mechanism of EBV integration might be different from that of the retroviruses, which specifically integrate to G-band-negative areas. Thus, we conclude that the integration of EBV to host genome is non-random and it may have something to do with the structure of chromosome and DNA sequences.

  14. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Velluti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries, including unilateral trade instruments, contain with varying modalities and intensity a commitment to the respect for human rights. The paper discusses selected aspects of the EU’s promotion and integration of human rights in its external trade relations and assesses the impact of the changes introduced by the 2009 Treaty of Lisbon (ToL on EU practice.

  15. The Future of Asset Management for Human Space Exploration: Supply Classification and an Integrated Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Gralla, Erica L.; deWeck, Olivier L.; Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    One of the major logistical challenges in human space exploration is asset management. This paper presents observations on the practice of asset management in support of human space flight to date and discusses a functional-based supply classification and a framework for an integrated database that could be used to improve asset management and logistics for human missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the relationships and interactions between fundamental human rights and natural law school. The objectives of this paper are circumscribed to the way fundamental human rights, by their nature, can be integrated within the doctrine of natural law or to the contrary, may be related to various branches of legal positivism. In specialized literature, it was pointed out that fundamental human rights constitute genuine natural rights which have the same natural law ...

  17. Structure-function relationships during segregated and integrated network states of human brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Betzel, Richard F; He, Ye; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Sporns, Olaf

    2018-04-01

    Structural white matter connections are thought to facilitate integration of neural information across functionally segregated systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the balance between segregation and integration in brain networks can be tracked by time-resolved functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and that fluctuations between segregated and integrated network states are related to human behavior. However, how these network states relate to structural connectivity is largely unknown. To obtain a better understanding of structural substrates for these network states, we investigated how the relationship between structural connectivity, derived from diffusion tractography, and functional connectivity, as measured by rs-fMRI, changes with fluctuations between segregated and integrated states in the human brain. We found that the similarity of edge weights between structural and functional connectivity was greater in the integrated state, especially at edges connecting the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. We also demonstrated that the similarity of network partitions, evaluated between structural and functional connectivity, increased and the density of direct structural connections within modules in functional networks was elevated during the integrated state. These results suggest that, when functional connectivity exhibited an integrated network topology, structural connectivity and functional connectivity were more closely linked to each other and direct structural connections mediated a larger proportion of neural communication within functional modules. Our findings point out the possibility of significant contributions of structural connections to integrative neural processes underlying human behavior.

  18. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  19. Human papillomavirus genome integration in squamous carcinogenesis: what have next-generation sequencing studies taught us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ian J; Coleman, Nicholas

    2018-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with ∼5% of all human cancers, including a range of squamous cell carcinomas. Persistent infection by high-risk HPVs (HRHPVs) is associated with the integration of virus genomes (which are usually stably maintained as extrachromosomal episomes) into host chromosomes. Although HRHPV integration rates differ across human sites of infection, this process appears to be an important event in HPV-associated neoplastic progression, leading to deregulation of virus oncogene expression, host gene expression modulation, and further genomic instability. However, the mechanisms by which HRHPV integration occur and by which the subsequent gene expression changes take place are incompletely understood. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of both RNA and DNA has allowed powerful interrogation of the association of HRHPVs with human disease, including precise determination of the sites of integration and the genomic rearrangements at integration loci. In turn, these data have indicated that integration occurs through two main mechanisms: looping integration and direct insertion. Improved understanding of integration sites is allowing further investigation of the factors that provide a competitive advantage to some integrants during disease progression. Furthermore, advanced approaches to the generation of genome-wide samples have given novel insights into the three-dimensional interactions within the nucleus, which could act as another layer of epigenetic control of both virus and host transcription. It is hoped that further advances in NGS techniques and analysis will not only allow the examination of further unanswered questions regarding HPV infection, but also direct new approaches to treating HPV-associated human disease. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John

  20. Data on strategically located land and spatially integrated urban human settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musakwa, Walter

    2017-12-01

    In developing countries like South Africa processed geographic information systems (GIS) data on land suitability, is often not available for land use management. Data in this article is based on a published article "The strategically located land index support system for humans settlements land reform in South Africa" (Musakwa et al., 2017) [1]. This article utilities data from Musakwa et al. (2017) [1] and it goes on a step further by presenting the top 25th percentile of areas in the country that are strategically located and suited to develop spatially integrated human settlements. Furthermore the least 25th percentile of the country that are not strategically located and spatially integrated to establish human settlements are also presented. The article also presents the processed spatial datasets that where used to develop the strategically located land index as supplementary material. The data presented is meant to stir debate on spatially integrated human settlements in South Africa.

  1. Integrating the social sciences to understand human-water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Many interesting and exciting socio-hydrological models have been developed in recent years. Such models often aim to capture the dynamic interplay between people and water for a variety of hydrological settings. As such, peoples' behaviours and decisions are brought into the models as drivers of and/or respondents to the hydrological system. To develop and run such models over a sufficiently long time duration to observe how the water-human system evolves the human component is often simplified according to one or two key behaviours, characteristics or decisions (e.g. a decision to move away from a drought or flood area; a decision to pump groundwater, or a decision to plant a less water demanding crop). To simplify the social component, socio-hydrological modellers often pull knowledge and understanding from existing social science theories. This requires them to negotiate complex territory, where social theories may be underdeveloped, contested, dynamically evolving, or case specific and difficult to generalise or upscale. A key question is therefore, how can this process be supported so that the resulting socio-hydrological models adequately describe the system and lead to meaningful understanding of how and why it behaves as it does? Collaborative interdisciplinary research teams that bring together social and natural scientists are likely to be critical. Joint development of the model framework requires specific attention to clarification to expose all underlying assumptions, constructive discussion and negotiation to reach agreement on the modelled system and its boundaries. Mutual benefits to social scientists can be highlighted, i.e. socio-hydrological work can provide insights for further exploring and testing social theories. Collaborative work will also help ensure underlying social theory is made explicit, and may identify ways to include and compare multiple theories. As socio-hydrology progresses towards supporting policy development, approaches that

  2. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  3. Integrating artificial and human intelligence into tablet production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data.

  4. 76 FR 6509 - Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7312] Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and Training; Guatemala AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. The... internationally recognized human rights; (B) the Guatemalan Air Force, Navy, and Army Corps of Engineers are...

  5. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  6. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  7. Cell Culture Systems To Study Human Herpesvirus 6A/B Chromosomal Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Wallaschek, Nina; Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Collin, Vanessa; Hall-Sedlak, Ruth; Jerome, Keith R; Mori, Yasuko; Carbonneau, Julie; Boivin, Guy; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Flamand, Louis

    2017-07-15

    Human herpesviruses 6A/B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their viral genomes in the telomeres of human chromosomes. The viral and cellular factors contributing to HHV-6A/B integration remain largely unknown, mostly due to the lack of efficient and reproducible cell culture models to study HHV-6A/B integration. In this study, we characterized the HHV-6A/B integration efficiencies in several human cell lines using two different approaches. First, after a short-term infection (5 h), cells were processed for single-cell cloning and analyzed for chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B (ciHHV-6A/B). Second, cells were infected with HHV-6A/B and allowed to grow in bulk for 4 weeks or longer and then analyzed for the presence of ciHHV-6. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), droplet digital PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization, we could demonstrate that HHV-6A/B integrated in most human cell lines tested, including telomerase-positive (HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-116, and HEK293T) and telomerase-negative cell lines (U2OS and GM847). Our results also indicate that inhibition of DNA replication, using phosphonoacetic acid, did not affect HHV-6A/B integration. Certain clones harboring ciHHV-6A/B spontaneously express viral genes and proteins. Treatment of cells with phorbol ester or histone deacetylase inhibitors triggered the expression of many viral genes, including U39 , U90 , and U100 , without the production of infectious virus, suggesting that the tested stimuli were not sufficient to trigger full reactivation. In summary, both integration models yielded comparable results and should enable the identification of viral and cellular factors contributing to HHV-6A/B integration and the screening of drugs influencing viral gene expression, as well as the release of infectious HHV-6A/B from the integrated state. IMPORTANCE The analysis and understanding of HHV-6A/B genome integration into host DNA is currently limited due to the lack of reproducible and efficient viral integration systems. In the

  8. Human papilloma viruses and cervical tumours: mapping of integration sites and analysis of adjacent cellular sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Eugene; Vinokourova, Svetlana; Moisjak, Elena; Rakhmanaliev, Elian; Kobseva, Vera; Laimins, Laimonis; Kisseljov, Fjodor; Sulimova, Galina

    2002-01-01

    In cervical tumours the integration of human papilloma viruses (HPV) transcripts often results in the generation of transcripts that consist of hybrids of viral and cellular sequences. Mapping data using a variety of techniques has demonstrated that HPV integration occurred without obvious specificity into human genome. However, these techniques could not demonstrate whether integration resulted in the generation of transcripts encoding viral or viral-cellular sequences. The aim of this work was to map the integration sites of HPV DNA and to analyse the adjacent cellular sequences. Amplification of the INTs was done by the APOT technique. The APOT products were sequenced according to standard protocols. The analysis of the sequences was performed using BLASTN program and public databases. To localise the INTs PCR-based screening of GeneBridge4-RH-panel was used. Twelve cellular sequences adjacent to integrated HPV16 (INT markers) expressed in squamous cell cervical carcinomas were isolated. For 11 INT markers homologous human genomic sequences were readily identified and 9 of these showed significant homologies to known genes/ESTs. Using the known locations of homologous cDNAs and the RH-mapping techniques, mapping studies showed that the INTs are distributed among different human chromosomes for each tumour sample and are located in regions with the high levels of expression. Integration of HPV genomes occurs into the different human chromosomes but into regions that contain highly transcribed genes. One interpretation of these studies is that integration of HPV occurs into decondensed regions, which are more accessible for integration of foreign DNA

  9. Proscription supports robust perceptual integration by suppression in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideaux, Reuben; Welchman, Andrew E

    2018-04-17

    Perception relies on integrating information within and between the senses, but how does the brain decide which pieces of information should be integrated and which kept separate? Here we demonstrate how proscription can be used to solve this problem: certain neurons respond best to unrealistic combinations of features to provide 'what not' information that drives suppression of unlikely perceptual interpretations. First, we present a model that captures both improved perception when signals are consistent (and thus should be integrated) and robust estimation when signals are conflicting. Second, we test for signatures of proscription in the human brain. We show that concentrations of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in a brain region intricately involved in integrating cues (V3B/KO) correlate with robust integration. Finally, we show that perturbing excitation/inhibition impairs integration. These results highlight the role of proscription in robust perception and demonstrate the functional purpose of 'what not' sensors in supporting sensory estimation.

  10. Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6: Models of Viral Genome Release from the Telomere and Impacts on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael L; Royle, Nicola J

    2017-07-12

    Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release. In this review, we also discuss the relationship between ciHHV-6 and the telomere carrying the insertion, particularly how the presence and subsequent partial or complete release of the ciHHV-6 genome may affect telomere dynamics and the risk of disease.

  11. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Systamatic approach to integration of a human reliability analysis into a NPP probabalistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragola, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the human reliability analysis tasks which were employed in the evaluation of the overall probability of an internal flood sequence and its consequences in terms of disabling vulnerable risk significant equipment. Topics considered include the problem familiarization process, the identification and classification of key human interactions, a human interaction review of potential initiators, a maintenance and operations review, human interaction identification, quantification model selection, the definition of operator-induced sequences, the quantification of specific human interactions, skill- and rule-based interactions, knowledge-based interactions, and the incorporation of human interaction-related events into the event tree structure. It is concluded that an integrated approach to the analysis of human interaction within the context of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is feasible

  13. Human reliability analysis of performing tasks in plants based on fuzzy integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Takashi; Kitamura, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    The effective improvement of the human working conditions in nuclear power plants might be a solution for the enhancement of the operation safety. The human reliability analysis (HRA) gives a methodological basis of the improvement based on the evaluation of human reliability under various working conditions. This study investigates some difficulties of the human reliability analysis using conventional linear models and recent fuzzy integral models, and provides some solutions to the difficulties. The following practical features of the provided methods are confirmed in comparison with the conventional methods: (1) Applicability to various types of tasks (2) Capability of evaluating complicated dependencies among working condition factors (3) A priori human reliability evaluation based on a systematic task analysis of human action processes (4) A conversion scheme to probability from indices representing human reliability. (author)

  14. Sarin Exposures in A Cohort of British Military Participants in Human Experimental Research at Porton Down 1945-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Thomas J; Carpenter, Lucy M; Brooks, Claire; Langdon, Toby; Venables, Katherine M

    2017-12-15

    The effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents in humans are topical. Porton Down is the UK's centre for research on chemical warfare where, since WWI, a programme of experiments involving ~30000 participants drawn from the UK armed services has been undertaken. Our aim is to report on exposures to nerve agents, particularly sarin, using detailed exposure data not explored in a previous analysis. In this paper, we have used existing data on exposures to servicemen who attended the human volunteer programme at Porton Down to examine exposures to nerve agents in general and to sarin in particular. Six principal nerve agents were tested on humans between 1945 and 1987. Of all 4299 nerve agent tests recorded, 3511 (82%) were with sarin, most commonly in an exposure chamber, with inhalation being the commonest exposure route (85%). Biological response to sarin exposure was expressed as percentage change in cholinesterase activity and, less commonly, change in pupil size. For red blood cell cholinesterase, median inhibition for inhalation tests was 41% (interquartile range 28-51%), with a maximum of 87%. For dermal exposures the maximum inhibition recorded was 99%. There was a clear association between increasing exposure to sarin and depression of cholinesterase activity but the strength and direction of the association varied by exposure route and the presence of chemical or physical protection. Pupil size decreased with increased exposure but this relationship was less clear when modifiers, such as atropine drops, were present. These results, drawn from high quality experimental data, offer a unique insight into the effects of these chemical agents on humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lyndyuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available European integration of Ukraine requires new philosophy of governance modernization and organization, an effective functioning of the civil service system. The urgency of the implementation of humanization approach is a priority for modernization of the national civil service system. The problem of humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine has been studied in the article. The essence of concepts of «humanism» and «humanization of the civil service» has been considered. Humanism is understood as reflected anthropocentrism, with the human being the object with the highest value. The term «humanization of the civil service» means a deliberate reorientation of the civil service and its objects to recognize a human as an absolute value, «a measure of all things» and to meet the vital needs of society, creating conditions for its full self-realization and ensuring sustainable human development. The civil service must guarantee the security and stability of life and protect rights, freedoms and interests of each individual. Humanization of civil service is also determined as strengthening the rights and freedoms of civil servants, special protection of their dignity and the formation of new humanistic principles of civil service. The features of humanization of the national civil service have been analyzed. It has been found that the human is considered to be the highest value and the content and direction of civil servants activity is determined by ensuring his rights and freedoms. The necessity of changing the priorities of civil service modernization on the basis of humanization, orientation on meeting the needs of human and citizen, as well as creating conditions for closer implementation of national civil service standards to those used in the European Union has been proved. Changes in the philosophy of the civil service of Ukraine should be directed to «serving people», functioning of

  16. Overview of Researches on Social Capital, Human Capital and Social Integration of New Generation Migrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Wenjing; Lu, Honghong; Tong, Yulin; Lu, Danna

    2013-01-01

    With urbanization and socio-economic development, new generation migrant workers play an increasingly important role in urban construction. However, for a long time, their social integration situation in inflow places is not ideal. Academic circle has done a lot of researches, but no effective strategy is so far put forward. Through analysis of domestic and foreign researches, it is found that social capital and human capital have an important influence on social integration of new generation...

  17. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  18. The Conjugative Relaxase TrwC Promotes Integration of Foreign DNA in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Prieto, Coral; Gabriel, Richard; Dehio, Christoph; Schmidt, Manfred; Llosa, Matxalen

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal DNA transfer. The relaxase TrwC of the conjugative plasmid R388 cleaves one strand of the transferred DNA at the oriT gene, covalently attaches to it, and leads the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into the recipient cell. In addition, TrwC catalyzes site-specific integration of the transferred DNA into its target sequence present in the genome of the recipient bacterium. Here, we report the analysis of the efficiency and specificity of the integrase activity of TrwC in human cells, using the type IV secretion system of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae to introduce relaxase-DNA complexes. Compared to Mob relaxase from plasmid pBGR1, we found that TrwC mediated a 10-fold increase in the rate of plasmid DNA transfer to human cells and a 100-fold increase in the rate of chromosomal integration of the transferred DNA. We used linear amplification-mediated PCR and plasmid rescue to characterize the integration pattern in the human genome. DNA sequence analysis revealed mostly reconstituted oriT sequences, indicating that TrwC is active and recircularizes transferred DNA in human cells. One TrwC-mediated site-specific integration event was detected, proving that TrwC is capable of mediating site-specific integration in the human genome, albeit with very low efficiency compared to the rate of random integration. Our results suggest that TrwC may stabilize the plasmid DNA molecules in the nucleus of the human cell, probably by recircularization of the transferred DNA strand. This stabilization would increase the opportunities for integration of the DNA by the host machinery. IMPORTANCE Different biotechnological applications, including gene therapy strategies, require permanent modification of target cells. Long-term expression is achieved either by extrachromosomal persistence or by integration of the introduced DNA. Here, we studied the utility of conjugative relaxase TrwC, a bacterial protein with site

  19. Convergent integration of animal model and human studies of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Niculescu, Helen; Patel, Sagar D; Niculescu, Alexander B

    2010-10-01

    Animal models and human studies of bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders are becoming increasingly integrated, prompted by recent successes. Particularly for genomics, the convergence and integration of data across species, experimental modalities and technical platforms is providing a fit-to-disease way of extracting reproducible and biologically important signal, in sharp contrast to the fit-to-cohort effect, disappointing findings to date, and limited reproducibility of human genetic analyses alone. Such work in psychiatry can provide an example of how to address other genetically complex disorders, and in turn will benefit by incorporating concepts from other areas, such as cancer biology and diabetes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL RIGHT IN THE MILITARY JUSTICE REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL SOTO MUÑOZ

    2017-01-01

    This article describes that the military right comes from the constitutional regulation of the use of force. This regulation imposes a particular duty of obedience to the military, that is guarded at the same time, by the military disciplinary right and the military penal code. It informs that although military justice is not forbidden by the international right of the Human Rights, is considered as a regulation of restricted application. Also details, the valid requisites presented by the in...

  1. Integration of HIV in the Human Genome: Which Sites Are Preferential? A Genetic and Statistical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana; Moreira, Elsa; Sequeira, Inês J.; Rodrigues, António S.; Rueff, José; Brás, Aldina

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal fragile sites (FSs) are loci where gaps and breaks may occur and are preferential integration targets for some viruses, for example, Hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus, HPV16, HPV18, and MLV vectors. However, the integration of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Giemsa bands and in FSs is not yet completely clear. This study aimed to assess the integration preferences of HIV in FSs and in Giemsa bands using an in silico study. HIV integration positions from Jurkat cells were used and two nonparametric tests were applied to compare HIV integration in dark versus light bands and in FS versus non-FS (NFSs). The results show that light bands are preferential targets for integration of HIV-1 in Jurkat cells and also that it integrates with equal intensity in FSs and in NFSs. The data indicates that HIV displays different preferences for FSs compared to other viruses. The aim was to develop and apply an approach to predict the conditions and constraints of HIV insertion in the human genome which seems to adequately complement empirical data. PMID:27294106

  2. Toward integrated analysis of human impacts on forest biodiversity: lessons from Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Adrian C.; Cayuela Delgado, Luis; Echeverría, Cristian; Armesto, Juan J.; Del Castillo, Rafael F.; Golicher, Duncan; Geneletti, Davide; González Espinosa, Mario; Huth, Andreas; López Barrera, Fabiola; Malizia, Lucio; Manson, Robert; Premoli, Andrea; Ramírez Marcial, Neptali; Rey Benayas, José María

    2009-01-01

    Although sustainable forest management (SFM) has been widely adopted as a policy and management goal, high rates of forest loss and degradation are still occurring in many areas. Human activities such as logging, livestock husbandry, crop cultivation, infrastructural development, and use of fire are causing widespread loss of biodiversity, restricting progress toward SFM. In such situations, there is an urgent need for tools that can provide an integrated assessment of human impacts on forest...

  3. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  4. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  5. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  6. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  7. TRICARE, Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  8. Military Nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    2000-01-01

    ... on health safety and performance, the PBRC performs the following eight research tasks: 1) Clinical Laboratory for Human and Food Samples performs laboratory analysis of samples from studies conducted...

  9. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of

  10. Nurses' human dignity in education and practice: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandeh, Akram; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mokhtari-Nouri, Jamileh

    2016-01-01

    Human dignity, as a fundamental human right and a moral obligation, has been emphasized in different fields of nursing. The aim of the present integrative review was to explore the nature of nurses' human dignity in educational and clinical settings. A literature review was conducted on quantitative and qualitative research papers in English and Persian using the PubMed, ProQuest, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, SID, and Irandoc databases from the year 2000 to 2013. Keywords for the search included dignity, nursing, faculty, nurse clinicians, nursing student, and humanism. In total, 12 research papers met the inclusion criteria for the integrative review. From this review, four key themes emerged. The themes consisted of concept of human dignity (it was as an expression of the professional value in nursing settings), factors affecting human dignity (including respect, communication, autonomy and power, competency and ability, structure of the workplace, and value-based education), dimensions of human dignity (including intrinsic and professional domains), and consequences of human dignity [positive (individual and professional growth and caring professional behavior) and negative (loss of motivation, intention to leave the profession, and non-professional image of nursing in the minds of people)]. The small number of studies found for the review indicates the need for further research in the field of nurses' dignity. Recognizing nurses' dignity can help to improve the nursing practice and provide them a dignified workplace.

  11. Nurses’ human dignity in education and practice: An integrated literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandeh, Akram; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mokhtari-Nouri, Jamileh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human dignity, as a fundamental human right and a moral obligation, has been emphasized in different fields of nursing. The aim of the present integrative review was to explore the nature of nurses’ human dignity in educational and clinical settings. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted on quantitative and qualitative research papers in English and Persian using the PubMed, ProQuest, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Google Scholar, SID, and Irandoc databases from the year 2000 to 2013. Keywords for the search included dignity, nursing, faculty, nurse clinicians, nursing student, and humanism. In total, 12 research papers met the inclusion criteria for the integrative review. Results: From this review, four key themes emerged. The themes consisted of concept of human dignity (it was as an expression of the professional value in nursing settings), factors affecting human dignity (including respect, communication, autonomy and power, competency and ability, structure of the workplace, and value-based education), dimensions of human dignity (including intrinsic and professional domains), and consequences of human dignity [positive (individual and professional growth and caring professional behavior) and negative (loss of motivation, intention to leave the profession, and non-professional image of nursing in the minds of people)]. Conclusions: The small number of studies found for the review indicates the need for further research in the field of nurses’ dignity. Recognizing nurses’ dignity can help to improve the nursing practice and provide them a dignified workplace. PMID:26985216

  12. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  13. Does Peacetime Military Service Affect Crime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Leth-Petersen, Søren; le Maire, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Draft lottery data combined with Danish longitudinal administrative records show that military service can reduce criminal activity for youth offenders. For this group, property crime is reduced, and our results indicate that the effect is unlikely to be the result of incapacitation only. We find...... no effect of military service on violent crime, on educational attainment, or on employment and earnings, either in the short run or in the long run. These results suggest that military service does not upgrade productive human capital directly, but rather affects criminal activity through other channels (e...

  14. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  15. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As space missions become more complex and as mission demands increase, robots, human-robot mixed initiative teams and software autonomy applications are needed to...

  16. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF MILITARY SPENDING ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA: A BOUND TESTING APPROACH TO COINTEGRATION 1989 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Tolulope APANISILE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the effect of military expenditure on output in Nigeria both in the short-run and in the long-run period. In addition, it verified whether military expenditure is an economically non-contributive activity using ARDL bounds testing approach to co-integration. Results showed that military spending has negative and significant effect on output in the short-run but positive and significant effect in the long-run. Labour and capital have positive and significant effects both in the long-run and short-run. In addition, labour has the highest coefficient (3.0709 in the long-run.The study concludes that government should reduce its expenditure on defense and concentrate more on human capital development, since military spending contributes nothing to output in the short-run.

  17. MARRVEL: Integration of Human and Model Organism Genetic Resources to Facilitate Functional Annotation of the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julia; Al-Ouran, Rami; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Seon-Young; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Comjean, Aram; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert; Liu, Zhandong; Bellen, Hugo J

    2017-06-01

    One major challenge encountered with interpreting human genetic variants is the limited understanding of the functional impact of genetic alterations on biological processes. Furthermore, there remains an unmet demand for an efficient survey of the wealth of information on human homologs in model organisms across numerous databases. To efficiently assess the large volume of publically available information, it is important to provide a concise summary of the most relevant information in a rapid user-friendly format. To this end, we created MARRVEL (model organism aggregated resources for rare variant exploration). MARRVEL is a publicly available website that integrates information from six human genetic databases and seven model organism databases. For any given variant or gene, MARRVEL displays information from OMIM, ExAC, ClinVar, Geno2MP, DGV, and DECIPHER. Importantly, it curates model organism-specific databases to concurrently display a concise summary regarding the human gene homologs in budding and fission yeast, worm, fly, fish, mouse, and rat on a single webpage. Experiment-based information on tissue expression, protein subcellular localization, biological process, and molecular function for the human gene and homologs in the seven model organisms are arranged into a concise output. Hence, rather than visiting multiple separate databases for variant and gene analysis, users can obtain important information by searching once through MARRVEL. Altogether, MARRVEL dramatically improves efficiency and accessibility to data collection and facilitates analysis of human genes and variants by cross-disciplinary integration of 18 million records available in public databases to facilitate clinical diagnosis and basic research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Build and Demonstrate a Training Program that Integrates Human Dimension to Optimize Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    health, and sports medicine to the overall fitness level of Soldiers.  Social: The social component focuses on the ways in which Army...has, then you can approach that person from a different perspective and knock down some barriers. You have to understand where the student is...and sports medicine contributions for optimal physical performance. (TRADOC Pam 525-3-7 (05/2014). The U.S. Army Human Dimension Concept) Human

  19. On the counterintuitive consequences of high-performance work practices in cross-border post-merger human integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilaki, A.; Smith, Pernille; Giangreco, A.

    2012-01-01

    , such as communication, employee involvement, and team building, may not always produce the expected effects on human integration; rather, it can have the opposite effects if top management does not closely monitor the immediate results of deploying such practices. Implications for managers dealing with post......, this article investigates the impact of systemic and integrated human resource practices [i.e., high-performance work practices (HPWPs)] on human integration and how their implementation affects employees' behaviours and attitudes towards post-merger human integration. We find that the implementation of HPWPs...

  20. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  1. Present status of an integrated software system for HASP (Human Acts Simulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takayuki; Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Kambayashi, Shaw; Kume, Etsuo; Higuchi, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1994-01-01

    In Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP), human acts to be realized by a human-shaped intelligent robot in a nuclear power plant are simulated by computers. The major purpose of HASP is to develop basic and underlying design technologies for intelligent and automatic power plant. The objectives of this paper is to show the present status of the HASP, with particular emphasis on activities targetted at the integration of developed subsystems to simulate the important capabilities of the intelligent robot such as planning, robot dynamics, and so on. (author)

  2. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  3. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  4. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  5. Challenges Implementing Work-Integrated Learning in Human Resource Management University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The examination of work-integrated learning (WIL) programs in the undergraduate Human Resource Management (HRM) curriculum is an area under-represented in the Australian literature. This paper identifies the challenges faced in implementing WIL into the HRM undergraduate curriculum. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38…

  6. Integrating organizational and human behavior perspectives on mergers and acquisitions: Looking inside the black box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for investigating merger and acquisition (M&A) performance through a multistage and multilevel approach. First, human resource challenges during the integration process following a merger are explored to help explain the inconsistencies among empirical

  7. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jafari; A. Sadeghi-Niaraki

    2013-01-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system ...

  8. The integration of weighted human gene association networks based on link prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Tinghong; Wu, Duzhi; Lin, Limei; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-31

    Physical and functional interplays between genes or proteins have important biological meaning for cellular functions. Some efforts have been made to construct weighted gene association meta-networks by integrating multiple biological resources, where the weight indicates the confidence of the interaction. However, it is found that these existing human gene association networks share only quite limited overlapped interactions, suggesting their incompleteness and noise. Here we proposed a workflow to construct a weighted human gene association network using information of six existing networks, including two weighted specific PPI networks and four gene association meta-networks. We applied link prediction algorithm to predict possible missing links of the networks, cross-validation approach to refine each network and finally integrated the refined networks to get the final integrated network. The common information among the refined networks increases notably, suggesting their higher reliability. Our final integrated network owns much more links than most of the original networks, meanwhile its links still keep high functional relevance. Being used as background network in a case study of disease gene prediction, the final integrated network presents good performance, implying its reliability and application significance. Our workflow could be insightful for integrating and refining existing gene association data.

  9. Using structural equation modelling to integrate human resources with internal practices for lean manufacturing implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protik Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore and integrate the role of human resources with the internal practices of the Indian manufacturing industries towards successful implementation of lean manu-facturing (LM. An extensive literature survey is carried out. An attempt is made to build an ex-haustive list of all the input manifests related to human resources and internal practices necessary for LM implementation, coupled with a similar exhaustive list of the benefits accrued from its suc-cessful implementation. A structural model is thus conceptualized, which is empirically validated based on the data from the Indian manufacturing sector. Hardly any survey based empirical study in India has been found to integrate human resources with the internal processes towards success-ful LM implementation. This empirical research is thus carried out in the Indian manufacturing in-dustries. The analysis reveals six key input constructs and three output constructs, indicating that these constructs should act in unison to maximize the benefits of implementing lean. The structural model presented in this paper may be treated as a guide to integrate human resources with internal practices to successfully implement lean, leading to an optimum utilization of resources. This work is one of the very first researches to have a survey-based empirical analysis of the role of human resources and internal practices of the Indian manufacturing sector towards an effective lean im-plementation.

  10. Personnel Selection Influences on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Human-System Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Thomas R; King, Raymond E

    2015-08-01

    Human-system integration (HSI) is a complex process used to design and develop systems that integrate human capabilities and limitations in an effective and affordable manner. Effective HSI incorporates several domains, including manpower, personnel and training, human factors, environment, safety, occupational health, habitability, survivability, logistics, intelligence, mobility, and command and control. To achieve effective HSI, the relationships among these domains must be considered. Although this integrated approach is well documented, there are many instances where it is not followed. Human factors engineers typically focus on system design with little attention to the skills, abilities, and other characteristics needed by human operators. When problems with fielded systems occur, additional training of personnel is developed and conducted. Personnel selection is seldom considered during the HSI process. Complex systems such as aviation require careful selection of the individuals who will interact with the system. Personnel selection is a two-stage process involving select-in and select-out procedures. Select-in procedures determine which candidates have the aptitude to profit from training and represent the best investment. Select-out procedures focus on medical qualification and determine who should not enter training for medical reasons. The current paper discusses the role of personnel selection in the HSI process in the context of remotely piloted aircraft systems.

  11. [National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Correa; Meneguim, Silmara; Lima, Silvana Andréa Molina; Moreno, Vania

    2013-01-01

    The National Policy of Humanization aims at innovations in health production, management and care with emphasis on permanent education for workers in the Unified Public Health System and training of university students in the health care field. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals, from 2002 to 2010. Ten articles were analyzed in thematic strand through three axes: humanization and users caring, humanization and the work process, humanization and training. The articles point to the need to overcome the biological conception, valuing cultural aspects of users. The work process is marked by the devaluation of workers and by users deprived of their rights. The training of health professionals is grounded in health services where the prevailing standards are practices that hinder innovative attitudes.

  12. Integrated application of human factors to a power plant control room information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, H.C. Jr.; Gutierrez, R.

    1988-01-01

    The human factors plan was developed as a methodology to apply human factors from the conceptual design of the EPIC system to the functional verification conducted at the plant. An integral part of the Human Factors Plan was the Functional Verification Plan. Developed in parallel, this second plan and its resultant programs verified functional appropriateness of the SPDS display, NSSS displays, EOP displays, man-machine interfaces (MMI), and workstation designs. The functional verification process was performed at the hardware/software developer's factory and at the JAFNPP, following installation of the EPIC system. Because the EPIC system replaces existing control room equipment, it is important that human factors be applied in a systematic manner consistent with other control room displays and controls. To ensure that this goal was met, a human factors plan was developed

  13. Leveraging and Integrating Eastern and Western Insights for Human Engagement Studies in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Silpasuwanchai, Chaklam; Ren, Xiangshi

    2015-01-01

    understanding of human nature (e.g., mind-body relations), which in the field of HCI has primarily been built upon the Western philosophies. There are scattered, underexplored Eastern philosophies (e.g., Yijing, Zen) that may provide new lens and tools to analyze how humans interact with resources...... in their environments, including technological artefacts. Discussions of leveraging and possibly integrating Eastern and Western insights for human engagement studies will be an exciting and a radical forum for the HCI community.......Human engagement is at the heart of every interactive technology. However, a concrete framework for synergizing the capabilities of humans and technologies to allow fully engaging interactions to happen is yet to be developed. We posit that such a framework should be grounded in a deeper...

  14. [Realization of the right to health of military servicemen in republic of armenia (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatrian, R G

    2014-02-01

    The mission of human rights protection encompasses the protection of the rights of the military. The article attempts to study the fulfillment of the right of military servicemen to health protection and work security in Republic of Armenia. The military servicemen right to health is defined on the basis of analysis of current system of law, military legislation, regulations and rules. Corrective actions limiting dangerous factors of military service are recommended to contribute to the protection of human rights, to ensure protection of the life and health of servicemen and to create healthy conditions of military service.

  15. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  16. Cybersecurity Education for Military Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    automated artificial intelligence to act at the speed of cyber (S. Jasper, class notes, September 12, 2017). The idea is to limit damage inside your network...we would not want artificial intelligence conducting counter attacks; there needs to be a human in the loop in order to prevent terrible decisions...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CYBERSECURITY EDUCATION FOR MILITARY OFFICERS

  17. PROBLEMS AND CLASSIFICATION OF FORMER MILITARY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirezhev C.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Russian Federation in the international community, to find the most effective ways to implement the military and land reforms require a comprehensive study. The paper identifies the main problems that hinder the effective implementation of the reform of the conversion, the ways of their solutions, including use of the experience of the advanced countries of the European Union. Identified military objects to be conversion, shown combining them into groups according to various criteria. Proposed a typology of ex-military territories. Notes the role of the organization of effective land use conversion in the areas of land use planning, identifies the main documents required for the implementation of planned activities. The problems of land use planning conversion ex-military territories.

  18. Human Microbiome and Learning Healthcare Systems: Integrating Research and Precision Medicine for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Kim H; Mack, David R; Stintzi, Alain; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-02-01

    Healthcare institutions face widespread challenges of delivering high-quality and cost-effective care, while keeping up with rapid advances in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Moreover, there is increased emphasis on developing personalized or precision medicine targeted to individuals or groups of patients who share a certain biomarker signature. Learning healthcare systems (LHS) have been proposed for integration of research and clinical practice to fill major knowledge gaps, improve care, reduce healthcare costs, and provide precision care. To date, much discussion in this context has focused on the potential of human genomic data, and not yet on human microbiome data. Rapid advances in human microbiome research suggest that profiling of, and interventions on, the human microbiome can provide substantial opportunity for improved diagnosis, therapeutics, risk management, and risk stratification. In this study, we discuss a potential role for microbiome science in LHSs. We first review the key elements of LHSs, and discuss possibilities of Big Data and patient engagement. We then consider potentials and challenges of integrating human microbiome research into clinical practice as part of an LHS. With rapid growth in human microbiome research, patient-specific microbial data will begin to contribute in important ways to precision medicine. Hence, we discuss how patient-specific microbial data can help guide therapeutic decisions and identify novel effective approaches for precision care of inflammatory bowel disease. To the best of our knowledge, this expert analysis makes an original contribution with new insights poised at the emerging intersection of LHSs, microbiome science, and postgenomics medicine.

  19. Advancing coupled human-earth system models: The integrated Earth System Model Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J. A.; Collins, W.; Thornton, P. E.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Mao, J.; Chini, L. P.; Calvin, K. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Shi, X.

    2012-12-01

    As human and biogeophysical models develop, opportunities for connections between them evolve and can be used to advance our understanding of human-earth systems interaction in the context of a changing climate. One such integration is taking place with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). A multi-disciplinary, multi-institution team has succeeded in integrating the GCAM integrated assessment model of human activity into CESM to dynamically represent the feedbacks between changing climate and human decision making, in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation policies. The first applications of this capability have focused on the feedbacks between climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and human decisions affecting future land use change, which are in turn connected to human decisions about energy systems and bioenergy production. These experiments have been conducted in the context of the RCP4.5 scenario, one of four pathways of future radiative forcing being used in CMIP5, which constrains future human-induced greenhouse gas emissions from energy and land activities to stabilize radiative forcing at 4.5 W/m2 (~650 ppm CO2 -eq) by 2100. When this pathway is run in GCAM with the climate feedback on terrestrial productivity from CESM, there are implications for both the land use and energy system changes required for stabilization. Early findings indicate that traditional definitions of radiative forcing used in scenario development are missing a critical component of the biogeophysical consequences of land use change and their contribution to effective radiative forcing. Initial full coupling of the two global models has important implications for how climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems changes the dynamics of future land use change for agriculture and forestry, particularly in the context of a climate mitigation policy designed to reduce emissions from land use as well as energy systems

  20. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  1. Integrating Environmental and Human Health Databases in the Great Lakes Basin: Themes, Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Bassil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health.

  2. Integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation process for human urine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianliang; Liu, Caihong; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Weichao; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun

    2016-03-15

    This study demonstrated a forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system for real human urine treatment. A series of NaCl solutions at different concentrations were adopted for draw solutions in FO process, which were also the feed solutions of MD process. To establish a stable and continuous integrated FO-MD system, individual FO process with different NaCl concentrations and individual direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process with different feed temperatures were firstly investigated separately. Four stable equilibrium conditions were obtained from matching the water transfer rates of individual FO and MD processes. It was found that the integrated system is stable and sustainable when the water transfer rate of FO subsystem is equal to that of MD subsystem. The rejections to main contaminants in human urine were also investigated. Although individual FO process had relatively high rejection to Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in human urine, these contaminants could also accumulate in draw solution after long term performance. The MD process provided an effective rejection to contaminants in draw solution after FO process and the integrated system revealed nearly complete rejection to TOC, TN and NH4(+)-N. This work provided a potential treatment process for human urine in some fields such as water regeneration in space station and water or nutrient recovery from source-separated urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuromandibular integration in humans and chimpanzees: Implications for dental and mandibular reduction in Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Alessio; Meloro, Carlo; Irish, Joel D; Stringer, Chris; Profico, Antonio; De Groote, Isabelle

    2018-05-08

    Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls. The morphological integration between the neurocranium and the lower jaw was analyzed by means of Singular Warps Analysis. Redundancy Analysis was performed to understand if the pattern of neuromandibular integration affects tooth size and mandibular robusticity. There is significant morphological covariation between neurocranium and lower jaw in both chimpanzees and humans. In humans, changes in the temporal fossa seem to produce alterations of the relative orientation of jaw parts, while the influence of similar neurocranial changes in chimpanzees are more localized. In both species, postcanine alveolar lengths and mandibular robusticity are associated with shape changes of the temporal fossa. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the neurocranium is able to affect the evolution and development of the lower jaw, although most likely through functional integration of mandible, teeth, and muscles within the masticatory apparatus. This study highlights the relative influence of structural constraints and adaptive factors in the evolution of the human skull. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  5. National Museum of Military History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attractions such as military history museums which exhibit a wide range of important historical artefacts are fundamental sub-elements in any tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth. Military history is an integral element of the history of any nation and countless varieties of tourists both local and international, visit military museums whenever the opportunity presents itself because museums are generally stimulating places of interest. This article focuses predominantly on international tourists visiting the Ditsong National Museum of Military History. In addition to the interest that such museums generate, they play a key role as the organizational foundation stones of modernity. It is via their many interesting exhibits that museums enlighten us about the past that intrinsically highlights its distance from the present era. Museums also selectively reconstitute aspects of history and in so doing alienate many artefacts from their original context and yet manage to impart deep understanding of events that shaped the modern world. Museums of all types thus impart knowledge and have a wide range of tales to tell concerning the many and diverse assortments of objects they hold. National pride is an obvious reason for having a military museum where the comprehensive display of military equipment is exceptionally unique while exhibition halls also offer an educational narrative of a nation’s history. What is also of interest to many visitors is the type of research that is carried out in a multiplicity of ways. The huge global growth in tourism in recent years has contributed to many museums radically altering their exhibits in both content and manner of exhibition. This is significant given the reciprocal impact that museums and tourism have on one another. The attractions in museums are regarded by many to be central to the tourism process and these are very often the main reason for many tourists visiting

  6. Effective Integration Through the Use of Social Influence Tactics: What the Military Can Learn from Racial Integration of Baseball in Ending Don’t Ask Don’t Tell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    to homosexuals and the military followed, not the reverse. Exclusion of one’s sexuality, as well as race and gender , from the workplace appears to...General Benjamin O. Davis Jr.).1 Racism in American society goes against the very make-up of its social norms and national identity. The only way...institution changing their attitude towards the particular idea of racism . Dr. Pratkanis stated nine principles that can be used to help with the

  7. Integration of genomic and medical data into a 3D atlas of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinsky, Andrei L; Fanea, Elena; Trinh, Quang; Dong, Xiaoli; Stromer, Julie N; Shu, Xueling; Wat, Stephen; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hill, Jonathan W; Edwards, Carol; Grosenick, Brenda; Yajima, Masumi; Sensen, Christoph W

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a framework for the visual integration and exploration of multi-scale biomedical data, which includes anatomical and molecular components. We have also created a Java-based software system that integrates molecular information, such as gene expression data, into a three-dimensional digital atlas of the male adult human anatomy. Our atlas is structured according to the Terminologia Anatomica. The underlying data-indexing mechanism uses open standards and semantic ontology-processing tools to establish the associations between heterogeneous data types. The software system makes an extensive use of virtual reality visualization.

  8. Stabilization of Telomere G-Quadruplexes Interferes with Human Herpesvirus 6A Chromosomal Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Gravel, Annie; Artusi, Sara; Richter, Sara N; Wallaschek, Nina; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Flamand, Louis

    2017-07-15

    Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A/B) can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes using a mechanism that remains poorly understood. To achieve a better understanding of the HHV-6A/B integration mechanism, we made use of BRACO-19, a compound that stabilizes G-quadruplex secondary structures and prevents telomere elongation by the telomerase complex. First, we analyzed the folding of telomeric sequences into G-quadruplex structures and their binding to BRACO-19 using G-quadruplex-specific antibodies and surface plasmon resonance. Circular dichroism studies indicate that BRACO-19 modifies the conformation and greatly stabilizes the G-quadruplexes formed in G-rich telomeric DNA. Subsequently we assessed the effects of BRACO-19 on the HHV-6A initial phase of infection. Our results indicate that BRACO-19 does not affect entry of HHV-6A DNA into cells. We next investigated if stabilization of G-quadruplexes by BRACO-19 affected HHV-6A's ability to integrate its genome into host chromosomes. Incubation of telomerase-expressing cells with BRACO-19, such as HeLa and MCF-7, caused a significant reduction in the HHV-6A integration frequency ( P integration frequency in U2OS cells that lack telomerase activity and elongate their telomeres through alternative lengthening mechanisms. Our data suggest that the fluidity of telomeres is important for efficient chromosomal integration of HHV-6A and that interference with telomerase activity negatively affects the generation of cellular clones containing integrated HHV-6A. IMPORTANCE HHV-6A/B can integrate their genomes into the telomeres of infected cells. Telomeres consist of repeated hexanucleotides (TTAGGG) of various lengths (up to several kilobases) and end with a single-stranded 3' extension. To avoid recognition and induce a DNA damage response, the single-stranded overhang folds back on itself and forms a telomeric loop (T-loop) or adopts a tertiary structure, referred to as a G-quadruplex. In the

  9. Prevalence of the integration status for human papillomavirus 16 in esophageal carcinoma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Shen, Haie; Li, Ji; Hou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ke; Li, Jintao

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the etiology of esophageal cancer (EC) related with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Fresh surgically resected tissue samples and clinical information were obtained from 189 patients. Genomic DNA was extracted, and HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with HPV L1 gene primers of MY09/11; HPV16 was detected using HPV16 E6 type-specific primer sets. Copies of HPV16 E2, E6, and the human housekeeping gene β-actin were tested using quantitative PCR to analyze the relationship between HPV16 integration and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the relationship between the HPV16 integration status and clinical information of patients. Of the 189 samples, 168 HPV-positive samples were detected, of which 76 were HPV16 positive. Among the HPV16 positive samples, 2 cases (E2/E6 ratio>1) were 2.6% (2/76) purely episomal, 65 (E2/E6 ratio between 0 and 1) were 85.6% (65/76) mixture of integrated and episomal, and 9 (E2/E6 ratio=0) were 11.8% (9/76) purely integrated. The results indicate that integration of HPV16 was more common in the host genome than in the episome genome. The prevalence rate of HPV16 integration is increasing with the pathological stage progression of esophageal carcinoma (EC). A high prevalence of HPV16 suggested that HPV16 has an etiological effect on the progress of EC. Integration of HPV16 is more common than episome genome in the host cells, indicating that continuous HPV infection is the key to esophageal epithelial cell malignant conversion and canceration.

  10. Integrative analyses of human reprogramming reveal dynamic nature of induced pluripotency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchiarelli, Davide; Trapnell, Cole; Ziller, Michael J.; Soumillon, Magali; Cesana, Marcella; Karnik, Rahul; Donaghey, Julie; Smith, Zachary D.; Ratanasirintrawoot, Sutheera; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Wu, Zhaoting; Akopian, Veronika; Gifford, Casey A.; Doench, John; Rinn, John L.; Daley, George Q.; Meissner, Alexander; Lander, Eric S.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotency is a promising avenue for disease modeling and therapy, but the molecular principles underlying this process, particularly in human cells, remain poorly understood due to donor-to-donor variability and intercellular heterogeneity. Here we constructed and characterized a clonal, inducible human reprogramming system that provides a reliable source of cells at any stage of the process. This system enabled integrative transcriptional and epigenomic analysis across the human reprogramming timeline at high resolution. We observed distinct waves of gene network activation, including the ordered reactivation of broad developmental regulators followed by early embryonic patterning genes and culminating in the emergence of a signature reminiscent of pre-implantation stages. Moreover, complementary functional analyses allowed us to identify and validate novel regulators of the reprogramming process. Altogether, this study sheds light on the molecular underpinnings of induced pluripotency in human cells and provides a robust cell platform for further studies. PMID:26186193

  11. Sociometric approaches for managing military units and predicting of behavior of military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudro, Nataliya M.; Puzikova, Svetlana M.

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan military service becomes attractive primarily for that category of people who have no opportunity to acquire high quality vocational or higher education, decent income by the speciality available, or those who have not yet identified themselves professionally and socially. Its a serious problem how to ensure ability of military units to execute their service duties in conditions of more and more increasing requirements for professional competences of military personnel, increased intellectualization of military service when the quality of "human material" often is not corresponding to the required standards. This problem in the national and foreign science is still being developed and has no final solutions accessible for the scientific society. This article presents an effort to offer specialists in the military administration area one of probable tools to forecast successfulness of execution of professional tasks by military units based on results of sociometric studies and algorithms of plotting Bayesian networks. Using these tools a military leader will be able to evaluate effectiveness of his managerial activity, correct mechanisms of individual and mentoring activity with regard to individual servicemen, provide an opportunity to eliminate risks of failing to fulfill professional tasks on time and failing to ensure combat readiness of entrusted military team.

  12. 76 FR 20800 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control... license the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights... taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More...

  13. 75 FR 50793 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... political, military, economic, human rights, and arms control considerations. More detailed information is... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control... license the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights...

  14. 75 FR 18937 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations... the transfer of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and... political, military, economic, human rights and arms control considerations. More detailed information is...

  15. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  16. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  17. USE OF UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN MILITARY LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  18. Use of Ubiquitous Technologies in Military Logistic System in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, P.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.

    2013-09-01

    This study is about integration and evaluation of RFID and ubiquitous technologies in military logistic system management. Firstly, supply chain management and the necessity of a revolution in logistic systems especially in military area, are explained. Secondly RFID and ubiquitous technologies and the advantages of their use in supply chain management are introduced. Lastly a system based on these technologies for controlling and increasing the speed and accuracy in military logistic system in Iran with its unique properties, is presented. The system is based on full control of military logistics (supplies) from the time of deployment to replenishment using sensor network, ubiquitous and RFID technologies.

  19. Converging Human and Malaria Vector Diagnostics with Data Management towards an Integrated Holistic One Health Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Mitsakakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring malaria prevalence in humans, as well as vector populations, for the presence of Plasmodium, is an integral component of effective malaria control, and eventually, elimination. In the field of human diagnostics, a major challenge is the ability to define, precisely, the causative agent of fever, thereby differentiating among several candidate (also non-malaria febrile diseases. This requires genetic-based pathogen identification and multiplexed analysis, which, in combination, are hardly provided by the current gold standard diagnostic tools. In the field of vectors, an essential component of control programs is the detection of Plasmodium species within its mosquito vectors, particularly in the salivary glands, where the infective sporozoites reside. In addition, the identification of species composition and insecticide resistance alleles within vector populations is a primary task in routine monitoring activities, aiming to support control efforts. In this context, the use of converging diagnostics is highly desirable for providing comprehensive information, including differential fever diagnosis in humans, and mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides of vectors. Nevertheless, the two fields of human diagnostics and vector control are rarely combined, both at the diagnostic and at the data management end, resulting in fragmented data and mis- or non-communication between various stakeholders. To this direction, molecular technologies, their integration in automated platforms, and the co-assessment of data from multiple diagnostic sources through information and communication technologies are possible pathways towards a unified human vector approach.

  20. Converging Human and Malaria Vector Diagnostics with Data Management towards an Integrated Holistic One Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Hin, Sebastian; Müller, Pie; Wipf, Nadja; Thomsen, Edward; Coleman, Michael; Zengerle, Roland; Vontas, John; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2018-02-03

    Monitoring malaria prevalence in humans, as well as vector populations, for the presence of Plasmodium , is an integral component of effective malaria control, and eventually, elimination. In the field of human diagnostics, a major challenge is the ability to define, precisely, the causative agent of fever, thereby differentiating among several candidate (also non-malaria) febrile diseases. This requires genetic-based pathogen identification and multiplexed analysis, which, in combination, are hardly provided by the current gold standard diagnostic tools. In the field of vectors, an essential component of control programs is the detection of Plasmodium species within its mosquito vectors, particularly in the salivary glands, where the infective sporozoites reside. In addition, the identification of species composition and insecticide resistance alleles within vector populations is a primary task in routine monitoring activities, aiming to support control efforts. In this context, the use of converging diagnostics is highly desirable for providing comprehensive information, including differential fever diagnosis in humans, and mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides of vectors. Nevertheless, the two fields of human diagnostics and vector control are rarely combined, both at the diagnostic and at the data management end, resulting in fragmented data and mis- or non-communication between various stakeholders. To this direction, molecular technologies, their integration in automated platforms, and the co-assessment of data from multiple diagnostic sources through information and communication technologies are possible pathways towards a unified human vector approach.

  1. Converging Human and Malaria Vector Diagnostics with Data Management towards an Integrated Holistic One Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Hin, Sebastian; Wipf, Nadja; Coleman, Michael; Zengerle, Roland; Vontas, John; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring malaria prevalence in humans, as well as vector populations, for the presence of Plasmodium, is an integral component of effective malaria control, and eventually, elimination. In the field of human diagnostics, a major challenge is the ability to define, precisely, the causative agent of fever, thereby differentiating among several candidate (also non-malaria) febrile diseases. This requires genetic-based pathogen identification and multiplexed analysis, which, in combination, are hardly provided by the current gold standard diagnostic tools. In the field of vectors, an essential component of control programs is the detection of Plasmodium species within its mosquito vectors, particularly in the salivary glands, where the infective sporozoites reside. In addition, the identification of species composition and insecticide resistance alleles within vector populations is a primary task in routine monitoring activities, aiming to support control efforts. In this context, the use of converging diagnostics is highly desirable for providing comprehensive information, including differential fever diagnosis in humans, and mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides of vectors. Nevertheless, the two fields of human diagnostics and vector control are rarely combined, both at the diagnostic and at the data management end, resulting in fragmented data and mis- or non-communication between various stakeholders. To this direction, molecular technologies, their integration in automated platforms, and the co-assessment of data from multiple diagnostic sources through information and communication technologies are possible pathways towards a unified human vector approach. PMID:29401670

  2. Framework for integrating human and animal data in chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Karlene S; Robert Schnatter, A; Travis, Kim Z; Swaen, Gerard M H; Pallapies, Dirk; Money, Chris; Priem, Peter; Vrijhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Although regulatory agencies formally encourage the integration of all available data in chemical risk assessment, consistent implementation of this practice has been constrained by the lack of a clear, systematic method for doing so. In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating, classifying and integrating human and animal data into the risk assessment process that incorporates: (1) a balanced appraisal of human and animal data, (2) relevance to different stages of the risk assessment process, and (3) accommodation for different data quality requirements. The proposed framework offers a flexible, step-wise approach for determining which set of available data best support the chemical risk assessment that involves the rating and relative ranking of human and animal data quality. The evaluation of human data incorporates seven data quality elements, nature and specificity of the lead effect; evaluation of animal data incorporates data quality and relevance to humans. Results of simulations with selected chemicals previously evaluated in a formal risk assessment generally agreed with existing regulatory guidance. Application of the proposed framework across a wider range of chemical agents will improve transparency of the risk assessment process and validity of results, while informing continuous refinements to this evolving methodology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New approaches to assessing the effects of mutagenic agents on the integrity of the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elespuru, R.K.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Heritable genetic alterations, although individually rare, have a substantial collective health impact. Approximately 20% of these are new mutations of unknown cause. Assessment of the effect of exposures to DNA damaging agents, i.e. mutagenic chemicals and radiations, on the integrity of the human genome and on the occurrence of genetic disease remains a daunting challenge. Recent insights may explain why previous examination of human exposures to ionizing radiation, as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, failed to reveal heritable genetic effects. New opportunities to assess the heritable genetic damaging effects of environmental mutagens are afforded by: (1) integration of knowledge on the molecular nature of genetic disorders and the molecular effects of mutagens; (2) the development of more practical assays for germline mutagenesis; (3) the likely use of population-based genetic screening in personalized medicine

  4. FORMATION OF THE HUMAN CAPITAL IN MODEL OF INTEGRATION OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Mityakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the problems of reproduction of human resources in the scientific and educational cooperation and collaboration of university research with industry. Proposed a model integration high school science to industry of the region, including the internal and external levels. On the internal level, proposed a scheme of transfer technology in a technical university, where the formation of human capital is produced in two related areas: training of competitive labor market specialists with higher education, as well as consolidation in the universities of highly qualified personnel. On the external level, proposed creation of an integrated research and education production cluster, which brings together the personnel and technological capabilities of the industrial region.

  5. SysBioCube: A Data Warehouse and Integrative Data Analysis Platform Facilitating Systems Biology Studies of Disorders of Military Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    include interactive gene and methylation profiles, interactive heatmaps, cytoscape network views, integrative genomics viewer ( IGV ), and protein-protein...single chart. The website also provides an option to include multiple genes. Integrative Genomics Viewer ( IGV )1, is a high-performance desktop tool for

  6. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  7. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed

  8. Normative and systems integration in human resource management in Japanese multinational companies

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, Masayuki; Brewster, Chris; Takashina, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This paper aims to conceptualise a framework of “transnational human resource management” (HRM) and to demonstrate the validity of the model.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud Evidence is drawn from survey of 93 large Japanese multinational companies (MNCs). Data are analysed through descriptive statistics, hierarchical multiple regression analyses and mediation effect analyses.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud The analysis reveals that the practices for normative and systems integration are...

  9. In a Time of Change: Integrating the Arts and Humanities with Climate Change Science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M.; Golux, S.; Franzen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The arts and humanities have a powerful capacity to create lines of communication between the public, policy and scientific spheres. A growing network of visual and performing artists, writers and scientists has been actively working together since 2007 to integrate scientific and artistic perspectives on climate change in interior Alaska. These efforts have involved field workshops and collaborative creative processes culminating in public performances and a visual art exhibit. The most recent multimedia event was entitled In a Time of Change: Envisioning the Future, and challenged artists and scientists to consider future scenarios of climate change. This event included a public performance featuring original theatre, modern dance, Alaska Native Dance, poetry and music that was presented concurrently with an art exhibit featuring original works by 24 Alaskan visual artists. A related effort targeted K12 students, through an early college course entitled Climate Change and Creative Expression, which was offered to high school students at a predominantly Alaska Native charter school and integrated climate change science, creative writing, theatre and dance. Our program at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is just one of many successful efforts to integrate arts and humanities with science within and beyond the NSF LTER Program. The efforts of various LTER sites to engage the arts and humanities with science, the public and policymakers have successfully generated excitement, facilitated mutual understanding, and promoted meaningful dialogue on issues facing science and society. The future outlook for integration of arts and humanities with science appears promising, with increasing interest from artists, scientists and scientific funding agencies.

  10. Vasodilatory effect and endothelial integrity in papaverine- and milrinone-treated human radial arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, P; Wegrzyn, P; Lis, G J; Piatek, J; Konstanty-Kalandyk, J; Nosalski, R; Mikolajczyk, T; Jasinska, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Guzik, T; Litwin, J A; Korbut, R; Sadowski, J

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of the vasospasm is an important aspect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with the use of radial artery (RA) as the conduit. We compared the effect of two phosphodiesterase inhibitors papaverine and milrinone on vasodilation and endothelial integrity of human RA segments harvested from 20 CABG patients. Vasodilatory effect of the drugs were assessed by organ bath technique in RA rings precontracted with KCl and phenylephrine. Endothelial integrity was evaluated by CD34 immunofluorescence in frozen sections. Vasorelaxation induced by papaverine was significantly greater as compared to that induced by milrinone (90.47% ± 10.16% vs. 78.98% ± 19.56%, pmilrinone in the preservation of endothelial integrity (75.3% ± 12.9% vs. 51.8% ± 18.0%, pmilrinone for prevention of vasospasm in radial artery conduits used for CABG.

  11. Random integration of SV40 in SV40-transformed, immortalized human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Kaji, H

    1987-02-01

    We have studied the relationship between immortalization of SV40-transformed human embryonic fibroblasts and their SV40 integration sites. From several independently transformed cell pools, we have isolated clones which do not harbor unintegrated SV40 DNA. We have analysed whole-cell DNA from these clones, using the Southern blot method. Our results suggest that no specific integration sites in the cellular genome exist which are a prerequisite for the immortalization process. Although some integration sites were found to be predominant in pre-crisis clones, they could not be detected in the post-crisis clones. This suggests that none of these predominating sites is selected for during the crisis period.

  12. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  13. Integration of Visual and Proprioceptive Limb Position Information in Human Posterior Parietal, Premotor, and Extrastriate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-03-02

    The brain constructs a flexible representation of the body from multisensory information. Previous work on monkeys suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) represent the position of the upper limbs based on visual and proprioceptive information. Human experiments on the rubber hand illusion implicate similar regions, but since such experiments rely on additional visuo-tactile interactions, they cannot isolate visuo-proprioceptive integration. Here, we independently manipulated the position (palm or back facing) of passive human participants' unseen arm and of a photorealistic virtual 3D arm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that matching visual and proprioceptive information about arm position engaged the PPC, PMv, and the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA); activity in the PMv moreover reflected interindividual differences in congruent arm ownership. Further, the PPC, PMv, and EBA increased their coupling with the primary visual cortex during congruent visuo-proprioceptive position information. These results suggest that human PPC, PMv, and EBA evaluate visual and proprioceptive position information and, under sufficient cross-modal congruence, integrate it into a multisensory representation of the upper limb in space. The position of our limbs in space constantly changes, yet the brain manages to represent limb position accurately by combining information from vision and proprioception. Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys have revealed neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor cortices that seem to implement and update such a multisensory limb representation, but this has been difficult to demonstrate in humans. Our fMRI experiment shows that human posterior parietal, premotor, and body-selective visual brain areas respond preferentially to a virtual arm seen in a position corresponding to one's unseen hidden arm, while increasing their communication with regions conveying visual

  14. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  17. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  18. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....

  19. About Military Sexual Trauma

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  20. Healthy Active Duty Military with Lifetime Experience of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Exhibits Subtle Deficits in Sensory Reactivity and Sensory Integration During Static Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W Geoffrey; Handy, Justin D; Avcu, Pelin; Ortiz, Alejandro; Haran, F Jay; Doria, Michael; Servatius, Richard J

    2018-03-01

    Postural control and stress reactivity were investigated in active duty coast guard personnel to determine whether they are sensitive to lifetime effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). A custom-designed and validated virtual reality-based computerized posturography device was used to assess postural stability, whereas emotional reactivity was assessed using the acoustic startle response (ASR), and neurocognitive performance was assessed using the defense-automated neurobehavioral assessment (DANA). It was hypothesized that residual and subtle postural control imbalance and deficits in cognitive and sensory reactivity would be evident in those reporting multiple lifetime mTBI. Active duty military personnel (N = 36; 7 females and 29 males) with no Deployment Limiting Medical Condition were recruited and tested on all assessments. Medical history information provided a history of head injury. Thirty-nine percent of participants reported having a previous mTBI (nine reporting one and five reporting more than one incident). No participant had experienced a head injury within the past year and all were symptom free. A significant effect of number of mTBI was found in the postural assessment (p = 0.002). Lifetime mTBI was associated with suppressed ASR magnitude (p = 0.03) but did not affect neurocognitive performance. The current findings provide new insight into ongoing controversies concerning sensitivity to functional deficits following mTBI and when the window for treatment or restoration ends.

  1. An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, J; Greig, M; Salustri, F; Zolfaghari, S; Neumann, W P

    2014-01-01

    In action research (AR), the researcher participates 'in' the actions in an organisation, while simultaneously reflecting 'on' the actions to promote learning for both the organisation and the researchers. This paper demonstrates a longitudinal AR collaboration with an electronics manufacturing firm where the goal was to improve the organisation's ability to integrate human factors (HF) proactively into their design processes. During the three-year collaboration, all meetings, workshops, interviews and reflections were digitally recorded and qualitatively analysed to inform new 'actions'. By the end of the collaboration, HF tools with targets and sign-off by the HF specialist were integrated into several stages of the design process, and engineers were held accountable for meeting the HF targets. We conclude that the AR approach combined with targeting multiple initiatives at different stages of the design process helped the organisation find ways to integrate HF into their processes in a sustainable way. Researchers acted as a catalyst to help integrate HF into the engineering design process in a sustainable way. This paper demonstrates how an AR approach can help achieve HF integration, the benefits of using a reflective stance and one method for reporting an AR study.

  2. Integration of adeno-associated virus vectors in CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells after transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, K K; Podsakoff, G; Forman, S J; Chatterjee, S

    1996-07-15

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear promising because of their high transduction frequencies regardless of cell cycle status and ability to integrate into chromosomal DNA. We tested AAV-mediated gene transfer into a panel of human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, using vectors encoding several transgenes under the control of viral and cellular promoters. Gene transfer was evaluated by (1) chromosomal integration of vector sequences and (2) analysis of transgene expression. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of transduced CD34 genomic DNA showed the presence of integrated vector sequences in chromosomal DNA in a portion of transduced cells and showed that integrated vector sequences were replicated along with cellular DNA during mitosis. Transgene expression in transduced CD34 cells in suspension cultures and in myeloid colonies differentiating in vitro from transduced CD34 cells approximated that predicted by the multiplicity of transduction. This was true in CD34 cells from different donors, regardless of the transgene or selective pressure. Comparisons of CD34 cell transduction either before or after cytokine stimulation showed similar gene transfer frequencies. Our findings suggest that AAV transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells is efficient, can lead to stable integration in a population of transduced cells, and may therefore provide the basis for safe and efficient ex vivo gene therapy of the hematopoietic system.

  3. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubbioso, Raffaele; Raffin, Estelle; Karabanov, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representat......Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial...... in M1HAND. Like homotopic SAI, heterotopic SAF was somatotopically expressed in M1HAND. Together, the results provide first-time evidence that fast sensorimotor integration involves centre-inhibition and surround-facilitation in human M1HAND....

  4. Goat′s eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat′s eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat′s eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5-5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat′s capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat′s eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training.

  5. Goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Dhanapal, Praveen; Nath, Manas; Haripriya, Aravind; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2015-03-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat's eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5-5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat's capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat's eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training.

  6. W(h)ither the Oracle? Cognitive biases and other human challenges of integrated environmental modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Ames, D.P.; Quinn, N. W. T.; Rizzoli, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) can organize and increase our knowledge of the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control the quality of our environments. Human behavior, however, must be taken into account. Human biases/heuristics reflect adaptation over our evolutionary past to frequently experienced situations that affected our survival and that provided sharply distinguished feedbacks at the level of the individual. Unfortunately, human behavior is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced, less frequently encountered, problems and issues that IEM typically seeks to address in the simulation of natural resources and environments. While seeking inspiration from the prophetic traditions of the Oracle of Delphi, several human biases are identified that may affect how the science base of IEM is assembled, and how IEM results are interpreted and used. These biases are supported by personal observations, and by the findings of behavioral scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that solicits explicit accounting and cognizance of potential human biases. A number of suggestions are made to address the human challenges of IEM, in addition to maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty, and transparent accountability. These include creating a new area of study in the behavioral biogeosciences, using structured processes for engaging the modeling and stakeholder community in IEM, and using “red teams” to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  7. A Community Framework for Integrative, Coupled Modeling of Human-Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. M.; Nelson, G. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Lee, A.; Porter, C.; Ullah, I.; Hutton, E.; Hoogenboom, G.; Rogers, K. G.; Pritchard, C.

    2017-12-01

    We live today in a humanized world, where critical zone dynamics are driven by coupled human and biophysical processes. First generation modeling platforms have been invaluable in providing insight into dynamics of biophysical systems and social systems. But to understand today's humanized planet scientifically and to manage it sustainably, we need integrative modeling of this coupled human-Earth system. To address both scientific and policy questions, we also need modeling that can represent variable combinations of human-Earth system processes at multiple scales. Simply adding more code needed to do this to large, legacy first generation models is impractical, expensive, and will make them even more difficult to evaluate or understand. We need an approach to modeling that mirrors and benefits from the architecture of the complexly coupled systems we hope to model. Building on a series of international workshops over the past two years, we present a community framework to enable and support an ecosystem of diverse models as components that can be interconnected as needed to facilitate understanding of a range of complex human-earth systems interactions. Models are containerized in Docker to make them platform independent. A Basic Modeling Interface and Standard Names ontology (developed by the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) is applied to make them interoperable. They are then transformed into RESTful micro-services to allow them to be connected and run in a browser environment. This enables a flexible, multi-scale modeling environment to help address diverse issues with combinations of smaller, focused, component models that are easier to understand and evaluate. We plan to develop, deploy, and maintain this framework for integrated, coupled modeling in an open-source collaborative development environment that can democratize access to advanced technology and benefit from diverse global participation in model development. We also present an initial

  8. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  9. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  10. Human Microbiome and Learning Healthcare Systems: Integrating Research and Precision Medicine for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Kim H.; Mack, David R.; Stintzi, Alain

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Healthcare institutions face widespread challenges of delivering high-quality and cost-effective care, while keeping up with rapid advances in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Moreover, there is increased emphasis on developing personalized or precision medicine targeted to individuals or groups of patients who share a certain biomarker signature. Learning healthcare systems (LHS) have been proposed for integration of research and clinical practice to fill major knowledge gaps, improve care, reduce healthcare costs, and provide precision care. To date, much discussion in this context has focused on the potential of human genomic data, and not yet on human microbiome data. Rapid advances in human microbiome research suggest that profiling of, and interventions on, the human microbiome can provide substantial opportunity for improved diagnosis, therapeutics, risk management, and risk stratification. In this study, we discuss a potential role for microbiome science in LHSs. We first review the key elements of LHSs, and discuss possibilities of Big Data and patient engagement. We then consider potentials and challenges of integrating human microbiome research into clinical practice as part of an LHS. With rapid growth in human microbiome research, patient-specific microbial data will begin to contribute in important ways to precision medicine. Hence, we discuss how patient-specific microbial data can help guide therapeutic decisions and identify novel effective approaches for precision care of inflammatory bowel disease. To the best of our knowledge, this expert analysis makes an original contribution with new insights poised at the emerging intersection of LHSs, microbiome science, and postgenomics medicine. PMID:28282257

  11. Critical assessment of human metabolic pathway databases: a stepping stone for future integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobbe Miranda D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple pathway databases are available that describe the human metabolic network and have proven their usefulness in many applications, ranging from the analysis and interpretation of high-throughput data to their use as a reference repository. However, so far the various human metabolic networks described by these databases have not been systematically compared and contrasted, nor has the extent to which they differ been quantified. For a researcher using these databases for particular analyses of human metabolism, it is crucial to know the extent of the differences in content and their underlying causes. Moreover, the outcomes of such a comparison are important for ongoing integration efforts. Results We compared the genes, EC numbers and reactions of five frequently used human metabolic pathway databases. The overlap is surprisingly low, especially on reaction level, where the databases agree on 3% of the 6968 reactions they have combined. Even for the well-established tricarboxylic acid cycle the databases agree on only 5 out of the 30 reactions in total. We identified the main causes for the lack of overlap. Importantly, the databases are partly complementary. Other explanations include the number of steps a conversion is described in and the number of possible alternative substrates listed. Missing metabolite identifiers and ambiguous names for metabolites also affect the comparison. Conclusions Our results show that each of the five networks compared provides us with a valuable piece of the puzzle of the complete reconstruction of the human metabolic network. To enable integration of the networks, next to a need for standardizing the metabolite names and identifiers, the conceptual differences between the databases should be resolved. Considerable manual intervention is required to reach the ultimate goal of a unified and biologically accurate model for studying the systems biology of human metabolism. Our comparison

  12. Enhanced Electrical Integration of Engineered Human Myocardium via Intramyocardial versus Epicardial Delivery in Infarcted Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytlyn A Gerbin

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide large-scale tissues for transplantation to regenerate the heart after ischemic injury, however, integration with the host myocardium will be required to achieve electromechanical benefits. To test the ability of engineered heart tissues to electrically integrate with the host, 10 million human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived cardiomyocytes were used to form either scaffold-free tissue patches implanted on the epicardium or micro-tissue particles (~1000 cells/particle delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left ventricular wall of the ischemia/reperfusion injured athymic rat heart. Results were compared to intramyocardial injection of 10 million dispersed hESC-cardiomyocytes. Graft size was not significantly different between treatment groups and correlated inversely with infarct size. After implantation on the epicardial surface, hESC-cardiac tissue patches were electromechanically active, but they beat slowly and were not electrically coupled to the host at 4 weeks based on ex vivo fluorescent imaging of their graft-autonomous GCaMP3 calcium reporter. Histologically, scar tissue physically separated the patch graft and host myocardium. In contrast, following intramyocardial injection of micro-tissue particles and suspended cardiomyocytes, 100% of the grafts detected by fluorescent GCaMP3 imaging were electrically coupled to the host heart at spontaneous rate and could follow host pacing up to a maximum of 300-390 beats per minute (5-6.5 Hz. Gap junctions between intramyocardial graft and host tissue were identified histologically. The extensive coupling and rapid response rate of the human myocardial grafts after intramyocardial delivery suggest electrophysiological adaptation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to the rat heart's pacemaking activity. These data support the use of the rat model for studying electromechanical integration of human cardiomyocytes, and they

  13. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  14. Object Representations in Human Visual Cortex Formed Through Temporal Integration of Dynamic Partial Shape Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Zohary, Ehud

    2018-01-17

    We typically recognize visual objects using the spatial layout of their parts, which are present simultaneously on the retina. Therefore, shape extraction is based on integration of the relevant retinal information over space. The lateral occipital complex (LOC) can represent shape faithfully in such conditions. However, integration over time is sometimes required to determine object shape. To study shape extraction through temporal integration of successive partial shape views, we presented human participants (both men and women) with artificial shapes that moved behind a narrow vertical or horizontal slit. Only a tiny fraction of the shape was visible at any instant at the same retinal location. However, observers perceived a coherent whole shape instead of a jumbled pattern. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, we searched for brain regions that encode temporally integrated shape identity. We further required that the representation of shape should be invariant to changes in the slit orientation. We show that slit-invariant shape information is most accurate in the LOC. Importantly, the slit-invariant shape representations matched the conventional whole-shape representations assessed during full-image runs. Moreover, when the same slit-dependent shape slivers were shuffled, thereby preventing their spatiotemporal integration, slit-invariant shape information was reduced dramatically. The slit-invariant representation of the various shapes also mirrored the structure of shape perceptual space as assessed by perceptual similarity judgment tests. Therefore, the LOC is likely to mediate temporal integration of slit-dependent shape views, generating a slit-invariant whole-shape percept. These findings provide strong evidence for a global encoding of shape in the LOC regardless of integration processes required to generate the shape percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual objects are recognized through spatial integration of features available simultaneously on

  15. Central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity: a rebreathing demonstration illustrating integrative human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  16. A Selected Bibliography: Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bey, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    Partial contents: Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership, Critical/Creative/ Systems Thinking, Leading and Managing Change, Military Culture and Organizational Climate, Civil-Military Relations, Negotiation, Combat...

  17. Uniqueness of human running coordination: The integration of modern and ancient evolutionary innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eKiely

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running’s cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply

  18. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  19. Families in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family that loses the active presence of a parent through separation faces significant challenges and stress. During the parent's ... children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and stress involved when a parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military ...

  20. Sharing human-generated observations by integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigüenza, Alvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Gómez, Luis Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Current "Internet of Things" concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C's Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers' observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound.

  1. A 3D bioprinting system to produce human-scale tissue constructs with structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Ko, In Kap; Kengla, Carlos; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    A challenge for tissue engineering is producing three-dimensional (3D), vascularized cellular constructs of clinically relevant size, shape and structural integrity. We present an integrated tissue-organ printer (ITOP) that can fabricate stable, human-scale tissue constructs of any shape. Mechanical stability is achieved by printing cell-laden hydrogels together with biodegradable polymers in integrated patterns and anchored on sacrificial hydrogels. The correct shape of the tissue construct is achieved by representing clinical imaging data as a computer model of the anatomical defect and translating the model into a program that controls the motions of the printer nozzles, which dispense cells to discrete locations. The incorporation of microchannels into the tissue constructs facilitates diffusion of nutrients to printed cells, thereby overcoming the diffusion limit of 100-200 μm for cell survival in engineered tissues. We demonstrate capabilities of the ITOP by fabricating mandible and calvarial bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle. Future development of the ITOP is being directed to the production of tissues for human applications and to the building of more complex tissues and solid organs.

  2. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  3. Integrating the genomic architecture of human nucleolar organizer regions with the biophysical properties of nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Hazel; Gailín, Michael Ó; McStay, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Nucleoli are the sites of ribosome biogenesis and the largest membraneless subnuclear structures. They are intimately linked with growth and proliferation control and function as sensors of cellular stress. Nucleoli form around arrays of ribosomal gene (rDNA) repeats also called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). In humans, NORs are located on the short arms of all five human acrocentric chromosomes. Multiple NORs contribute to the formation of large heterochromatin-surrounded nucleoli observed in most human cells. Here we will review recent findings about their genomic architecture. The dynamic nature of nucleoli began to be appreciated with the advent of photodynamic experiments using fluorescent protein fusions. We review more recent data on nucleoli in Xenopus germinal vesicles (GVs) which has revealed a liquid droplet-like behavior that facilitates nucleolar fusion. Further analysis in both XenopusGVs and Drosophila embryos indicates that the internal organization of nucleoli is generated by a combination of liquid-liquid phase separation and active processes involving rDNA. We will attempt to integrate these recent findings with the genomic architecture of human NORs to advance our understanding of how nucleoli form and respond to stress in human cells. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. The 4-vessel Sampling Approach to Integrative Studies of Human Placental Physiology In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ane M; Holm, Maia B; Roland, Marie C P; Horne, Hildegunn; Michelsen, Trond M; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-08-02

    The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain. We aimed to study human placenta physiology in vivo at term, and present a detailed protocol of the method. Exploiting the intraabdominal access to the uterine vein just before the uterine incision during planned cesarean section, we collect blood samples from the incoming and outgoing vessels on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta. When combining concentration measurements from blood samples with volume blood flow measurements, we are able to quantify placental and fetal uptake and release of any compound. Furthermore, placental tissue samples from the same mother-fetus pairs can provide measurements of transporter density and activity and other aspects of placental functions in vivo. Through this integrative use of the 4-vessel sampling method we are able to test some of the current concepts of placental nutrient transfer and metabolism in vivo, both in normal and pathological pregnancies. Furthermore, this method enables the identification of substances secreted by the placenta to the maternal circulation, which could be an important contribution to the search for biomarkers of placenta dysfunction.

  5. Reactivation of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 by telomeric circle formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh K Prusty

    Full Text Available More than 95% of the human population is infected with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 during early childhood and maintains latent HHV-6 genomes either in an extra-chromosomal form or as a chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6. In addition, approximately 1% of humans are born with an inheritable form of ciHHV-6 integrated into the telomeres of chromosomes. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate latent HHV-6 replication, which is associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that Chlamydia trachomatis infection reactivates ciHHV-6 and induces the formation of extra-chromosomal viral DNA in ciHHV-6 cells. Here, we propose a model and provide experimental evidence for the mechanism of ciHHV-6 reactivation. Infection with Chlamydia induced a transient shortening of telomeric ends, which subsequently led to increased telomeric circle (t-circle formation and incomplete reconstitution of circular viral genomes containing single viral direct repeat (DR. Correspondingly, short t-circles containing parts of the HHV-6 DR were detected in cells from individuals with genetically inherited ciHHV-6. Furthermore, telomere shortening induced in the absence of Chlamydia infection also caused circularization of ciHHV-6, supporting a t-circle based mechanism for ciHHV-6 reactivation.

  6. Designing medical technology for resilience: integrating health economics and human factors approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Uchegbu, Ijeoma; Buckle, Peter; Ni, Zhifang; Walne, Simon; Hanna, George B

    2018-01-01

    The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of the existing healthcare system and a failure to recognise the need to generate resilient products. Areas covered: Recognising a cross-disciplinary need to enhance evidence generation early in a technology's life cycle, the present paper proposes a new approach that integrates human factors and health economic evaluation as part of a wider systems approach to the design of technology. This approach (Human and Economic Resilience Design for Medical Technology or HERD MedTech) supports early stages of product development and is based on the recent experiences of the National Institute for Health Research London Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative in the UK. Expert commentary: HERD MedTech i) proposes a shift from design for usability to design for resilience, ii) aspires to reduce the need for service adaptation to technological constraints iii) ensures value of innovation at the time of product development, and iv) aims to stimulate discussion around the integration of pre- and post-market methods of assessment of medical technology.

  7. Integration of human reliability analysis into the probabilistic risk assessment process: phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.J.; Vickroy, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a research program in 1984 to develop a testable set of analytical procedures for integrating human reliability analysis (HRA) into the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) process to more adequately assess the overall impact of human performance on risk. In this three phase program, stand-alone HRA/PRA analytic procedures will be developed and field evaluated to provide improved methods, techniques, and models for applying quantitative and qualitative human error data which systematically integrate HRA principles, techniques, and analyses throughout the entire PRA process. Phase 1 of the program involved analysis of state-of-the-art PRAs to define the structures and processes currently in use in the industry. Phase 2 research will involve developing a new or revised PRA methodology which will enable more efficient regulation of the industry using quantitative or qualitative results of the PRA. Finally, Phase 3 will be to field test those procedures to assure that the results generated by the new methodologies will be usable and acceptable to the NRC. This paper briefly describes the first phase of the program and outlines the second

  8. Integration of human reliability analysis into the probabilistic risk assessment process: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.J.; Vickroy, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    A research program was initiated to develop a testable set of analytical procedures for integrating human reliability analysis (HRA) into the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) process to more adequately assess the overall impact of human performance on risk. In this three-phase program, stand-alone HRA/PRA analytic procedures will be developed and field evaluated to provide improved methods, techniques, and models for applying quantitative and qualitative human error data which systematically integrate HRA principles, techniques, and analyses throughout the entire PRA process. Phase 1 of the program involved analysis of state-of-the-art PRAs to define the structures and processes currently in use in the industry. Phase 2 research will involve developing a new or revised PRA methodology which will enable more efficient regulation of the industry using quantitative or qualitative results of the PRA. Finally, Phase 3 will be to field test those procedures to assure that the results generated by the new methodologies will be usable and acceptable to the NRC. This paper briefly describes the first phase of the program and outlines the second

  9. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Zheming; Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-02-02

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  10. Integrated multimodal human-computer interface and augmented reality for interactive display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Marius S.; Sundareswaran, Venkataraman; Chen, S.; Behringer, Reinhold; Tam, Clement K.; Chan, M.; Bangayan, Phil T.; McGee, Joshua H.

    2000-08-01

    We describe new systems for improved integrated multimodal human-computer interaction and augmented reality for a diverse array of applications, including future advanced cockpits, tactical operations centers, and others. We have developed an integrated display system featuring: speech recognition of multiple concurrent users equipped with both standard air- coupled microphones and novel throat-coupled sensors (developed at Army Research Labs for increased noise immunity); lip reading for improving speech recognition accuracy in noisy environments, three-dimensional spatialized audio for improved display of warnings, alerts, and other information; wireless, coordinated handheld-PC control of a large display; real-time display of data and inferences from wireless integrated networked sensors with on-board signal processing and discrimination; gesture control with disambiguated point-and-speak capability; head- and eye- tracking coupled with speech recognition for 'look-and-speak' interaction; and integrated tetherless augmented reality on a wearable computer. The various interaction modalities (speech recognition, 3D audio, eyetracking, etc.) are implemented a 'modality servers' in an Internet-based client-server architecture. Each modality server encapsulates and exposes commercial and research software packages, presenting a socket network interface that is abstracted to a high-level interface, minimizing both vendor dependencies and required changes on the client side as the server's technology improves.

  11. Integration Site and Clonal Expansion in Human Chronic Retroviral Infection and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Heather A.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Retroviral vectors have been successfully used therapeutically to restore expression of genes in a range of single-gene diseases, including several primary immunodeficiency disorders. Although clinical trials have shown remarkable results, there have also been a number of severe adverse events involving malignant outgrowth of a transformed clonal population. This clonal expansion is influenced by the integration site profile of the viral integrase, the transgene expressed, and the effect of the viral promoters on the neighbouring host genome. Infection with the pathogenic human retrovirus HTLV-1 also causes clonal expansion of cells containing an integrated HTLV-1 provirus. Although the majority of HTLV-1-infected people remain asymptomatic, up to 5% develop an aggressive T cell malignancy. In this review we discuss recent findings on the role of the genomic integration site in determining the clonality and the potential for malignant transformation of cells carrying integrated HTLV-1 or gene therapy vectors, and how these results have contributed to the understanding of HTLV-1 pathogenesis and to improvements in gene therapy vector safety. PMID:25365582

  12. Integrated processes for expansion and differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in suspended microcarriers cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Alan Tin-Lun; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Ting, Sherwin Qi-Peng; Reuveny, Shaul; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) expansion and differentiation can be limited in scalability and costly (due to their labor intensive nature). This can limit their use in cell therapy, drug screening and toxicity assays. One of the approaches that can overcome these limitations is microcarrier (MC) based cultures in which cells are expanded as cell/MC aggregates and then directly differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) in the same agitated reactor. This integrated process can be scaled up and eliminate the need for some culture manipulation used in common monolayer and EBs cultures. This review describes the principles of such microcarriers based integrated hPSC expansion and differentiation process, and parameters that can affect its efficiency (such as MC type and extracellular matrix proteins coatings, cell/MC aggregates size, and agitation). Finally examples of integrated process for generation cardiomyocytes (CM) and neural progenitor cells (NPC) as well as challenges to be solved are described. - Highlights: • Expansion of hPSC on microcarriers. • Differentiation of hPSC on microcarriers. • Parameters that can affect the expansion and differentiation of hPSC on microcarriers. • Integration of expansion and differentiation of hPSC on microcarriers in one unit operation.

  13. Integrated processes for expansion and differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in suspended microcarriers cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Alan Tin-Lun, E-mail: alan_lam@bti.a-star.edu.sg; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Ting, Sherwin Qi-Peng; Reuveny, Shaul; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng, E-mail: steve_oh@bti.a-star.edu.sg

    2016-05-06

    Current methods for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) expansion and differentiation can be limited in scalability and costly (due to their labor intensive nature). This can limit their use in cell therapy, drug screening and toxicity assays. One of the approaches that can overcome these limitations is microcarrier (MC) based cultures in which cells are expanded as cell/MC aggregates and then directly differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) in the same agitated reactor. This integrated process can be scaled up and eliminate the need for some culture manipulation used in common monolayer and EBs cultures. This review describes the principles of such microcarriers based integrated hPSC expansion and differentiation process, and parameters that can affect its efficiency (such as MC type and extracellular matrix proteins coatings, cell/MC aggregates size, and agitation). Finally examples of integrated process for generation cardiomyocytes (CM) and neural progenitor cells (NPC) as well as challenges to be solved are described. - Highlights: • Expansion of hPSC on microcarriers. • Differentiation of hPSC on microcarriers. • Parameters that can affect the expansion and differentiation of hPSC on microcarriers. • Integration of expansion and differentiation of hPSC on microcarriers in one unit operation.

  14. Latin American Civil-Military Relations in a Historical Perspective: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin; Malca, Camila Gianella

    2014-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil political actors has sh...

  15. Practical Integration-Free Episomal Methods for Generating Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Cody; Rand, Tim A; Ivey, Kathryn N; Srivastava, Deepak; Yamanaka, Shinya; Tomoda, Kiichiro

    2015-10-06

    The advent of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology has revolutionized biomedicine and basic research by yielding cells with embryonic stem (ES) cell-like properties. The use of iPS-derived cells for cell-based therapies and modeling of human disease holds great potential. While the initial description of iPS cells involved overexpression of four transcription factors via viral vectors that integrated within genomic DNA, advances in recent years by our group and others have led to safer and higher quality iPS cells with greater efficiency. Here, we describe commonly practiced methods for non-integrating induced pluripotent stem cell generation using nucleofection of episomal reprogramming plasmids. These methods are adapted from recent studies that demonstrate increased hiPS cell reprogramming efficacy with the application of three powerful episomal hiPS cell reprogramming factor vectors and the inclusion of an accessory vector expressing EBNA1. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. EVALUATION OF DNA INTEGRITY USING TUNEL AND COMET ASSAY IN HUMAN SEMEN: IMMEDIATE- VERSUS DELAYED-FREEZING

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVALUATION OF DNA INTEGRITY USING TUNEL AND COMET ASSAY IN HUMAN SEMEN: IMMEDIATE- VERSUS DELAYED-FREEZING K. Young,* L. Xun,* S. Rothmann,? S. Perreault, ? W. Robbins**University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; ?Fertility Solutions Inc., Cleveland, ...

  17. 75 FR 51327 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and arms control... the export of these items having taken into account political, military, economic, human rights and... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7125] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of...

  18. Thermal effects on human performance in office environment measured by integrating task speed and accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed a method in which the speed and accuracy can be integrated into one metric of human performance. This was achieved by designing a performance task in which the subjects receive feedback on their performance by informing them whether they have committed errors, and if did, they can......, 12 subjects performed tasks under two thermal conditions (neutral & warm) repeatedly. The tasks were presented with and without feedback on errors committed, as outlined above. The results indicate that there was a greater decrease in task performance due to thermal discomfort when feedback was given......, compared to the performance of tasks presented without feedback....

  19. Integrative Physiology: At the Crossroads of Nutrition, Microbiota, Animal Physiology, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulier, François; MacNeil, Lesley T; Lee, Won-Jae; Rawls, John F; Cani, Patrice D; Schwarzer, Martin; Zhao, Liping; Simpson, Stephen J

    2017-03-07

    Nutrition is paramount in shaping all aspects of animal biology. In addition, the influence of the intestinal microbiota on physiology is now widely recognized. Given that diet also shapes the intestinal microbiota, this raises the question of how the nutritional environment and microbial assemblages together influence animal physiology. This research field constitutes a new frontier in the field of organismal biology that needs to be addressed. Here we review recent studies using animal models and humans and propose an integrative framework within which to define the study of the diet-physiology-microbiota systems and ultimately link it to human health. Nutritional Geometry sits centrally in the proposed framework and offers means to define diet compositions that are optimal for individuals and populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  1. Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenik, Can; Cenik, Elif Sarinay; Byeon, Gun W; Grubert, Fabian; Candille, Sophie I; Spacek, Damek; Alsallakh, Bilal; Tilgner, Hagen; Araya, Carlos L; Tang, Hua; Ricci, Emiliano; Snyder, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the consequences of genetic differences between humans is essential for understanding phenotypic diversity and personalized medicine. Although variation in RNA levels, transcription factor binding, and chromatin have been explored, little is known about global variation in translation and its genetic determinants. We used ribosome profiling, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry to perform an integrated analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a diverse group of individuals. We find significant differences in RNA, translation, and protein levels suggesting diverse mechanisms of personalized gene expression control. Combined analysis of RNA expression and ribosome occupancy improves the identification of individual protein level differences. Finally, we identify genetic differences that specifically modulate ribosome occupancy--many of these differences lie close to start codons and upstream ORFs. Our results reveal a new level of gene expression variation among humans and indicate that genetic variants can cause changes in protein levels through effects on translation. © 2015 Cenik et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  3. Humans can integrate feedback of discrete events in their sensorimotor control of a robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Christian; Segil, Jacob L; Clemente, Francesco; ff Weir, Richard F; Edin, Benoni

    2014-11-01

    Providing functionally effective sensory feedback to users of prosthetics is a largely unsolved challenge. Traditional solutions require high band-widths for providing feedback for the control of manipulation and yet have been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we have explored a strategy that relies on temporally discrete sensory feedback that is technically simple to provide. According to the Discrete Event-driven Sensory feedback Control (DESC) policy, motor tasks in humans are organized in phases delimited by means of sensory encoded discrete mechanical events. To explore the applicability of DESC for control, we designed a paradigm in which healthy humans operated an artificial robot hand to lift and replace an instrumented object, a task that can readily be learned and mastered under visual control. Assuming that the central nervous system of humans naturally organizes motor tasks based on a strategy akin to DESC, we delivered short-lasting vibrotactile feedback related to events that are known to forcefully affect progression of the grasp-lift-and-hold task. After training, we determined whether the artificial feedback had been integrated with the sensorimotor control by introducing short delays and we indeed observed that the participants significantly delayed subsequent phases of the task. This study thus gives support to the DESC policy hypothesis. Moreover, it demonstrates that humans can integrate temporally discrete sensory feedback while controlling an artificial hand and invites further studies in which inexpensive, noninvasive technology could be used in clever ways to provide physiologically appropriate sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics with much lower band-width requirements than with traditional solutions.

  4. ProNormz--an integrated approach for human proteins and protein kinases normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Suresh; Raja, Kalpana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2014-02-01

    The task of recognizing and normalizing protein name mentions in biomedical literature is a challenging task and important for text mining applications such as protein-protein interactions, pathway reconstruction and many more. In this paper, we present ProNormz, an integrated approach for human proteins (HPs) tagging and normalization. In Homo sapiens, a greater number of biological processes are regulated by a large human gene family called protein kinases by post translational phosphorylation. Recognition and normalization of human protein kinases (HPKs) is considered to be important for the extraction of the underlying information on its regulatory mechanism from biomedical literature. ProNormz distinguishes HPKs from other HPs besides tagging and normalization. To our knowledge, ProNormz is the first normalization system available to distinguish HPKs from other HPs in addition to gene normalization task. ProNormz incorporates a specialized synonyms dictionary for human proteins and protein kinases, a set of 15 string matching rules and a disambiguation module to achieve the normalization. Experimental results on benchmark BioCreative II training and test datasets show that our integrated approach achieve a fairly good performance and outperforms more sophisticated semantic similarity and disambiguation systems presented in BioCreative II GN task. As a freely available web tool, ProNormz is useful to developers as extensible gene normalization implementation, to researchers as a standard for comparing their innovative techniques, and to biologists for normalization and categorization of HPs and HPKs mentions in biomedical literature. URL: http://www.biominingbu.org/pronormz. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-view 3D human pose estimation combining single-frame recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrilla, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body movement from multiple cameras. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation. Single frame pose recovery consists of a hypothesis

  6. Evaluating Security Assistance Programs: Performance Evaluation and the Expanded International Military Education and Training (E-IMET) Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoun, Todd

    1998-01-01

    In 1991 the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program was expanded to include training programs focusing on civilian control over the military, respect for human rights, and responsible defense resource management...

  7. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  8. Transactivation domain of p53 regulates DNA repair and integrity in human iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Mattapally, Saidulu; Wagle, Pooja A; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-05-18

    The role of p53 transactivation domain (p53-TAD), a multifunctional and dynamic domain, on DNA repair and retaining DNA integrity in human iPS cells has never been studied. p53-TAD was knocked out in iPS cells using CRISPR/Cas9 and was confirmed by DNA sequencing. p53-TAD KO cells were characterized by: accelerated proliferation, decreased population doubling time, and unaltered Bcl2, BBC3, IGF1R, Bax and altered Mdm2, p21, and PIDD transcripts expression. In p53-TAD KO cells p53 regulated DNA repair proteins XPA, DNA polH and DDB2 expression were found to be reduced compared to p53-WT cells. Exposure to low dose of doxorubicin (Doxo) induced similar DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) measured by RAD50 and MRE11 expression, Checkpoint kinase 2 activation and γH2A.X recruitment at DNA strand breaks in both the cell groups indicating silencing p53-TAD do not affect DDR mechanism upstream of p53. Following removal of Doxo p53-WT hiPS cells underwent DNA repair, corrected their damaged DNA and restored DNA integrity. Conversely, p53-TAD KO hiPS cells did not undergo complete DNA repair and failed to restore DNA integrity. More importantly continuous culture of p53-TAD KO hiPS cells underwent G2/M cell cycle arrest and expressed cellular senescent marker p16 INK4a . Our data clearly shows that silencing transactivation domain of p53 did not affect DDR but affected the DNA repair process implying the crucial role of p53 transactivation domain in maintaining DNA integrity. Therefore, activating p53-TAD domain using small molecules may promote DNA repair and integrity of cells and prevent senescence.

  9. Rivers are social–ecological systems: Time to integrate human dimensions into riverscape ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Crausbay, Shelley D.; Cravens, Amanda; Gosnell, Hannah; McEvoy, Jamie; Moritz, Max A.; Raheem, Nejem; Sanford, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Incorporation of concepts from landscape ecology into understanding and managing riverine ecosystems has become widely known as riverscape ecology. Riverscape ecology emphasizes interactions among processes at different scales and their consequences for valued ecosystem components, such as riverine fishes. Past studies have focused strongly on understanding the ecological processes in riverscapes and how human actions modify those processes. It is increasingly clear, however, that an understanding of the drivers behind actions that lead to human modification also merit consideration, especially regarding how those drivers influence management efficacy. These indirect drivers of riverscape outcomes can be understood in the context of a diverse array of social processes, which we collectively refer to as human dimensions. Like ecological phenomena, social processes also exhibit complex interactions across spatiotemporal scales. Greater emphasis on feedbacks between social and ecological processes will lead scientists and managers to more completely understand riverscapes as complex, dynamic, interacting social–ecological systems. Emerging applications in riverscapes, as well as studies of other ecosystems, provide examples that can lead to stronger integration of social and ecological science. We argue that conservation successes within riverscapes may not come from better ecological science, improved ecosystem service analyses, or even economic incentives if the fundamental drivers of human behaviors are not understood and addressed in conservation planning and implementation.

  10. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  11. Private Military Contractors, War Crimes and International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict reconstruction. The operations of PMCs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 21st century have been marked by gross human rights ...

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-08

    the secret hope of finding a companion for life among the military. Which is also understandable, in human terms. Now—who goes? No clear selection...Moussorgsky, Mozart and Scriabin, Chopin and Mendelssohn, Tolstoy and Shakespeare . Everything new in science, technology and art interested him. He

  13. Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochon, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in and evolving nature of armed conflicts, the ethical issues faced by military physicians working in such contexts are still rarely examined in the bioethics literature. Military physicians are members of the military, even if they are non-combatants; and their role is one of healer but also sometimes humanitarian. Some scholars wonder about the moral compatibility of being both a physician and soldier. The ethical conflicts raised in the literature regarding military physicians can be organized into three main perspectives: 1 moral problems in military medicine are particular because of the difficulty of meeting the requirements of traditional bioethical principles; 2 medical codes of ethics and international laws are not well adapted to or are too restrictive for a military context; and 3 physicians are social actors who should either be pacifists, defenders of human rights, politically neutral or promoters of peace. A review of the diverse dilemmas faced by military physicians shows that these differ substantially by level (micro, meso, macro, context and the actors involved, and that they go beyond issues of patient interests. Like medicine in general, military medicine is complex and touches on potentially contested views of the roles and obligations of the physician. Greater conceptual clarity is thus needed in discussions about military medical ethics.

  14. Military nurses in Venezuela and training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Izquierdo-Martínez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nursing career professionals with solid-humanistic way scientific, ethical and basis in order that they can properly integrate the multidisciplinary team to creatively solve health problems through nursing care. This article analyzes the formation of the military nurse in Venezuela, with the help of logical historical method to uncover trends and regularities that characterize this process. The nurse is a professional attitudes, values, knowledge and skills to assume their social responsibility, applying theories and models of discipline in the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of health. Similarly, military nurse career provides to the military institution and especially health institutions of the country leadership training in the management of custodial care, management and research on health and committed to education continues in his practice.

  15. Evidence Report, Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Billman, Dorrit; Feary, Mike; Green, Collin

    2011-01-01

    The success of future exploration missions depends, even more than today, on effective integration of humans and technology (automation and robotics). This will not emerge by chance, but by design. Both crew and ground personnel will need to do more demanding tasks in more difficult conditions, amplifying the costs of poor design and the benefits of good design. This report has looked at the importance of good design and the risks from poor design from several perspectives: 1) If the relevant functions needed for a mission are not identified, then designs of technology and its use by humans are unlikely to be effective: critical functions will be missing and irrelevant functions will mislead or drain attention. 2) If functions are not distributed effectively among the (multiple) participating humans and automation/robotic systems, later design choices can do little to repair this: additional unnecessary coordination work may be introduced, workload may be redistributed to create problems, limited human attentional resources may be wasted, and the capabilities of both humans and technology underused. 3) If the design does not promote accurate understanding of the capabilities of the technology, the operators will not use the technology effectively: the system may be switched off in conditions where it would be effective, or used for tasks or in contexts where its effectiveness may be very limited. 4) If an ineffective interaction design is implemented and put into use, a wide range of problems can ensue. Many involve lack of transparency into the system: operators may be unable or find it very difficult to determine a) the current state and changes of state of the automation or robot, b) the current state and changes in state of the system being controlled or acted on, and c) what actions by human or by system had what effects. 5) If the human interfaces for operation and control of robotic agents are not designed to accommodate the unique points of view and

  16. Department of Defense Timely & Effective Care Data – military hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains U.S. military hospital data for timely & effective care (process of care) measures collected by the Department of Defense (DoD). DoD collects...

  17. an overview of military social work: the case of zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    work on curriculum adjustment since military social work practice should balance ... Above all, besides ethical dilemmas that are part of social work, the policies .... of positive human healing through purchasing and distributing “Get Well Soon” ...

  18. MILITARY LEADERSHIP VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.

  19. Risk Characterization for Future Training Scenarios at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakikhani, Mansour

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate potential human and ecological health risks associated with emission of pyrotechnic compounds during future training exercises at the Massachusetts Military Reservation...

  20. Risk Characterization for Future Training Scenarios at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), Final Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakikhani, Mansour; Dortch, Mark S; Gerald, Jeffrey A; Hawkins, Melanie S

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate potential human and ecological health risks associated with emission of pyrotechnic compounds during future training exercises at the Massachusetts Military Reservation...

  1. Integration of systems biology with organs-on-chips to humanize therapeutic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Collin D.; Cirit, Murat; Chen, Wen Li Kelly; Clark, Amanda M.; Wells, Alan; Trumper, David L.; Griffith, Linda G.

    2017-02-01

    "Mice are not little people" - a refrain becoming louder as the gaps between animal models and human disease become more apparent. At the same time, three emerging approaches are headed toward integration: powerful systems biology analysis of cell-cell and intracellular signaling networks in patient-derived samples; 3D tissue engineered models of human organ systems, often made from stem cells; and micro-fluidic and meso-fluidic devices that enable living systems to be sustained, perturbed and analyzed for weeks in culture. Integration of these rapidly moving fields has the potential to revolutionize development of therapeutics for complex, chronic diseases, including those that have weak genetic bases and substantial contributions from gene-environment interactions. Technical challenges in modeling complex diseases with "organs on chips" approaches include the need for relatively large tissue masses and organ-organ cross talk to capture systemic effects, such that current microfluidic formats often fail to capture the required scale and complexity for interconnected systems. These constraints drive development of new strategies for designing in vitro models, including perfusing organ models, as well as "mesofluidic" pumping and circulation in platforms connecting several organ systems, to achieve the appropriate physiological relevance.

  2. Papillomavirus genomes in human cervical carcinoma: Analysis of their integration and transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulic, M.; Soric, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty-four biopsies derived from cervical tissues were analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA types 6, 16 and 18 using Southern blot hybridization. HPV 6 was found in none of the cervical biopsies, and HPV types 16 and 18 were found in 44% of them. The rate of HPV 16/18 positive samples increased proportionally to the severity of the lesion. In normal tissue there were no positive samples, in mild and moderate dysplasia HPV 16/18 was present in 20% and in severe dysplasia and invasive carcinomas in 37 and 50%, respectively. In biopsies from 13 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and CIN III lesions HPV 16 was integrated within the host genome. It was concluded that the virus could be integrated at variable, presumably randomly selected chromosomal loci and with different number of copies. Transcription of HPV 16 and 18 was detected in one cervical cancer in HeLa cells, respectively. These results imply that HPV types 16 and 18 play an etiological role in the carcinogenesis of human cervical epithelial cells. (author)

  3. Patterns of morphological integration between parietal and temporal areas in the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Modern humans have evolved bulging parietal areas and large, projecting temporal lobes. Both changes, largely due to a longitudinal expansion of these cranial and cerebral elements, were hypothesized to be the result of brain evolution and cognitive variations. Nonetheless, the independence of these two morphological characters has not been evaluated. Because of structural and functional integration among cranial elements, changes in the position of the temporal poles can be a secondary consequence of parietal bulging and reorientation of the head axis. In this study, we use geometric morphometrics to test the correlation between parietal shape and the morphology of the endocranial base in a sample of adult modern humans. Our results suggest that parietal proportions show no correlation with the relative position of the temporal poles within the spatial organization of the endocranial base. The vault and endocranial base are likely to be involved in distinct morphogenetic processes, with scarce or no integration between these two districts. Therefore, the current evidence rejects the hypothesis of reciprocal morphological influences between parietal and temporal morphology, suggesting that evolutionary spatial changes in these two areas may have been independent. However, parietal bulging exerts a visible effect on the rotation of the cranial base, influencing head position and orientation. This change can have had a major relevance in the reorganization of the head functional axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exposure to CB-153 and p,p'-DDE and human sperm chromatin integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A; Rylander, L; Joensson, B A.G.; Hagmar, L [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Giwercman, A [Fertility Centre, Malmoe Univ. hospital (Sweden); Spano, M [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    In Sweden, the consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea (off the Swedish east coast) is the single most important source of exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs). Fishermen from the east coast have averagely higher plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total POP derived TEQ in plasma than both west coast fishermen and men from the general population. Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), a relevant biomarker for POP is still present in relatively high serum concentrations in men consuming fish from the Baltic Sea. Several studies have shown that POPs are capable of interfering with reproductive and endocrine function in animals. Human studies have shown that exposure to PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has a negative effect on male reproductive function, and especially sperm motility seems vulnerable. However, studies relating to human sperm genetic integrity are few. The aim of the study was to investigate whether exposure to POP using 2,2',4,4',5,5'- hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE as biomarkers, are associated with sperm chromatin integrity. In order to ensure a sufficient variation in POP exposure fishermen from both the Swedish east (''more exposed'') and west coasts (''less exposed'') formed the study base.

  5. Exposure to CB-153 and p,p'-DDE and human sperm chromatin integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rignell-Hydbom, A.; Rylander, L.; Joensson, B.A.G.; Hagmar, L. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Giwercman, A. [Fertility Centre, Malmoe Univ. hospital (Sweden); Spano, M. [Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, ENEA Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    In Sweden, the consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea (off the Swedish east coast) is the single most important source of exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs). Fishermen from the east coast have averagely higher plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total POP derived TEQ in plasma than both west coast fishermen and men from the general population. Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), a relevant biomarker for POP is still present in relatively high serum concentrations in men consuming fish from the Baltic Sea. Several studies have shown that POPs are capable of interfering with reproductive and endocrine function in animals. Human studies have shown that exposure to PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has a negative effect on male reproductive function, and especially sperm motility seems vulnerable. However, studies relating to human sperm genetic integrity are few. The aim of the study was to investigate whether exposure to POP using 2,2',4,4',5,5'- hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE as biomarkers, are associated with sperm chromatin integrity. In order to ensure a sufficient variation in POP exposure fishermen from both the Swedish east (''more exposed'') and west coasts (''less exposed'') formed the study base.

  6. OAHG: an integrated resource for annotating human genes with multi-level ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Sun, Jie; Xu, Wanying; Dong, Lixiang; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-10-05

    OAHG, an integrated resource, aims to establish a comprehensive functional annotation resource for human protein-coding genes (PCGs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs by multi-level ontologies involving Gene Ontology (GO), Disease Ontology (DO), and Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Many previous studies have focused on inferring putative properties and biological functions of PCGs and non-coding RNA genes from different perspectives. During the past several decades, a few of databases have been designed to annotate the functions of PCGs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs, respectively. A part of functional descriptions in these databases were mapped to standardize terminologies, such as GO, which could be helpful to do further analysis. Despite these developments, there is no comprehensive resource recording the function of these three important types of genes. The current version of OAHG, release 1.0 (Jun 2016), integrates three ontologies involving GO, DO, and HPO, six gene functional databases and two interaction databases. Currently, OAHG contains 1,434,694 entries involving 16,929 PCGs, 637 miRNAs, 193 lncRNAs, and 24,894 terms of ontologies. During the performance evaluation, OAHG shows the consistencies with existing gene interactions and the structure of ontology. For example, terms with more similar structure could be associated with more associated genes (Pearson correlation γ 2  = 0.2428, p < 2.2e-16).

  7. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  8. Learning to walk before we run: what can medical education learn from the human body about integrated care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eron G. Manusov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available True integration requires a shift in all levels of medical and allied health education; one that emphasizes team learning, practicing, and evaluating from the beginning of each students' educational experience whether that is as physician, nurse, psychologist, or any other health profession.  Integration of healthcare services will not occur until medical education focuses, like the human body, on each system working inter-dependently and cohesively to maintain balance through continual change and adaptation.  The human body develops and maintains homeostasis by a process of communication: true integrated care relies on learned interprofessionality and ensures shared responsibility and practice.

  9. Learning to walk before we run: what can medical education learn from the human body about integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manusov, Eron G; Marlowe, Daniel P; Teasley, Deborah J

    2013-04-01

    True integration requires a shift in all levels of medical and allied health education; one that emphasizes team learning, practicing, and evaluating from the beginning of each students' educational experience whether that is as physician, nurse, psychologist, or any other health profession. Integration of healthcare services will not occur until medical education focuses, like the human body, on each system working inter-dependently and cohesively to maintain balance through continual change and adaptation. The human body develops and maintains homeostasis by a process of communication: true integrated care relies on learned interprofessionality and ensures shared responsibility and practice.

  10. Tissue integrity is essential for ectopic implantation of human endometrium in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, Annemiek W; Groothuis, Patrick G; Demir, Ayse Y; Maas, Jacques W M; Dunselman, Gerard A J; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Evers, Johannes L H

    2003-01-01

    Not all women with patent tubes develop clinically manifest endometriosis. Quality and quantity of endometrium in retrograde menstruation may be the determining factor in the development of the disease. We hypothesize that retrograde shedding of endometrial fragments with preserved integrity facilitates implantation of endometrium in ectopic locations, resulting in endometriotic lesion development. We evaluate the impact of tissue integrity on the success of endometriosis-like lesion development in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Menstrual and non-menstrual (cyclic) endometrium were collected by biopsy, and either minced or enzymatically dispersed. Spontaneously shed menstrual effluent was collected by a menstrual cup, and cells and tissue were isolated. We evaluated whether infiltration or lesion formation in the CAM occurred after transplantation of endometrium onto the CAM. Transplantation of biopsied menstrual and cyclic endometrium fragments, and of endometrium fragments >1 mm(3) isolated from menstrual effluent, resulted in lesion formation. Transplantation of endometrial cells isolated from menstrual effluent did not lead to lesion formation. After transplantation of digested biopsied cyclic endometrium, infiltration in the CAM but no lesions were observed. In the CAM assay, integrity of tissue architecture determines success of implantation of human endometrium in ectopic locations.

  11. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  12. Alternating Dynamics of Segregation and Integration in Human EEG Functional Networks During Working-memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Castiglioni, Isabella; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2018-02-10

    Brain functional networks show high variability in short time windows but mechanisms governing these transient dynamics remain unknown. In this work, we studied the temporal evolution of functional brain networks involved in a working memory (WM) task while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in human normal subjects. We found that functional brain networks showed an initial phase characterized by an increase of the functional segregation index followed by a second phase where the functional segregation faded after the prevailing the functional integration. Notably, wrong trials were associated with different or disrupted sequences of the segregation-integration profiles and measures of network centrality and modularity were able to identify crucial aspects of the oscillatory network dynamics. Additionally, computational investigations further supported the experimental results. The brain functional organization may respond to the information processing demand of a WM task following a 2-step atomic scheme wherein segregation and integration alternately dominate the functional configurations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring continuous and integrated strategies for the up- and downstream processing of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bárbara; Aguiar, Tiago; Silva, Marta M; Silva, Ricardo J S; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Pineda, Earl; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2015-11-10

    The integration of up- and downstream unit operations can result in the elimination of hold steps, thus decreasing the footprint, and ultimately can create robust closed system operations. This type of design is desirable for the bioprocess of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), where high numbers of pure cells, at low volumes, need to be delivered for therapy applications. This study reports a proof of concept of the integration of a continuous perfusion culture in bioreactors with a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system for the concentration and washing of hMSC. Moreover, we have also explored a continuous alternative for concentrating hMSC. Results show that expanding cells in a continuous perfusion operation mode provided a higher expansion ratio, and led to a shift in cells' metabolism. TFF operated either in continuous or discontinuous allowed to concentrate cells, with high cell recovery (>80%) and viability (>95%); furthermore, continuous TFF permitted to operate longer with higher cell concentrations. Continuous diafiltration led to higher protein clearance (98%) with lower cell death, when comparing to discontinuous diafiltration. Overall, an integrated process allowed for a shorter process time, recovering 70% of viable hMSC (>95%), with no changes in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Commentary - The Early Days of Central Asian Military Integration: the Kyrgyz National Division of the Red Army in 1927-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ohayon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the sociology of a national division of the Red Army in the early days of its formation in Kyrgyzstan, as described in two documents about soldiers of Kyrgyz nationality in 1927 and 1928. At that time the Soviet Army was not seeking to substantially increase its numbers but rather recruiting in line with the intentions of the nationality policy, by integrating ethnic groups and regions that had been ignored by the high command. Kyrgyzstan is a striking exampl...

  15. Integrated System Validation of Barakah Nuclear Power Plant in UAE for The Human Factor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Munsoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    APR1400 simulator has been developed based on the state-of-the-art object-oriented simulation technology of TH(Thermo-Hydraulic) and Reactor Core model, which is applied for the first time in the our country and for the exportation, to well simulate characteristics of APR1400. Barakah unit 1,2 simulator are constructed and supplied with this type simulator model. Integrated system validation was performed using a simulator to verify the HFE(Human Factor Engineering) design of the MCR(Maim Control Room) for instrumentation and control system validation of the UAE nuclear power plant. APR1400 for the Barakah unit 1,2 has many specific features such as digital I and C, and digitalized main control room (MCR) design. From January 2016 to February, during six weeks, the tests carried out three times repeatedly and the various proposals for ergonomical satisfactation were derived. However, the HFE errors that cause significant change of validation target for APR1400 MCR design safety fidelity wasn't found. This has resulted in the conclusion to prove the stability of the basic design of APR1400 MCR. In the future, using the simulator derives the HFE requirements of the MCR systems and continually improve the simulator will be built in close to real high-fidelity power plant. These Integrated system validations are likely to be a great help in operating safety and preventing human errors by operators. Therefore successful completion of the Integrated System Validation for BNPP simulation will be effective to promotion the distinction of our simulator and APR1400 NPP.

  16. Toward Integrated Analysis of Human Impacts on Forest Biodiversity: Lessons from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable forest management (SFM has been widely adopted as a policy and management goal, high rates of forest loss and degradation are still occurring in many areas. Human activities such as logging, livestock husbandry, crop cultivation, infrastructural development, and use of fire are causing widespread loss of biodiversity, restricting progress toward SFM. In such situations, there is an urgent need for tools that can provide an integrated assessment of human impacts on forest biodiversity and that can support decision making related to forest use. This paper summarizes the experience gained by an international collaborative research effort spanning more than a decade, focusing on the tropical montane forests of Mexico and the temperate rain forests of southern South America, both of which are global conservation priorities. The lessons learned from this research are identified, specifically in relation to developing an integrated modeling framework for achieving SFM. Experience has highlighted a number of challenges that need to be overcome in such areas, including the lack of information regarding ecological processes and species characteristics and a lack of forest inventory data, which hinders model parameterization. Quantitative models are poorly developed for some ecological phenomena, such as edge effects and genetic diversity, limiting model integration. Establishment of participatory approaches to forest management is difficult, as a supportive institutional and policy environment is often lacking. However, experience to date suggests that the modeling toolkit approach suggested by Sturvetant et al. (2008 could be of value in such areas. Suggestions are made regarding desirable elements of such a toolkit to support participatory-research approaches in domains characterized by high uncertainty, including Bayesian Belief Networks, spatial multi-criteria analysis, and scenario planning.

  17. Biosocial Conservation: Integrating Biological and Ethnographic Methods to Study Human-Primate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Fairet, Emilie; Shutt, Kathryn; Waters, Siân; Bell, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings. Here, we review three different projects that confront this difficulty, integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study conservation problems. The first project involved wildlife foraging on crops around a newly established national park in Gabon. Biological methods revealed the extent of crop loss, the species responsible, and an effect of field isolation, while ethnography revealed institutional and social vulnerability to foraging wildlife. The second project concerned great ape tourism in the Central African Republic. Biological methods revealed that gorilla tourism poses risks to gorillas, while ethnography revealed why people seek close proximity to gorillas. The third project focused on humans and other primates living alongside one another in Morocco. Incorporating shepherds in the coproduction of ecological knowledge about primates built trust and altered attitudes to the primates. These three case studies demonstrate how the integration of biological and social methods can help us to understand the sustainability of human-wildlife interactions, and thus promote coexistence. In each case, an integrated biosocial approach incorporating ethnographic data produced results that would not otherwise have come to light. Research that transcends conventional academic boundaries requires the openness and flexibility to move beyond one's comfort zone to understand and acknowledge the legitimacy of "other" kinds of knowledge. It is

  18. Integrated Spatial Models of Non Native Plant Invasion, Fire Risk, and Wildlife Habitat to Support Conservation of Military and Adjacent Lands in the Arid Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Schwalbe 2002). The result is a vastly altered fire regime for desert regions. As a consequence of human activities and the prevalence of invasive...the most prevalent predictors for Brassica presence (6 of 12 variables), with three models associated with mean fall NDVI, one with maximum fall NDVI...plant diversity assessment using a pixel nested plot design: a case study in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Diversity

  19. The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jacobs, Arthur M; Menninghaus, Winfried; Liebal, Katja; Klann-Delius, Gisela; von Scheve, Christian; Gebauer, Gunter

    2015-06-01

    Despite an explosion of research in the affective sciences during the last few decades, interdisciplinary theories of human emotions are lacking. Here we present a neurobiological theory of emotions that includes emotions which are uniquely human (such as complex moral emotions), considers the role of language for emotions, advances the understanding of neural correlates of attachment-related emotions, and integrates emotion theories from different disciplines. We propose that four classes of emotions originate from four neuroanatomically distinct cerebral systems. These emotional core systems constitute a quartet of affect systems: the brainstem-, diencephalon-, hippocampus-, and orbitofrontal-centred affect systems. The affect systems were increasingly differentiated during the course of evolution, and each of these systems generates a specific class of affects (e.g., ascending activation, pain/pleasure, attachment-related affects, and moral affects). The affect systems interact with each other, and activity of the affect systems has effects on - and interacts with - biological systems denoted here as emotional effector systems. These effector systems include motor systems (which produce actions, action tendencies, and motoric expression of emotion), peripheral physiological arousal, as well as attentional and memory systems. Activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language. Moreover, conscious cognitive appraisal (involving rational thought, logic, and usually language) can regulate, modulate, and partly initiate, activity of affect systems and effector systems. Our emotion theory integrates psychological, neurobiological, sociological, anthropological, and psycholinguistic perspectives on emotions in an interdisciplinary manner, aiming to advance the understanding of human emotions and their neural correlates

  20. An anatomical substrate for integration among functional networks in human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Sporns, Olaf

    2013-09-04

    The human brain shows several characteristics of an efficient communication network architecture, including short communication paths and the existence of modules interlinked by a small set of highly connected regions. Studies of structural networks comprising macroscopic white matter projections have shown that these putative hubs are densely interconnected, giving rise to a spatially distributed and topologically central collective called the "rich club." In parallel, studies of intrinsic brain activity have consistently revealed distinct functional communities or resting-state networks (RSNs), indicative of specialized processing and segregation of neuronal information. However, the pattern of structural connectivity interconnecting these functional RSNs and how such inter-RSN structural connections might bring about functional integration between RSNs remain largely unknown. Combining high-resolution diffusion weighted imaging with resting-state fMRI, we present novel evidence suggesting that the rich club structure plays a central role in cross-linking macroscopic RSNs of the human brain. Rich club hub nodes were present in all functional networks, accounted for a large proportion of "connector nodes," and were found to coincide with regions in which multiple networks overlap. In addition, a large proportion of all inter-RSN connections were found to involve rich club nodes, and these connections participated in a disproportionate number of communication paths linking nodes in different RSNs. Our findings suggest that the brain's rich club serves as a macroscopic anatomical substrate to cross-link functional networks and thus plays an important role in the integration of information between segregated functional domains of the human cortex.

  1. The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Menninghaus, Winfried; Liebal, Katja; Klann-Delius, Gisela; von Scheve, Christian; Gebauer, Gunter

    2015-06-01

    Despite an explosion of research in the affective sciences during the last few decades, interdisciplinary theories of human emotions are lacking. Here we present a neurobiological theory of emotions that includes emotions which are uniquely human (such as complex moral emotions), considers the role of language for emotions, advances the understanding of neural correlates of attachment-related emotions, and integrates emotion theories from different disciplines. We propose that four classes of emotions originate from four neuroanatomically distinct cerebral systems. These emotional core systems constitute a quartet of affect systems: the brainstem-, diencephalon-, hippocampus-, and orbitofrontal-centred affect systems. The affect systems were increasingly differentiated during the course of evolution, and each of these systems generates a specific class of affects (e.g., ascending activation, pain/pleasure, attachment-related affects, and moral affects). The affect systems interact with each other, and activity of the affect systems has effects on - and interacts with - biological systems denoted here as emotional effector systems. These effector systems include motor systems (which produce actions, action tendencies, and motoric expression of emotion), peripheral physiological arousal, as well as attentional and memory systems. Activity of affect systems and effector systems is synthesized into an emotion percept (pre-verbal subjective feeling), which can be transformed (or reconfigured) into a symbolic code such as language. Moreover, conscious cognitive appraisal (involving rational thought, logic, and usually language) can regulate, modulate, and partly initiate, activity of affect systems and effector systems. Our emotion theory integrates psychological, neurobiological, sociological, anthropological, and psycholinguistic perspectives on emotions in an interdisciplinary manner, aiming to advance the understanding of human emotions and their neural correlates.

  2. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... Veterans Health Administration 2,027 views 25:30 Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  3. Forecasting military expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Böhmelt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.

  4. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... Loading... Loading... Rating is available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right ...

  5. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans ... is Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) [for posttraumatic stress disorder]? - Duration: 2:01. Veterans Health Administration 27,844 ...

  6. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... 5:31 Get Fit for Life (8) Strength/Balance Training - Duration: 32:02. Veterans Health Administration 2, ...

  7. About Military Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Try it free Find out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from ... 5:31 Get Fit for Life (8) Strength/Balance Training - Duration: 32:02. Veterans Health Administration 2, ...

  8. The Military Cooperation Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renzi, Jr, Alfred E

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...

  9. Developing Human-Computer Interface Models and Representation Techniques(Dialogue Management as an Integral Part of Software Engineering)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartson, H. Rex; Hix, Deborah; Kraly, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    The Dialogue Management Project at Virginia Tech is studying the poorly understood problem of human-computer dialogue development. This problem often leads to low usability in human-computer dialogues. The Dialogue Management Project approaches solutions to low usability in interfaces by addressing human-computer dialogue development as an integral and equal part of the total system development process. This project consists of two rather distinct, but dependent, parts. One is development of ...

  10. The oncogenic potential of BK-polyomavirus is linked to viral integration into the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan, Daniel J; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Singh, Harsharan K; Nickeleit, Volker

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that BK-polyomavirus is linked to oncogenesis via high expression levels of large T-antigen in some urothelial neoplasms arising following kidney transplantation. However, a causal association between BK-polyomavirus, large T-antigen expression and oncogenesis has never been demonstrated in humans. Here we describe an investigation using high-throughput sequencing of tumour DNA obtained from an urothelial carcinoma arising in a renal allograft. We show that a novel BK-polyomavirus strain, named CH-1, is integrated into exon 26 of the myosin-binding protein C1 gene (MYBPC1) on chromosome 12 in tumour cells but not in normal renal cells. Integration of the BK-polyomavirus results in a number of discrete alterations in viral gene expression, including: (a) disruption of VP1 protein expression and robust expression of large T-antigen; (b) preclusion of viral replication; and (c) deletions in the non-coding control region (NCCR), with presumed alterations in promoter feedback loops. Viral integration disrupts one MYBPC1 gene copy and likely alters its expression. Circular episomal BK-polyomavirus gene sequences are not found, and the renal allograft shows no productive polyomavirus infection or polyomavirus nephropathy. These findings support the hypothesis that integration of polyomaviruses is essential to tumourigenesis. It is likely that dysregulation of large T-antigen, with persistent over-expression in non-lytic cells, promotes cell growth, genetic instability and neoplastic transformation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Creation of computerized 3D MRI-integrated atlases of the human basal ganglia and thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas F. Sadikot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain imaging and neurosurgery in subcortical areas often requires visualization of brain nuclei beyond the resolution of current Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI methods. We present techniques used to create: 1 a lower resolution 3D atlas, based on the Schaltenbrand and Wahren print atlas, which was integrated into a stereotactic neurosurgery planning and visualization platform (VIPER; and 2 a higher resolution 3D atlas derived from a single set of manually segmented histological slices containing nuclei of the basal ganglia, thalamus, basal forebrain and medial temporal lobe. Both atlases were integrated to a canonical MRI (Colin27 from a young male participant by manually identifying homologous landmarks. The lower resolution atlas was then warped to fit the MRI based on the identified landmarks. A pseudo-MRI representation of the high-resolution atlas was created, and a nonlinear transformation was calculated in order to match the atlas to the template MRI. The atlas can then be warped to match the anatomy of Parkinson’s disease surgical candidates by using 3D automated nonlinear deformation methods. By way of functional validation of the atlas, the location of the sensory thalamus was correlated with stereotactic intraoperative physiological data. The position of subthalamic electrode positions in patients with Parkinson’s disease was also evaluated in the atlas-integrated MRI space. Finally, probabilistic maps of subthalamic stimulation electrodes were developed, in order to allow group analysis of the location of contacts associated with the best motor outcomes. We have therefore developed, and are continuing to validate, a high-resolution computerized MRI-integrated 3D histological atlas, which is useful in functional neurosurgery, and for functional and anatomical studies of the human basal ganglia, thalamus and basal forebrain.

  12. Murine leukemia virus vector integration favors promoter regions and regional hot spots in a human T-cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Tomonori; Agawa, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Sayori; Matsuda, Mizuho; Ueno, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yuki; Yamada, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kojima, Katsuhiko; Takeshita, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Genomic analysis of integration will be important in evaluating the safety of human gene therapy with retroviral vectors. Here, we investigated MLV vector integration sites in human T-cells, since they are amenable to gene transfer studies, and have been used therapeutically in clinical trials. We mapped 340 MLV vector integration sites in the infected human T-cell clones we established. The data showed that MLV preferred integration near the transcription start sites (±5 kb), near CpG islands (±1 kb), and within the first intron of RefSeq genes. We also identified MLV integration hot spots that contained three or more integrations within a 100 kb region. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA-levels of T-cell clones that contained MLV integrations near transcription start sites or introns were dysregulated compared to the uninfected cells. These studies help define the profile of MLV integration in T-cells and the risks associated with MLV-based gene therapy

  13. Privatized Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  14. The Professional Military Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    would require of us. (In fact, it could ultimately end up requiring us to do harm.) This is a case of cultural relativism in its least plausible...recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships

  15. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  16. In-vehicle human factors for integrated multi-function systems: Making ITS user-friendly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F.; Scott, S.

    1998-04-01

    As more and more Intelligent Transportation System in-vehicle equipment enters the general consumer market, the authors are about to find out how different design engineers are from ordinary drivers. Driver information systems are being developed and installed in vehicles at an ever-increasing rate. These systems provide information on diverse topics of concern and convenience to the driver, such as routing and navigation, emergency and collision warnings, and a variety of motorists services, or yellow pages functions. Most of these systems are being developed and installed in isolation from each other, with separate means of gathering the information and of displaying it to the driver. The current lack of coordination among on-board systems threatens to create a situation in which different messages on separate displays will be competing with each other for the drivers attention. Urgent messages may go unnoticed, and the number of messages may distract the driver from the most critical task of controlling the vehicle. Thus, without good human factors design and engineering for integrating multiple systems in the vehicle, consumers may find ITS systems confusing and frustrating to use. The current state of the art in human factors research and design for in-vehicle systems has a number of fundamental gaps. Some of these gaps were identified during the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Human Factors Technology Workshop, sponsored by the US Department of Transportation, in Troy, Michigan, December 10--11, 1997. One task for workshop participants was to identify needed research areas or topics relating to in-vehicle human factors. The top ten unmet research needs from this workshop are presented. Many of these gaps in human factors research knowledge indicate the need for standardization in the functioning of interfaces for safety-related devices such as collision avoidance systems (CAS) and adaptive cruise controls (ACC). Such standards and guidelines will serve to make

  17. Effects of Extended Freezer Storage on the Integrity of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrabi, Ali Faraghi; Handa, Deepali; Codipilly, Champa N; Shah, Syed; Williams, Janet E; McGuire, Mark A; Potak, Debra; Aharon, Grace Golda; Schanler, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the integrity (pH, bacterial counts, host defense factors, nutrient contents, and osmolality) of freshly expressed and previously refrigerated human milk subjected to long-term freezer storage. Mothers donated 100 mL of freshly expressed milk. Samples were divided into baseline, storage at -20°C (fresh frozen) for 1, 3, 6, and 9 months, and prior storage at +4°C for 72 hours (refrigerated frozen) before storage at -20°C for 1 to 9 months. Samples were analyzed for pH, total bacterial colony count, gram-positive and gram-negative colony counts, and concentrations of total protein, fat, nonesterified fatty acids, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, and osmolality. Milk pH, total bacterial colony count, and Gram-positive colony counts decreased significantly with freezer storage (P negative colony count decreased significantly over time (P human milk for 9 months at -20°C is associated with decreasing pH and bacterial counts, but preservation of key macronutrients and immunoactive components, with or without prior refrigeration for 72 hours. These data support current guidelines for freezer storage of human milk for up to 9 months for both freshly expressed and refrigerated milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Closing the loop: integrating human impacts on water resources to advanced land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Nie, W.; Rodell, M.; Kumar, S.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Land Surface Models (LSMs), including those used in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), offer a physically consistent and spatially and temporally complete analysis of the distributed water balance. These models are constrained both by physically-based process representation and by observations ingested as meteorological forcing or as data assimilation updates. As such, they have become important tools for hydrological monitoring and long-term climate analysis. The representation of water management, however, is extremely limited in these models. Recent advances have brought prognostic irrigation routines into models used in NLDAS, while assimilation of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived estimates of terrestrial water storage anomaly has made it possible to nudge models towards observed states in water storage below the root zone. But with few exceptions these LSMs do not account for the source of irrigation water, leading to a disconnect between the simulated water balance and the observed human impact on water resources. This inconsistency is unacceptable for long-term studies of climate change and human impact on water resources in North America. Here we define the modeling challenge, review instances of models that have begun to account for water withdrawals (e.g., CLM), and present ongoing efforts to improve representation of human impacts on water storage across models through integration of irrigation routines, water withdrawal information, and GRACE Data Assimilation in NLDAS LSMs.

  19. Step 1: Human System Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Hazardous Weather Avoidance. Technology concepts in use by the Access 5 Weather Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with the Human System Integration (HIS) high-level functional requirement for Hazardous Weather Avoidance, and Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of hazardous weather, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain hazardous weather information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Hazardous Weather Avoidance technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Hazardous Weather Avoidance operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Weather Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Hazardous Weather Avoidance are partitioned into four categories: (1) Planning En Route (2) Encountering Hazardous Weather En Route, (3) Planning to Destination, and (4) Diversion Planning Alternate Airport. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  20. An integrated approach to human reliability analysis -- decision analytic dynamic reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Hukki, K.; Norros, L.; Pulkkinen, U.; Pyy, P.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of human operators in process control is sensitive to the context. In many contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods, this is not sufficiently taken into account. The aim of this article is that integration between probabilistic and psychological approaches in human reliability should be attempted. This is achieved first, by adopting such methods that adequately reflect the essential features of the process control activity, and secondly, by carrying out an interactive HRA process. Description of the activity context, probabilistic modeling, and psychological analysis form an iterative interdisciplinary sequence of analysis in which the results of one sub-task maybe input to another. The analysis of the context is carried out first with the help of a common set of conceptual tools. The resulting descriptions of the context promote the probabilistic modeling, through which new results regarding the probabilistic dynamics can be achieved. These can be incorporated in the context descriptions used as reference in the psychological analysis of actual performance. The results also provide new knowledge of the constraints of activity, by providing information of the premises of the operator's actions. Finally, the stochastic marked point process model gives a tool, by which psychological methodology may be interpreted and utilized for reliability analysis

  1. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  2. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE SYSTEM OF NATURAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationships and interactions between fundamental human rights and natural law school. The objectives of this paper are circumscribed to the way fundamental human rights, by their nature, can be integrated within the doctrine of natural law or to the contrary, may be related to various branches of legal positivism. In specialized literature, it was pointed out that fundamental human rights constitute genuine natural rights which have the same natural law recognized attributes: immutability, non-alienable nature et. al. However, in the context of contemporary changes within the European Union, generated by cultural differences which are becoming ever more significant, the question rises of whether those rights are in fact a creation of legal positivism. Within the paperthere are several doctrine opinions described, as well as some arguments for reconsidering the placement of fundamental rights within the sphere of legal positivism. Using the comparative method, the study analyzes the common points and the points of divergence between fundamental rights and the doctrines of natural law and legal positivism, seen through the prism of the general theory of systems, legal culture, legal colonialism and legal ethnocentrism.

  5. The Civil-Military Gap and Women in Combat: The Elite’s Attitude Transformation, 1991-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    110th), Sec 595. Note: A number of the military elite were command chiefs, which are not normally considered part of the military elite. However, it...Press, 1978. Kier, Elizabeth. “ Homosexuals in the U.S. Military: Open Integration and Combat Effectiveness.” International Security 23, no. 2

  6. Integrating social science into empirical models of coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challenges for social scientists: (1 how to represent human behavior as influenced by biophysical factors and integrate this into CHANS empirical models; (2 how to organize and function as a multidisciplinary social science team to accomplish that task. We reflect on these challenges regarding our CHANS research that investigated human adaptation to fire-prone landscapes. Our project sought to characterize the forest management activities of land managers and landowners (or "actors" and their influence on wildfire behavior and landscape outcomes by focusing on biophysical and socioeconomic feedbacks in central Oregon (USA. We used an agent-based model (ABM to compile biophysical and social information pertaining to actor behavior, and to project future landscape conditions under alternative management scenarios. Project social scientists were tasked with identifying actors' forest management activities and biophysical and socioeconomic factors that influence them, and with developing decision rules for incorporation into the ABM to represent actor behavior. We (1 briefly summarize what we learned about actor behavior on this fire-prone landscape and how we represented it in an ABM, and (2 more significantly, report our observations about how we organized and functioned as a diverse team of social scientists to fulfill these CHANS research tasks. We highlight several challenges we experienced, involving quantitative versus qualitative data and methods, distilling complex behavior into empirical models, varying sensitivity of biophysical models to social factors, synchronization of research tasks, and the need to

  7. Human motor unit recordings: origins and insight into the integrated motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

    2011-08-29

    Soon after Edward Liddell [1895-1981] and Charles Sherrington [1857-1952] introduced the concept of a motor unit in 1925 and the necessary technology was developed, the recording of single motor unit activity became feasible in humans. It was quickly discovered by Edgar Adrian [1889-1977] and Detlev Bronk [1897-1975] that the force exerted by muscle during voluntary contractions was the result of the concurrent recruitment of motor units and modulation of the rate at which they discharged action potentials. Subsequent studies found that the relation between discharge frequency and motor unit force was characterized by a sigmoidal function. Based on observations on experimental animals, Elwood Henneman [1915-1996] proposed a "size principle" in 1957 and most studies in humans focussed on validating this concept during various types of muscle contractions. By the end of the 20th C, the experimental evidence indicated that the recruitment order of human motor units was determined primarily by motoneuron size and that the occasional changes in recruitment order were not an intended strategy of the central nervous system. Fundamental knowledge on the function of Sherrington's "common final pathway" was expanded with observations on motor unit rotation, minimal and maximal discharge rates, discharge variability, and self-sustained firing. Despite the great amount of work on characterizing motor unit activity during the first century of inquiry, however, many basic questions remain unanswered and these limit the extent to which findings on humans and experimental animals can be integrated and generalized to all movements. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Freeman, Michael A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans.

  9. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Freeman, Michael A.; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans. PMID:29290645

  10. Integrated Metagenomics/Metaproteomics Reveals Human Host-Microbiota Signatures of Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Youssef; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Pan, Chongle; Shah, Manesh; Halfvarson, Jonas; Tysk, Curt; Henrissat, Bernard; Raes, Jeroen; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD) or colon (CCD). Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD. In addition, the ICD phenotype was associated with alterations in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism, bacterial-host interactions, as well as human host-secreted enzymes. This eco-systems biology approach underscores the link between the gut microbiota and functional alterations in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and aids in identification of novel diagnostic targets and disease specific biomarkers. PMID:23209564

  11. Integration of human factors and ergonomics during medical device design and development: it's all about communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher James; Li, Yunqiu; Blandford, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers of interactive medical devices, such as infusion pumps, need to ensure that devices minimise the risk of unintended harm during use. However, development teams face challenges in incorporating Human Factors. The aim of the research reported here was to better understand the constraints under which medical device design and development take place. We report the results of a qualitative study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in the design, development and deployment of interactive medical devices. A thematic analysis was conducted. Multiple barriers to designing for safety and usability were identified. In particular, we identified barriers to communication both between the development organisation and the intended users and between different teams within the development organisation. We propose the use of mediating representations. Artefacts such as personas and scenarios, known to provide integration across multiple perspectives, are an essential component of designing for safety and usability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Human-Automation Integration: Principle and Method for Design and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Dorrit; Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Future space missions will increasingly depend on integration of complex engineered systems with their human operators. It is important to ensure that the systems that are designed and developed do a good job of supporting the needs of the work domain. Our research investigates methods for needs analysis. We included analysis of work products (plans for regulation of the space station) as well as work processes (tasks using current software), in a case study of Attitude Determination and Control Officers (ADCO) planning work. This allows comparing how well different designs match the structure of the work to be supported. Redesigned planning software that better matches the structure of work was developed and experimentally assessed. The new prototype enabled substantially faster and more accurate performance in plan revision tasks. This success suggests the approach to needs assessment and use in design and evaluation is promising, and merits investigatation in future research.

  13. Integrated metagenomics/metaproteomics reveals human host-microbiota signatures of Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison R Erickson

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is an inflammatory bowel disease of complex etiology, although dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been implicated in chronic immune-mediated inflammation associated with CD. Here we combined shotgun metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches to identify potential functional signatures of CD in stool samples from six twin pairs that were either healthy, or that had CD in the ileum (ICD or colon (CCD. Integration of these omics approaches revealed several genes, proteins, and pathways that primarily differentiated ICD from healthy subjects, including depletion of many proteins in ICD. In addition, the ICD phenotype was associated with alterations in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism, bacterial-host interactions, as well as human host-secreted enzymes. This eco-systems biology approach underscores the link between the gut microbiota and functional alterations in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and aids in identification of novel diagnostic targets and disease specific biomarkers.

  14. Hybrid Lentivirus-transposon Vectors With a Random Integration Profile in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Moldt, Brian; Mátés, Lajos

    2009-01-01

    Gene delivery by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) is efficient, but genomic integration of the viral DNA is strongly biased toward transcriptionally active loci resulting in an increased risk of insertional mutagenesis in gene therapy protocols. Nonviral...... Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors have a significantly safer insertion profile, but efficient delivery into relevant cell/tissue types is a limitation. In an attempt to combine the favorable features of the two vector systems we established a novel hybrid vector technology based on SB transposase......-mediated insertion of lentiviral DNA circles generated during transduction of target cells with integrase (IN)-defective LVs (IDLVs). By construction of a lentivirus-transposon hybrid vector allowing transposition exclusively from circular viral DNA substrates, we demonstrate that SB transposase added in trans...

  15. Organizational change for services integration in public human service organizations: experiences in seven counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Thomas; Patti, Rino; Daly, Donna; Tucker-Tatlow, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This is a study of organizational change strategies employed in seven county human service agencies to improve the coordination of services through the structural integration of previously free standing organizations or the development of voluntary interagency collaborative service delivery systems. The central question involves the identification of organizational change tactics which contributed to the success of the organizational change initiatives. The literature on organizational change is reviewed, with particular attention to a framework developed by Fernandez and Rainey based on their extensive review and synthesis of the research on successful change strategies in the public and business sectors. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from over 250 individuals and from agency documents. Findings are compared with the success factors identified by Fernandez and Rainey, and refinements to their propositions are suggested. More precise methods for measuring successful and unsuccessful change initiatives are suggested. Implications for practice and research are presented.

  16. Integrated endoscopic OCT system and in-vivo images of human internal organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Alexander M.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Snopova, Ludmila; Shakhov, Andrei; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Denisenko, Arkady; Pochinko, Vitaly; Chumakov, Yuri; Almasov, Valentin

    1998-04-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo studies of human mucosa in respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts are presented. A novel endoscopic OCT (EOCT) system has been created that is based on the integration of a sampling arm of an all-optical-fiber interferometer into standard endoscopic devices using their biopsy channel to transmit low-coherence radiation to investigated tissue. We have studied mucous membranes of esophagus, larynx, stomach, urinary bladder, uterine cervix and endometrium as typical localization for carcinomatous processes. Images of tumor tissues versus healthy tissues have been recorded and analyzed. Violations of well-defined stratified healthy mucosa structure in cancered tissue is distinctly seen by EOCT, thus making this technique promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  17. Genetic integrity of the human Y chromosome exposed to groundwater arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sher

    2010-08-01

    integrities. Thus, arsenic effects on the human body seem to be different compared to that on the cultured cells.

  18. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  19. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, B.F.; Bronson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  20. Improved Mapping of Human Population and Settlements through Integration of Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; MacManus, K.; Vinay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The diversity of data on human settlements, infrastructure, and population continues to grow rapidly, with recent releases of data products based on a range of different remote sensing data sources as well as census and administrative data. We report here on recent improvements in data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and partner organizations, aimed at supporting both interdisciplinary research and real-world applications. The fourth version of SEDAC's Gridded Population of the World (GPWv4) now includes variables for age categories, gender, and urban/rural location, and has also been integrated with the Global Human Settlements (GHS) data developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to produce a GHS-POP grid for the years 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2015. Through a collaboration between Facebook's Connectivity Lab and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL) data derived from 50-cm DigitalGlobe imagery are now available for selected developing countries at 30-m resolution. SEDAC is also developing interactive mapping and analysis tools to facilitate visualization and access to these often large and complex data products. For example, SEDAC has collaborated with scientists from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to release the Global Man-made Impervious Surfaces & Settlement Extents from Landsat data at 30-m resolution through an innovative map interface. We also summarize recent progress in developing an international data collective that is bringing together both data developers and data users from the public and private sectors to collaborate on expanding data access and use, improving data quality and documentation, facilitating data intercomparison and integration, and sharing of resources and capabilities.

  1. Performance assessment of human resource by integration of HSE and ergonomics and EFQM management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh Amalnick, Mohsen; Zarrin, Mansour

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated framework for performance evaluation and analysis of human resource (HR) with respect to the factors of health, safety, environment and ergonomics (HSEE) management system, and also the criteria of European federation for quality management (EFQM) as one of the well-known business excellence models. Design/methodology/approach In this study, an intelligent algorithm based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) along with fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA) are developed and employed to assess the performance of the company. Furthermore, the impact of the factors on the company's performance as well as their strengths and weaknesses are identified by conducting a sensitivity analysis on the results. Similarly, a design of experiment is performed to prioritize the factors in the order of importance. Findings The results show that EFQM model has a far greater impact upon the company's performance than HSEE management system. According to the obtained results, it can be argued that integration of HSEE and EFQM leads to the performance improvement in the company. Practical implications In current study, the required data for executing the proposed framework are collected via valid questionnaires which are filled in by the staff of an aviation industry located in Tehran, Iran. Originality/value Managing HR performance results in improving usability, maintainability and reliability and finally in a significant reduction in the commercial aviation accident rate. Also, study of factors affecting HR performance authorities participate in developing systems in order to help operators better manage human error. This paper for the first time presents an intelligent framework based on ANFIS, FDEA and statistical tests for HR performance assessment and analysis with the ability of handling uncertainty and vagueness existing in real world environment.

  2. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: an integrated perspective of the human-at-work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash; Salem, Sam; Karwowski, Waldemar; Paez, Omar; Tuncel, Setenay

    2007-01-15

    The industrial revolution demonstrated the limitations of a pure mechanistic approach towards work design. Human work is now seen as a complex entity that involves different scientific branches and blurs the line between mental and physical activities. Job design has been a traditional concern of applied psychology, which has provided insight into the interaction between the individual and the work environment. The goal of this paper is to introduce the human-at-work system as a holistic approach to organizational design. It postulates that the well-being of workers and work outcomes are issues that need to be addressed jointly, moving beyond traditional concepts of job satisfaction and work stress. The work compatibility model (WCM) is introduced as an engineering approach that seeks to integrate previous constructs of job and organizational design. The WCM seeks a balance between energy expenditure and replenishment. The implementation of the WCM in industrial settings is described within the context of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. A sample review of six models (motivation-hygiene theory; job characteristics theory; person-environment fit; demand-control model; and balance theory) provides the foundation for the interaction between the individual and the work environment. A review of three workload assessment methods (position analysis questionnaire, job task analysis and NASA task load index) gives an example of the foundation for the taxonomy of work environment domains. Previous models have sought to identify a balance state for the human-at-work system. They differentiated between the objective and subjective effects of the environment and the worker. An imbalance between the person and the environment has been proven to increase health risks. The WCM works with a taxonomy of 12 work domains classified in terms of the direct (acting) or indirect (experienced) effect on the worker. In terms of measurement, two quantitative methods are proposed

  3. private military contractors, war crimes and international

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.

  4. Sensory augmentation: integration of an auditory compass signal into human perception of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Frank; O’Regan, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level. We convey head orientation to geomagnetic North, a reliable spatial relation not normally sensed by humans, by mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds via head-related transfer functions. We demonstrate rapid and long-lasting integration into the perception of self-rotation. Short training with amplified or reduced rotation gain in the magnetic signal can expand or compress the perceived extent of vestibular self-rotation, even with the magnetic signal absent in the test. We argue that it is the reliability of the magnetic signal that allows vestibular spatial recalibration, and the coding scheme mimicking sensorimotor contingencies of distal sounds that permits fast integration. Hence we propose that contingency-mimetic feedback has great potential for creating sensory augmentation devices that achieve fast and genuinely perceptual experiences. PMID:28195187

  5. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  6. Human nucleoporins promote HIV-1 docking at the nuclear pore, nuclear import and integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Nunzio

    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC mediates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of macromolecules and is an obligatory point of passage and functional bottleneck in the replication of some viruses. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has evolved the required mechanisms for active nuclear import of its genome through the NPC. However the mechanisms by which the NPC allows or even assists HIV translocation are still unknown. We investigated the involvement of four key nucleoporins in HIV-1 docking, translocation, and integration: Nup358/RanBP2, Nup214/CAN, Nup98 and Nup153. Although all induce defects in infectivity when depleted, only Nup153 actually showed any evidence of participating in HIV-1 translocation through the nuclear pore. We show that Nup358/RanBP2 mediates docking of HIV-1 cores on NPC cytoplasmic filaments by interacting with the cores and that the C-terminus of Nup358/RanBP2 comprising a cyclophilin-homology domain contributes to binding. We also show that Nup214/CAN and Nup98 play no role in HIV-1 nuclear import per se: Nup214/CAN plays an indirect role in infectivity read-outs through its effect on mRNA export, while the reduction of expression of Nup98 shows a slight reduction in proviral integration. Our work shows the involvement of nucleoporins in diverse and functionally separable steps of HIV infection and nuclear import.

  7. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment of Next-Generation Neurosurgery Research and Training Laboratory with Integrated Human Performance Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Quality of neurosurgical care and patient outcomes are inextricably linked to surgical and technical proficiency and a thorough working knowledge of microsurgical anatomy. Neurosurgical laboratory-based cadaveric training is essential for the development and refinement of technical skills before their use on a living patient. Recent biotechnological advances including 3-dimensional (3D) microscopy and endoscopy, 3D printing, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging have proved to reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills in neurosurgical training. Until recently, few means have allowed surgeons to obtain integrated surgical and technological training in an operating room setting. We report on a new model, currently in use at our institution, for technologically integrated surgical training and innovation using a next-generation microneurosurgery skull base laboratory designed to recreate the setting of a working operating room. Each workstation is equipped with a 3D surgical microscope, 3D endoscope, surgical drills, operating table with a Mayfield head holder, and a complete set of microsurgical tools. The laboratory also houses a neuronavigation system, a surgical robotic, a surgical planning system, 3D visualization, virtual reality, and computerized simulation for training of surgical procedures and visuospatial skills. In addition, the laboratory is equipped with neurophysiological monitoring equipment in order to conduct research into human factors in surgery and the respective roles of workload and fatigue on surgeons' performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Transcriptomic and Epigenomic Analysis of Primary Human Lung Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconett, Crystal N.; Zhou, Beiyun; Rieger, Megan E.; Selamat, Suhaida A.; Dubourd, Mickael; Fang, Xiaohui; Lynch, Sean K.; Stueve, Theresa Ryan; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Berman, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the epigenetic basis for cell-type specific gene regulation is key to gaining a full understanding of how the distinct phenotypes of differentiated cells are achieved and maintained. Here we examined how epigenetic changes are integrated with transcriptional activation to determine cell phenotype during differentiation. We performed epigenomic profiling in conjunction with transcriptomic profiling using in vitro differentiation of human primary alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). This model recapitulates an in vivo process in which AEC transition from one differentiated cell type to another during regeneration following lung injury. Interrogation of histone marks over time revealed enrichment of specific transcription factor binding motifs within regions of changing chromatin structure. Cross-referencing of these motifs with pathways showing transcriptional changes revealed known regulatory pathways of distal alveolar differentiation, such as the WNT and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) pathways, and putative novel regulators of adult AEC differentiation including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A), and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) signaling pathways. Inhibition of the RXR pathway confirmed its functional relevance for alveolar differentiation. Our incorporation of epigenetic data allowed specific identification of transcription factors that are potential direct upstream regulators of the differentiation process, demonstrating the power of this approach. Integration of epigenomic data with transcriptomic profiling has broad application for the identification of regulatory pathways in other models of differentiation. PMID:23818859

  10. Microencapsulation Technology: A Powerful Tool for Integrating Expansion and Cryopreservation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpique, Rita; Brito, Catarina; Jensen, Janne; Bjorquist, Petter; Carrondo, Manuel J. T.; Alves, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    The successful implementation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-based technologies requires the production of relevant numbers of well-characterized cells and their efficient long-term storage. In this study, cells were microencapsulated in alginate to develop an integrated bioprocess for expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. Different three-dimensional (3D) culture strategies were evaluated and compared, specifically, microencapsulation of hESCs as: i) single cells, ii) aggregates and iii) immobilized on microcarriers. In order to establish a scalable bioprocess, hESC-microcapsules were cultured in stirred tank bioreactors. The combination of microencapsulation and microcarrier technology resulted in a highly efficient protocol for the production and storage of pluripotent hESCs. This strategy ensured high expansion ratios (an approximately twenty-fold increase in cell concentration) and high cell recovery yields (>70%) after cryopreservation. When compared with non-encapsulated cells, cell survival post-thawing demonstrated a three-fold improvement without compromising hESC characteristics. Microencapsulation also improved the culture of hESC aggregates by protecting cells from hydrodynamic shear stress, controlling aggregate size and maintaining cell pluripotency for two weeks. This work establishes that microencapsulation technology may prove a powerful tool for integrating the expansion and cryopreservation of pluripotent hESCs. The 3D culture strategy developed herein represents a significant breakthrough towards the implementation of hESCs in clinical and industrial applications. PMID:21850261

  11. Human neural progenitors derived from integration-free iPSCs for SCI therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a potentially unlimited autologous cell source, patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide great capability for tissue regeneration, particularly in spinal cord injury (SCI. However, despite significant progress made in translation of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs to clinical settings, a few hurdles remain. Among them, non-invasive approach to obtain source cells in a timely manner, safer integration-free delivery of reprogramming factors, and purification of NPCs before transplantation are top priorities to overcome. In this study, we developed a safe and cost-effective pipeline to generate clinically relevant NPCs. We first isolated cells from patients' urine and reprogrammed them into iPSCs by non-integrating Sendai viral vectors, and carried out experiments on neural differentiation. NPCs were purified by A2B5, an antibody specifically recognizing a glycoganglioside on the cell surface of neural lineage cells, via fluorescence activated cell sorting. Upon further in vitro induction, NPCs were able to give rise to neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. To test the functionality of the A2B5+ NPCs, we grafted them into the contused mouse thoracic spinal cord. Eight weeks after transplantation, the grafted cells survived, integrated into the injured spinal cord, and differentiated into neurons and glia. Our specific focus on cell source, reprogramming, differentiation and purification method purposely addresses timing and safety issues of transplantation to SCI models. It is our belief that this work takes one step closer on using human iPSC derivatives to SCI clinical settings.

  12. Multisensory integration in non-human primates during a sensory-motor task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eLanz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daily our central nervous system receives inputs via several sensory modalities, processes them and integrates information in order to produce a suitable behaviour. The amazing part is that such a multisensory integration brings all information into a unified percept. An approach to start investigating this property is to show that perception is better and faster when multimodal stimuli are used as compared to unimodal stimuli. This forms the first part of the present study conducted in a non-human primate’s model (n=2 engaged in a detection sensory-motor task where visual and auditory stimuli were displayed individually or simultaneously. The measured parameters were the reaction time (RT between stimulus and onset of arm movement, successes and errors percentages, as well as the evolution as a function of time of these parameters with training. As expected, RTs were shorter when the subjects were exposed to combined stimuli. The gains for both subjects were around 20 and 40 msec, as compared with the auditory and visual stimulus alone, respectively. Moreover the number of correct responses increased in response to bimodal stimuli. We interpreted such multisensory advantage through redundant signal effect which decreases perceptual ambiguity, increases speed of stimulus detection and improves performance accuracy.The second part of the study presents single unit recordings derived from the premotor cortex (PM of the same subjects during the sensory-motor task. Response patterns to sensory/multisensory stimulation are documented and specific type proportions are reported. Characterization of bimodal neurons indicates a mechanism of audio-visual integration possibly through a decrease of inhibition. Nevertheless the neural processing leading to faster motor response from PM as a polysensory association cortical area remains still unclear.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Germline Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6A and Analyses Integration Sites Define a New Human Endogenous Virus with Potential to Reactivate as an Emerging Infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Tweedy, J; Spyrou, MA; Pearson, M; Lassner, D; Kuhl, U; Gompels, UA

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6A and B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) have recently defined endogenous genomes, resulting from integration into the germline: chromosomally-integrated "CiHHV-6A/B". These affect approximately 1.0% of human populations, giving potential for virus gene expression in every cell. We previously showed that CiHHV-6A was more divergent than CiHHV-6B by examining four genes in 44 European CiHHV-6A/B cardiac/haematology patients. There was evidence for gene expression/reactivation, imp...

  14. A Human Systems Integration Analysis of the Army Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the key to the prevention of suicide is positive leadership and deep concern by supervisors of military personnel and civilian employees who are at... Belongingness Respected and Valued Relationship Problems Loving Relationship Unit Cohesion Peer Support Engaged Leadership Sleep Disturbances Quality...and DA civilian employees who are at increased risk of suicide” (U.S. Army, 2010, pg. 2). Figure 34 shows how the synchronization of this

  15. Automatic Human Facial Expression Recognition Based on Integrated Classifier From Monocular Video with Uncalibrated Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic recognition framework for human facial expressions from a monocular video with an uncalibrated camera is proposed. The expression characteristics are first acquired from a kind of deformable template, similar to a facial muscle distribution. After associated regularization, the time sequences from the trait changes in space-time under complete expressional production are then arranged line by line in a matrix. Next, the matrix dimensionality is reduced by a method of manifold learning of neighborhood-preserving embedding. Finally, the refined matrix containing the expression trait information is recognized by a classifier that integrates the hidden conditional random field (HCRF and support vector machine (SVM. In an experiment using the Cohn–Kanade database, the proposed method showed a comparatively higher recognition rate than the individual HCRF or SVM methods in direct recognition from two-dimensional human face traits. Moreover, the proposed method was shown to be more robust than the typical Kotsia method because the former contains more structural characteristics of the data to be classified in space-time

  16. Integrating women's human rights into global health research: an action framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna; Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda

    2010-11-01

    This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights.

  17. Towards Designing Graceful Degradation into Trajectory Based Operations: A Human-systems Integration Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsyn; Lee, Paul

    2017-01-01

    One of the most fundamental changes to the air traffic management system in NextGen is the concept of trajectory based operations (TBO). With the introduction of such change, system safety and resilience is a critical concern, in particular, the ability of systems to gracefully degrade. In order to design graceful degradation into a TBO envrionment, knowledge of the potential causes of degradation, and appropriate solutions, is required. In addition, previous research has predominantly explored the technological contribution to graceful degradation, frequently neglecting to consider the role of the human operator, specifically, air traffic controllers (ATCOs). This is out of step with real-world operations, and potentially limits an ecologically valid understanding of achieving graceful degradation in an air traffic control (ATC) environment. The following literature review aims to identify and summarize the literature to date on the potential causes of degradation in ATC and the solutions that may be applied within a TBO context, with a specific focus on the contribution of the air traffic controller. A framework of graceful degradation, developed from the literature, is presented. It is argued that in order to achieve graceful degradation within TBO, a human-system integration approach must be applied.

  18. Towards Designing Graceful Degradation into Trajectory Based Operations: A Human-Machine System Integration Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsyn; Lee, Paul

    2017-01-01

    One of the most fundamental changes to the air traffic management system in NextGen is the concept of trajectory based operations (TBO). With the introduction of such change, system safety and resilience is a critical concern, in particular, the ability of systems to gracefully degrade. In order to design graceful degradation into a TBO envrionment, knowledge of the potential causes of degradation, and appropriate solutions, is required. In addition, previous research has predominantly explored the technological contribution to graceful degradation, frequently neglecting to consider the role of the human operator, specifically, air traffic controllers (ATCOs). This is out of step with real-world operations, and potentially limits an ecologically valid understanding of achieving graceful degradation in an air traffic control (ATC) environment. The following literature review aims to identify and summarize the literature to date on the potential causes of degradation in ATC and the solutions that may be applied within a TBO context, with a specific focus on the contribution of the air traffic controller. A framework of graceful degradation, developed from the literature, is presented. It is argued that in order to achieve graceful degradation within TBO, a human-system integration approach must be applied.

  19. Multiscale mechanical integrity of human supraspinatus tendon in shear after elastin depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Lake, Spencer P

    2016-10-01

    Human supraspinatus tendon (SST) exhibits region-specific nonlinear mechanical properties under tension, which have been attributed to its complex multiaxial physiological loading environment. However, the mechanical response and underlying multiscale mechanism regulating SST behavior under other loading scenarios are poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution of elastin to tendon mechanics. We hypothesized that (1) SST exhibits region-specific shear mechanical properties, (2) fiber sliding is the predominant mode of local matrix deformation in SST in shear, and (3) elastin helps maintain SST mechanical integrity by facilitating force transfer among collagen fibers. Through the use of biomechanical testing and multiphoton microscopy, we measured the multiscale mechanical behavior of human SST in shear before and after elastase treatment. Three distinct SST regions showed similar stresses and microscale deformation. Collagen fiber reorganization and sliding were physical mechanisms observed as the SST response to shear loading. Measures of microscale deformation were highly variable, likely due to a high degree of extracellular matrix heterogeneity. After elastase treatment, tendon exhibited significantly decreased stresses under shear loading, particularly at low strains. These results show that elastin contributes to tendon mechanics in shear, further complementing our understanding of multiscale tendon structure-function relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementing a framework for integrating toxicokinetics into human health risk assessment for agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Claire; Hays, Sean; McCoy, Alene T; McFadden, Lisa G; Aggarwal, Manoj; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Juberg, Daland R

    2016-03-01

    A strategic and comprehensive program in which toxicokinetic (TK) measurements are made for all agrochemicals undergoing toxicity testing (both new compounds and compounds already registered for use) is described. This approach provides the data to more accurately assess the toxicokinetics of agrochemicals and their metabolites in laboratory animals and humans. Having this knowledge provides the ability to conduct more insightful toxicity studies, refine and interpret exposure assessments and reduce uncertainty in risk assessments. By developing a better understanding of TK across species, including humans via in vitro metabolism studies, any differences across species in TK can be identified early and the most relevant species can be selected for toxicity tests. It also provides the ability to identify any non-linearities in TK as a function of dose, which in turn can be used to identify a kinetically derived maximum dose (KMD) and avoid dosing inappropriately outside of the kinetic linear range. Measuring TK in key life stages also helps to identify changes in ADME parameters from in utero to adults. A robust TK database can also be used to set internal concentration based "Reference Concentrations" and Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE), and support selection of Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF). All of these factors support the reduction of uncertainty throughout the entire risk assessment process. This paper outlines how a TK research strategy can be integrated into new agrochemical toxicity testing programs, together with a proposed Framework for future use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.