WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated growth environment

  1. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  2. GLobal Integrated Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Matthew; McGuire, Melissa; Smith, David A.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2011-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a collaborative engineering application built to resolve the design session issues of real-time passing of data between multiple discipline experts in a collaborative environment. Utilizing Web protocols and multiple programming languages, GLIDE allows engineers to use the applications to which they are accustomed in this case, Excel to send and receive datasets via the Internet to a database-driven Web server. Traditionally, a collaborative design session consists of one or more engineers representing each discipline meeting together in a single location. The discipline leads exchange parameters and iterate through their respective processes to converge on an acceptable dataset. In cases in which the engineers are unable to meet, their parameters are passed via e-mail, telephone, facsimile, or even postal mail. The result of this slow process of data exchange would elongate a design session to weeks or even months. While the iterative process remains in place, software can now exchange parameters securely and efficiently, while at the same time allowing for much more information about a design session to be made available. GLIDE is written in a compilation of several programming languages, including REALbasic, PHP, and Microsoft Visual Basic. GLIDE client installers are available to download for both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh systems. The GLIDE client software is compatible with Microsoft Excel 2000 or later on Windows systems, and with Microsoft Excel X or later on Macintosh systems. GLIDE follows the Client-Server paradigm, transferring encrypted and compressed data via standard Web protocols. Currently, the engineers use Excel as a front end to the GLIDE Client, as many of their custom tools run in Excel.

  3. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  4. An Integrated Virtual Environment System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Gritz, Larry; Darken, Rudolph; Geigel, Joseph; Lee, Jong W

    1993-01-01

    .... A joint research at the George Washington University and the Naval Research Laboratory is bringing together issues from these domains to study the factors that contribute to an integrated virtual environment...

  5. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  6. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  7. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  8. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  9. Case Studies in Environment Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    such as CADRE Teamwork and Frame Technology FrameMaker , are integrated. Future plans include integrating additional software development tools into...Pictures, Sabre C, and Interleaf or FrameMaker . Cad- re Technologies has announced integration agreements with Saber C and Pansophic, as well as offering...access to the Interleaf and FrameMaker documentation tools. While some of the current agreements between vendors to create tool coalitions are

  10. Core Flight System (CFS) Integrated Development Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to create an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Core Flight System (CFS) software to reduce the time it takes to...

  11. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  12. Using GIS to integrate the analysis of land-use, transportation, and the environment for managing urban growth based on transit oriented development in the metropolitan of Jabodetabek, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, H S; Moersidik, S; Koestoer, R; Soemardi, T P

    2014-01-01

    There is an interaction between land use, transportation, and environment in improving and managing urban quality. One of the concpets to integrate those three aspects is Transit Oriented Development (TOD). It is a concept for managing urban growth in transit corridors which have characteristics of mixed land use, compact, walkability, and development focused around public transit area. This research aims at utilizing GIS to organize, sort, and analyze spatial data including aspects of land use, transportation, and environment. Jabodetabek is a strategic metropolitan area in Indonesia, and consists of DKI Jakarta and the neighboring Bodetabek cities, with more than 27 million population in 2010. Approximately 1,105,000 people are entering Jakarta every workday from the negihboring Bodetabek region. The surge in the number of passenger cars and motorcycles is astonishing. In contrast, the usage of public transport has declined deeply. Public transport infrastructure development without the integration of TOD may not attain the objective of reducing car dependency. This paper discusses the study which was carried out to identify the applicability of TOD principles in Jabodetabek using GIS as a tool to analysis and create model

  13. Integrated modelling of economic-energy-environment scenarios - The impact of China and India's economic growth on energy use and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, F.; Sassi, O.; Guivarch, C.; Waisman, H.; Crassous, R.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2009-03-01

    A hybrid framework coupling the bottom-up energy sector WEM model with the top-down general equilibrium model IMACLIM-R is implemented to capture the macro-economic feedbacks of Chinese and Indian economic growth on energy and emissions scenarios. The iterative coupling procedure captures the detailed representation of energy use and supply while ensuring the micro-economic and macro-economic consistency of the different scenarios studied. The dual representation of the hybrid model facilitates the incorporation of energy sector expertise in internally consistent scenarios. The paper describes how the hybrid model was used to assess the effect of uncertainty on economic growth in China and India in the energy and emissions scenarios of the International Energy Agency. (authors)

  14. Physics Research Integrated Development Environment (PRIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.; Cormell, L.

    1993-12-01

    Past efforts to implement a Software Engineering approach to High Energy Physics computing have been met with significant resistance and have been, in many cases, only marginally successful. At least a portion of the problem has been the Lick of an integrated development environment, tailored to High Energy Physics and incorporating a suite of Computer Aided Software Engineering tools. The Superconducting Super Collider Physics Research Division Computing Department is implementing pilot projects to develop just such an environment

  15. Templates for integrated nanofiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de

    the growth direction and the nanofiber length and position can be controlled by placement of nano-structured lines on the substrate. These lines can be used to guide the surface diffusion and thereby steer the self-assembly process of the organic molecules leading to morphologically well-defined molecular...... the morphology of the resulting structures leading to notably different electrical properties. The transistor design influences its electrical characteristics, and the top-gate configuration shows to have the stronger gate effect. In addition, platforms for light-emitting devices were fabricated......Para-hexaphenylene (p6P) molecules have the ability to self-assemble into organic nanofibers. These nanofibers hold unique optoelectronic properties, which make them interesting candidates as elements in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Typically these nanofibers are grown on specific single...

  16. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Morales, Marco; Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  20. Approaches to Integrated Building Design Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Susanne C; Andersen, Tom

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses functional requirements and specification which needs to be defined and fulfilled to initiate development of an integrated building design environment. The purpose is to outline specifications for further discussion and development. The report documents the first phase...... in an ongoing project at the Technical University of Denmark. The overall project objective is to provide a theoretically well-founded prototype of an integrated IT-system which can serve as a device of feedback from practice and as a test-bed for the developed concept and architecture....

  1. Integrated project support environments the ASPECT project

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    A major part of software engineering developments involve the use of computing tools which facilitate the management, maintenance, security, and building of long-scale software engineer projects. Consequently, there have been a proliferation of CASE tools and IPSES. This book looks at IPSES in general and the ASPECT project in particular, providing design and implementation details, as well as locating ASPECT in IPSE developments.Survey of integrated project support environments for more efficient software engineering**Description of a large scale IPSE--ASPECT**Evaluation of formal methods in

  2. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  3. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  4. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  5. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  6. Multiphysics Integrated Coupling Environment (MICE) User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    The complex, multi-part nature of waste glass melters used in nuclear waste vitrification poses significant modeling challenges. The focus of this project has been to couple a 1D MATLAB model of the cold cap region within a melter with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of the melter itself. The Multiphysics Integrated Coupling Environment (MICE) has been developed to create a cohesive simulation of a waste glass melter that accurately represents the cold cap. The one-dimensional mathematical model of the cold cap uses material properties, axial heat, and mass fluxes to obtain a temperature profile for the cold cap, the region where feed-to-glass conversion occurs. The results from Matlab are used to update simulation data in the three-dimensional STAR-CCM+ model so that the cold cap is appropriately incorporated into the 3D simulation. The two processes are linked through ModelCenter integration software using time steps that are specified for each process. Data is to be exchanged circularly between the two models, as the inputs and outputs of each model depend on the other.

  7. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevertz, Jana L; Torquato, Salvatore; Gillies, George T

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics

  8. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  9. The Integration of Personal Learning Environments & Open Network Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Chan, Junn-Yih; Blocher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems traditionally provide structures to guide online learners to achieve their learning goals. Web 2.0 technology empowers learners to create, share, and organize their personal learning environments in open network environments; and allows learners to engage in social networking and collaborating activities. Advanced…

  10. Integrated environment, safety, and health management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Description that is presented in this document describes the approach and management systems used to address integrated safety management within the Richland Environmental Restoration Project

  11. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will provide NASA with an integrated visualization environment providing greater insight and a more intuitive representation of large technical...

  12. Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A comparative analysis of West and Central Africa ... taxes, which undermines fair competition and puts formal enterprises at a disadvantage. ... Start Date. December 1, 2012 ...

  13. Is growth bad for the environment? Pollution, abatement and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); F. van der Ploeg (Ploeg); J.B.L.M. Verbeek (Jos)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractRecentiy, the importance of environmental and economic "win-win" situations has been stressed, indicating that care of the environment requires economic growth, while economic growth in turn cannot take place without taking proper care of the environment. We generalize a popular

  14. Population Growth Rates: Connecting Mathematics to Studies of Society and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninbet, Steven; Hurley, Gabrielle; Weldon, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the teaching of a unit of lessons which integrates mathematics with studies of society and the environment. The unit entitled "Population Growth Rates" was taught to a double class of Year 6 students by a team of three teachers. The objectives of the unit were: (1) to provide students with a real-world context in…

  15. Integrated Virtual Environment Test Concepts and Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tackett, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    ...), a series of integration and verification tests were conducted to provide development milestones for the simulation architecture and tools that would be needed for the full-up live/virtual field experiment...

  16. Economic Growth and the Environment. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.M.

    1999-12-21

    A number of economists have claimed that economic growth benefits environmental quality as it raises political support and financial means for environmental policy measures. Since the early 1990s this view has increasingly been supported by empirical evidence that has challenged the traditional belief held by environmentalists that economic growth degrades the environment. This study investigates the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality and elaborates the question whether economic growth can be combined with a reduced demand for natural resources. Various hypotheses on this relationship are described and empirically tested for a number of indicators of environmental pressure. The outcome of the tests advocates the use of alternative models for estimation that alter conclusions about the relationship between economic growth and the environment and give insight into the driving forces of emission reduction in developed economies. refs.

  17. The Integrality of Situated Caring in Nursing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Olga F.

    2012-01-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on the importance of the environment as a determinant of health; however, little theoretical work in nursing has specifically articulated the importance of the nursing practice environment as a factor in patient outcomes. This work advances the unitary-transformative-caring paradigm by focusing on the concept of integrality and exploring the nursing meta-paradigm concepts (nursing, environment, human being, and health) through integral philosophical inquiry. PMID:22222236

  18. The Integrality of Situated Caring in Nursing and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrin, Olga F.

    2012-01-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on the importance of the environment as a determinant of health; however, little theoretical work in nursing has specifically articulated the importance of the nursing practice environment as a factor in patient outcomes. This work advances the unitary-transformative-caring paradigm by focusing on the concept of integrality and exploring the nursing meta-paradigm concepts (nursing, environment, human being, and health) through integral philosophical inquiry.

  19. Integration of Fishers' Perception on the Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Climate change, Green Economy, multinomial probit model, small- scale fisheries ... adoption of new preferences regarding environmental management and how these .... food security and poverty eradication in ... The challenges for SIDS are to integrate these ..... are thus facing unprecedented threats from.

  20. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  1. Integrated development environment for fuzzy logic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Andrea; Poluzzi, Rinaldo; Rizzotto, GianGuido; Lo Presti, Matteo

    1993-12-01

    During the last five years, Fuzzy Logic has gained enormous popularity, both in the academic and industrial worlds, breaking up the traditional resistance against changes thanks to its innovative approach to problems formalization. The success of this new methodology is pushing the creation of a brand new class of devices, called Fuzzy Machines, to overcome the limitations of traditional computing systems when acting as Fuzzy Systems and adequate Software Tools to efficiently develop new applications. This paper aims to present a complete development environment for the definition of fuzzy logic based applications. The environment is also coupled with a sophisticated software tool for semiautomatic synthesis and optimization of the rules with stability verifications. Later it is presented the architecture of WARP, a dedicate VLSI programmable chip allowing to compute in real time a fuzzy control process. The article is completed with two application examples, which have been carried out exploiting the aforementioned tools and devices.

  2. Integrating Hypermedia Techniques with Augmented Reality Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Augmented Reality systems, which overlay virtual information over the real world, can benefit greatly from the techniques established by the Open Hypermedia research field. Storing information and links separately from a document can be advantageous for augmented reality applications and can enable the adaption of content to suit users’ preferences. This thesis explores how Open Hypermedia systems might be used as the information systems behind AR environments. This provides benefits to augme...

  3. Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeniffer, Barringer; William, Lukens; Patricia, Wild

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

  4. Simulation of maize growth under conservation farming in tropical environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroosnijder, L.; Kiepe, P.

    1998-01-01

    This book is written for students and researchers with a keen interest in the quantification of the field soil water balance in tropical environments and the effect of conservation farming on crop production. Part 1 deals with the potential production, i.e. crop growth under ample supply of water

  5. An integration bridge for heterogeneous e-service environments

    OpenAIRE

    Baeta, Henrique Jorge Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores Home automation has evolved from a single integration of services (provided by devices, equipment, etc.) in the environment to a more broad integration of these core services with others(external to the environment) to create some added-value services for home users. This presents a key challenge of how to integrate disparate and heterogeneous e-service networks. To this, there exist already...

  6. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  7. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  8. Building integrated business environments: analysing open-source ESB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, M. A.; García Jimenez, F. J.; Gómez Skarmeta, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    Integration and interoperability are two concepts that have gained significant prominence in the business field, providing tools which enable enterprise application integration (EAI). In this sense, enterprise service bus (ESB) has played a crucial role as the underpinning technology for creating integrated environments in which companies may connect all their legacy-applications. However, the potential of these technologies remains unknown and some important features are not used to develop suitable business environments. The aim of this paper is to describe and detail the elements for building the next generation of integrated business environments (IBE) and to analyse the features of ESBs as the core of this infrastructure. For this purpose, we evaluate how well-known open-source ESB products fulfil these needs. Moreover, we introduce a scenario in which the collaborative system 'Alfresco' is integrated in the business infrastructure. Finally, we provide a comparison of the different open-source ESBs available for IBE requirements. According to this study, Fuse ESB provides the best results, considering features such as support for a wide variety of standards and specifications, documentation and implementation, security, advanced business trends, ease of integration and performance.

  9. Automated corrosion fatigue crack growth testing in pressurized water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceschini, L.J.; Liaw, P.K.; Rudd, G.E.; Logsdon, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes in detail a novel approach to construct a test facility for developing corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties in aggressive environments. The environment studied is that of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) at 288 0 C (550 0 F) and 13.8 MPa (200 psig). To expedite data generation, each chamber was designed to accommodate two test specimens. A common water recirculation and pressurization system was employed to service two test chambers. Thus, four fatigue crack propagation rate tests could be conducted simultaneously in the pressurized water environment. The data analysis was automated to minimize the typically high labor costs associated with corrosion fatigue crack propagation testing. Verification FCGR tests conducted on an ASTM A469 rotor steel in a room temperature air environment as well as actual PWR environment FCGR tests performed on an ASTM A533 Grade B Class 2 pressure vessel steel demonstrated that the dual specimen test facility is an excellent system for developing the FCGR properties of materials in adverse environments

  10. Work environments and organizational effectiveness: A call for integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.

    1994-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.

  11. Models for integrated components coupled with their EM environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioan, D.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ciuprina, G.; Meijs, van der N.P.; Schoenmaker, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The main aim of this study is the modelling of the interaction of on-chip components with their electromagnetic environment. Design/methodology/approach – The integrated circuit is decomposed in passive and active components interconnected by means of terminals and connectors

  12. The Effects of Integrating Social Learning Environment with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Cvetanovic, Svetlana; Medan, Ivana; Ljubojevic, Danijela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the learning and teaching styles using the Social Learning Environment (SLE), which was developed based on the computer supported collaborative learning approach. To avoid burdening learners with multiple platforms and tools, SLE was designed and developed in order to integrate existing systems, institutional…

  13. Evaluating Technology to Prevent Academic Integrity Violations in Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Protection of academic integrity in online environments can be challenging. Understanding how the technology works and concerns about each of the methods for monitoring online interactions can assist in the selection of the best proctoring tools. Depending on the content, the type of assessment and the comfort level with the technology, a…

  14. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-01-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed

  15. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Adamo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate path integration requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in path integration abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in path integration in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 yrs. and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 yrs. adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks performed in a virtual environment and two real world conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the virtual environment (VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For triangle completion tasks, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition; and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks, in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in path integration vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway.

  16. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  17. Integrated marketing communications paradigm in digital environment: The five pillars of integration

    OpenAIRE

    Rakić Beba; Rakić Mira

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on the paradigm of integrated marketing communications (IMC) in digital environment. The integration is analysed through five aspects. First, integration in terms of media; it means that IMC are performed through the mix of traditional media (print - newspapers, magazines; radio; television; direct-response media - telephone, direct mail, catalogue marketing; billboards; other 'specific media': product - especially brand, packaging; price; place; people; process; physica...

  18. Integrated development environment for multi-core systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Momčilo V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the software application that provides comfortable working environment of embedded software applications was always a difficult task to achieve. To reach this goal it was necessary to integrate all specific tools designed for that purpose. This paper describes Integrated Development Environment (IDE that was developed to meet all specific needs of a software development for the family of multi-core target platforms designed for a digital signal processing in Cirrus Logic Company. Eclipse platform and RCP (Rich Client Platform was used as a basis, because it provides an extensible plug-in system for customizing the development environment. CLIDE (Cirrus Logic Integrated Development Environment represent the epilog of that effort, reliable IDE used for development of embedded applications. Validation of the solution is accomplished thru 2641 J Unit tests that validate most of the CLIDE's functionalities. Developed IDE (CLIDE significantly increases a quality of a software development for multi-core systems and reduces time-to-market, thereby justifying development costs.

  19. How the Montessori Upper Elementary and Adolescent Environment Naturally Integrates Science, Mathematics, Technology, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John

    2016-01-01

    John McNamara shares his wisdom and humbly credits Camillo Grazzini, Jenny Höglund, and David Kahn for his growth in Montessori. Recognizing more than what he has learned from his mentors, he shares the lessons he has learned from his students themselves. Math, science, history, and language are so integrated in the curriculum that students…

  20. Mediator infrastructure for information integration and semantic data integration environment for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe, Jeffrey S; Ross, Edward; Little, David; Sanders, Brian; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents current progress in the development of semantic data integration environment which is a part of the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN; http://www.nbirn.net) project. BIRN is sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). A goal is the development of a cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research that supports advance data acquisition, data storage, data management, data integration, data mining, data visualization, and other computing and information processing services over the Internet. Each participating institution maintains storage of their experimental or computationally derived data. Mediator-based data integration system performs semantic integration over the databases to enable researchers to perform analyses based on larger and broader datasets than would be available from any single institution's data. This paper describes recent revision of the system architecture, implementation, and capabilities of the semantically based data integration environment for BIRN.

  1. Integrated Environment for Ubiquitous Healthcare and Mobile IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagalaban, Giovanni; Kim, Seoksoo

    The development of Internet technologies based on the IPv6 protocol will allow real-time monitoring of people with health deficiencies and improve the independence of elderly people. This paper proposed a ubiquitous healthcare system for the personalized healthcare services with the support of mobile IPv6 networks. Specifically, this paper discusses the integration of ubiquitous healthcare and wireless networks and its functional requirements. This allow an integrated environment where heterogeneous devices such a mobile devices and body sensors can continuously monitor patient status and communicate remotely with healthcare servers, physicians, and family members to effectively deliver healthcare services.

  2. Integrated Spreadsheets as Learning Environments for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This classroom note shares experience of using spreadsheets with a group of 2nd grade students. The main feature of the learning environments that made effective the integration of technology and grade appropriate mathematics is the use of images of modern tools such as the Nintendo DC, the Play Station Portable, and the iPhone. The idea is illustrated by presenting a number of worksheets of so modified spreadsheets called integrated spreadsheets. The authors suggest using spreadsheets in that way offers an attractive interface for young students and enhances significantly their on-task behavior.

  3. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  4. Integrating environment health and safety management at Petro-Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, G.

    1993-01-01

    Petro-Canada has developed a tool to integrate, measure, and improve its management systems of environment, health, and safety (EH ampersand S). This tool, called the Total Loss Management System, is described in the areas of general management issues, policies and procedures, evaluations, organization, stewardship, issue management, and performance measures. Petro-Canada's policies on occupational health and safety are consistent with its environmental policy, being structured in the same way. An integrated audit system is used to cover health, safety, industrial hygiene, reliability, environment, and risk management. EH ampersand S matters are integrated at the corporate level in a separate department. Regional divisions review EH ampersand S performance every month, incidents are discussed, and preventive measures are taken as necessary. Regional performances are combined every quarter for ultimate presentation to the Petro-Canada board. New or emerging issues that may affect divisions are assigned an issue sponsor, a member of divisional management who makes sure the issue receives the resources necessary to study and define its impact. Examples of issues include soil contamination, process hazard management, and benzene exposure limits. Performance measures flow from the corporate environment and occupational health and safety policies, and come in two types: those that measure activities to improve performance and those that measure the outcome of the activities

  5. Growth Control by Ethylene: Adjusting Phenotypes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Sasidharan, R.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants phenotypically adjust to environmental challenges, and the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many of these growth adjustments. Ethylene can be involved in environmentally induced growth inhibition as well as growth stimulation. Still, ethylene has long been considered a growth

  6. CONNJUR Workflow Builder: a software integration environment for spectral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Vyas, Jay; Sesanker, Colbert; Martyn, Timothy O; Ellis, Heidi J C; Gryk, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    CONNJUR Workflow Builder (WB) is an open-source software integration environment that leverages existing spectral reconstruction tools to create a synergistic, coherent platform for converting biomolecular NMR data from the time domain to the frequency domain. WB provides data integration of primary data and metadata using a relational database, and includes a library of pre-built workflows for processing time domain data. WB simplifies maximum entropy reconstruction, facilitating the processing of non-uniformly sampled time domain data. As will be shown in the paper, the unique features of WB provide it with novel abilities to enhance the quality, accuracy, and fidelity of the spectral reconstruction process. WB also provides features which promote collaboration, education, parameterization, and non-uniform data sets along with processing integrated with the Rowland NMR Toolkit (RNMRTK) and NMRPipe software packages. WB is available free of charge in perpetuity, dual-licensed under the MIT and GPL open source licenses.

  7. CONNJUR Workflow Builder: a software integration environment for spectral reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Vyas, Jay; Sesanker, Colbert [UConn Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Martyn, Timothy O. [Rensselaer at Hartford, Department of Engineering and Science (United States); Ellis, Heidi J. C. [Western New England College, Department of Computer Science and Information Technology (United States); Gryk, Michael R., E-mail: gryk@uchc.edu [UConn Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States)

    2015-07-15

    CONNJUR Workflow Builder (WB) is an open-source software integration environment that leverages existing spectral reconstruction tools to create a synergistic, coherent platform for converting biomolecular NMR data from the time domain to the frequency domain. WB provides data integration of primary data and metadata using a relational database, and includes a library of pre-built workflows for processing time domain data. WB simplifies maximum entropy reconstruction, facilitating the processing of non-uniformly sampled time domain data. As will be shown in the paper, the unique features of WB provide it with novel abilities to enhance the quality, accuracy, and fidelity of the spectral reconstruction process. WB also provides features which promote collaboration, education, parameterization, and non-uniform data sets along with processing integrated with the Rowland NMR Toolkit (RNMRTK) and NMRPipe software packages. WB is available free of charge in perpetuity, dual-licensed under the MIT and GPL open source licenses.

  8. The integration of natural and built environment data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current situation in Europe with regard to the integration of natural and built environment data, and with a focus on the experience of Denmark. The European approach is based on the EU initiative known as INSPIRE that builds the overall concept for geospatial data...... integration, The Danish approach is presented in more details with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. It is concluded that the European approach is well...... designed for setting a standard with regard to data integration. In the case of Denmark it is concluded that the Spatial Data Infrastructure works well even if there is no official policy in this area. Also the Land Administration System (LAS) works well in the sense that it supports sustainable...

  9. CONNJUR Workflow Builder: a software integration environment for spectral reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Vyas, Jay; Sesanker, Colbert; Martyn, Timothy O.; Ellis, Heidi J. C.; Gryk, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    CONNJUR Workflow Builder (WB) is an open-source software integration environment that leverages existing spectral reconstruction tools to create a synergistic, coherent platform for converting biomolecular NMR data from the time domain to the frequency domain. WB provides data integration of primary data and metadata using a relational database, and includes a library of pre-built workflows for processing time domain data. WB simplifies maximum entropy reconstruction, facilitating the processing of non-uniformly sampled time domain data. As will be shown in the paper, the unique features of WB provide it with novel abilities to enhance the quality, accuracy, and fidelity of the spectral reconstruction process. WB also provides features which promote collaboration, education, parameterization, and non-uniform data sets along with processing integrated with the Rowland NMR Toolkit (RNMRTK) and NMRPipe software packages. WB is available free of charge in perpetuity, dual-licensed under the MIT and GPL open source licenses

  10. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Heerwagen, J.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  11. Integration of optical fibers in radiative environments: Advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Baggio, J.; Meunier, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in radiative environments. Optical fibers present numerous advantages for applications in harsh environments such as their electromagnetic immunity. This explains the increasing interest of the radiation effects community to evaluate their vulnerability for future facilities. However, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation. We illustrate the major mechanisms and parameters that govern the degradation mechanism, mainly the radiation-induced attenuation phenomena. We focus on the fiber transient radiation responses when exposed to the pulsed and mixed environment associated with the Megajoule class lasers devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement study. (authors)

  12. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Crystal Growth and Other Materials Physical Researches in Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingxiang

    Material science researches in space environment are based on reducing the effects of buoyancy driven transport, the effects of atomic oxygen, radiation, extremes of heat and cold and the ultrahigh vacuum, so as to unveil the underlying fundamental phenomena, lead maybe to new potential materials or new industrial processes and develop space techniques. Currently, research program on materials sciences in Chinese Manned Space Engineering (CMSE) is going on. More than ten projects related to crystal growth and materials processes are selected as candidates to be executed in Shenzhou spacecraft, Tiangong Space Laboratory and Chinese Space Station. In this talk, we will present some examples of the projects, which are being prepared and executed in the near future flight tasks. They are both basic and applied research, from discovery to technology.

  14. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  15. Recursive utility in a Markov environment with stochastic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars Peter; Scheinkman, José A

    2012-07-24

    Recursive utility models that feature investor concerns about the intertemporal composition of risk are used extensively in applied research in macroeconomics and asset pricing. These models represent preferences as the solution to a nonlinear forward-looking difference equation with a terminal condition. In this paper we study infinite-horizon specifications of this difference equation in the context of a Markov environment. We establish a connection between the solution to this equation and to an arguably simpler Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue equation of the type that occurs in the study of large deviations for Markov processes. By exploiting this connection, we establish existence and uniqueness results. Moreover, we explore a substantive link between large deviation bounds for tail events for stochastic consumption growth and preferences induced by recursive utility.

  16. Precision Security: Integrating Video Surveillance with Surrounding Environment Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance plays a vital role in maintaining the social security although, until now, large uncertainty still exists in danger understanding and recognition, which can be partly attributed to intractable environment changes in the backgrounds. This article presents a brain-inspired computing of attention value of surrounding environment changes (EC with a processes-based cognition model by introducing a ratio value λ of EC-implications within considered periods. Theoretical models for computation of warning level of EC-implications to the universal video recognition efficiency (quantified as time cost of implication-ratio variations from λk to λk+1, k=1,2,… are further established. Imbedding proposed models into the online algorithms is suggested as a future research priority towards precision security for critical applications and, furthermore, schemes for a practical implementation of such integration are also preliminarily discussed.

  17. Integrating Sustainability in a PBL Environment for Electronics Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsat, Mahyuddin; Holgaard, Jette Egelund; de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    (PBL) has been put forward as a promising pedagogical model and emerged as an opportunity to implement sustainability successfully. Due to the almost forty years of experience in PBL, a case study was carried out at Aalborg University, Denmark to excerpt their experience of integrating sustainability...... in a problem based learning environment. Three electronics engineering project modules were selected as example and empirically supported by constructed interviews with staff and document analysis of selected material. The findings were analysed with a systems approach and presented with reference to three...

  18. Saint: a lightweight integration environment for model annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Allyson L; Pocock, Matthew; Taschuk, Morgan; Wipat, Anil

    2009-11-15

    Saint is a web application which provides a lightweight annotation integration environment for quantitative biological models. The system enables modellers to rapidly mark up models with biological information derived from a range of data sources. Saint is freely available for use on the web at http://www.cisban.ac.uk/saint. The web application is implemented in Google Web Toolkit and Tomcat, with all major browsers supported. The Java source code is freely available for download at http://saint-annotate.sourceforge.net. The Saint web server requires an installation of libSBML and has been tested on Linux (32-bit Ubuntu 8.10 and 9.04).

  19. Development of Integral Environment in Matlab/Simulink for FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jokic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented realization of integral environment which consists of software and hardware components for the purpose of programming Altera DE boards. Software component is Toolbox FPGA Real Time which enables simple use of Matlab/Simulink with DSP Builder for the purpose of realization of control structures. Hardware component are Interface cards that make connection of DE board with object of control possible. Simulation and experimental results of DC motor control indicate the usefulness of the proposed concept.

  20. Integrated forest management to prevent wildfires under Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermaria Corona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a multidisciplinary framework for integrating the ecological, regulatory, procedural and technical aspects of forest management for fires prevention under Mediterranean environments. The aims are to: i provide a foreground of wildfire scenario; ii illustrate the theoretical background of forest fuel management; iii describe the available fuel management techniques and mechanical operations for fire prevention in forest and wildland-urban interfaces, with exemplification of case-studies; iv allocate fire prevention activities under the hierarchy of forest planning. The review is conceived as an outline commentary discussion targeted to professionals, technicians and government personnel involved in forestry and environmental management.

  1. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  2. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of 2099-T83 Extrusions in two Different Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goma, Franck Armel Tchitembo; Larouche, Daniel; Bois-Brochu, Alexandre; Blais, Carls; Boselli, Julien; Brochu, Mathieu

    Aluminum-lithium alloy 2099-T83 is an advanced material with superior mechanical properties, as compared to traditional alloys used in structural applications, and has been selected for use in the latest generation of airplanes. While this alloy exhibits improved fatigue crack growth (FCG) performance over non-Li alloys, it is of interest to simulate the impact of fluctuating loads under variable temperature during airplane service, particularly in terms of the potential effects of material processing history. In the present paper, the FCG behavior in an Integrally Stiffened Panel (ISP) has been investigated both at room temperature and at 243 K. It has been shown that the resistance to crack growth in a cold environment was higher than in ambient laboratory air. Results of this investigation are discussed from the microfractographic point of view, with regard to the variation of the local extrusion aspect ratio, a parameter which correlates with both the crystallographic texture and the grain structure.

  3. MIMI: multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment for biomedical core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administratively, a core facility must be able to manage the scheduling of its equipment and to maintain a flexible and effective billing system to track material, resource, and personnel costs and charge for services to sustain its operation. It must also have the ability to regularly monitor the usage and performance of its equipment and to provide summary statistics on resources spent on different categories of research. To address these informatics challenges, we introduce a comprehensive system called MIMI (multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment) that integrates the administrative and scientific support of a core facility into a single web-based environment. We report the design, development, and deployment experience of a baseline MIMI system at an imaging core facility and discuss the general applicability of such a system in other types of core facilities. These initial results suggest that MIMI will be a unique, cost-effective approach to addressing the informatics infrastructure needs of core facilities and similar research laboratories.

  4. A functional-structural kiwifruit vine model integrating architecture, carbon dynamics and effects of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N; Hanan, Jim

    2011-04-01

    Functional-structural modelling can be used to increase our understanding of how different aspects of plant structure and function interact, identify knowledge gaps and guide priorities for future experimentation. By integrating existing knowledge of the different aspects of the kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vine's architecture and physiology, our aim is to develop conceptual and mathematical hypotheses on several of the vine's features: (a) plasticity of the vine's architecture; (b) effects of organ position within the canopy on its size; (c) effects of environment and horticultural management on shoot growth, light distribution and organ size; and (d) role of carbon reserves in early shoot growth. Using the L-system modelling platform, a functional-structural plant model of a kiwifruit vine was created that integrates architectural development, mechanistic modelling of carbon transport and allocation, and environmental and management effects on vine and fruit growth. The branching pattern was captured at the individual shoot level by modelling axillary shoot development using a discrete-time Markov chain. An existing carbon transport resistance model was extended to account for several source/sink components of individual plant elements. A quasi-Monte Carlo path-tracing algorithm was used to estimate the absorbed irradiance of each leaf. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the model's potential to reproduce the major features of the vine's behaviour. The model simulated vine growth responses that were qualitatively similar to those observed in experiments, including the plastic response of shoot growth to local carbon supply, the branching patterns of two Actinidia species, the effect of carbon limitation and topological distance on fruit size and the complex behaviour of sink competition for carbon. The model is able to reproduce differences in vine and fruit growth arising from various experimental treatments. This implies it will be a valuable

  5. Integrated marketing communications paradigm in digital environment: The five pillars of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the paradigm of integrated marketing communications (IMC in digital environment. The integration is analysed through five aspects. First, integration in terms of media; it means that IMC are performed through the mix of traditional media (print - newspapers, magazines; radio; television; direct-response media - telephone, direct mail, catalogue marketing; billboards; other 'specific media': product - especially brand, packaging; price; place; people; process; physical evidence; traditional/offline consumers - WOM communications and digital media ( the Internet; mobile phones and other mobile devices; digital newspapers and magazines through the Internet and mobile devices; digital radio; digital TV; digital consumers - digital WOM communications. Second, integration in terms of communication methods, it means that IMC are a mix of traditional promotion (advertising, personal selling, public relations & publicity, direct marketing, sales promotion, digital communications/interactions (Internet communications, mobile communications, communications via digital radio and TV and WOM communications/interactions (offline and online. Third, integration in terms of time of communications and possibilities for interaction, it means that IMC are a mix of traditionalstatic communications ('monologue' towards the target audience and dynamic communications ('dialogue' in real time. Fourth, integration in terms of actors, it means that IMC are a mix of communications initiated both by consumers (WOM communications - offline and online/e/digital and organizations. Fifth, integration in terms of content creation, it means that IMC are a mix of communications based on consumer generated content and marketing content (created by organisations.

  6. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao

    1987-11-01

    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  7. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of

  8. Integrated healthcare networks' performance: a growth curve modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas T H; Wang, Bill B L

    2003-05-01

    This study examines the effects of integration on the performance ratings of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) in the United States. A strategic-contingency theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. To create a database for the panel study, the top 100 IHNs selected by the SMG Marketing Group in 1998 were followed up in 1999 and 2000. The data were merged with the Dorenfest data on information system integration. A growth curve model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' performance in 1998 and their subsequent rankings in the consecutive years were analyzed. IHNs' initial performance scores were positively influenced by network size, number of affiliated physicians and profit margin, and were negatively associated with average length of stay and technical efficiency. The continuing high performance, judged by maintaining higher performance scores, tended to be enhanced by the use of more managerial or executive decision-support systems. Future studies should include time-varying operational indicators to serve as predictors of network performance.

  9. Improving Integrated Operation in the Joint Integrated Mission Model (JIMM) and the Simulated Warfare Environment Data Transfer (SWEDAT) Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutschler, David W

    2005-01-01

    ...). It allows integrated operation of resources whereby the JIMM threat environment, stimulators virtual cockpits, systems under test, and other agents are combined within the same simulation exercise...

  10. Integration of today's digital state with tomorrow's visual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Dennis R.; Liu, Victor; Markandey, Vishal; Heimbuch, Scott

    1996-03-01

    New developments in visual communication technologies, and the increasingly digital nature of the industry infrastructure as a whole, are converging to enable new visual environments with an enhanced visual component in interaction, entertainment, and education. New applications and markets can be created, but this depends on the ability of the visual communications industry to provide market solutions that are cost effective and user friendly. Industry-wide cooperation in the development of integrated, open architecture applications enables the realization of such market solutions. This paper describes the work being done by Texas Instruments, in the development of its Digital Light ProcessingTM technology, to support the development of new visual communications technologies and applications.

  11. A Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment: The AOU's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hammad

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to construct a Regional Integrated Virtual Learning Environment (RIVLE for the Arab Open University (AOU. AOU is a new nonprofit learning institution with branches in six Arab countries and more branches scheduled to open in the near future. The university adopts an open learning methodology. We describe the major elements of the RIVLE and their interaction. We present a generic interface between the RIVLE and the Student Information System (SIS. We focus on the characteristics of the pedagogical model in the Arab Open University context and explain why RIVLE would be a perfect fit for this model. We argue that the potential benefits of a RIVLE are realized in such a setting. We also study the possibility of extending the RIVLE to existing learning institutions in the region.

  12. The Philippines: integrated planning for balanced urban growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    During the past 80 years, the proportion of the Philippine population living in urban areas has nearly tripled, from 13% at the beginning of the 20th century to 36% in 1980. The number of people living in urban areas multipled 17-fold over this period. Currently, an estimated 17 million people live in urban areas, and this number is expected to reach 30 million by the year 2000. Migration from rural areas has been an important component of urban growth, but it has not been the principal one. Natural increase accounted for 54% of total urban growth in the 1960s and 1970s. A combination of reclassification and migration accounted for the rest. Big cities did not grow as rapidly as small cities, since their growth was generated largely by urban inmigration. Small cities tended to grow faster due to more natural increase than to inmigration. Philippine urbanization has been marked by increasing primacy. Metropolitan Manila, the largest city, has more than quadrupled in size since 1950. The phenomenon of primacy has been the cumulative consequence of historical, demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. It may also have resulted from growth policies which unintentionally and indirectly favored the premier city. For national planners, the issue of urbanization in the Philippines is closely intertwined with the country's development objectives, particularly those of reducing poverty and attaining a more equitable distribution of income and wealth. The integration of population growth and distribution trends into the planning process is very important. Efforts to actively advocate this approach at various planning levels have been initiated. More must be learned about population and development dynamics, and planning capabilities at all levels must be improved.

  13. Sensor integration and testing in an airborne environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Timothy P.; Streling, Julie T.; Williams, Kirk W.

    2005-11-01

    The U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC) has been supporting captive flight testing of missile sensors and seekers since the 1980's. Successful integration and test of sensors in an airborne environment requires attention to a broad range of disciplines. Data collection requirements drive instrumentation and flight profile configurations, which along with cost and airframe performance factors influence the choice of test aircraft. Installation methods used for instrumentation must take into consideration environmental and airworthiness factors. In addition, integration of test equipment into the aircraft will require an airworthiness release; procedures vary between the government for military aircraft, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the use of private, commercial, or experimental aircraft. Sensor mounting methods will depend on the type of sensor being used, both for sensor performance and crew safety concerns. Pilots will require navigation input to permit the execution of accurate and repeatable flight profiles. Some tests may require profiles that are not supported by standard navigation displays, requiring the use of custom hardware/software. Test locations must also be considered in their effect on successful data collection. Restricted airspace may also be required, depending on sensor emissions and flight profiles.

  14. Galileo: The Added Value for Integrity in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Daniele; Gioia, Ciro

    2016-01-16

    A global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based navigation is a challenging task in a signal-degraded environments where GNSS signals are distorted by multipath and attenuated by fading effects: the navigation solution may be inaccurate or unavailable. A possible approach to improve accuracy and availability is the joint use of measurements from different GNSSs and quality check algorithms; this approach is investigated here using live GPS and Galileo signals. A modified receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) algorithm, including geometry and separability checks, is proposed to detect and exclude erroneous measurements: the multi-constellation approach provides redundant measurements, and RAIM exploits them to exclude distorted observations. The synergy between combined GPS/Galileo navigation and RAIM is analyzed using live data; the performance is compared to the accuracy and availability of a GPS-only solution. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for GNSS-based navigation in signal-degraded environments. The joint use of the multi-constellation approach and of modified RAIM algorithms improves the performance of the navigation system in terms of both accuracy and availability.

  15. Galileo: The Added Value for Integrity in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Borio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A global navigation satellite system (GNSS-based navigation is a challenging task in a signal-degraded environments where GNSS signals are distorted by multipath and attenuated by fading effects: the navigation solution may be inaccurate or unavailable. A possible approach to improve accuracy and availability is the joint use of measurements from different GNSSs and quality check algorithms; this approach is investigated here using live GPS and Galileo signals. A modified receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM algorithm, including geometry and separability checks, is proposed to detect and exclude erroneous measurements: the multi-constellation approach provides redundant measurements, and RAIM exploits them to exclude distorted observations. The synergy between combined GPS/Galileo navigation and RAIM is analyzed using live data; the performance is compared to the accuracy and availability of a GPS-only solution. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for GNSS-based navigation in signal-degraded environments. The joint use of the multi-constellation approach and of modified RAIM algorithms improves the performance of the navigation system in terms of both accuracy and availability.

  16. Sub-critical crack growth and clad integrity in a PWR reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Foreman, A.J.E.; Sharples, J.K.

    1987-10-01

    The possibility of in-service growth of sub-critical defects in a PWR reactor pressure vessel to a critical size which could result in vessel failure was addressed in both the 1976 and 1982 reports of the Light Water Reactor Study Group (LWRSG), under the Chairmanship of Dr W Marshall (now Lord Marshall). An addendum to this report was published by UKAEA in April 1987. The section of the addendum dealing with subcritical crack growth and the related issue of integrity of the stainless steel cladding on the inner vessel surface is reproduced in this report. This section of the LWRSG addendum provides a review of the current status of fatigue crack growth and environmentally assisted cracking research for pressure vessel steels in light water reactor environments, as well as a review of developments in crack growth assessment methods. The review concludes that the alternative assessment procedures now being developed give a more realistic prediction of in service crack growth than the ASME Section XI Appendix A fatigue crack growth curves. (author)

  17. Interfacing with building data : toward an integrated mobile augmented environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkawi, A.M.; Srinivasan, R.S.; Veer, J.V. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Architecture

    2005-07-01

    Although building performance data is becoming more readily available, no research has been established to enable the visualization of, and interaction with this data for multi-room settings. This paper discussed a method to allow users to visualize and interact with building performance data in real space for multi-room settings. Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) demands effective data sharing between the physical room and the augmented environment. Spatial data needs to be channeled to the AR software environment without interruption, which calls for interoperability between various software programs through data protocol and attribute specifications that support efficient building information exchange. Visualizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data in multi-room settings involves the coordination of a number of issues related to AR technology, such as registration errors, motion tracking technology, and visualization technique. AR visualization assists in immersive visualization of post-processed CFD datasets with the aid of wireless see-through Head Mounted Devices (HMD) and magnetic motion trackers. The integrated mobile AR system presented in this paper demonstrated an effective calibration technique for removing registration errors and illustrated a new application of the visualization technique called isovolume as an integral part of volumetric visualization of CFD datasets. Isovolume refers to the collective volume generated by the user-defined upper and lower limits of any scalar volume data under investigation. The advantage of this method is the presentation of information at its actual location, offering an immediate understanding of thermodynamic spatial relationships in a room and the ability to explore the information through physical immersion. A study was presented in which the gradual increase in the upper limit of a temperature isovolume was connected to 3-D grids that referred to a user-defined temperature value, creating a volume representing

  18. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  19. An integrated development environment for PMESII model authoring, integration, validation, and debugging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Lofdahl, Corey; Sao Pedro, Michael; Krikeles, Basil; Morley, Liam

    2007-04-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness in Air Operations Centers supporting the Joint Forces Commander and Joint Force Air Component Commander, BAE Systems is developing a Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for model authoring, integration, validation, and debugging. CMIST is built on the versatile Eclipse framework, a widely used open development platform comprised of extensible frameworks that enable development of tools for building, deploying, and managing software. CMIST provides two distinct layers: 1) a Commander's IDE for supporting staff to author models spanning the Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, Information (PMESII) taxonomy; integrate multiple native (third-party) models; validate model interfaces and outputs; and debug the integrated models via intuitive controls and time series visualization, and 2) a PMESII IDE for modeling and simulation developers to rapidly incorporate new native simulation tools and models to make them available for use in the Commander's IDE. The PMESII IDE provides shared ontologies and repositories for world state, modeling concepts, and native tool characterization. CMIST includes extensible libraries for 1) reusable data transforms for semantic alignment of native data with the shared ontology, and 2) interaction patterns to synchronize multiple native simulations with disparate modeling paradigms, such as continuous-time system dynamics, agent-based discrete event simulation, and aggregate solution methods such as Monte Carlo sampling over dynamic Bayesian networks. This paper describes the CMIST system architecture, our technical approach to addressing these semantic alignment and synchronization problems, and initial results from integrating Political-Military-Economic models of post-war Iraq spanning multiple modeling paradigms.

  20. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  1. Integrated Software Environment for Pressurized Thermal Shock Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Araneo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the main features and an application to a real Nuclear Power Plant (NPP of an Integrated Software Environment (in the following referred to as “platform” developed at University of Pisa (UNIPI to perform Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS analysis. The platform is written in Java for the portability and it implements all the steps foreseen in the methodology developed at UNIPI for the deterministic analysis of PTS scenarios. The methodology starts with the thermal hydraulic analysis of the NPP with a system code (such as Relap5-3D and Cathare2, during a selected transient scenario. The results so obtained are then processed to provide boundary conditions for the next step, that is, a CFD calculation. Once the system pressure and the RPV wall temperature are known, the stresses inside the RPV wall can be calculated by mean a Finite Element (FE code. The last step of the methodology is the Fracture Mechanics (FM analysis, using weight functions, aimed at evaluating the stress intensity factor (KI at crack tip to be compared with the critical stress intensity factor KIc. The platform automates all these steps foreseen in the methodology once the user specifies a number of boundary conditions at the beginning of the simulation.

  2. GumTree - An Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia; Goetz, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Full text: GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis. (authors)

  3. Culture environment and hatchery of origin influence growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3.9 mg m–3) where, presumably to increase particle clearance rates in a relatively phytoplankton-poor environment, oysters had larger gill:palp surface area ratios. Plankton fatty acid profiles (indicators of food quality) differed between locations.

  4. The effect of defoliation environment on primary growth allocation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compositional shifts of bunchgrass species in the Southern Tall Grassveld in response to different combinations of non-selective mowing and burning appear to reflect differences in growth strategy among species, but there are few studies of South African grasses designed to test this. A descriptive study was undertaken ...

  5. The Role Of Environment In Stellar Mass Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    In this talk I give a brief summary of methods to measure galaxy environment. I then discuss the dependence of stellar population properties on environmental density: it turns out that the latter are driven by galaxy mass, and galaxy environment only plays a secondary role, mostly at late times in low-mass galaxies. I show that this evidence has now been extended to stellar population gradients using the IFU survey SDSS/MaNGA that again turn out to be independent of environment, including central-satellite classification. Finally I present results from the DES, where the dependence of the stellar mass function with redshift and environmental density is explored. It is found that the fraction of massive galaxies is larger in high density environments than in low density environments. The low density and high density components converge with increasing redshift up to z 1.0 where the shapes of the mass function components are indistinguishable. This study shows how high density structures build up around massive galaxies through cosmic time, which sets new valuable constraints on galaxy formation models.

  6. Does academic performance or personal growth share a stronger association with learning environment perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Sean; Wright, Scott M.; Shochet, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to characterize the relative strength of associations of learning environment perception with academic performance and with personal growth. Methods In 2012-2014 second and third year students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine completed a learning environment survey and personal growth scale. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was employed to determine if the proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was significantly larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance (course/clerkship grades). Results The proportion of variance in learning environment scores accounted for by personal growth was larger than the proportion accounted for by academic performance in year 2 [R2Δ of 0.09, F(1,175) = 14.99,  p environment scores shared a small amount of variance with academic performance in years 2 and 3.  The amount of variance between learning environment scores and personal growth was small in year 2 and large in year 3. Conclusions Since supportive learning environments are essential for medical education, future work must determine if enhancing personal growth prior to and during the clerkship year will increase learning environment perception. PMID:27570912

  7. Integrated site investigation and groundwater monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherl, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding groundwater dynamics around cities and other areas of human influence is of crucial importance for water resource management and protection, especially in a time of environmental and societal change. The human environment presents a unique challenge in terms of hydrological characterization, as the water cycle is generally artificialized and emissions of treated waste and chemical products into the surface- and groundwater system tend to disrupt the natural aqueous signature in significant ways. This project presents an integrated approach for robust characterization and monitoring of an urban aquifer which is actively exploited for municipal water supply. The study is carried out in the town of Fehraltorf, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. This particular town encompasses industrial and agricultural zones in addition to its standard urban setting. A minimal amount of data exist at this site, and the data that do exist are spatially and temporally sparse. Making use of traditional hydrogeological methods alongside evolving and emerging technologies, we aim to identify sources of contamination and to define groundwater flow and solute transport through space and time. Chemical and physical indicator parameters are identified for tracing contaminations including micropollutants and plant nutrients. Wireless sensors are installed for continuous on-line monitoring of essential parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, water level). A wireless sensor network has previously been installed in the sewer system of the study site, facilitating investigation into interactions between sewer water and groundwater. Our approach illustrates the relations between land use, climate, rainfall dynamics, and the groundwater signature through time. At its conclusion, insights gained from this study will be used by municipal authorities to refine protective zones around pumping wells and to direct resources towards updating practices and replacing

  8. The Integrated Computational Environment for Airbreathing Hypersonic Flight Vehicle Modeling and Design Evaluation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated computational environment for multidisciplinary, physics-based simulation and analyses of airbreathing hypersonic flight vehicles will be developed....

  9. Integration of optical fibers in mega-joule class laser environments: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, S.; Marcandella, C.; Bisutti, J.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J.P.; Baggio, J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in the radiative environment associated with Megajoule class lasers as Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in France or National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the USA. Optical fibers present numerous advantages, like their electromagnetic immunity, for integration in these facilities devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement studies. Despite these advantages, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation, limiting their transmission capability. We studied the major mechanisms governing the amplitude of this degradation, focusing our discussion on the transient radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) phenomena that is often the limiting factor for LMJ applications. The amplitude and growth and decay kinetics of RIA are affected by different parameters related to the fibers themselves but also depend on the application and irradiation characteristics. We particularly investigated the fiber transient radiation responses when the optical links have to operate during the pulsed and mixed environment associated with ignition shots. Our study shows that, if the same parameters affect the fiber sensitivity for steady state and transient irradiations, the radiation tolerances of the different classes of waveguides strongly differ, implying dedicated experiments for LMJ facility needs. (authors)

  10. Genotype by environment interactions for growth in Red Angus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennewald, D J; Weaber, R L; Lamberson, W R

    2017-02-01

    Accuracy of sire selection is limited by how well animals are characterized for their environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotype × environment interactions (G×E) for birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW) for Red Angus in the United States. Adjusted weights were provided by the Red Angus Association of America. Environments were defined as 9 regions within the continental United States with similar temperature-humidity indices. Mean weights of calves were determined for each region and for each sire's progeny within each region. A reaction norm (RN) for each bull was estimated by regressing the sire means on the region means weighted for the number of progeny of each sire. The range for BiW and WW RN was -1.3 to 4.0 and -1.7 to 2.8, respectively. The heritabilities of BiW and WW RN were 0.40 and 0.39, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between BiW and WW RN were 0.19 and 0.54, respectively. The phenotypic correlation of the progeny mean to the RN was -0.20 ( <0.05) and suggests that sires with higher means are more stable in progeny performance across environments. Weights in different regions were considered separate traits and genetic correlations were estimated between all pairs of regions as another method to determine G×E. Genetic correlations < 0.80 indicate G×E at a level for concern, but existed for only 2 of 36 estimates for BiW and 12 of 36 estimates for WW. Genetic correlations between different regions ranged from 0.74 to 0.96 for BiW and 0.62 to 0.99 for WW and indicate that sires tend to rank similarly across environments for these traits.

  11. Growth versus the environment - Is there a trade-off?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, P

    1997-04-01

    The intensity of energy and materials use in OECD countries is diminishing over time despite falling metal and energy prices. Material demand is sometimes falling in absolute terms, but there are also a few examples of rapid growth. The supply of fossil fuels and minerals is being exhausted, in some cases at a rapid speed, but the question addressed here is whether the rate of depletion is so fast that there will be no time for technical progress to create adequate substitutes. Overall, this appears not to be the case. The two main industrial metals are very abundant, and most minor metals already have substitutes for many of their applications. A few metals can be expected to become very scarce, but much of the large quantities in use could be recycled. Developments in OECD Europe over the last 25 years have resulted in relative or absolute delinking between economic growth and environmental damage. On the other hand, it is uncertain whether continuing economic development along these lines will in all cases lead to the achievement of sustainable development, even over 25-30 years. Indeed, this study identifies some examples where slower GDP growth would have resulted in less damage (e.g. household waste and emissions of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and possibly the depletion of fish stocks and the negative impact of forestry and agriculture on biodiversity.) 500 refs

  12. Placental responses to changes in the maternal environment determine fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Genelyn eDimasuay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental responses to maternal perturbations are complex and remain poorly understood. Altered maternal environment during pregnancy such as hypoxia, stress, obesity, diabetes, toxins, altered nutrition, inflammation, and reduced utero-placental blood flow may influence fetal development, which can predispose to diseases later in life. The placenta being a metabolically active tissue responds to these perturbations by regulating the fetal supply of nutrients and oxygen and secretion of hormones into the maternal and fetal circulation. We have proposed that placental nutrient sensing integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensing signaling pathways to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and placental nutrient transport. Emerging evidence suggests that the nutrient-sensing signaling pathway mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a central role in this process. Thus, placental nutrient sensing plays a critical role in modulating maternal-fetal resource allocation, thereby affecting fetal growth and the life-long health of the fetus.

  13. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  14. Integrated Monitoring AWAReness Environment (IM-AWARE), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — American GNC Corporation (AGNC) and Louisiana Tech University (LaTECH) are proposing a significant breakthrough technology, the Integrated Monitoring AWAReness...

  15. Supply chain integration in the South African conveyancing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea P. Amadi-Echendu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although conveyancing is a legal term, business management and specifically operations management principles also apply to the processes involved in conveyancing. From a business perspective, each organisation is usually concerned with its own profit margins and processes. In our global market, however, organisations now realise that they can no longer compete successfully on the basis of their internal operational efficiencies alone. They are therefore constantly aware of the need to improve not only their internal processes but also their alignment with other supply chain linkages in an effort to optimise the performance of the whole supply chain. Such alignment, in the conveyancing environment, includes government departments that are generally less willing to adopt business principles, which in turn makes optimisation of the whole supply chain more difficult. Objectives: The article describes a supply chain perspective of the conveyancing processes in South Africa and reports some of the factors that influence and delay conveyancing transactions. It explores possibilities of collaborative relationships between different role players in the conveyancing supply chain. It aims to show that a supply chain approach, as opposed to a singular organisational approach, can help to reduce process bottlenecks and delays in order to improve overall process efficiency. Method: The research, on which the findings are based, was exploratory in nature and followed a mixed-methods (quantitative or qualitative approach and included both structured questionnaires and personal interviews. Results: The results of the study revealed that many different types of delays occur at various entities across the whole supply chain involved in property transfers. These delays are presented in a table and diagram. Conclusion: It is recommended that greater adoption of electronic technology across the whole supply chain would improve overall efficiency

  16. Hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of HULIS from different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjerring; Wex, Heike; Nekat, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    the hygroscopic growth and CCN activity of water extracts (WE) and HULIS extracted from particulate matter (PM) collected at a polluted urban site (Copenhagen, Denmark), a rural site (Melpitz, Germany) and the remote site Storm Peak Laboratory (Colorado, USA) were investigated. Measurements of inorganic ions......, elemental carbon, organic carbon and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) within the PM confirmed that the sources of aerosol particles most likely differed for the three samples. The hygroscopic properties of the filtered WE were characterized by hygroscopicity parameters for subsaturated conditions (k...

  17. Network analysis of epidermal growth factor signaling using integrated genomic, proteomic and phosphorylation data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina M Waters

    Full Text Available To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  18. Network Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling using Integrated Genomic, Proteomic and Phosphorylation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Willse, Alan R.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Kathmann, Loel E.; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2012-03-29

    To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  19. Integrated Environment and Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL, R.L.

    2000-01-10

    The Integrated Environment, Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan serves as the project document to guide the Fluor Hanford, Inc (FHI) and Major Subcontractor (MSC) participants through the steps necessary to complete the integration of environment, safety, and health into management and work practices at all levels.

  20. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  1. Integrated Environment and Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MITCHELL, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Environment, Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan serves as the project document to guide the Fluor Hanford, Inc (FHI) and Major Subcontractor (MSC) participants through the steps necessary to complete the integration of environment, safety, and health into management and work practices at all levels

  2. Integrating physiological and biomechanical drivers of population growth over environmental gradients on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Connolly, Sean R

    2012-03-15

    Coral reefs exhibit marked spatial and temporal variability, and coral reef organisms exhibit trade-offs in functional traits that influence demographic performance under different combinations of abiotic environmental conditions. In many systems, trait trade-offs are modelled using an energy and/or nutrient allocation framework. However, on coral reefs, differences in biomechanical vulnerability have major demographic implications, and indeed are believed to play an essential role in mediating species coexistence because highly competitive growth forms are vulnerable to physical dislodgment events that occur with high frequency (e.g. annual summer storms). Therefore, an integrated energy allocation and biomechanics framework is required to understand the effect of physical environmental gradients on species' demographic performance. However, on coral reefs, as in most ecosystems, the effects of environmental conditions on organisms are measured in different currencies (e.g. lipid accumulation, survival and number of gametes), and thus the relative contributions of these effects to overall capacity for population growth are not readily apparent. A comprehensive assessment of links between the environment and the organism, including those mediated by biomechanical processes, must convert environmental effects on individual-level performance (e.g. survival, growth and reproduction) into a common currency that is relevant to the capacity to contribute to population growth. We outline such an approach by considering the population-level performance of scleractinian reef corals over a hydrodynamic gradient, with a focus on the integrating the biomechanical determinants of size-dependent coral colony dislodgment as a function of flow, with the effects of flow on photosynthetic energy acquisition and respiration.

  3. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Kristi

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as I plan to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  4. [Impact of new trend of ecological environment changes on growth, reproduction and diffusion of Oncomelania hupensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Xie; Li-Yong, Wen

    2016-03-07

    Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum , and the growth, reproduction and distribution of O.hupensis play an important role in schistosomiasis prevalence and transmission. This article reviews the influence of the new trend of ecological environment changes on the growth, reproduction and diffusion of the snails.

  5. Phytoplankton growth, dissipation, and succession in estuarine environments. [Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H

    1976-01-01

    Two major advances in a study of phytoplankton ecology in the Chesapeake Bay are reported. The annual subsurface transport of a dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum mariae labouriae) from the mouth of the bay a distance northward of 120 nautical miles to the region of the Bay Bridge was followed. Prorocentrum is a major seasonal dinoflagellate in the Chespeake Bay and annually has been reported to form mahogany tides, dense reddish-brown patches, in the northern bay beginning in late spring and continuing through the summer. Subsequent to this annual appearance the Prorocentrum spread southward and into the western tributary estuaries. The physiological behavioral characteristics of the Prorocentrum were correlated with the physical water movements in the bay. A phytoplankton cage technique for the measurement in situ of the growth rates of natural mixed populations is described. (CH)

  6. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of companies providing transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Žvirblis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main principles of the integrated evaluation of macro environment components and factors influencing the performance of transport companies as well as providing the validated quantitative evaluation models and results obtained in evaluating the macro environment of Lithuanian companies providing transport services. Since quantitative evaluation is growing in importance, the process of developing the principles and methods of business macro environment quantitative evaluation is becoming relevant from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The created methodology is based on the concept of macro environment as an integrated whole of components, formalization and the principle of three-stage quantitative evaluation. The methodology suggested involves the quantitative evaluation of primary factors and macro environment components as an integral dimension (expressed in points. On the basis of this principle, an integrated macro environment evaluation parameter is established as its level index. The methodology integrates the identification of significant factors, building scenarios, a primary analysis of factors, expert evaluation, the quantitative evaluation of macro environment components and their whole. The application of the multi-criteria Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method is validated. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of Lithuanian freight transportation companies was conducted. As a result, the level indices of all components as well as the level index of macro environment considered as a whole of components were identified. The latter reflects the extent of deviation from an average level of a favourable macro environment. This is important for developing strategic marketing decisions and expanding a strategic area.

  7. Interaction Between the Environment and Animals in Urban Settings: Integrated and Participatory Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, Elvira

    2006-11-01

    In urban ecosystems, the ecological system has become completely unbalanced; this, in turn, has led to an increase in well-known problems such as air pollution, ground pollution, and water pollution. This imbalance has also led to the growth and spread of pathogens harmful to man, animals, and plants. Urban sustainability indicators, both global and local, also “indicate” the percentage of population, but these refer only to the human population, not the animal population. Cities need good waste, water, and air management, effective traffic planning, and good zoning of businesses, crafts, and services; over and above these activities, cities also need for planning to take into account the existence of pets (dogs, cats, and etc.) and nonpet animals (insects, birds, mice, etc.). Cities tend to be designed around humans and “on a human scale,” without taking into account the fact that a huge animal population is living side by side with people. That explains why overcrowding tends to go hand in hand with urbanization; all these populations, including humans, need to adapt to new spaces and often need to drastically change their behavior. This is a fact that must be included when drafting sustainable city plans. The supposed strategy is that of “integrated-participatory” control of the interactions between the environment and animals in the cities. Strategy will focus on the development of integrated approaches and tools for environment and animal management in the context of urban settings. This will require such specific methods as ecological balance sheets and ecoplans for the planning, management, and control of the interrelation among environment, animal, and public health. The objective is to develop a better understanding of urban biodiversity and of urban ecosystem functioning, in order to understand and minimize the negative impacts of human activities on them. The research will focus on assessing and forecasting changes in urban biodiversity

  8. Integrin β1 regulates leiomyoma cytoskeletal integrity and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are characterized by an excessive extracellular matrix, increased mechanical stress, and increased active RhoA. Previously, we observed that mechanical signaling was attenuated in leiomyoma, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Integrins, especially integrin β1, are transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple extracellular matrix stresses to the intracellular cytoskeleton to influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we characterized integrin and laminin to signaling in leiomyoma cells. We observed a 2.25 ± 0.32 fold increased expression of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. Antibody-mediated inhibition of integrin β1 led to significant growth inhibition in leiomyoma cells and a loss of cytoskeletal integrity. Specifically, polymerization of actin filaments and formation of focal adhesions were reduced by inhibition of integrin p1. Inhibition of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells led to 0.81 ± 0.02 fold decrease in active RhoA, and resembled levels found in serum-starved cells. Likewise, inhibition of integrin β1 was accompanied by a decrease in phospho-ERK. Compared to myometrial cells, leiomyoma cells demonstrated increased expression of integrin α6 subunit to laminin receptor (1.91 ± 0.11 fold), and increased expression of laminin 5α (1.52±0.02), laminin 5β (3.06±0.92), and laminin 5γ (1.66 ± 0.06). Of note, leiomyoma cells grown on laminin matrix appear to realign themselves. Taken together, the findings reveal that the attenuated mechanical signaling in leiomyoma cells is accompanied by an increased expression and a dependence on integrin β1 signaling in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. PMID:23023061

  9. The growth of nuclear investments in a market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2006-01-01

    After a long period of low nuclear investments owing to major political and regulatory obstacles, the governments of industrialized countries are again looking at nuclear energy as a major political option addressing long term weather and energy security risks. But the liberalization of electrical industries currently adds a major requirement to that highly capitalistic type of investment perceives by investors as presenting specific risks. The reference competitive model is particularly incompatible with that type of investment in production for competing companies. But it is moving towards more investment-friendly structures. After indicating the specific requirements for nuclear investments in market environments, this article offers possible model adjustment options that could enable to boost such investments through drastic distancing: the development of long term electrical contracts, vertical and horizontal reintegration with a view to price - risk control and price - volume control, or the removal from the market of new nuclear productions through a purchase duty. (author)

  10. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is emphasizing the use of larger, more integrated models in conjunction with systems engineering tools and decision support systems. These tools place a...

  11. Integrated Data-Driven DSS in a Laboratory Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hargrave, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    ...) can potentially increase a user's ability to create more complex decision support projects. A well-designed IDTE will allow users to identify, learn about, access, execute and integrate disparate decision technologies...

  12. Integrating Intelligent Structured Training with a Virtual Dismounted Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Randy; Tasoluk, Coskun; Marshall, Henry; Sims, Jason; Green, Gary

    2007-01-01

    .... This paper reviews results from the integration of an Intelligent Structured Trainer with the embedded Virtual Warrior Soldier prototype developed for the Army RDECOM Simulation and Training Technology Center...

  13. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  14. MathModelica - An Extensible Modeling and Simulation Environment with Integrated Graphics and Literate Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2002-01-01

    MathModelica is an integrated interactive development environment for advanced system modeling and simulation. The environment integrates Modelica-based modeling and simulation with graphic design, advanced scripting facilities, integration of program code, test cases, graphics, documentation, mathematical type setting, and symbolic formula manipulation provided via Mathematica. The user interface consists of a graphical Model Editor and Notebooks. The Model Editor is a graphical user interfa...

  15. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available flights enter our airspace. To control/coordinate the border environment effectively requires a vast range of information sources, reconnaissance and surveillance sensors, a communications infrastructure and a hub where information can be collected...

  16. International Financial Integration and Economic Growth in India: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayia MAHAJAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavors to estimate relationship between international financial integration and economic growth in India during 1981-2011. Apart from direct impact of international financial integration on growth, indirect impact (via financial development has also been studied empirically. Models of co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM have been applied to examine the relationships. The study observes that international financial integration affects the growth of the economy positively; and change in economic growth due to it through financial development is approximately 8.63 percent. The study also suggests that the structural reforms that took place in India in early nineties did not affect the existing relationship of global financial integration and economic growth significantly.

  17. Population growth and environment as a self-organizing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years a new understanding of complex systems, and their dynamics and evolution has emerged, and these have been shown to provide a new basis for models of the changing patterns of population and economic activities that shape the landscape. In this paper we make clear the necessarily partial description that any particular model must provide, and show the importance of a multidisciplinary, holistic understanding, linking any particular model to the co-evolution of its environment. In addition, we show how evolutionary processes link the microscopic level of molecules through successive scales of structure and organization ultimately to the biosphere itself, to issues of climatic change, of biomes at the continental scale and atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. Some very recent results will be shown which demonstrate that the world climate has already been modified considerably by human activities, particularly agriculture, underlining the vital need to understand better the on-going interaction between human activities and the biosphere.

  18. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Hlavacs, Helmut; Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  19. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  20. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user’s data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user’s data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called “Data Provenance”. Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking. PMID:28545151

  1. Effect of integrated nutrient management on nut production of coconut and soil environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, P.A.; Rajpar, I.

    2014-01-01

    With the adoption of new technology of intensive cropping with high yielding varieties, there is a considerable demand on soil for supply of nutrients. However, the native fertility of our soils is poor and cannot sustain high yields. Sustainable agricultural production incorporates the idea that natural resources should be used to generate increased output and incomes, without depleting the natural resources. The solution is application of integrated nutrient management (INM). It is the system, which envisages the use of organic wastes, biofertilisers and inorganic fertilizers in judicious combinations to sustain soil productivity. The conjunctive use of organic and inorganic sources improves soil health and helps in maximization production as it involves utilization of local sources and, hence turned to be rational, realistic and economically viable way of supply of nutrients. Coconut is a versatile tree and is the most popular home garden crop in the world. It is very beneficial for health because of its high nutrient management affects on its growth and yield characteristics to a great extent. This paper, therefore, presents a review on various aspects of INM used to improve soil environment, coconut growth and yield characters. (author)

  2. Integrity and security in an Ada runtime environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    A review is provided of the Formal Methods group discussions. It was stated that integrity is not a pure mathematical dual of security. The input data is part of the integrity domain. The group provided a roadmap for research. One item of the roadmap and the final position statement are closely related to the space shuttle and space station. The group's position is to use a safe subset of Ada. Examples of safe sets include the Army Secure Operating System and the Penelope Ada verification tool. It is recommended that a conservative attitude is required when writing Ada code for life and property critical systems.

  3. Integrating analytical procedures into the continuous audit environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Koskivaara

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show how to embed analytical procedures (AP into the continuous audit environment. The audit environment is discussed in terms of audit phases, where the role of APs is to obtain evidence for auditors. The article addresses different characteristics of AP techniques. Furthermore, the article compares four different AP techniques to form expectations for the monthly sales values. Two of these techniques are simple quantitative ones, such as the previous year’s value and the mean of the previous years’ values. The advanced quantitative techniques are regression analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN-based model. In a comparison of the prediction results, the regression analysis and ANN model turn out to be equally good. The development of these kinds of tools is crucial to the continuous audit environment, especially when most data transmission between companies and their stakeholders are moved into the electronic form.

  4. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H

    2011-02-16

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but

  5. Integrated Environment Control and Long-Term Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maria MINEA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of environment is an apparently easy-to-debate subject, but, in fact, it is a very complex and tender issue, concerning the whole mankind. The observation and the analysis of the environment carried out especially by scientists; as well as the environmental monitoring of its quality confers new dimensions to the problem, because man is now faced with a horrible scourge of his own creation: pollution. The purpose of durable development is to find the optimum measure among four systems: the economic, the technologic, the ambient and the human.

  6. Personal epistemological growth in a college chemistry laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rocha, Linda S.

    whether these belief changes and beliefs about laboratory instruction are enduring or whether some participants are simply more adaptable than others are to the learning environment. More research studies are needed to investigate the effects of laboratory instruction on student beliefs and understanding.

  7. Thailand Environment Monitor : Integrated Water Resources Management - A Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Water is everyone's business. Beside a necessity for living, water has implications on public health and, most importantly, can cause social conflicts. This is because water is limited, is difficult to control, and can easily be polluted. The Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) process is considered worldwide as a means to reduce social conflicts from competing water needs as well ...

  8. Integrated Information Centers within Academic Environments: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Luis F., Ed.; D'Elia, George, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces eight articles on the Integrated Information Center (IIC) Project, which investigated significant behavioral, technological, organizational, financial, and legal factors involved in the management of IICs. Four articles address design and management issues of general interest, and four focus on specific design considerations and a…

  9. Supporting Public Administration with an Integrated BPR Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaghi, Aaron; Villafiorita, Adolfo; Weldemariam, Komminist; Mattioli, Andrea; Phan, Quoc-Sang

    The definition or redesign of Public Administration (PA) procedures is particularly challenging. This is, for example, due to the requirement of cooperation of different organizational units and actors, different laws and procedures for the production of several artifacts, and maintaining traceability while integrating processes with new laws.

  10. Integrating Adaptive Games in Student-Centered Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Blanco, Angel; Torrente, Javier; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2010-01-01

    The increasing adoption of e-Learning technology is facing new challenges, such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to each student's needs. In this context, educational video games are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of students' performance for assessment purposes, but integrating the…

  11. Veillonella Catalase Protects the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum in Microaerophilic and Streptococcus gordonii-Resident Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoli; Huang, I-Hsiu; Qi, Fengxia

    2017-10-01

    The oral biofilm is a multispecies community in which antagonism and mutualism coexist among friends and foes to keep an ecological balance of community members. The pioneer colonizers, such as Streptococcus gordonii , produce H 2 O 2 to inhibit the growth of competitors, like the mutans streptococci, as well as strict anaerobic middle and later colonizers of the dental biofilm. Interestingly, Veillonella species, as early colonizers, physically interact (coaggregate) with S. gordonii A putative catalase gene ( catA ) is found in most sequenced Veillonella species; however, the function of this gene is unknown. In this study, we characterized the ecological function of catA from Veillonella parvula PK1910 by integrating it into the only transformable strain, Veillonella atypica OK5, which is catA negative. The strain (OK5- catA ) became more resistant to H 2 O 2 Further studies demonstrated that the catA gene expression is induced by the addition of H 2 O 2 or coculture with S. gordonii Mixed-culture experiments further revealed that the transgenic OK5- catA strain not only enhanced the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum , a strict anaerobic periodontopathogen, under microaerophilic conditions, but it also rescued F. nucleatum from killing by S. gordonii A potential role of catalase in veillonellae in biofilm ecology and pathogenesis is discussed here. IMPORTANCE Veillonella species, as early colonizers, can coaggregate with many bacteria, including the initial colonizer Streptococcus gordonii and periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum , during various stages of oral biofilm formation. In addition to providing binding sites for many microbes, our previous study also showed that Veillonella produces nutrients for the survival and growth of periodontal pathogens. These findings indicate that Veillonella plays an important "bridging" role in the development of oral biofilms and the ecology of the human oral cavity. In this study, we demonstrated that the reducing

  12. Old growth revisited: integrating social, economic, and ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Thomas Spies; Sally.   Duncan

    2009-01-01

    How should old-growth forests be managed? Should they be managed? Stakeholders with differing values and agendas have debated these questions for years. Over time, the debate has evolved: now there is greater awareness about the complexity of old-growth ecosystems and different ways humans value them. A scientist at the Pacific Northwest Research Station has co-edited...

  13. Fans: An Integral Element of the Green Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgelenter, Nina

    2011-01-01

    School districts' ongoing efforts to promote sustainability in America's education facilities are helping raise awareness of social responsibility and promoting the positive effects that greening their learning environments has on the general health and productivity of students. One institution that's taking the lead in this movement is Chandler…

  14. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent

  15. Knowledge management in an integrated design and engineering environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, R.J.B.; Van Nederveen, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Organisations and / or disciplines in Building and Construction projects are usually working in their own design and engineering environments and using their own Building Information Models (BIM). The discipline models are merged into a project BIM which is mainly used to check for interferences or

  16. Integrating Dynamic Mathematics Software into Cooperative Learning Environments in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Yilmaz; Tatar, Enver

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the cooperative learning model supported with dynamic mathematics software (DMS), that is a reflection of constructivist learning theory in the classroom environment, in the teaching of mathematics. For this purpose, a workshop was conducted with the volunteer teachers on the…

  17. Integration of the environment into the system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.

    2018-01-01

    In 2005 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) embarked on an effort to ensure that the system for environmental radiological protection would be reconcilable with that for radiological protection of man, and with the approaches used for protection of the environment from other potential hazards

  18. Fetal, neonatal, infant, and child international growth standards: an unprecedented opportunity for an integrated approach to assess growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cutberto

    2015-07-01

    The recent publication of fetal growth and gestational age-specific growth standards by the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project and the previous publication by the WHO of infant and young child growth standards based on the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study enable evaluations of growth from ∼9 wk gestation to 5 y. The most important features of these projects are the prescriptive approach used for subject selection and the rigorous testing of the assertion that growth is very similar among geographically and ethnically diverse nonisolated populations when health, nutrition, and other care needs are met and the environment imposes minimal constraints on growth. Both studies documented that with adequate controls, the principal source of variability in growth during gestation and early childhood resides among individuals. Study sites contributed much less to observed variability. The agreement between anthropometric measurements common to both studies also is noteworthy. Jointly, these studies provide for the first time, to my knowledge, a conceptually consistent basis for worldwide and localized assessments and comparisons of growth performance in early life. This is an important contribution to improving the health care of children across key periods of growth and development, especially given the appropriate interest in pursuing "optimal" health in the "first 1000 d," i.e., the period covering fertilization/implantation, gestation, and postnatal life to 2 y of age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Big Data X-Learning Resources Integration and Processing in Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangsheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cloud computing platform has good flexibility characteristics, more and more learning systems are migrated to the cloud platform. Firstly, this paper describes different types of educational environments and the data they provide. Then, it proposes a kind of heterogeneous learning resources mining, integration and processing architecture. In order to integrate and process the different types of learning resources in different educational environments, this paper specifically proposes a novel solution and massive storage integration algorithm and conversion algorithm to the heterogeneous learning resources storage and management cloud environments.

  20. On the influence of the environment on modeling the fatigue crack growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Evily, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the environment at room and elevated temperature were considered with respect to the influence exerted on the basic mechanical aspects of the fatigue crack growth process. An experimental assessment of this influence was obtained by conducting fatigue crack growth tests both in air and vacuum and the results of such experiments are given. Topics considered include crack closure, short crack growth in notched and unnotched specimens, Mode II crack growth, and the effects of oxidation at elevated temperatures. It is shown that the basic mechanisms of fatigue crack growth can be greatly altered by the presence of oxide films at the fatigue crack tip. Modeling the mechanical aspects of the crack growth process is by itself a challenging task. In addition, the environmental considerations adds to the complexity of the modeling process. (Author)

  1. Integrating Grid Services into the Cray XT4 Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cholia, Shreyas

    2009-01-01

    The 38640 core Cray XT4 "Franklin" system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is a massively parallel resource available to Department of Energy researchers that also provides on-demand grid computing to the Open Science Grid. The integration of grid services on Franklin presented various challenges, including fundamental differences between the interactive and compute nodes, a stripped down compute-node operating system without dynamic library support, a share...

  2. Eco-audit as basis for an integral environment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepp, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    The author explains in a summary the possibility of utilizing the Eco-Audit as enterprise-oriented analysis of its strengths and weaknesses of the ecologically oriented factors, as well as its tendency to standardization by the European Union. Furthermore, he deals with the execution of an Eco-Audit in phases and its manifold utilization potentials for the investigated operation, which - when utilized consequently - can be seen in the realization of an integral ecologically oriented management. (orig.) [de

  3. Products and environment. Report on integrated product policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The National Commission for Sustainable Development established on 16 November 1999 a subgroup which had as one of its tasks to formulate a national strategy or a strategic view on how Finland should promote integrated product policy in accordance with the requirements of sustainable development. The aim of integrated product policy is to improve the environmental friendliness of products and product systems by taking into account the environmental effects during their entire lifecycles. Its leading principles are lifecycle thinking, market-basedness, integration of environmental aspects into economic activity, and that all actors within the product chain (consumers, trade, companies) decrease the environmental consequences of their activities according to the principle of shared responsibility and to their preconditions. Political decision-making and administration should provide firms and clients with the required preconditions and i.a. remove obstacles to knowledge and promote research. In product policy, emphasis is on especially those instruments that encourage actors to develop their activities. At national level, economic instruments should be directed to domestic demand and use of products. It is often most appropriate to develop economic instruments for production and legislation and other regulation within international co-operation. (orig.)

  4. Understanding the school journey: integrating data on travel and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Pooley; Duncan Whyatt; Marion Walker; Gemma Davies; Paul Coulton; Will Bamford

    2010-01-01

    Travel to and from school is a regular part of life for most children. Such movement can also have important social, economic, and environmental implications, both for individuals and for wider society. This paper uses innovative methods to examine the complexity of the school journey, and to relate it to exposure to air pollution and engagement with the environment through which children pass. Some thirty lower secondary school pupils used mobile-phone and global positioning system technolog...

  5. Scoping the future: a model for integrating learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Honeychurch, Sarah; Barr, Niall

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) has become synonymous with online learning in HE.However, with the rise of Web 2.0 technologies, social networking tools and cloud computing thearchitecture of the current VLEs is increasingly anachronistic. This paper suggests an alternative tothe traditional VLE: one which allows for flexibility and adaptation to the needs of individual teachers,while remaining resilient and providing students with a seamless experience. We present a prototypeof our vi...

  6. Integrated site investigation procedure for environment protection toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, R C; Roslan, R; Baharuddin, I N Z

    2013-01-01

    The spatial configuration of cities and their relationship to the urban environment has recently been the subject of empirical, theoretical and policy research. An awareness of environmental issues can assist policy makers, planners, developers and others to recognize the constraints imposed upon development due the physical environment especially in areas, which are susceptible to erosion, flooding and landslide. This paper highlights the key requirements for considering an assessment to protect our urban environment by incorporating three main factor i.e. policy practice, planning process and engineering investigation. Base on this three main factor the framework of the assessment is carried out. The assessment can be divided into three different categories, namely as investigation for planning, investigation for urban development and specialized investigation and mitigation. The minimum requirements for the planning and urban development investigation are listed. These guidelines suggest the level at which the various types of investigation should be carried out as well as the range of application, the scope and methodology to be used for different investigation. It is hoped that this procedure will provide guidance in the establishment and protection of urban ecosystem toward sustainable development.

  7. Integral projection models for finite populations in a stochastic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Engen, Steinar; Saether, Bernt-Erik

    2011-05-01

    Continuous types of population structure occur when continuous variables such as body size or habitat quality affect the vital parameters of individuals. These structures can give rise to complex population dynamics and interact with environmental conditions. Here we present a model for continuously structured populations with finite size, including both demographic and environmental stochasticity in the dynamics. Using recent methods developed for discrete age-structured models we derive the demographic and environmental variance of the population growth as functions of a continuous state variable. These two parameters, together with the expected population growth rate, are used to define a one-dimensional diffusion approximation of the population dynamics. Thus, a substantial reduction in complexity is achieved as the dynamics of the complex structured model can be described by only three population parameters. We provide methods for numerical calculation of the model parameters and demonstrate the accuracy of the diffusion approximation by computer simulation of specific examples. The general modeling framework makes it possible to analyze and predict future dynamics and extinction risk of populations with various types of structure, and to explore consequences of changes in demography caused by, e.g., climate change or different management decisions. Our results are especially relevant for small populations that are often of conservation concern.

  8. An integrated environment for developing object-oriented CAE tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.; Ryba, M.; Baitinger, U.G. [Integrated System Engeneering, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents how object oriented techniques can applied to improve the development of CAE tools. For the design of modular and reusable software systems we use predefined and well tested building blocks. These building blocks are reusable software components based on object-oriented technology which allows the assembling of software systems. Today CAE tools are typically very complex and computation extensive. Therefore we need a concept, that join the advantages of the object-oriented paradigm with the advantages of parallel and distributed programming. So we present a design environment for the development of concurrent-object oriented CAE tools called CoDO.

  9. Research and Application of Integration Design Environment Faced to CSCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Han; LI Yanfeng; DONG Yude

    2006-01-01

    Computer supported collaborative design(CSCD) technology has been applied extensively with intensive market competition. The key technologies and problems of CSCD are analyzed and a CSCD design frame faced to product design is established. Then a CSCD system faced to radar key components is founded with Pro/INTRALINK software and re-exploiting technology. Some key processes are also designed, such as database management, workflow programming, information communication, file release, conflict identification and safety management. These will provide a reference for constructing a cooperative design environment.

  10. The Effect of Green Taxation and Economic Growth on Environment Hazards: The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nanthakumar, Loganathan; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Taha, Roshaiza

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how carbon taxation and economic growth affect environment hazards in Malaysia using time series data over the period of 1974-2010. We applied cointegration and causality approaches to determine long term and the direction of causal relationship between these variables. Based on the results, we found the cointegration relationship between the variables. Furthermore, we noted that Kuznets’ theory i.e. inverted-U shaped curve between economic growth and CO2 emissions is vali...

  11. Integrated design optimization research and development in an industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; German, Marjorie D.; Lee, S.-J.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of a design optimization project that is in progress at the GE Research and Development Center for the past few years. The objective of this project is to develop a methodology and a software system for design automation and optimization of structural/mechanical components and systems. The effort focuses on research and development issues and also on optimization applications that can be related to real-life industrial design problems. The overall technical approach is based on integration of numerical optimization techniques, finite element methods, CAE and software engineering, and artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts. The role of each of these engineering technologies in the development of a unified design methodology is illustrated. A software system DESIGN-OPT has been developed for both size and shape optimization of structural components subjected to static as well as dynamic loadings. By integrating this software with an automatic mesh generator, a geometric modeler and an attribute specification computer code, a software module SHAPE-OPT has been developed for shape optimization. Details of these software packages together with their applications to some 2- and 3-dimensional design problems are described.

  12. Population growth, economic development and carrying capacity of the environment - are they compatible or in conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. F. Heydom

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, as in many other countries, human population growth is currently reaching levels which render competition for basic human needs such as land and water, inevitable. Concurrent to population growth is the absolute necessity for economic development and job opportunities which, in turn, make tremendous demands upon the environment and natural resource base. As a consequence ever greater emphasis is placed by the news media on apparent conflicts between industrial development and social needs on the one hand, and conservation of the environment and natural resources on the other.

  13. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  14. Spacecraft cabin environment effects on the growth and behavior of Chlorella vulgaris for life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David

    2018-02-01

    An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain. In particular, algal photobioreactors that use Chlorella vulgaris have been identified as potential multifunctional components for use as part of such a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, a connection between the biological research examining C. vulgaris behavior and the engineered spacecraft cabin environmental conditions has not yet been thoroughly established. This review article characterizes the ranges of prior and expected cabin parameters (e.g. temperature, lighting, carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen, pressure, growth media, contamination, gravity, and radiation) and reviews algal metabolic response (e.g. growth rate, composition, carbon dioxide fixation rates, and oxygen evolution rates) to changes in those parameters that have been reported in prior space research and from related Earth-based experimental observations. Based on our findings, it appears that C. vulgaris offers many promising advantages for use in a BLSS. Typical atmospheric conditions found in spacecraft such as elevated carbon dioxide levels are, in fact, beneficial for algal cultivation. Other spacecraft cabin parameters, however, introduce unique environmental factors, such as reduced total pressure with elevated oxygen concentration, increased radiation, and altered gravity, whose effects on the biological responses

  15. A Short Integrated Presentation of Valuation, Profitability and Growth Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Kim; Sørensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how the valuation models used in finance theory and the profitability and growth analysis taught in financial statement analysis are related. Traditional textbooks on finance and financial statement analysis are often very comprehensive, comprising a vast number of chapters. However......, the learning cost associated to this seems to be that many students are unable to understand either the interrelations between the chapters in a financial statement analysis textbook, or the origins of financial information (i.e., financial statements) in applied finance. Thus, the underlying motivation...... of this teaching note is to highlight the purpose of profitability and growth analysis in financial statement analysis by incorporating the point of value relevance in applied finance. We hope this reduced presentation of valuation and profitability and growth analysis will help students to understand...

  16. INTEGRATION OF AN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY ON INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olessia R. Oleksyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of article analyze the concepts associated with the processes of integration of software for the learning. The article contains ways of the integration institutional repository into educational environment of the universities. Authors are describing the experience of integration of DSpace system with the popular learning tools such as CMS Joomla!, LMS Moodle, UFD «Library». Integration of the specified tools is possible at the level of content and unification of access for users. The article contains opportunities of the integration DSpace and documents flow systems (based on Microsoft SharePoint. It is provided effective use of DSpace system at scientific and research work of students.

  17. Open environments to support systems engineering tool integration: A study using the Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.; Jipping, Michael J.; Wild, Chris J.; Zeil, Steven J.; Roberts, Cathy C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of computer engineering tool integration using the Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) Public Interface Standard is presented. Over a 10-week time frame, three existing software products were encapsulated to work in the Emeraude environment, an implementation of the PCTE version 1.5 standard. The software products used were a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) design tool, a software reuse tool, and a computer architecture design and analysis tool. The tool set was then demonstrated to work in a coordinated design process in the Emeraude environment. The project and the features of PCTE used are described, experience with the use of Emeraude environment over the project time frame is summarized, and several related areas for future research are summarized.

  18. The Webinar Integration Tool: A Framework for Promoting Active Learning in Blended Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieser, Ping; Taf, Steven D.; Murphy-Hagan, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a three-stage process of developing a webinar integration tool to enhance the interaction of teaching and learning in blended environments. In the context of medical education, we emphasize three factors of effective webinar integration in blended learning: fostering better solutions for faculty and students to interact…

  19. A basic framework for integrating social and collaborative applications into learning environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghnieh, Ayman; Blat, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Moghnieh, A., & Blat, J. (2009). A basic framework for integrating social and collaborative applications into learning environments. Proceedings of the first conference on Research, Reflection, and Innovations in Integrating ICT in Education: Vol. 2 (pp. 1057-1061). April, 22-24, 2009, Lisbon,

  20. Debating Life on Mars: The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) in Varied School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Linda

    Technology-enabled learning environments are beginning to come of age. Tools and frameworks are now available that have been shown to improve learning and are being deployed more widely in varied school settings. Teachers are now faced with the formidable challenge of integrating these promising new environments with the everyday context in which…

  1. Influence of integrated phosphorus supply and plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To guarantee a sufficient phosphorus supply for plants, a rapid and permanent mobilization of phosphorus from the labile phosphorus fractions is necessary, because phosphorus concentrations in soil solution are generally low. Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have shown potential to enhance ...

  2. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  3. Integration of virtual and real scenes within an integral 3D imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinsong; Aggoun, Amar; McCormick, Malcolm

    2002-11-01

    The Imaging Technologies group at De Montfort University has developed an integral 3D imaging system, which is seen as the most likely vehicle for 3D television avoiding psychological effects. To create real fascinating three-dimensional television programs, a virtual studio that performs the task of generating, editing and integrating the 3D contents involving virtual and real scenes is required. The paper presents, for the first time, the procedures, factors and methods of integrating computer-generated virtual scenes with real objects captured using the 3D integral imaging camera system. The method of computer generation of 3D integral images, where the lens array is modelled instead of the physical camera is described. In the model each micro-lens that captures different elemental images of the virtual scene is treated as an extended pinhole camera. An integration process named integrated rendering is illustrated. Detailed discussion and deep investigation are focused on depth extraction from captured integral 3D images. The depth calculation method from the disparity and the multiple baseline method that is used to improve the precision of depth estimation are also presented. The concept of colour SSD and its further improvement in the precision is proposed and verified.

  4. Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Zhou, Zhen-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the extension of amphibious clonal plants in the heterogeneous aquatic-terrestrial ecotones, especially when the water environments are polluted by heavy metals. Ramets of the amphibious clonal herb Alternanthera philoxeroides were rooted in unpolluted soil and polluted water at three concentrations of Cu. The extension of populations from unpolluted terrestrial to polluted aqueous environments mainly relied on stem elongation rather than production of new ramets. The absorbed Cu in the ramets growing in polluted water could be spread horizontally to other ramets in unpolluted soil via physiological integration and redistributed in different organs. The performances of ramets in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats were negatively correlated with Cu intensities in different organs of plants. It is concluded that physiological integration might lessen the fitness of connected ramets in heterogeneously polluted environments. The mechanical strength of the stems decreased with increasing Cu levels, especially in polluted water. We suggest that, except for direct toxicity to growth and expansion, heavy metal pollution might also increase the mechanical risk in breaking failure of plants.

  5. Exploring the Relationship Between Distributed Training, Integrated Learning Environments, and Immersive Training Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    educating and training (O’Keefe IV & McIntyre III, 2006). Topics vary widely from standard educational topics such as teaching kids physics, mechanics...Winn, W., & Yu, R. (1997). The Impact of Three Dimensional Immersive Virtual Environments on Modern Pedagogy : Global Change, VR and Learning

  6. Corrosion fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel welds in PWR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, W.H.; Ceschini, L.J.; Moon, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate behavior of several pressure vessel steel welds in PWR environment is discussed. The behavior is compared with associated heat-affected zone behavior, and with comparable base metal results. The welds show different degrees of susceptibility to the environmental influence, and this is discussed in some detail, along with fractographic observations on the tested specimens

  7. Biological soil crusts as an integral component of desert environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Weber, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The biology and ecology of biological soil crusts, a soil surface community of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, green algae, fungi, and bacteria, have only recently been a topic of research. Most efforts began in the western U.S. (Cameron, Harper, Rushforth, and St. Clair), Australia (Rogers), and Israel (Friedmann, Evenari, and Lange) in the late 1960s and 1970s (e.g., Friedmann et al. 1967; Evenari 1985reviewed in Harper and Marble 1988). However, these groups worked independently of each other and, in fact, were often not aware of each other’s work. In addition, biological soil crust communities were seen as more a novelty than a critical component of dryland ecosystems. Since then, researchers have investigated many different aspects of these communities and have shown that although small to microscopic, biological soil crusts are critical in many ecological processes of deserts. They often cover most of desert soil surfaces and substantially mediate inputs and outputs from desert soils (Belnap et al. 2003). They can be a large source of biodiversity for deserts, as they can contain more species than the surrounding vascular plant community (Rosentreter 1986). These communities are important in reducing soil erosion and increasing soil fertility through the capture of dust and the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and carbon into forms available to other life forms (Elbert et al. 2012). Because of their many effects on soil characteristics, such as external and internal morphological characteristics, aggregate stability, soil moisture, and permeability, they also affect seed germination and establishment and local hydrological cycles. Covering up to 70% of the surface area in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world (Belnap and Lange 2003), biological soil crusts are a key component within desert environments.

  8. An integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve experimental demonstration with E. coli C600 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, F.; Vidania, R. de

    1984-01-01

    In this work an integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve is presented. The values of the parameters are obtained by fitting to the experimental data. Those parameters, with allow to describe the growth in its different phases, are the followings: slopes of the curve in its three parts and the time which divides the last two phases of the bacterial growth. The experimental data are bacterial densities measured by optical methods. The bacteria used was the E. coli C 6 00. (Author)

  9. Advanced Satellite Workstation - An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marvin J.; Sutton, Stewart A.

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), which was developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center, is described. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central objective of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysis of complex systems such as satellites. Compared to the many recent workstation implementations that incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems, ASW provides a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based on the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets.

  10. Academic self-efficacy, growth mindsets, and university students' integration in academic and social support networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zander, Lysann; Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Crayen, Claudia; Hannover, Bettina

    Combining complete social networks and structural equation modeling, we investigate how two learning-related cognitions, academic self-efficacy and growth mindsets, relate to integration in support networks of 580 university students in 30 seminar groups. We assessed integration as popularity in

  11. The effect of environment on the creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.

    1980-01-01

    The creep crack growth behaviors of alloy 718, Inconel X-750, Udimet 700 and cold-worked type 304 and annealed and cold-worked type 316 austenitic stainless steels were determined in vacuum at elevated temperatures and the results were compared with those previously obtained in air. Alloy 718 and Inconel X-750 were found to be significantly sensitive to air with crack growth rates one to two orders of magnitude greater than those in vacuum. Udimet 700 is less sensitive to the environment and it is more sensitive to small changes in microstructure than to the environment per se. The austenitic stainless steels are least sensitive of all. Since the environmental sensitivity varies significantly for different materials, the service environment should be considered in the selection of materials for high temperature components. (Auth.)

  12. a New Ontological Perspective for Integration of Social and Physical Environments: Disability and Rehabilitation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharebaghi, Amin; Abolfazl Mostafavi, Mir

    2016-06-01

    Social dimension of environment is an important aspect that should be reflected in research works related to studying the interactions between human and the environment. However, this dimension is usually neglected when representing the environment in geographic information systems for different applications. For instance, disability as a result of the interaction between human and environment is influenced by social and physical dimensions of environment. Although, this aspect is highlighted in most conceptual disability models by defining various taxonomies of the environment, from ontological perspective justifying and connecting social dimension to the physical dimension of the environment is not clearly determined. Integrating social dimension of the environment with its physical dimension for disability studies is a challenging task, which is the main objective of the present study. Here, we review some of the disability models and their perspective about classifying the environment. Then, from ontological perspective, their limitations are discussed and a new approach for the classification of concepts form the environment is presented. This approach facilitates and simplifies integration of social dimension in ontologies for more effective assessment of disability issue in Geographic Information System.

  13. Integrated navigation of aerial robot for GPS and GPS-denied environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Min, Hongkyu; Nonami, Kenzo; Wada, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel robust navigation system for aerial robot in GPS and GPS- denied environments is proposed. Generally, the aerial robot uses position and velocity information from Global Positioning System (GPS) for guidance and control. However, GPS could not be used in several environments, for example, GPS has huge error near buildings and trees, indoor, and so on. In such GPS-denied environment, Laser Detection and Ranging (LIDER) sensor based navigation system have generally been used. However, LIDER sensor also has an weakness, and it could not be used in the open outdoor environment where GPS could be used. Therefore, it is desired to develop the integrated navigation system which is seamlessly applied to GPS and GPS-denied environments. In this paper, the integrated navigation system for aerial robot using GPS and LIDER is developed. The navigation system is designed based on Extended Kalman Filter, and the effectiveness of the developed system is verified by numerical simulation and experiment. (paper)

  14. Angiogenic Type I Collagen Extracellular Matrix Integrated with Recombinant Bacteriophages Displaying Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Junghyo; Korkmaz Zirpel, Nuriye; Park, Hyun-Ji; Han, Sewoon; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Shin, Jisoo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Seok

    2016-01-21

    Here, a growth-factor-integrated natural extracellular matrix of type I collagen is presented that induces angiogenesis. The developed matrix adapts type I collagen nanofibers integrated with synthetic colloidal particles of recombinant bacteriophages that display vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The integration is achieved during or after gelation of the type I collagen and the matrix enables spatial delivery of VEGF into a desired region. Endothelial cells that contact the VEGF are found to invade into the matrix to form tube-like structures both in vitro and in vivo, proving the angiogenic potential of the matrix. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An Invasive Clonal Plant Benefits from Clonal Integration More than a Co-Occurring Native Plant in Nutrient-Patchy and Competitive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenhua; Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Xie, Dong; Liu, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, however, little is known about the different roles of clonal integration effects between invasive and native plants. Here, we hypothesize that clonal integration affect growth, photosynthetic performance, biomass allocation and thus competitive ability of invasive and native clonal plants, and invasive clonal plants benefit from clonal integration more than co-occurring native plants in heterogeneous habitats. To test these hypotheses, two stoloniferous clonal plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides (invasive), Jussiaea repens (native) were studied in China. The apical parts of both species were grown either with or without neighboring vegetation and the basal parts without competitors were in nutrient- rich or -poor habitats, with stolon connections were either severed or kept intact. Competition significantly reduced growth and photosynthetic performance of the apical ramets in both species, but not the biomass of neighboring vegetation. Without competition, clonal integration greatly improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of both species, especially when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. When grown with neighboring vegetation, growth of J. repens and photosynthetic performance of both species were significantly enhanced by clonal integration with the basal parts in both nutrient-rich and -poor habitats, while growth and relative neighbor effect (RNE) of A. philoxeroides were greatly improved by clonal integration only when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. Moreover, clonal integration increased A. philoxeroides's biomass allocation to roots without competition, but decreased it with competition, especially when the basal ramets were in nutrient-rich sections. Effects of clonal integration on biomass allocation of J. repens was similar to that of A. philoxeroides but with less significance. These results supported our hypothesis that invasive clonal plants A. philoxeroides benefits

  16. Genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition and growth in Eucalyptus across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mabiala, André; Savelli, Bruno; Bert, Didier; Brendel, Oliver; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    In the context of climate change, the water-use efficiency (WUE) of highly productive tree varieties, such as eucalypts, has become a major issue for breeding programmes. This study set out to dissect the genetic architecture of carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C), a proxy of WUE, across several environments. A family of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis was planted in three trials and phenotyped for δ(13) C and growth traits. High-resolution genetic maps enabled us to target genomic regions underlying δ(13) C quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the E. grandis genome. Of the 15 QTLs identified for δ(13) C, nine were stable across the environments and three displayed significant QTL-by-environment interaction, suggesting medium to high genetic determinism for this trait. Only one colocalization was found between growth and δ(13) C. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis suggested candidate genes related to foliar δ(13) C, including two involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. This study provides the first report of the genetic architecture of δ(13) C and its relation to growth in Eucalyptus. The low correlations found between the two traits at phenotypic and genetic levels suggest the possibility of improving the WUE of Eucalyptus varieties without having an impact on breeding for growth. © 2015 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Sim, D. E.; Cappiello, M.; Castillo, M.; Lozoff, B.; Martinez, S.; Blanco, E.; Gahagan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index), the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth. PMID:22666275

  18. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Kang Sim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index, the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth.

  19. Across-environment genetic correlations and the frequency of selective environments shape the evolutionary dynamics of growth rate in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Izem, Rima; Heschel, M Shane; McGoey, Brechann V; Schmitt, Johanna

    2010-10-01

    Trade-offs can exist within and across environments, and constrain evolutionary trajectories. To examine the effects of competition and resource availability on trade-offs, we grew individuals of recombinant inbred lines of Impatiens capensis in a factorial combination of five densities with two light environments (full light and neutral shade) and used a Bayesian logistic growth analysis to estimate intrinsic growth rates. To estimate across-environment constraints, we developed a variance decomposition approach to principal components analysis, which accounted for sample size, model-fitting, and within-RIL variation prior to eigenanalysis. We detected negative across-environment genetic covariances in intrinsic growth rates, although only under full-light. To evaluate the potential importance of these covariances, we surveyed natural populations of I. capensis to measure the frequency of different density environments across space and time. We combined our empirical estimates of across-environment genetic variance-covariance matrices and frequency of selective environments with hypothetical (yet realistic) selection gradients to project evolutionary responses in multiple density environments. Selection in common environments can lead to correlated responses to selection in rare environments that oppose and counteract direct selection in those rare environments. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the frequency of selective environments and the across-environment genetic covariances in traits simultaneously. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Growth Factor Inhibiting PKC Sensor in E-coli Environment Using Classification Technique and ANN Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. BASAK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinease C plays an important role in angiogenesis and apoptosis in cancer. During the phase of angiogenesis the growth factor is up regulated where as during apoptosis the growth factor is down regulated. For down regulation of growth factor the pH environment of intra-cellular fluid has a specific range in the alkaline medium. Protein kinease C along with E-coli through interaction of Selenometabolite is able to maintain that alkaline environment for the apoptosis of the cancer cell with inhibition of the growth factor related to antioxidant/oxidant ratio. The present paper through implementation of Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree has focused on metastasis linked with Capacitance Relaxation phenomena and down regulation of growth factor (VGEF. In this paper a distributed neural network has been applied to a data mining problem for classification of cancer stages inorder to have proper diagnosis of patient with PKC sensor. The Network was trained off line using 270 patterns each of 6 inputs. Using the weight obtained during training, fresh patterns were tested for accuracy in diagnosis linked with the stages of cancer.

  1. A material-independent cell–environment niche based on microreciprocating motion for cell growth enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ching-Wen; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-01-01

    In tissue engineering, cell–cell, cell–scaffold and cell–environment communication balances regulate how cell populations participate in tissue generation, maintenance and repair. These communication balances are called niches. In this study, an easily implemented and material-independent cell–environment niche based on microreciprocating motions is developed to enhance cell growth. A micropositioning piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate stage is used to provide precise microreciprocating shear stress motions. Various shear stresses were applied to bovine endothelial cells (BECs) that were cultured on the artificially synthesized materials to obtain the suitable shear stress for growth enhancement. It was found that the suitable shear stress for apparent enhancement of BEC growth ranges from 1.8 to 2.2 N m −2 . Biopolymers were further used to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach using the optimized shear stress obtained from the culture on artificially synthesized polymers. The results further confirmed that the growth of BECs was enhanced as expected under the calculated reciprocating frequencies based on the suitable shear stress. It is hoped that the proposed microshear-stress-based niche could be a more cost- and time-effective solution for the enhancement of cell growth in tissue engineering applications. (paper)

  2. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  3. Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Gustavo Ruschel; Gomes,Carlos Henrique Araujo de Miranda; Tureck,Cláudio Rudolfo; Melo,Claudio Manuel Rodrigues de

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Water chlorophyll-α concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain) to assess growth. At the end of the...

  4. The Growth Dynamics of Words: How Historical Context Shapes the Competitive Linguistic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Petersen, Alexander; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    Using the massive Google n-gram database of over 10^11 word uses in English, Hebrew, and Spanish, we explore the connection between the growth rates of relative word use and the observed growth rates of disparate competing actors in a common environment such as businesses, scientific journals, and universities, supporting the concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition, evolving according to selection laws. We find aggregate-level anomalies in the collective statistics corresponding to the time of key historical events such as World War II and the Balfour Declaration.

  5. Population growth and the environment: Can we eat the cake and have it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Amir

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous population growth and the concomitant maintenance of a growth sustaining environment are not in conflict only if the rates of both economic and biological processes are slowed down steadily. For this to happen, individual and social impatience-lowering adaptations should be adopted, and the capital of the system, both economic and natural, has to be redistributed among the system interacting components to result in an ever more complex organizational web. In addition, these factors have to corroborate with a third element, the incorporation of an arsenal of varied technological innovations that improves the use of existing stocks.

  6. Analysis of the Growth Process of Neural Cells in Culture Environment Using Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsafianf, Atefeh S.; Isfahani, Shirin N.; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mobasheri, Hamid

    Here we present an approach for processing neural cells images to analyze their growth process in culture environment. We have applied several image processing techniques for: 1- Environmental noise reduction, 2- Neural cells segmentation, 3- Neural cells classification based on their dendrites' growth conditions, and 4- neurons' features Extraction and measurement (e.g., like cell body area, number of dendrites, axon's length, and so on). Due to the large amount of noise in the images, we have used feed forward artificial neural networks to detect edges more precisely.

  7. FEATUREOUS: AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT FOR FEATURE-CENTRIC ANALYSIS AND MODIFICATION OF OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    The decentralized nature of collaborations between objects in object-oriented software makes it difficult to understand the implementations of user-observable program features and their respective interdependencies. As feature-centric program understanding and modification are essential during...... software maintenance and evolution, this situation needs to change. In this paper, we present Featureous, an integrated development environment built on top of the NetBeans IDE that facilitates feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our integrated development environment encompasses...... a lightweight feature location mechanism, a number of reusable analytical views, and necessary APIs for supporting future extensions. The base of the integrated development environment is a conceptual framework comprising of three complementary dimensions of comprehension: perspective, abstraction...

  8. A community-based study of early childhood sensory stimulation in home environment associated with growth and psychomotor development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Raza, Syed Ahsan; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2014-10-01

    Sensory stimulation (SS) is a non-nutritional modifiable risk factor for early childhood development. We assessed SS in home environment and examined its influence on physical growth and psychomotor development (PD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 26 communities in Pakistan among children aged development. There is a need to corroborate these results by additional research for integration in health policy initiatives.

  9. A Scheme for Verification on Data Integrity in Mobile Multicloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laicheng Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the data integrity in mobile multicloud computing environment, a MMCDIV (mobile multicloud data integrity verification scheme is proposed. First, the computability and nondegeneracy of verification can be obtained by adopting BLS (Boneh-Lynn-Shacham short signature scheme. Second, communication overhead is reduced based on HVR (Homomorphic Verifiable Response with random masking and sMHT (sequence-enforced Merkle hash tree construction. Finally, considering the resource constraints of mobile devices, data integrity is verified by lightweight computing and low data transmission. The scheme improves shortage that mobile device communication and computing power are limited, it supports dynamic data operation in mobile multicloud environment, and data integrity can be verified without using direct source file block. Experimental results also demonstrate that this scheme can achieve a lower cost of computing and communications.

  10. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Akos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF. Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  11. Monocular camera/IMU/GNSS integration for ground vehicle navigation in challenging GNSS environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations.

  12. ANTHEM2000TM: Integration of the ANTHEM Thermal Hydraulic Model in the ROSETM Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boire, R.; Nguyen, M; Salim, G.

    1999-01-01

    ROSEN TM is an object oriented, visual programming environment used for many applications, including the development of power plant simulators. ROSE provides an integrated suite of tools for the creation, calibration, test, integration, configuration management and documentation of process, electrical and I and C models. CAE recently undertook an ambitious project to integrate its two phase thermal hydraulic model ANTHEM TM into the ROSE environment. ANTHEM is a non equilibrium, non-homogenous model based on the drift flux formalism. CAE has used the model in numerous two phase applications for nuclear and fossil power plant simulators. The integration of ANTHEM into ROSE brings the full power of visual based programming to two phase modeling applications. Features include graphical model building, calibration tools, a superior test environment and process visualisation. In addition the integration of ANTHEM into ROSE makes it possible to easily apply the fidelity of ANTHEM to BOP applications. This paper describes the implementation of the ANTHEM model within the ROSE environment and gives examples of its use. (author)

  13. Monocular Camera/IMU/GNSS Integration for Ground Vehicle Navigation in Challenging GNSS Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tianxing; Guo, Ningyan; Backén, Staffan; Akos, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost MEMS-based IMUs, video cameras and portable GNSS devices are commercially available for automotive applications and some manufacturers have already integrated such facilities into their vehicle systems. GNSS provides positioning, navigation and timing solutions to users worldwide. However, signal attenuation, reflections or blockages may give rise to positioning difficulties. As opposed to GNSS, a generic IMU, which is independent of electromagnetic wave reception, can calculate a high-bandwidth navigation solution, however the output from a self-contained IMU accumulates errors over time. In addition, video cameras also possess great potential as alternate sensors in the navigation community, particularly in challenging GNSS environments and are becoming more common as options in vehicles. Aiming at taking advantage of these existing onboard technologies for ground vehicle navigation in challenging environments, this paper develops an integrated camera/IMU/GNSS system based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Our proposed integration architecture is examined using a live dataset collected in an operational traffic environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed integrated system provides accurate estimations and potentially outperforms the tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration in challenging environments with sparse GNSS observations. PMID:22736999

  14. Using registries to integrate bioinformatics tools and services into workbench environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ménager, Hervé; Kalaš, Matúš; Rapacki, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and complexity of bioinformatics resources presents significant challenges to their localisation, deployment and use, creating a need for reliable systems that address these issues. Meanwhile, users demand increasingly usable and integrated ways to access and analyse data, especially......, a software component that will ease the integration of bioinformatics resources in a workbench environment, using their description provided by the existing ELIXIR Tools and Data Services Registry....

  15. [Growth, development, social integration and parenting practices on children living with their mothers in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Berardi, Clemente; Ortale, Susana; Contreras, María Magdalena; Sanjurjo, Adriana; Lejarraga, Celina; Martínez Cáceres, María José; Rodríguez, Lilian

    2011-12-01

    Prisons are considered a very high risk environment, but there is very scarce scientific information on the growth and development of children who live there. With the purpose of evaluating growth and development of children living with their mothers in prison, a cross sectional survey was performed in 68 children aged 0-3 years in Unit 31, a prison for mothers with children located at 30 km from Buenos Aires. Weight, supine length, and developmental quotient (Cats Clams) was measured, PRUNAPE, and SQE-SE test were administered (screening tests for detecting developmental and emotional disorders, respectively). Mothers' child rearing practices were assessed with a previously standardized questionnaire. Age range of mothers was 18-46 years, median 23.5 yr. Duration of stay in prison of children was 0.05-35 months. Mean ± standard error of "Z" score for height was -0.30 ± 0.12, weight 0.40 ± 0.12; body mass index 0.91 ± 0.18; head circumference 0.19 ± 0.14; and developmental quotient 92.4 ± 1.7. There were only 7 children out of 67 who failed the PRUNAPE. Mean Cats Clams developmental score was 91.3. ASQ-SE test showed high prevalence (39%) of emotional and social integration problems. Mothers' knowledge about child rearing practices was poorer than that found in a normal urban local population. There were no trends for results to be related to the length of stay in prison. Children are shorter and with higher BMI than reference. Emotional disorders are frequent (39%). Mothers' knowledge about child care was poorer than that found in a near population. A program for longitudinal surveillance for all prisons in the country was proposed to the authorities.

  16. Environment and Economic Growth. Is Technical Change the Key to Decoupling?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, M. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between economic growth and pollution is very complex, depending upon a host of different factors. Thus the study of this phenomenon represents a challenging endeavor. While most economics papers begin with theory and support that theory with econometric evidence, the literature on Environmental Kuznets Curves has proceeded in the opposite direction: first developing an empirical observation about the world, and then attempting to supply appropriate theories. A number of papers have aimed at providing the theoretical underpinnings to the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Prominent here is the class of optimal growth models. These are usually studied from the point of view of the analytical conditions that must hold in order to obtain an inverted-U functional relationship between pollution and growth. These models are however seldom confronted with the data. In this paper we take one popular optimal growth model designed for climate change policy analysis and carry out a few simulation exercises with the purpose of characterizing the relationship between economic growth and emissions. In particular, we try to assess the relative contribution of the ingredients of the well-known decomposition of the environment-growth relationship put forth by Grossman (1995): according to it, the presumed inverted-U pattern results from the joint effect of scale, composition, and technology components. We do this focusing on the developed regions of the world and on a global pollutant, CO2 emissions.

  17. Relating structural growth environment to white spruce sapling establishment at the Forest-Tundra Ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, A.; Boelman, N.; Griffin, K. L.; Jensen, J.; Hiers, E.; Johnson, D. M.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of climate change on treeline position at the latitudinal Forest-Tundra ecotone (FTE) is poorly understood. While the FTE is expansive (stretching 13,000 km acros the panarctic), understanding relationships between climate and tree function may depend on very fine scale processes. High resolution tools are therefore needed to appropriately characterize the leading (northernmost) edge of the FTE. We hypothesized that microstructural metrics obtainable from lidar remote sensing may explain variation in the physical growth environment that governs sapling establishment. To test our hypothesis, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to collect highly spatially resolved 3-D structural information of white spruce (Picea glauca) saplings and their aboveground growth environment at the leading edge of a FTE in northern Alaska and Northwest Territories, Canada. Coordinates of sapling locations were extracted from the 3-D TLS data. Within each sampling plot, 20 sets of coordinates were randomly selected from regions where no saplings were present. Ground roughness, canopy roughness, average aspect, average slope, average curvature, wind shelter index, and wetness indexwere extracted from point clouds within a variable radius from all coordinates. Generalized linear models (GLM) were fit to determine which microstructural metrics were most strongly associated with sapling establishment. Preliminary analyses of three plots suggest that vegetation roughness, wetness index, ground roughness, and slope were the most important terrain metrics governing sapling presence (Figure 1). Comprehensive analyses will include eight plots and GLMs optimized for scale at which structural parameters affect sapling establishment. Spatial autocorrelation of sample locations will be accounted for in models. Because these analyses address how the physical growth environment affects sapling establishment, model outputs will provide information for improving understanding of the

  18. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  19. Fatigue crack growth in ferritic steels as influence by elevated temperature and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Minakawa, K.; Murali, K.; Mc Evily, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth studies have been carried out at room temperature and at 538 deg C in air as well as in vacuum in order to assess the influence of both temperature and environment on the growth process. The materials investigated were 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, a modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and a 9Cr-2Mo steel, as well as weldments of the 9Cr-2Mo steel. Crack opening levels were determined for all test conditions. The R-dependency of the crack growth rate could be accounted for by crack closure, both at room and elevated temperature. Closure in air at 538 deg C was due to oxidation, whereas at room temperature closure was due to microstructurally related roughness and the influence of oxygen. (Author)

  20. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  1. The need for integrated pollution prevention control of the environment concerning industrial and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trpevska T, Magdalena; Kostova, Brankitsa

    2008-01-01

    Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia.(Author)

  2. An integrated model of social environment and social context for pediatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; King, Gillian; Mishra, Lipi; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization and operationalization of "social environment" and "social context" with implications for research and practice with children and youth with impairments. We first discuss social environment and social context as constructs important for understanding interaction between external environmental qualities and the individual's experience. The article considers existing conceptualizations within psychological and sociological bodies of literature, research using these concepts, current developmental theories and issues in the understanding of environment and participation within rehabilitation science. We then describe a model that integrates a person-focused perspective with an environment-focused perspective and that outlines the mechanisms through which children/youth and social environment interact and transact. Finally, we consider the implications of the proposed model for research and clinical practice. This conceptual model directs researchers and practitioners toward interventions that will address the mechanisms of child-environment interaction and that will build capacity within both children and their social environments, including families, peers groups and communities. Health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play, and love [p.2]. Understanding how social environment and personal factors interact over time to affect the development of children/youth can influence the design of services for children and youth with impairments. The model described integrates the individual-focused and environment-focused perspectives and outlines the mechanisms of the ongoing reciprocal interaction between children/youth and their social environments: provision of opportunities, resources and supports and contextual processes of choice, active engagement and collaboration. Addressing these mechanisms could contribute to creating healthier environments in which all

  3. Academic integrity in the online learning environment for health sciences students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azulay Chertok, Ilana R; Barnes, Emily R; Gilleland, Diana

    2014-10-01

    The online learning environment not only affords accessibility to education for health sciences students, but also poses challenges to academic integrity. Technological advances contribute to new modes of academic dishonesty, although there may be a lack of clarity regarding behaviors that constitute academic dishonesty in the online learning environment. To evaluate an educational intervention aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes about academic integrity in the online learning environment among health sciences students. A quasi-experimental study was conducted using a survey of online learning knowledge and attitudes with strong reliability that was developed based on a modified version of a previously developed information technology attitudes rating tool with an added knowledge section based on the academic integrity statement. Blended-learning courses in a university health sciences center. 355 health sciences students from various disciplines, including nursing, pre-medical, and exercise physiology students, 161 in the control group and 194 in the intervention group. The survey of online learning knowledge and attitudes (SOLKA) was used in a pre-post test study to evaluate the differences in scores between the control group who received the standard course introduction and the intervention group who received an enhanced educational intervention about academic integrity during the course introduction. Post-intervention attitude scores were significantly improved compared to baseline scores for the control and intervention groups, indicating a positive relationship with exposure to the information, with a greater improvement among intervention group participants (pacademic integrity in the online environment. Emphasis should be made about the importance of academic integrity in the online learning environment in preparation for professional behavior in the technologically advancing health sciences arena. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Is economic growth good or bad for the environment? Empirical evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jungho; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-01-01

    The effects of economic growth on the environment in Korea, for a given level of energy consumption, and fossil fuels and nuclear energy in electricity production, are examined in a dynamic cointegration framework. To that end, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach is used. We find empirical evidence supporting the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Korea; that is, economic growth indeed plays a favorable role in influencing environmental outcomes. It is also found that, in both the short- and long-run, nuclear energy has a beneficial effect on environmental quality, whereas fossil fuels in electricity production and energy consumption have a detrimental effect on the environment. - Highlights: ► We examine the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for Korea. ► The model includes the roles of energy consumption and electricity production. ► We find the existence of the EKC hypothesis for Korea. ► Nuclear energy is found to have a beneficial effect on the environment. ► Fossil fuels and energy consumption have a detrimental effect on the environment

  5. A critical review of growth of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures on SiC (0 0 0 1): impact of growth environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weijie; Boeckl, John J; Mitchel, William C

    2010-01-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) structures have promise for many electronic device applications and both have been grown on SiC through the decomposition of the substrate. It is well known that both graphene and aligned CNTs are grown under similar conditions with overlapping temperature and pressure ranges, but a fundamental understanding of the two types of growths is actively being researched. Moreover, various technical challenges need to be overcome to achieve improvement in the electronic and structural quality of these carbon-based nanostructures on SiC. Specifically, an understanding and control of the SiC surface graphitization process and interface structure needs to be established. In this review, we focus on graphene growth on SiC (0 0 0 1) (Si-face) as a model system in comparison with aligned CNT growth on SiC. The experimental growth aspects for graphene growth, including vacuum and ambient growth environments, and growth temperature are summarized, then proposed decomposition and growth mechanisms are discussed. Both thermal and chemical decomposition processes are presented and special emphasis is given to the role of growth process variations between laboratories. The chemical reactions driving the graphitization process and ultimately the carbon nanostructure growth on SiC are discussed. It is suggested that the composition of the residual gases in the growth environment is a critical parameter and that gas composition at the growth temperature should be monitored.

  6. Integrating Video-Capture Virtual Reality Technology into a Physically Interactive Learning Environment for English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chen, Chih Hung; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design and develop a Physically Interactive Learning Environment, the PILE system, by integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a classroom. The system is designed for elementary school level English classes where students can interact with the system through physical movements. The system is designed to…

  7. Integrated environment and energy management; Integreret miljoe- og energiledelse - erfaringer fra 11 virksomheder - Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, Kirsten [Teknologisk Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The report collects experiences from 11 companies from different sectors. The companies have during the past few years been working with integration of environment and energy management. the report forms background for the booklet 'Spar penge pae miljoe og energi - slae to fluer med et smaek'. (BA)

  8. Integration of Wireless Technologies in Smart University Campus Environment: Framework Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamayseh, Yaser; Mardini, Wail; Aljawarneh, Shadi; Yassein, Muneer Bani

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors are particularly interested in enhancing the education process by integrating new tools to the teaching environments. This enhancement is part of an emerging concept, called smart campus. Smart University Campus will come up with a new ubiquitous computing and communication field and change people's lives radically by…

  9. The Effect of Integrating Movement into the Learning Environment of Kindergarten Children on Their Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Ella; Sharir, Tal; Arnon, Michal; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the notion that integrating movement into the learning environment contributes to the academic achievements of kindergarten students. One hundred and sixty 4-6 year-old kindergarten students participated in the study for 145 days, which included pre- and post-intervention tests in language, mathematics, and…

  10. Integrating a social network group with a 3D collaborative learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourmirza, S.; Gardner, M.; Callaghan, V; Augusto, J.C.; Zhang, T.

    2014-01-01

    Although extensive research has been carried out on virtual learning environments and the role of groups and communities in social networks, few studies exist which adequately cover the relationship between these two domains. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of integrating

  11. The Integrated Design for Micro - environment Monitoring System of Showcase in Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the current environment quality of cultural relics in museum and make them preserved for a long time, the paper proposes the integrated design for micro - environment monitoring system of showcase in museum, the system mainly monitors the micro-environment of heritage, such as ultraviolet, light, formaldehyde, CO2, TVOC, PM 2.5, choosing cotex-M3 ARM microcontroller STM32F103ZET6 as the control core. Based on the concept of integration, the system integrates the single air monitoring instruments. The design of circuit mainly includes the process of digital power supply and analog power supply, the acquisition and processing of 5 analog signals from sensors, and the design of reserved interface. In the aspect of interaction, the serial port lcd module was uesd for the display and control, which can get rid of the control of PC and achieve the functions of environmental monitoring, environmental warning, environmental assessment, historical data query. The integrated design for Micro-environment of Showcase in Museum achieves a monitoring platform successfully which is easy for users’ operation and access to display information conveniently. The advantages of the system are strong portability, low cost and short development cycle.

  12. The Future of the Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    coordinate, and control joint and multinational aircraft during CAS situations in combat and training. The current system which the CAS mission falls...current system , experiences from Vietnam, Operation Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq help to identify future challenges to the operating environment ...multinational partners. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air Ground Integration, Theater Air Ground System , Theater Air Control System , Army Air Ground System , Joint

  13. The Rapid Integration and Test Environment - A Process for Achieving Software Test Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The Rapid Integration and Test Environment (RITE) initiative, implemented by the Program Executive Office, Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Command and Control Program Office (PMW-150), was born of necessity. Existing processes for requirements definition and management, as well as those for software development, did not consistently deliver high-qualit...

  14. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    OpenAIRE

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  15. Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Baek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR. Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

  16. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of the pressure vessel steel SA 508 Cl. 3 in various environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. G.; Kim, I. S.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, J. W.; Park, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue tests in air and in room temperature water were performed to obtain comparable data and stable crack measuring conditions. In air environment, fatigue crack growth rate was increased with increasing temperature due to an increase in crack tip oxidation rate. In room temperature water, the fatigue crack growth rate was faster than in air and crack path varied on loading conditions. In simulated light water reactor (LWR) conditions, there was little environmental effect on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) at low dissolved oxygen or at high loading frequency conditions. While the FCGR was enhanced at high oxygen condition, and the enhancement of crack growth rate increased as loading frequency decreased to a critical value. In fractography, environmentally assisted cracks, such as semi-cleavage and secondary intergranular crack, were found near sulfide inclusions only at high dissolved oxygen and low loading frequency condition. The high crack growth rate was related to environmentally assisted crack. These results indicated that environmentally assisted crack could be formed by the Electrochemical effect in specific loading condition

  17. Requirements of Integrated Design Teams While Evaluating Advanced Energy Retrofit Design Options in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant ways to save energy use in buildings is to implement advanced energy retrofits in existing buildings. Improving energy performance of buildings through advanced energy retrofitting requires a clear understanding of the cost and energy implications of design alternatives from various engineering disciplines when different retrofit options are considered. The communication of retrofit design alternatives and their energy implications is essential in the decision-making process, as it affects the final retrofit selections and hence the energy efficiency of the retrofitted buildings. The objective of the research presented here was to identify a generic list of information requirements that are needed to be shared and collectively analyzed by integrated design teams during advanced energy retrofit design review meetings held in immersive settings. While identifying such requirements, the authors used an immersive environment based iterative requirements elicitation approach. The technology was used as a means to better identify the information requirements of integrated design teams to be analyzed as a group. This paper provides findings on information requirements of integrated design teams when evaluating retrofit options in immersive virtual environments. The information requirements were identified through interactions with sixteen experts in design and energy modeling domain, and validated with another group of participants consisting of six design experts who were experienced in integrated design processes. Industry practitioners can use the findings in deciding on what information to share with integrated design team members during design review meetings that utilize immersive virtual environments.

  18. Overview of TANGENT (Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube) 2017 IOP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiszenkel, L.

    2017-12-01

    New particle formation consists of two steps: nucleation and growth of nucleated particles. However, most laboratory studies have been conducted under conditions where these two processes are convoluted together, thereby hampering the detailed understanding of the effect of chemical species and atmospheric conditions on two processes. The objective of the Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube (TANGENT) laboratory study is to investigate aerosol nucleation and growth properties independently by separating these two processes in two different flow tubes. This research is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the University of Delaware. In this poster we will present the experimental setup of TANGENT and summarize the key results from the first IOP (intense observation period) experiments undertaken during Summer 2017. Nucleation takes place in a temperature- and RH-controlled fast flow reactor (FT-1) where sulfuric acid forms from OH radicals and sulfur dioxide. Sulfuric acid and impurity base compounds are detected with chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS). Particle sizes and number concentrations of newly nucleated particles are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and particle size magnifier (PSM), providing concentrations of particles between 1-100 nm. The nucleation particles are transferred directly to the growth tube (FT-2) where oxidants and biogenic organic precursors are added to grow nucleated nanoparticles. Sizes of particles after growth are analyzed with an additional SMPS and elemental chemical composition of 50 nm and above particles detected with a nano-aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS). TANGENT provides the unique ability to conduct experiments that can monitor and control reactant concentrations, aerosol size and aerosol chemical composition during nucleation and growth. Experiments during this first IOP study have elucidated the effects of sulfur dioxide, particle size

  19. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, C.; Payette, S.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth

  20. An intelligent and integrated V and V environment design for NPP I and C software systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Son Han Seong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is the safety critical system. Since, nuclear instrumentation and control (I and C) systems including the plant protection system play the brain part of human, nuclear I and C systems have an influence on safety and operation of NPP. Essentially, software V and V should be performed for the safety critical systems based on software. It is very important in the technical aspect because of the problems concerning license acquisitions. In this work, an intelligent and integrated V and V environment supporting the automation of V and V was designed. The intelligent and integrated V and V environment consists of the intelligent controller part, components part, interface part, and GUI part. These parts were integrated systematically, while taking their own independent functions

  1. Development of System Architecture to Investigate the Impact of Integrated Air and Missile Defense in a Distributed Lethality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT by Justin K. Davis...TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin K...ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT Justin K. Davis Lieutenant

  2. A sustainability framework for mobile technology integration in schools: The case of resourceconstrained environments in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabila, J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of mobile technology integration in schools has been widely researched. However, only a few studies have extensively examined the sustainability of mobile technology integration in resource-constrained environments. Diverse contexts...

  3. Growth of Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuary environments in Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ruschel Lopes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea gasar cultured in marine and estuarine environments. Oysters were cultured for 11 months in a longline system in two study sites - São Francisco do Sul and Florianópolis -, in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Water chlorophyll-α concentration, temperature, and salinity were measured weekly. The oysters were measured monthly (shell size and weight gain to assess growth. At the end of the culture period, the average wet flesh weight, dry flesh weight, and shell weight were determined, as well as the distribution of oysters per size class. Six nonlinear models (logistic, exponential, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, and Von Bertalanffy were adjusted to the oyster growth data set. Final mean shell sizes were higher in São Francisco do Sul than in Florianópolis. In addition, oysters cultured in São Francisco do Sul were more uniformly distributed in the four size classes than those cultured in Florianópolis. The highest average values of wet flesh weight and shell weight were observed in São Francisco do Sul, whereas dry flesh weight did not differ between the sites. The estuary environment is more promising for the cultivation of oysters.

  4. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  5. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Fraga

    Full Text Available The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  6. Integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth in Iberian viticultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Cardoso, Rita M; Soares, Pedro M M; Cancela, Javier J; Pinto, Joaquim G; Santos, João A

    2014-01-01

    The Iberian viticultural regions are convened according to the Denomination of Origin (DO) and present different climates, soils, topography and management practices. All these elements influence the vegetative growth of different varieties throughout the peninsula, and are tied to grape quality and wine type. In the current study, an integrated analysis of climate, soil, topography and vegetative growth was performed for the Iberian DO regions, using state-of-the-art datasets. For climatic assessment, a categorized index, accounting for phenological/thermal development, water availability and grape ripening conditions was computed. Soil textural classes were established to distinguish soil types. Elevation and aspect (orientation) were also taken into account, as the leading topographic elements. A spectral vegetation index was used to assess grapevine vegetative growth and an integrated analysis of all variables was performed. The results showed that the integrated climate-soil-topography influence on vine performance is evident. Most Iberian vineyards are grown in temperate dry climates with loamy soils, presenting low vegetative growth. Vineyards in temperate humid conditions tend to show higher vegetative growth. Conversely, in cooler/warmer climates, lower vigour vineyards prevail and other factors, such as soil type and precipitation acquire more important roles in driving vigour. Vines in prevailing loamy soils are grown over a wide climatic diversity, suggesting that precipitation is the primary factor influencing vigour. The present assessment of terroir characteristics allows direct comparison among wine regions and may have great value to viticulturists, particularly under a changing climate.

  7. Integrating heterogeneous databases in clustered medic care environments using object-oriented technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Arun K.; Sauer, Frank

    1994-05-01

    The organization of modern medical care environments into disease-related clusters, such as a cancer center, a diabetes clinic, etc., has the side-effect of introducing multiple heterogeneous databases, often containing similar information, within the same organization. This heterogeneity fosters incompatibility and prevents the effective sharing of data amongst applications at different sites. Although integration of heterogeneous databases is now feasible, in the medical arena this is often an ad hoc process, not founded on proven database technology or formal methods. In this paper we illustrate the use of a high-level object- oriented semantic association method to model information found in different databases into an integrated conceptual global model that integrates the databases. We provide examples from the medical domain to illustrate an integration approach resulting in a consistent global view, without attacking the autonomy of the underlying databases.

  8. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  9. Integral parameters for characterizing water, energy, and aeration properties of soilless plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Chen Lopez, Jose Choc; Møldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Tuller, Markus

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade there has been a significant shift in global agricultural practice. Because the rapid increase of human population poses unprecedented challenges to production of an adequate and economically feasible food supply for undernourished populations, soilless greenhouse production systems are regaining increased worldwide attention. The optimal control of water availability and aeration is an essential prerequisite to successfully operate plant growth systems with soilless substrates such as aggregated foamed glass, perlite, rockwool, coconut coir, or mixtures thereof. While there are considerable empirical and theoretical efforts devoted to characterize water retention and aeration substrate properties, a holistic, physically-based approach considering water retention and aeration concurrently is lacking. In this study, the previously developed concept of integral water storage and energy was expanded to dual-porosity substrates and an analog integral oxygen diffusivity parameter was introduced to simultaneously characterize aeration properties of four common soilless greenhouse growth media. Integral parameters were derived for greenhouse crops in general, as well as for tomatoes. The integral approach provided important insights for irrigation management and for potential optimization of substrate properties. Furthermore, an observed relationship between the integral parameters for water availability and oxygen diffusivity can be potentially applied for the design of advanced irrigation and management strategies to ensure stress-free growth conditions, while conserving water resources.

  10. Population and prehistory I: Food-dependent population growth in constant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2008-06-01

    We present a demographic model that describes the feedbacks between food supply, human mortality and fertility rates, and labor availability in expanding populations, where arable land area is not limiting. This model provides a quantitative framework to describe how environment, technology, and culture interact to influence the fates of preindustrial agricultural populations. We present equilibrium conditions and derive approximations for the equilibrium population growth rate, food availability, and other food-dependent measures of population well-being. We examine how the approximations respond to environmental changes and to human choices, and find that the impact of environmental quality depends upon whether it manifests through agricultural yield or maximum (food-independent) survival rates. Human choices can complement or offset environmental effects: greater labor investments increase both population growth and well-being, and therefore can counteract lower agricultural yield, while fertility control decreases the growth rate but can increase or decrease well-being. Finally we establish equilibrium stability criteria, and argue that the potential for loss of local stability at low population growth rates could have important consequences for populations that suffer significant environmental or demographic shocks.

  11. Comparative growth analysis of cool- and warm-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belesky, D.P.; Fedders, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Using both cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) species is a viable means of optimizing herbage productivity over varying climatic conditions in temperate environments. Despite well-documented differences in water, N, and radiation use, no consistent evidence demonstrates productivity differences among C3 and C4 perennial grass species under identical management. A field study was conducted to determine relative growth rates (RGR), nitrogen productivity (NP), and mean radiation productivity (RP) (dry matter production as a function of incident radiation) of cool- and warm-season grasses managed identically. Results were used to identify management practices thd could lead to optimal productivity in combinations or mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses. Dry matter yields of warm-season grasses equaled or surpassed those of cool-season grasses, despite a 40% shorter growth interval. Certain cool- and warm-season grasses appear to be suitable for use in mixtures, based on distribution of herbage production; however, actual compatibility may be altered by defoliation management. Relative growth rates varied among years and were about 40% lower for canopies clipped to a 10-cm residue height each time 20-cm of growth accumulated compared with other treatments. The RGR of warm-season grasses was twice that of cool-season grasses Nitrogen productivity (g DM g-1 N d -1) and mean radiation productivity (g DM MJ-1) for warm-season grasses was also more than twice that of cool-season grasses. Radiation productivity of cool-season grasses was dependent on N, while this was not always the case for warm-season grasses. The superior production capability of certain warm-season compared with cool-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment can be sustained under a range of defoliation treatments and demonstrates suitability for use in frequently defoliated situations

  12. Performance Improvement of Receivers Based on Ultra-Tight Integration in GNSS-Challenged Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-tight integration was first proposed by Abbott in 2003 with the purpose of integrating a global navigation satellite system (GNSS and an inertial navigation system (INS. This technology can improve the tracking performances of a receiver by reconfiguring the tracking loops in GNSS-challenged environments. In this paper, the models of all error sources known to date in the phase lock loops (PLLs of a standard receiver and an ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver are built, respectively. Based on these models, the tracking performances of the two receivers are compared to verify the improvement due to the ultra-tight integration. Meanwhile, the PLL error distributions of the two receivers are also depicted to analyze the error changes of the tracking loops. These results show that the tracking error is significantly reduced in the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver since the receiver’s dynamics are estimated and compensated by an INS. Moreover, the mathematical relationship between the tracking performances of the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver and the quality of the selected inertial measurement unit (IMU is derived from the error models and proved by the error comparisons of four ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receivers aided by different grade IMUs.

  13. Characterizing the role of built environment stocks in human development and emission growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chen; Liu, Gang; Müller, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    throughout their construction, operation, and end-of-life management phases. These stocks usually exist in societies for relatively long time, from years to over a century, therefore their dynamics have long term impacts on human development and emission growth. Several recent studies, including the Fifth...... Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), have discussed the lock-in effects of infrastructure stocks on emission pathways. However, there is still a lack of quantitative analysis and evidence to support this claim. Here, based on an empirical regression model and a new...... underline the role of built environment stocks in human development, future emission pathways, and relevant climate policy....

  14. Genetic by environment interaction for post weaning growth traits in tropical cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Navès, Michel; Menendez Buxadera, Alberto; Farant, Alain; Mandonnet, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    Genetic by environment interactions for post weaning traits were studied in a local breed of cattle, well adapted to tropical conditions. After weaning, 444 beef calves of both sexes were separated within two management systems, either in intensive fattening or at pasture. The traits analysed included weights at standard age, of 365 days (W12), 455 days (W15) and 545 days (W18), and post weaning growth rates from weaning until 15 months (PWG15) or 18 months (PWG18). (Co)varianc...

  15. Tools of integration of innovation-oriented machine-building enterprises in industrial park environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.О. Boiarynova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the development of the tools for the integration of innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises into the environment of industrial park as functional economic systems, which are capable on the own development basis to provide the development of resident enterprises. The article analyzes the opportunities for the development of mechanical engineering enterprises. The formed structure of the mechanism of integration of mechanical engineering enterprises as functional economic systems into the industrial park environment is based on: 1 the development of participation programs in the industrial park of the mechanical engineering enterprises as an innovation-oriented partner, which foresees the development of the enterprise immediately and the development of other residents; 2 the provision of high-tech equipment of resident enterprises of industrial parks; 3 the creation of subsidiary-spin-out enterprises of large mechanical engineering enterprises for high-tech production in the industrial park. The author proposes the road map that reveals the procedures for the integration and functioning the investigated enterprises through interaction as well as in the ecosystem of the industrial park and in the general ecosystem of functioning, and the tools for providing economic functionality through economic and organizational proceedings at preventive, partner and resident phases of integration. The tools allow the innovation-oriented mechanical engineering enterprises to integrate into such territorial structures as industrial parks, this in complex will allow carrying out their purposes in the development of the real sector of the economy.

  16. Subcritical crack growth and other time- and environment-dependent behavior in crustal rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    Stable crack growth strongly influences both the fracture strength of brittle rocks and some of the phenomena precursory to catastrophic failure. Quantification of the time and environment dependence of fracture propagation is attempted with the use of a fracture mechanics technique. Some of the difficulties encountered when applying techniques originally developed for simple synthetic materials to complex materials like rocks are examined. A picture of subcritical fracture propagation is developed that embraces the essential ingredients of the microstructure, a microcrack process zone, and the different roles that the environment plays. To do this, the results of (1) fracture mechanics experiments on five rock types, (2) optical and scanning electron microscopy, (3) studies of microstructural aspects of fracture in ceramics, and (4) exploratory tests examining the time-dependent response of rock to the application of water are examined.

  17. Tree growth and climate in the Pacific Northwest, North America: a broad-scale analysis of changing growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Albright; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the 21st century will affect tree growth in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, although complex climate–growth relationships make it difficult to identify how radial growth will respond across different species distributions. We used a novel method to examine potential growth responses to climate change at a broad geographical scale with a...

  18. The increase in fatigue crack growth rates observed for Zircaloy-4 in a PWR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockeram, B. V.; Kammenzind, B. F.

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic stresses produced during the operation of nuclear reactors can result in the extension of cracks by processes of fatigue. Although fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) data for Zircaloy-4 in air are available, little testing has been performed in a PWR primary water environment. Test programs have been performed by Gee et al., in 1989 and Picker and Pickles in 1984 by the UK Atomic Energy Authority, and by Wisner et al., in 1994, that have shown an enhancement in FCGR for Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 in high-temperature water. In this work, FCGR testing is performed on Zircaloy-4 in a PWR environment in the hydrided and non-hydrided condition over a range of stress-intensity. Measurements of crack extension are performed using a direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The cyclic rate in the PWR primary water environment is varied between 1 cycle per minute to 0.1 cycle per minute. Faster FCGR rates are observed in water in comparison to FCGR testing performed in air for the hydrided material. Hydrided and non-hydrided materials had similar FCGR values in air, but the non-hydrided material exhibited much lower rates of FCGR in a PWR primary water environment than for hydrided material. Hydrides are shown to exhibit an increased tendency for cracking or decohesion in a PWR primary water environment that results in an enhancement in FCGR values. The FCGR in the PWR primary water only increased slightly with decreasing cycle frequency in the range of 1 cycle per minute to 0.1 cycle per minute. Comparisons between the FCGR in water and air show the enhancement from the PWR environment is affected by the applied stress intensity.

  19. Integrated Design Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment Automated Generation of Structured CFD Grids using Topology Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the work performed from March 2010 to March 2012. The Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) as a framework and supporting the configuration design and parametric CFD grid generation. This report will focus on describing the work in the area of parametric CFD grid generation using novel concepts for defining the interaction between the mesh topology and the geometry in such a way as to separate the mesh topology from the geometric topology while maintaining the link between the mesh topology and the actual geometry.

  20. Robust localisation of automated guided vehicles for computer-integrated manufacturing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As industry moves toward an era of complete automation and mass customisation, automated guided vehicles (AGVs are used as material handling systems. However, the current techniques that provide navigation, control, and manoeuvrability of automated guided vehicles threaten to create bottlenecks and inefficiencies in manufacturing environments that strive towards the optimisation of part production. This paper proposes a decentralised localisation technique for an automated guided vehicle without any non-holonomic constraints. Incorporation of these vehicles into the material handling system of a computer-integrated manufacturing environment would increase the characteristics of robustness, efficiency, flexibility, and advanced manoeuvrability.

  1. First investigations on the feasibility of integration of a smart sensor in harsh environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Krit, S.; Rahajandraibe, W.; Coulie-Castellani, K.; Micolau, G.; Lyoussi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Investigations of the feasibility of smart sensor in harsh environment is presented. This very first study takes place in the framework of the I-SMART European project. First approach on the feasibility of integration of the full system is introduced. This system will have to work in harsh environment in terms of temperature and radiations what makes necessary the development of specifications for operation and reliability of the components and the investigation of margins for the interplay of the components. Implementation of the analog conditioning chain is investigated where electrical performances have been validated at SPICE-level simulations. (authors)

  2. IMPACT OF TRADE OPENNESS ON OUTPUT GROWTH: CO INTEGRATION AND ERROR CORRECTION MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Arif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the long run relationship between trade openness and output growth for Pakistan using annual time series data for 1972-2010. This study follows the Engle and Granger co integration analysis and error correction approach to analyze the long run relationship between the two variables. The Error Correction Term (ECT for output growth and trade openness is significant at 5% level of significance and indicates a positive long run relation between the variables. This study has also analyzed the causality between trade openness and output growth by using granger causality test. The results of granger causality show that there is a bi-directional significant relationship between trade openness and economic growth.

  3. Taxes and the economy: A survey of the impact of taxes on growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeend, W.; van der Ploeg, R.; Timmer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the impact of taxation on economic growth, employment, investment, consumption and the environment. The public finance literature commonly distinguishes between three major functions of taxation: the traditional function of raising revenue to finance government expenditure; the

  4. Frequent ultrafine particle formation and growth in Canadian Arctic marine and coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Douglas B.; Burkart, Julia; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Lizotte, Martine; Boivin-Rioux, Aude; Blais, Marjolaine; Mungall, Emma L.; Boyer, Matthew; Irish, Victoria E.; Massé, Guillaume; Kunkel, Daniel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Papakyriakou, Tim; Bertram, Allan K.; Bozem, Heiko; Gosselin, Michel; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-11-01

    The source strength and capability of aerosol particles in the Arctic to act as cloud condensation nuclei have important implications for understanding the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. It has been shown in several Arctic regions that ultrafine particle (UFP) formation and growth is a key contributor to aerosol number concentrations during the summer. This study uses aerosol number size distribution measurements from shipboard expeditions aboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen in the summers of 2014 and 2016 throughout the Canadian Arctic to gain a deeper understanding of the drivers of UFP formation and growth within this marine boundary layer. UFP number concentrations (diameter > 4 nm) in the range of 101-104 cm-3 were observed during the two seasons, with concentrations greater than 103 cm-3 occurring more frequently in 2016. Higher concentrations in 2016 were associated with UFP formation and growth, with events occurring on 41 % of days, while events were only observed on 6 % of days in 2014. Assessment of relevant parameters for aerosol nucleation showed that the median condensation sink in this region was approximately 1.2 h-1 in 2016 and 2.2 h-1 in 2014, which lie at the lower end of ranges observed at even the most remote stations reported in the literature. Apparent growth rates of all observed events in both expeditions averaged 4.3 ± 4.1 nm h-1, in general agreement with other recent studies at similar latitudes. Higher solar radiation, lower cloud fractions, and lower sea ice concentrations combined with differences in the developmental stage and activity of marine microbial communities within the Canadian Arctic were documented and help explain differences between the aerosol measurements made during the 2014 and 2016 expeditions. These findings help to motivate further studies of biosphere-atmosphere interactions within the Arctic marine environment to explain the production of UFP and their growth to sizes

  5. Use of an uncertainty analysis for genome-scale models as a prediction tool for microbial growth processes in subsurface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Christine

    2012-03-06

    The integration of genome-scale, constraint-based models of microbial cell function into simulations of contaminant transport and fate in complex groundwater systems is a promising approach to help characterize the metabolic activities of microorganisms in natural environments. In constraint-based modeling, the specific uptake flux rates of external metabolites are usually determined by Michaelis-Menten kinetic theory. However, extensive data sets based on experimentally measured values are not always available. In this study, a genome-scale model of Pseudomonas putida was used to study the key issue of uncertainty arising from the parametrization of the influx of two growth-limiting substrates: oxygen and toluene. The results showed that simulated growth rates are highly sensitive to substrate affinity constants and that uncertainties in specific substrate uptake rates have a significant influence on the variability of simulated microbial growth. Michaelis-Menten kinetic theory does not, therefore, seem to be appropriate for descriptions of substrate uptake processes in the genome-scale model of P. putida. Microbial growth rates of P. putida in subsurface environments can only be accurately predicted if the processes of complex substrate transport and microbial uptake regulation are sufficiently understood in natural environments and if data-driven uptake flux constraints can be applied.

  6. Optimization of Grillages Using Genetic Algorithms for Integrating Matlab and Fortran Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Mačiūnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present technology applied for the global optimization of grillage-type pile foundations (further grillages. The goal of optimization is to obtain the optimal layout of pile placement in the grillages. The problem can be categorized as a topology optimization problem. The objective function is comprised of maximum reactive force emerging in a pile. The reactive force is minimized during the procedure of optimization during which variables enclose the positions of piles beneath connecting beams. Reactive forces in all piles are computed utilizing an original algorithm implemented in the Fortran programming language. The algorithm is integrated into the MatLab environment where the optimization procedure is executed utilizing a genetic algorithm. The article also describes technology enabling the integration of MatLab and Fortran environments. The authors seek to evaluate the quality of a solution to the problem analyzing experimental results obtained applying the proposed technology.

  7. Toho Gas accepts the challenge of operational reform creation of an integrated OA environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisaatsu; Ito, Mari; Goto, Akihito

    1997-01-01

    Toho Gas Co., Ltd. is Japan's third largest city gas supplier. In response to changes in the industrial environment, the company began the Integrated OA Project in 1994 promoting use of information technology while reforming its systems and culture. We made a proposal to distribute one personal computer connected to a company-wide network to each office worker. In addition, we attached importance to the creation of a database, which can integrate all information systems with a flexible structure and also play a central role in end user computing. A data model for the entire company has been already made and implemented into some operational systems and data-warehouses. Furthermore, to reform our business we are offering incremental goals, including the first step such as achieving a paper less working environment with a little effort. This methodology has achieved a great success. In the near future, we will expand the infrastructure with mobile computers and implementation of a database. (au)

  8. Optimization of Grillages Using Genetic Algorithms for Integrating Matlab and Fortran Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Mačiūnas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present technology applied for the global optimization of grillage-type pile foundations (further grillages. The goal of optimization is to obtain the optimal layout of pile placement in the grillages. The problem can be categorized as a topology optimization problem. The objective function is comprised of maximum reactive force emerging in a pile. The reactive force is minimized during the procedure of optimization during which variables enclose the positions of piles beneath connecting beams. Reactive forces in all piles are computed utilizing an original algorithm implemented in the Fortran programming language. The algorithm is integrated into the MatLab environment where the optimization procedure is executed utilizing a genetic algorithm. The article also describes technology enabling the integration of MatLab and Fortran environments. The authors seek to evaluate the quality of a solution to the problem analyzing experimental results obtained applying the proposed technology.

  9. Balancing act: matching growth with environment by the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rossana; Bögre, László; Horváth, Beátrix; Magyar, Zoltán

    2014-06-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of growth in plants is its plasticity in relation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Growth of meristematic cells relies predominantly on protein synthesis, one of the most energy-consuming activities in cells, and thus is tightly regulated in accordance with the available nutrient and energy supplies. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway takes a central position in this regulation. The core of the TOR signalling pathway is conserved throughout evolution, and can be traced back to the last eukaryotic common ancestor. In plants, a single complex constitutes the TOR signalling pathway. Manipulating the components of the TOR complex in Arabidopsis highlighted its common role as a major regulator of protein synthesis and metabolism, that is also involved in other biological functions such as cell-wall integrity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cell size. TOR, as an integral part of the auxin signalling pathway, connects hormonal and nutrient pathways. Downstream of TOR, S6 kinase and the ribosomal S6 protein have been shown to mediate several of these responses, although there is evidence of other complex non-linear TOR signalling pathway structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Social Integration and Sleep Disturbance: A Gene-Environment Interaction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sbarra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low levels of perceived social integration, or loneliness, are associated with increased risk for a range of poor health outcomes. Sleep disturbance plays a central role in the evolutionary theory of loneliness, which provides a mechanistic account of how low levels of social integration may negatively impact health. No studies, however, have examined whether the association between social integration and sleep disturbance is consistent with a causal effect after accounting for genes that are common to both variables.  Method: Using twin data ('N' = 905 twin pairs from the nationally-representative Midlife in the United States (MIDUS survey, I evaluated a series of bivariate twin models exploring whether the phenotypic association between low social integration and sleep disturbance can be explained by shared genetics. In addition, the current study specified a series of quantitative models for studying gene x environment (G X E interactions to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on sleep disturbance differ as a function of social integration. Results: The phenotypic association between social integration and sleep disturbance was fully accounted for by genes that are common between the two variables, suggesting that within-twin pair differences in social integration do not exert a causal influence on sleep disturbance. Social integration, however, moderated the non-shared environmental influence on sleep disturbances, with the greatest environmental influences observed at the lowest levels of social integration. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that an essential feature of the evolutionary model of loneliness may need refinement or elaboration. The moderation findings are discussed in terms of the fit with a stress-buffering model of social support in which environmental influences on sleep disturbance are strongest when social resources are low.

  11. Integrated care reform in urban China: a qualitative study on design, supporting environment and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Hou, Zhiyuan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Donglan; Yan, Fei

    2017-10-25

    Initiatives on integrated care between hospitals and community health centers (CHCs) have been introduced to transform the current fragmented health care delivery system into an integrated system in China. Up to date no research has analyzed in-depth the experiences of these initiatives based on perspectives from various stakeholders. This study analyzed the integrated care pilot in Hangzhou City by investigating stakeholders' perspectives on its design features and supporting environment, their acceptability of this pilot, and further identifying the enabling and constraining factors that may influence the implementation of the integrated care reform. The qualitative study was carried out based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 50 key informants who were involved in the policy-making process and implementation. Relevant policy documents were also collected for analysis. The pilot in Hangzhou was established as a CHC-led delivery system based on cooperation agreement between CHCs and hospitals to deliver primary and specialty care together for patients with chronic diseases. An innovative learning-from-practice mentorship system between specialists and general practitioners was also introduced to solve the poor capacity of general practitioners. The design of the pilot, its governance and organizational structure and human resources were enabling factors, which facilitated the integrated care reform. However, the main constraining factors were a lack of an integrated payment mechanism from health insurance and a lack of tailored information system to ensure its sustainability. The integrated care pilot in Hangzhou enabled CHCs to play as gate-keeper and care coordinator for the full continuum of services across the health care providers. The government put integrated care a priority, and constructed an efficient design, governance and organizational structure to enable its implementation. Health insurance should play a proactive role, and

  12. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., safety, and health into work planning and execution. 970.5223-1 Section 970.5223-1 Federal Acquisition... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning and...

  13. Growth and market integration in Amazonia: a comparison of growth indicators between Shuar, Shiwiar, and nonindigenous school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Pryor, George; Pozo, José; Tiwia, Washington; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2009-01-01

    We describe and compare the growth of three groups of juveniles, aged 0-18, who experience different degrees of market integration and acculturation in the Ecuadorian Amazon. These include 1,384 indigenous Shuar from the Upano Valley of Ecuador and surrounding areas, 570 nonindigenous colono (or colonist) children from the same area, and 42 Shiwiar from the interior of Ecuador. We use differences between these populations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) z-scores to assess the effects of changing subsistence patterns on Shuar growth and nutrition. Although, for all three groups, mean height-for-age z-scores were negative, Shuar z-scores were significantly lower than either colono or Shiwiar z-scores. Mean weight-for-age z-scores were also negative for Shuar and colono juveniles, while mean BMI-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores were greater than zero for all three groups. Using NHANES standards, 41% of male and 38% of female Shuar were classified as stunted, versus 16% of male and 20% of female colonos. Compared to Shuar, colonos were three times less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.33, P < 0.01) and Shiwiar were eight times less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.13, P = 0.01). These differences suggest that changes in diet have negatively affected Shuar growth and nutrition.

  14. An Integrated Diagnostic Framework to Manage Organization Sustainable Growth: An Empirical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiao Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a quantitative diagnostic framework by combining the Weisbord six-box model with the growth management model to focus on an organization’s internally driven sustainable management system. The research adopted an instrument developed by Preziosi and an extended Weisbord six-box model. The research employed a survey to collect 180 samples in a Chinese petrol company and applied the comparative method: (a the average score method; and (b the entropy method to confirm the growth level of the company. The survey also attempted to identify corresponding top growth influence factors using the obstacle degree formula. The results showed that the integrated diagnostic framework worked well to diagnose a regional but large Chinese petroleum company. In other words, the research successfully quantified the growth position and top influence factors and helped put forward specific suggestions to drive the organization of sustainable development. The method confirmed this organization during the fourth phase of five phases. In addition, top influence factors hindering the internal growth were (a the lack of task engagement with energy and time; (b the lack of personal work units; and (c a poor division of labor for reaching sustainable growth rates. The research provides a generic theoretical framework support to incorporate growth management models into an organizational diagnosis to obtain sustainable growth. It further highlights and practices guidelines in examining actual growth management levels in companies and discusses top influence factors to design efficient management systems to pursue organizational growth in a multitude of industrial contexts.

  15. Green Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmoro, Marlon; Venturini, Jonas Cardona; Diniz Pereira, Breno Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001), environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the p...

  16. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU; LIVIU NEAMTU

    2014-01-01

    The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of ...

  17. Blockchain-based database to ensure data integrity in cloud computing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetani, Edoardo; Aniello, Leonardo; Baldoni, Roberto; Lombardi, Federico; Margheri, Andrea; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2017-01-01

    Data is nowadays an invaluable resource, indeed it guides all business decisions in most of the computer-aided human activities. Threats to data integrity are thus of paramount relevance, as tampering with data may maliciously affect crucial business decisions. This issue is especially true in cloud computing environments, where data owners cannot control fundamental data aspects, like the physical storage of data and the control of its accesses. Blockchain has recently emerged as a fascinati...

  18. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołowrocki Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  19. Effect of radiation environment on radiation use efficiency and growth of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bange, M.P.; Hammer, G.L.; Rickert, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The level of incident radiation and the proportion of radiation that is diffuse affects radiation use efficiency (RUE) in crops. However, the degree of this effect, and its importance to growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) have not been established. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of radiation environment on RUE, growth, and yield of sunflower. A fully irrigated crop was sown on an alluvial-prairie soil (Fluventic Haplustoll) and was exposed to three distinct radiation environments. In two treatments, the level of incident radiation was reduced by 14 and 20% by suspending two different types of polyethylene plastic films well above the crop. In addition to the reductions in incident radiation, the proportion of radiation that was diffuse was increased by about 14% in these treatments. Lower incident radiation and increased proportion of diffuse radiation had no effect on total biomass, phenology, leaf area, and the canopy light extinction coefficient (k = 0.89). However, yield was reduced in shaded treatments due to smaller grain size and lower harvest index. Although crop RUE measured over the entire crop cycle (1.25 g/MJ) did not differ significantly among treatments, there was a trend where RUE compensated for less intercepted incident radiation. Theoretical derivations of the response of RUE to different levels of incident radiation supported this finding. Shaded sunflower crops have the ability to produce biomass similar to unshaded crops by increasing RUE, but have lower harvest indices

  20. [Effects of sludge compost used as lawn medium on lawn growth and soil and water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Quan; Zhou, Jin-Bo; Chen, Ruo-Xia; Lin, Bin; Wang, De-Yao

    2013-10-01

    To address effect of the sludge compost-containing medium on the growth of Manila lawn and environment quality, a pot experiment was conducted using six treatments based on contrasting sludge compost addition volume ratios in the soil system (i. e., 0% , 10% , 25% , 50% , 75% and 100%). The results indicated that the growth potential of Manila lawn was increased with increasing sludge compost addition volume ratio. The content of Hg in Manila plant was significantly positively correlated with that in the lawn medium. Although the contents of Cr, Cd and Hg in the lawn medium were synchronously increased with increasing sludge compost addition volume ratio in the soil system, their contents were all lower than the critical levels of third-class standard in the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard. The heavy metal and nitrate concentrations detected in percolating water were significantly positively correlated with those in the lawn medium, respectively. When the sludge compost addition volume ratio was more than 50% in this study, both heavy metal and nitrate concentrations in percolating water would exceed the maximum allowable levels of the National Groundwater Environment Quality Standard.

  1. Placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment: implications for fetal growth and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovici, Ionel; Hoelle, Katharina; Angiolini, Emily; Constância, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The placenta is a transient organ found in eutherian mammals that evolved primarily to provide nutrients for the developing fetus. The placenta exchanges a wide array of nutrients, endocrine signals, cytokines and growth factors with the mother and the fetus, thereby regulating intrauterine development. Recent studies show that the placenta is not just a passive organ mediating maternal-fetal exchange. It can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the maternal-fetal environment. These dynamic adaptations are thought to occur to maximize fetal growth and viability at birth in the prevailing conditions in utero. However, some of these adaptations may also affect the development of individual fetal tissues, with patho-physiological consequences long after birth. Here, this review summarizes current knowledge on the causes, possible mechanisms and consequences of placental adaptive responses, with a focus on the regulation of transporter-mediated processes for nutrients. This review also highlights the emerging roles that imprinted genes and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play in placental adaptations to the maternal-fetal environment. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of population growth on environment: the debate heats up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1992-02-01

    A proposed framework, which was introduced at the 1989 meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, included political constraints as well as population growth as a proximate cause with potentially important impacts on the environment in Paul and Ann Ehrlich's well-known PAT equation. PAT limitations are identified as the 1.2 billion people caught in the debt-poverty trap, less developed countries' balance of payments deficits, and "distortionary factors" that undermined economic incentives and contributed to mismanagement of resources. Such factors could be keeping farm prices low and have an impact on deterring use of environmentally sound traditional agricultural practices. Mismanagement of public lands occurs when large commercial enterprises or large scale mechanization displace population onto marginal or less productive lands. Intergroup warfare is a new form impacting on the environment. In Burma loggers are authorized to clear cut large tracts of teak forests in order to ferret out Karen guerrillas. Over 15 million refugees were thus displaced and forced to live in encampments that require trees for shelter, firewood for survival, and overgrazing of livestock. Social and economic environments are also undermined by "dependency" factors such as trade protectionism, brain drain, and limited foreign aid. The Group of 77 Non-Aligned Developing Countries proposed that discussions of the links between population and the environment be omitted from the agenda of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development. Basic clarifications are needed to distinguish ultimate versus proximate factors and current versus future concerns. The debate ignores distribution patterns, migration, or changing age structures. The debate blames unjustifiably rapid population growth as the ultimate cause of global environmental degradation and links population growth to a host of other social problems such as famine and refugees, while ignoring civil unrest

  3. Investigation on the electrochemical properties and crack growth rates of stainless steels in BWR alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.H.; Hsu, T.Y.; Huang, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing pH of reactor water to mildly alkaline is considered as one of the mitigating water chemistry strategies to reduce the activity release of radioactive oxides and suppress the growth rate of stress corrosion cracking. However, only limited experimental data are currently available in the published literature, it is imperative to perform additional tests to verify the effectiveness of slightly alkaline reactor water. Because the electrochemical behavior and SCC are intricately related, this study will attempt to investigates the electrochemical properties and measures the crack growth rates (CGRs) of type 304 stainless steel (SS) in both normal water chemistry (200 ppb O 2 , neutral pH 25 ) and alkaline chemistry (200 ppb O 2 , pH 25 = 8.0). The additive for pH control is potassium hydroxide (KOH). The crack growth rate was monitored by reversing DC potential drop technique. The electrochemical measurements include AC impedance measurement and potential pulsing test to measure the repassivation behavior. The characteristics of electrochemical properties and its effect on stress corrosion crocking in BWR alkaline environments have been further examined. (author)

  4. Integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system in smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of eHealth tele-monitoring systems that will provide many benefits for healthcare delivery from the healthcare provider to the patient's home. However, there is a plethora of security requirements in eHealth tele-monitoring systems. Data integrity of the transferred medical data is one of the most important security requirements that should be satisfied in these systems, since medical information is extremely sensitive information, and even sometimes life threatening information. In this paper, we present a data integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system that operates in a smart home environment. Agent technology is applied to achieve data integrity with the use of cryptographic smart cards. Furthermore, the overall security infrastructure and its various components are described.

  5. Integration of a browser based operator manual in the system environment of a process computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Andreas; Erfle, Robert; Feinkohl, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The integration of a browser based operator manual in the system environment of a process computer system is an optimization of the operating procedure in the control room and a safety enhancement due to faster and error-free access to the manual contents. Several requirements by the authorities have to be fulfilled: the operating manual has to be available as hard copy, the format has to be true to original, protection against manipulation has to be provided, the manual content of the browser-based version and the hard copy have to identical, and the display presentation has to be consistent with ergonomic principals. The integration of the on-line manual in the surveillance process computer system provides the operator with the relevant comments to the surveillance signal. The described integration of the on-line manual is an optimization of the operator's everyday job with respect to ergonomics and safety (human performance).

  6. Photosynthetic Entrainment of the Circadian Clock Facilitates Plant Growth under Environmental Fluctuations: Perspectives from an Integrated Model of Phase Oscillator and Phloem Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ohara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants need to avoid carbon starvation and resultant growth inhibition under fluctuating light environments to ensure optimal growth and reproduction. As diel patterns of carbon metabolism are influenced by the circadian clock, appropriate regulation of the clock is essential for plants to properly manage their carbon resources. For proper adjustment of the circadian phase, higher plants utilize environmental signals such as light or temperature and metabolic signals such as photosynthetic products; the importance of the latter as phase regulators has been recently elucidated. A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that is deficient in phase response to sugar has been shown, under fluctuating light conditions, to be unable to adjust starch turnover and to realize carbon homeostasis. Whereas, the effects of light entrainment on growth and survival of higher plants are well studied, the impact of phase regulation by sugar remains unknown. Here we show that endogenous sugar entrainment facilitates plant growth. We integrated two mathematical models, one describing the dynamics of carbon metabolism in A. thaliana source leaves and the other growth of sink tissues dependent on sucrose translocation from the source. The integrated model predicted that sugar-sensitive plants grow faster than sugar-insensitive plants under constant as well as changing photoperiod conditions. We found that sugar entrainment enables efficient carbon investment for growth by stabilizing sucrose supply to sink tissues. Our results highlight the importance of clock entrainment by both exogenous and endogenous signals for optimizing growth and increasing fitness.

  7. An Integrated GPS/PDA/GIS Telegeoprocessing System for Traffic and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of sustainable urban transport networks is a present priority for world leaders, national governors and local authorities. The challenge is to increase mobility reducing the adverse impacts of transport. The potential of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS to provide solutions for the 21 st century sustainable urban transport system has already been demonstrated in several piecewise applications. An integrated framework that addresses the needs of municipal authorities, that integrates the data spread through different sources, that supports the intelligent traffic and environment operations, and that provides information to the citizens steering their involvement and commitment is of critical importance and can be the enabler towards the creation of more efficient, safety, and environmental-friendly transport networks that promote the citizens' quality of life. This work describes an integrated GPS (Global Positioning System / PDA (Personal Digital Assistant / GIS (Geographical Information System system which is part of the mentioned framework. The system includes prototypes for mobile urban traffic data acquisition, with a GPS -equipped vehicle, a PDA application and wireless communications, and for a geodatabase with a related Web application for urban traffic and environment. Their integrated operation is exemplified for a real urban transport system.

  8. RSYST: From nuclear reactor calculations towards a highly sophisticated scientific software integration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, M.; Seybold, J.; Ruehle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The software environment RSYST was originally used to solve problems of reactor physics. The consideration of advanced scientific simulation requirements and the strict application of modern software design principles led to a system which is perfectly suitable to solve problems in various complex scientific problem domains. Starting with a review of the early days of RSYST, we describe the straight evolution driven by the need of software environment which combines the advantages of a high-performance database system with the capability to integrate sophisticated scientific technical applications. The RSYST architecture is presented and the data modelling capabilities are described. To demonstrate the powerful possibilities and flexibility of the RSYST environment, we describe a wide range of RSYST applications, e.g., mechanical simulations of multibody systems, which are used in biomechanical research, civil engineering and robotics. In addition, a hypermedia system which is used for scientific technical training and documentation is presented. (orig.) [de

  9. Integration of health and environment through health impact assessment: cases from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Levine, Hagai; Davidovitch, Nadav; Bhatia, Rajiv; Mindell, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    Despite the strong linkage between environment and health, institutions responsible for these fields operate in largely fragmented ways with limited interaction. As illustrated in the recent engagement between health and urban planning institutions, inter-institutional cooperation could support more effective and politically acceptable solutions for both local and global problems. Analysis of three case-studies, from three different continents, shows that HIA might serve to promote synergies among health and environmental disciplines in different local contexts, and could lead to institutional and procedural changes that promote health. Case examples provided supportive evidence for these effects, despite differences in approaches to HIA and governance levels. Obstacles to the use of HIA for inter-institutional integration also differed between countries. Lessons learned could support cooperation in other common interests of health and environment disciplines such as research, training and preparedness, and mitigation of public health emergencies related to the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Charting a path for health sciences librarians in an integrated information environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J

    1993-10-01

    Changes in the health information environment present a major challenge to health sciences librarians. To successfully meet this challenge, librarians must apply the concepts of informal, self-directed, lifelong learning to their own carers. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations is creating an integrated information environment in health care organizations. The health sciences librarian brings unique knowledge and skills to this environment. The reference technique, a methodology that closely parallels other problem-solving approaches such as the physician's diagnostic technique, equips librarians with the conceptual skills to develop creative solutions to information management problems. Each health sciences librarian must assume responsibility for extending professional skills and abilities and demonstrating them in the workplace.

  11. Auditory-visual integration of emotional signals in a virtual environment for cynophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffou, Marine; Chapoulie, Emmanuelle; David, Adrien; Guerchouche, Rachid; Drettakis, George; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Cynophobia (dog phobia) has both visual and auditory relevant components. In order to investigate the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) exposure-based treatment for cynophobia, we studied the efficiency of auditory-visual environments in generating presence and emotion. We conducted an evaluation test with healthy participants sensitive to cynophobia in order to assess the capacity of auditory-visual virtual environments (VE) to generate fear reactions. Our application involves both high fidelity visual stimulation displayed in an immersive space and 3D sound. This specificity enables us to present and spatially manipulate fearful stimuli in the auditory modality, the visual modality and both. Our specific presentation of animated dog stimuli creates an environment that is highly arousing, suggesting that VR is a promising tool for cynophobia treatment and that manipulating auditory-visual integration might provide a way to modulate affect.

  12. Deterministic estimation of crack growth rates in steels in LWR coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Lu, P.C.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the authors extend the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM) for intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of sensitized Type 304SS in light water reactor heat transport circuits by incorporating steel corrosion, the oxidation of hydrogen, and the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, in addition to the reduction of oxygen (as in the original CEFM), as charge transfer reactions occurring on the external surfaces. Additionally, the authors have incorporated a theoretical approach for estimating the crack tip strain rate, and the authors have included a void nucleation model to account for ductile failure at very negative potentials. The key concept of the CEFM is that coupling between the internal and external environments, and the need to conserve charge, are the physical and mathematical constraints that determine the rate of crack advance. The model provides rational explanations for the effects of oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen, conductivity, stress intensity, and flow velocity on the rate of crack growth in sensitized Type 304 in simulated LWR in-vessel environments. They propose that the CEFM can serve as the basis of a deterministic method for estimating component life times

  13. Integrating nanotubes into microsystems with electron beam lithography and in situ catalytically activated growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil; Fornés-Mora, Marc; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Integration of freestanding wire-like structures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into microsystems has many potential applications. Devices such as AFM tips or improved electrodes for conductivity measurements are obvious candidates. Catalytically activated growth opens up the possi......Integration of freestanding wire-like structures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into microsystems has many potential applications. Devices such as AFM tips or improved electrodes for conductivity measurements are obvious candidates. Catalytically activated growth opens up...... the possibility of waferscale fabrication of such devices. We combine conventional microfabrication techniques with state of the art electron beam lithography (EBL) to precisely position catalyst nanoparticles with sub 100 nm diameter into the microsystems. In particular, we have explored two main approaches...

  14. Global Integration, Non-Oil Export and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena Stanley Nwodo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on global integration, non-oil export and economic growth in Nigeria. The direct and interaction effect of the both openness variables and non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria is investigated using quarterly data from 1986-2014. For analysis, it uses one measures of financial openness: de facto (total capital flow variables following Aizenman and Noy (2009.and a measure of trade openness adopted by Okoh (2004. The study applies the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL. The results show positive impact of non-oil export on economic growth in Nigeria both in the short run and in the long run, negative effect of trade and financial openness on economic growth however, the result recorded a negative effect of the interaction of trade openness and non-oil export on economic growth and a positive effect of the interaction of financial openness and non-oil export on economic growth. Thus, the study recommends among others that government should get the fundamentals right in the economy first that will boost non-oil sector before opening the economy for trade.

  15. Growth of Si nanocrystals on alumina and integration in memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, T.; Fernandes, A.; Damlencourt, J. F.; De Salvo, B.; Martin, F.; Mazen, F.; Haukka, S.

    2003-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the growth of Si quantum dots (Si QDs) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on alumina dielectric deposited by atomic layer deposition. The Si QDs density is very high, 1012 cm-2, for a mean diameter between 5 and 10 nm. Al2O3/Si QD stacks have been integrated in memory devices as granular floating gate. The devices demonstrate good charge storage and data retention characteristics.

  16. Selected area growth integrated wavelength converter based on PD-EAM optical logic gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Bin; Zhou Daibing; Zhang Can; Liang Song; Lu Dan; Zhao Lingjuan; Wang Wei; Qiu Jifang; Wu Jian

    2014-01-01

    A selected area growth wavelength converter based on a PD-EAM optical logic gate for WDM application is presented, integrating an EML transmitter and a SOA-PD receiver. The design, fabrication, and DC characters were analyzed. A 2 Gb/s NRZ signal based on the C-band wavelength converted to 1555 nm with the highest extinction ratio of 7 dB was achieved and wavelength converted eye diagrams with eyes opened were presented. (semiconductor devices)

  17. The effect of frequency and environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of SA508 Cl.III RPV steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilles, R.D.; Bulloch, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of frequency and environment on the fatigue crack growth behaviour of SA508 Cl. III RPV steel. The study has shown that the effect of the Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) environment is directly related to the frequency and the level of applied stress intensity of the test; these results further showed that the lower the frequency the greater the environmental effect, especially at low ΔK levels. No such frequency effect was observed in either the laboratory air or ultra-high purity argon environments. At a frequency of 0.1 Hz the PWR water test exhibited characteristic EAC growth, i.e. plateau growth behaviour. Fractographical examination of the fracture surface revealed that the fracture mode during plateau growth was intergranular failure. The experimental results are described and discussed in terms of the hydrogen assisted cracking mechanism. (author)

  18. Starch as a major integrator in the regulation of plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpice, Ronan; Pyl, Eva-Theresa; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Trenkamp, Sandra; Steinfath, Matthias; Witucka-Wall, Hanna; Gibon, Yves; Usadel, Björn; Poree, Fabien; Piques, Maria Conceição; Von Korff, Maria; Steinhauser, Marie Caroline; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Guenther, Manuela; Hoehne, Melanie; Selbig, Joachim; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Altmann, Thomas; Stitt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Rising demand for food and bioenergy makes it imperative to breed for increased crop yield. Vegetative plant growth could be driven by resource acquisition or developmental programs. Metabolite profiling in 94 Arabidopsis accessions revealed that biomass correlates negatively with many metabolites, especially starch. Starch accumulates in the light and is degraded at night to provide a sustained supply of carbon for growth. Multivariate analysis revealed that starch is an integrator of the overall metabolic response. We hypothesized that this reflects variation in a regulatory network that balances growth with the carbon supply. Transcript profiling in 21 accessions revealed coordinated changes of transcripts of more than 70 carbon-regulated genes and identified 2 genes (myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase, a Kelch-domain protein) whose transcripts correlate with biomass. The impact of allelic variation at these 2 loci was shown by association mapping, identifying them as candidate lead genes with the potential to increase biomass production. PMID:19506259

  19. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  20. Eradication of Productivity Related Problems Through Lean Principles In Integrated Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive era, manufacturing enterprises struggle to adopt cost-effective manufacturing systems. Overview of the recent manufacturing enterprises shows that successful global manufacturing enterprises have distributed their manufacturing capabilities over the globe. The successes of distributed integrated manufacturing enterprises depend upon the adaptation of appropriate manufacturing technologies like computer integrated manufacturing (CIM under the global collaborative environment along with the principles of lean manufacturing so that their corporate goals are achieved. CIM is an umbrella term which involves automated design, analysis, planning manufacturing, dispatching, customer-interaction, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control and factory floor functions, which are inter-linked through the computer, to control all the campus-wide manufacturing related operations. It helps to improve the performance of a firm by integrating various areas of manufacturing business in which most of lean ideas are embedded. These lean ideas cause work in a process to be performed with minimum of non-value adding activities and focus on customers’ needs by delivering them at minimum time, with high quality and at minimum cost by eliminating hidden waste. What happens at the shop floor of even an integrated industry is that proper and timely attention is not paid to the intangible lean principles in the manual part of the CIM system which results in substantial loss of the plant productivity. Therefore the objective of this research paper is to investigate the different poor productivity-related problems in a partially integrated manufacturing environment and lay down the remedial measures to eradicate them using ‘Juran’s problem solving techniques’ and various ‘lean tools’ which results in the reduced wastages and hence improved productivity.

  1. An integrated GIS environment enhancing the operation and planning of power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yared, George Antoine

    1996-05-01

    The evolution of electrical power systems was tightly geared by the development of two fields: power engineering, with the advanced technology of physical elements comprising all parts of a power system, and information processing tools to manage the performance of electric power utilities. Compared to power engineering that has gone through tremendous developments, information technology applications for electrical power systems are relatively young. The possible improvements of these applications are in their graphical, mapping an data analysis capabilities. State-of-the art information technology such as Geographic Information Systems provides these facilities. The objective of this thesis is to devise a technique that combines power system software tools with the Geographic Information Systems software to enhance the operation, control and planning of electrical transmission systems. The load flow, voltage control and fault analysis models for the transmission system will be re-engineered in a Geographic Information System environment.The research is generic, special attention is given to its application to the Lebanese electrical power system, which is recovering from an infrastructure devastating war. The research entails integrating power systems analysis and control package, or PSACP developed at the AUB within a Geographic Information Systems environment. This will enhance the power modeling capabilities by the use of powerful thematic mapping, geographic and data analysis and user interface techniques that come with Geographic Information Systems. An overview of the two technologies involved is presented, followed by a detailed description of the integration technique before describing the integrated system. Moving to a higher level, the features of the system are presented, followed by sample applications of the integrated system on the Lebanese electrical power system. The thesis contributes to the research arena by developing a software re

  2. Thermomechanical stability and integrability of an embedded ceramic antenna with an integrated sensor element for wireless reading in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, P.; Khaji, Z.; Knaust, S.; Sundqvist, J.; Klintberg, L.; Thornell, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacturing and evaluation of a small, wirelessly powered and read resonating antenna circuit with an integrated pressure sensor. The work aims at developing miniature devices suitable for harsh environments, where high temperature prevents the use of conventional, silicon-based microdevices. Here, the device is made of alumina with platinum as conducting material. Ceramic green tapes were structured using high-precision milling, metallized using screen printing, and subsequently laminated to form stacks before they were sintered. The device's frequency shift as a function of temperature was studied up to 900°C. The contributions to the shift both from the thermomechanical deformation of the device at large, and from the integrated and, so far, self-pressurized sensor were sorted out. A total frequency shift of 3200 ppm was observed for the pressure sensor for heating over the whole range. Negligible levels of thermally induced radius of curvature were observed. With three-point bending, a frequency shift of 180 ppm was possible to induce with a curvature of radius of 220 m at a 10 N load. The results indicate that a robust pressure sensor node, which can register pressure changes of a few bars at 900°C and wirelessly transmit the signal, is viable.

  3. Thermomechanical stability and integrability of an embedded ceramic antenna with an integrated sensor element for wireless reading in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturesson, P; Sundqvist, J; Thornell, G; Khaji, Z; Knaust, S; Klintberg, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacturing and evaluation of a small, wirelessly powered and read resonating antenna circuit with an integrated pressure sensor. The work aims at developing miniature devices suitable for harsh environments, where high temperature prevents the use of conventional, silicon-based microdevices. Here, the device is made of alumina with platinum as conducting material. Ceramic green tapes were structured using high-precision milling, metallized using screen printing, and subsequently laminated to form stacks before they were sintered. The device's frequency shift as a function of temperature was studied up to 900°C. The contributions to the shift both from the thermomechanical deformation of the device at large, and from the integrated and, so far, self-pressurized sensor were sorted out. A total frequency shift of 3200 ppm was observed for the pressure sensor for heating over the whole range. Negligible levels of thermally induced radius of curvature were observed. With three-point bending, a frequency shift of 180 ppm was possible to induce with a curvature of radius of 220 m at a 10 N load. The results indicate that a robust pressure sensor node, which can register pressure changes of a few bars at 900°C and wirelessly transmit the signal, is viable

  4. Threshold Dynamics of a Huanglongbing Model with Logistic Growth in Periodic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of seasonal activity of psyllid on the dynamics of Huanglongbing (HLB infection. A new model about HLB transmission with Logistic growth in psyllid insect vectors and periodic coefficients has been investigated. It is shown that the global dynamics are determined by the basic reproduction number R0 which is defined through the spectral radius of a linear integral operator. If R0 1, then the disease persists. Numerical values of parameters of the model are evaluated taken from the literatures. Furthermore, numerical simulations support our analytical conclusions and the sensitive analysis on the basic reproduction number to the changes of average and amplitude values of the recruitment function of citrus are shown. Finally, some useful comments on controlling the transmission of HLB are given.

  5. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using 14 CO 2 techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO 2 uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%

  6. Fatigue crack growth behavior of pressure vessel steels and submerged arc weldments in a high-temperature pressurized water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, P.K.; Logsdon, W.A.; Begley, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) properties of SA508 Cl 2a and SA533 Gr A Cl 2 pressure vessel steels and the corresponding automatic submerged arc weldments were developed in a high-temperature pressurized water (HPW) environment at 288 degrees C (550 degrees F) and 7.2 MPa (1044 psi) at load ratios of 0.20 and 0.50. The properties were generally conservative compared to American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI water environment reference curve. The growth rate of fatigue cracks in the base materials, however, was faster in the HPW environment than in a 288 degrees C (550 degrees F) base line air environment. The growth rate of fatigue cracks in the two submerged arc weldments was also accelerated in the HPW environment but to a lesser degree than that demonstrated by the base materials. In the air environment, fatigue striations were observed, independent of material and load ratio, while in the HPW environment, some intergranular facets were present. The greater environmental effect on crack growth rates displayed by the base materials compared the weldments attributed to a different sulfide composition and morphology

  7. A framework for interactive visual analysis of heterogeneous marine data in an integrated problem solving environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Chen, Ge; Yao, Shifeng; Tian, Fenglin; Liu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated marine visualization framework which focuses on processing, analyzing the multi-dimension spatiotemporal marine data in one workflow. Effective marine data visualization is needed in terms of extracting useful patterns, recognizing changes, and understanding physical processes in oceanography researches. However, the multi-source, multi-format, multi-dimension characteristics of marine data pose a challenge for interactive and feasible (timely) marine data analysis and visualization in one workflow. And, global multi-resolution virtual terrain environment is also needed to give oceanographers and the public a real geographic background reference and to help them to identify the geographical variation of ocean phenomena. This paper introduces a data integration and processing method to efficiently visualize and analyze the heterogeneous marine data. Based on the data we processed, several GPU-based visualization methods are explored to interactively demonstrate marine data. GPU-tessellated global terrain rendering using ETOPO1 data is realized and the video memory usage is controlled to ensure high efficiency. A modified ray-casting algorithm for the uneven multi-section Argo volume data is also presented and the transfer function is designed to analyze the 3D structure of ocean phenomena. Based on the framework we designed, an integrated visualization system is realized. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework is demonstrated. This system is expected to make a significant contribution to the demonstration and understanding of marine physical process in a virtual global environment.

  8. Options of system integrated environment modelling in the predicated dynamic cyberspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janková, Martina; Dvořák, Jiří [Institute of Informatics, Faculty of Business and Management, Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    In this article there are briefly mentioned some selected options of contemporary conception of cybernetic system models in the corresponding and possible integratable environment with modern system dynamics thinking and all this in the cyberspace of possible projecting of predicted system characteristics. The key to new capabilities of system integration modelling in the considered cyberspace is mainly the ability to improve the environment and the system integration options, all this with the aim of modern control in the hierarchically arranged dynamic cyberspace, e.g. in the currently desired electronic business with information. The aim of this article is to assess generally the trends in the use of modern modelling methods considering the cybernetics applications verified in practice, modern concept of project management and also the potential integration of artificial intelligence in the new projecting and project management of integratable and intelligent models, e.g. with the optimal structures and adaptable behaviour.The article results from the solution of a specific research partial task at the faculty; especially the moments proving that the new economics will be based more and more on information, knowledge system defined cyberspace of modern management, are stressed in the text.

  9. Options of system integrated environment modelling in the predicated dynamic cyberspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janková, Martina; Dvořák, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    In this article there are briefly mentioned some selected options of contemporary conception of cybernetic system models in the corresponding and possible integratable environment with modern system dynamics thinking and all this in the cyberspace of possible projecting of predicted system characteristics. The key to new capabilities of system integration modelling in the considered cyberspace is mainly the ability to improve the environment and the system integration options, all this with the aim of modern control in the hierarchically arranged dynamic cyberspace, e.g. in the currently desired electronic business with information. The aim of this article is to assess generally the trends in the use of modern modelling methods considering the cybernetics applications verified in practice, modern concept of project management and also the potential integration of artificial intelligence in the new projecting and project management of integratable and intelligent models, e.g. with the optimal structures and adaptable behaviour.The article results from the solution of a specific research partial task at the faculty; especially the moments proving that the new economics will be based more and more on information, knowledge system defined cyberspace of modern management, are stressed in the text

  10. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  11. Nuon integrates fragmented IT environment with Converge 'meter-to-bill' enterprise system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.; Richmond, P. [Siemens Metering, Inc (Netherlands)

    2002-10-01

    Integration of the IT services of three large utility companies that merged into one is described. Prior to the merger each company owned its own data acquisition and billing applications and followed its own information processing and business rules. The newly formed company had the unenviable task of integrating these disparate applications into one streamlined and efficient company-wide system. A complicating factor was the earlier deregulation of the Dutch energy market which already forced vertically structured utilities to split into separate functional companies, with the result that meter and other system and logistic information was widely dispersed across multiple systems and locations. To bring order out of this chaos and to create a single company-wide integrated system Nuon partnered with Siemens to evaluate the existing system and to design a new one that would improve the situation. The new system that emerged is a cohesive, robust IT environment with many benefits. Some of these are: consolidated metering data in one open architecture environment; a fully automated interface to the SAP billing system; fully flexible and automated data reporting and validation functionality; data distribution capability throughout the organization and to energy consumers via the Internet; and fully automated data exchange capability with other market players and the System Operator.

  12. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Medina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids. In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use.Highlights:• Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones• Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions• Different ideotypes reflected

  13. Transpiration Response and Growth in Pearl Millet Parental Lines and Hybrids Bred for Contrasting Rainfall Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Susan; Gupta, S K; Vadez, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F 1 -hybrids, 18 F 1 -hybrids and then 40 F 1 -hybrids). In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations. The hybrids adapted to lower rainfall had higher transpiration response curves than those from the highest rainfall zones, but showed no variation in how transpiration responded to soil drying. The genotypes bred for lower rainfall zones showed lower leaf area, dry matter, thicker leaves, root development, and exudation, than the ones bred for high rainfall zone when grown in the low VPD environment of the greenhouse, but there was no difference in their root length neither on the root/shoot index in these genotypes. By contrast, when grown under high VPD conditions outdoors, the lower rainfall hybrids had the highest leaf, tiller, and biomass development. Finally, under soil drying the genotypes from the lower rainfall accumulated less biomass than the ones from higher rainfall zone, and so did the parental lines compared to the hybrids. These differences in the transpiration response and growth clearly showed that breeding for different agro-ecological zones also bred for different genotype strategies in relation to traits related to plant water use. Highlights : • Variation in transpiration response reflected breeding for agro-ecological zones • Different growth strategies depended on the environmental conditions • Different ideotypes reflected

  14. Asian energy and environmental policy: Promoting growth while preserving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongxiang

    2008-01-01

    Asia has experienced spectacular economic growth over the past two decades. However, this economic progress has come at a high cost. It has led to unprecedented environmental consequences. So this region needs to shift the conventional pattern of 'develop first and then treat the pollution' to a trajectory of sustainable development. To that end, this paper examines a variety of policy responses, at national, regional and international levels, to deal with growing concerns about the environmental challenges in Asia. In the context of national responses, special attention is paid to the following issues: coordination between the central and local governments, market-based environmental instruments and industrial policies, tougher emissions standards for mobile and stationary sources and fuel quality, policies to promote energy efficiency and the use of clean energy and biofuels, the integration of environmental policies with economic and sectoral policies, and engagement of the private sector through e.g., ecolabelling, green government procurement, corporate ratings and disclosure programs, and drawing the support of financial institutions to promote improved corporate environmental performance. The paper concludes that having the right policy mix, coupled with strengthened cooperation at national, local and regional levels, will ensure continuing economic growth in the region without compromising its limited ecological-carrying capacity and environmental quality

  15. Radioactivity in food and the environment: calculations of UK radiation doses using integrated methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allott, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Dear Sir: I read with interest the paper by W C Camplin, G P Brownless, G D Round, K Winpenny and G J Hunt from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) on 'Radioactivity in food and the environment: calculations of UK radiation doses using integrated methods' in the December 2002 issue of this journal (J. Radiol. Prot. 22 371-88). The Environment Agency has a keen interest in the development of a robust methodology for assessing total doses which have been received by members of the public from authorised discharges of radioactive substances to the environment. Total dose in this context means the dose received from all authorised discharges and all exposure pathways (e.g. inhalation, external irradiation from radionuclides in sediment/soil, direct radiation from operations on a nuclear site, consumption of food etc). I chair a 'total retrospective dose assessment' working group with representatives from the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), Food Standards Agency (FSA), National Radiological Protection Board, CEFAS and BNFL which began discussing precisely this issue during 2002. This group is a sub-group of the National Dose Assessment Working Group which was set up in April 2002 (J. Radiol. Prot. 22 318-9). The Environment Agency, Food Standards Agency and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate previously undertook joint research into the most appropriate methodology to use for total dose assessment (J J Hancox, S J Stansby and M C Thorne 2002 The Development of a Methodology to Assess Population Doses from Multiple Source and Exposure Pathways of Radioactivity (Environment Agency R and D Technical Report P3-070/TR). This work came to broadly the same conclusion as the work by CEFAS, that an individual dose method is probably the most appropriate method to use. This research and that undertaken by CEFAS will help the total retrospective dose assessment working group refine a set of principles and a methodology for the

  16. Vegetative growth and yield of strawberry under irrigation and soil mulches for different cultivation environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Regina Célia de Matos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative growth and yield of strawberry in relation to irrigation levels and soil mulches are still not well known, mainly for different environmental conditions. Two experiments were carried out in Atibaia, SP, Brazil, during 1995, one in a protected environment and the other in an open field, to evaluate the cultivar Campinas IAC-2712, under different irrigation levels and soil mulches (black and clear polyethylene. Three water potential levels in the soil were used in order to define irrigation time, corresponding to -0.010 (N1, -0.035 (N2, and -0.070 (N3 MPa, measured through tensiometers installed at the 10 cm depth. A 2 x 3 factorial arrangement was adopted, as randomized complete block, with 5 replicates. In the protected cultivation, the irrigation levels of -0.010 and -0.035 MPa and the clear plastic mulch favored the vegetative growth, evaluated through plant height, maximum horizontal dimension of the plant, leaf area index, as well as by total marketable fruit yield and its components (mean number and weight of fruits per plant. In the open field cultivation, no effect of treatments due to rainfall were observed.

  17. Effect of Microstructure and Environment on Static Crack Growth Resistance in Alloy 706

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Duquette, David J.; Schwant, Robin C.

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between thermo-mechanical processing, resultant microstructure, and mechanical properties has been of interest in the field of metallurgy for centuries. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and key mechanical properties important for turbine rotor design has been investigated. Specifically, the tensile yield strength and crack growth resistance for a nickel-iron based superalloy 706 has been examined. Through a systematic study, a correlation was found between the processing parameters and the microstructure. Specifically, differences in grain boundary and grain interior precipitates were identified and correlated with processing conditions. Further, a strong relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties was identified. The type and orientation of grain boundary precipitates affect time-dependent crack propagation resistance, and the size and volume fraction of grain interior precipitates were correlated with tensile yield strength. It was also found that there is a strong environmental effect on time-dependent crack propagation resistance, and the sensitivity to environmental damage is microstructure dependent. Microstructures with η decorated grain boundaries were more resistant to environmental damage through oxygen embrittlement than microstructures with no η phase on the grain boundaries. An effort was made to explore the mechanisms of improving the time-dependent crack propagation resistance through thermo-mechanical processing, and several mechanisms were identified in both the environment-dependent and the environment-independent category. These mechanisms were ranked based on their contributions to crack propagation resistance.

  18. Novel Adaptive QoS Framework for Integrated UMTS/WLAN Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shuminoski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Quality of Service (QoS provisioning for multimedia traffic in integrated Wireless and Mobile Networks is becoming an increasingly important objective, in this paper we introduce a novel concept of an adaptive QoS cross-layer framework. The Adaptive QoS framework is proven via novel simulation results in integrated environment with UMTS and IEEE 802.11 networks. The aim of our novel framework is presenting a new module that shall provide the best QoS and lower cost for a given service using one or more wireless technologies in a given time. The analysis of simulation results has shown superior performances with a high level of QoS provisioning in a variety of network conditions. The performance of Adaptive QoS algorithm is evaluated using ns-miracle augmented with our dual-mode Mobile Equipments (MEs and using statistical analysis.

  19. High Prevalence, Genetic Diversity and Intracellular Growth Ability of Legionella in Hot Spring Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haijian; Wang, Huanxin; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Mingqiang; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Background Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. Methods Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequence-based typing (SBT) were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. Results Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (pLegionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (pLegionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%), and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%), 6 (23.4%), 5 (19.2%), 1 (18.5%), 2 (10.2%), 8 (0.4%), 10 (0.8%), 9 (1.9%) and 12 (0.4%). Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. Conclusions Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are

  20. High prevalence, genetic diversity and intracellular growth ability of Legionella in hot spring environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legionella is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, and hot springs are a major source of outbreaks of this disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey hot spring environments for the presence of Legionella. METHODS: Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at three hot spring recreational areas in Beijing, China in 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and sequence-based typing (SBT were used to describe the genetic polymorphism of isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined by interacting with J774 cells and plating the dilutions onto BCYE agar plates. RESULTS: Overall, 51.9% of spring water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 1 CFU/liter to 2,218 CFU/liter. The positive rates of Legionella were significantly associated with a free chlorine concentration of ≥0.2 mg/L, urea concentration of ≥0.05 mg/L, total microbial counts of ≥400 CFU/ml and total coliform of ≥3 MPN/L (p<0.01. The Legionella concentrations were significantly associated with sample temperature, pH, total microbial counts and total coliform (p<0.01. Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (98.9%, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 3 (25.3%, 6 (23.4%, 5 (19.2%, 1 (18.5%, 2 (10.2%, 8 (0.4%, 10 (0.8%, 9 (1.9% and 12 (0.4%. Two hundred and twenty-eight isolates were analyzed by PFGE and 62 different patterns were obtained. Fifty-seven L. pneumophila isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 35 different sequence types with 5 main clonal groups. All the 57 isolates had high intracellular growth ability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of Legionella in springs in Beijing, China, and the SBT and intracellular growth assay results suggested that the Legionella isolates of hot spring environments were pathogenic. Improved control

  1. [sup 210] Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, [sup 210]Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.'' In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  2. [sup 210] Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, [sup 210]Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.'' In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  3. Applications integration in a hybrid cloud computing environment: modelling and platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Ze-yuan; Li, Wei-hua; Li, Jun; Wang, Cheng; Du, Rui-yang

    2013-08-01

    With the development of application services providers and cloud computing, more and more small- and medium-sized business enterprises use software services and even infrastructure services provided by professional information service companies to replace all or part of their information systems (ISs). These information service companies provide applications, such as data storage, computing processes, document sharing and even management information system services as public resources to support the business process management of their customers. However, no cloud computing service vendor can satisfy the full functional IS requirements of an enterprise. As a result, enterprises often have to simultaneously use systems distributed in different clouds and their intra enterprise ISs. Thus, this article presents a framework to integrate applications deployed in public clouds and intra ISs. A run-time platform is developed and a cross-computing environment process modelling technique is also developed to improve the feasibility of ISs under hybrid cloud computing environments.

  4. Growth specificity of vertical ZnO nanorods on patterned seeded substrates through integrated chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Maniam, S.M. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sundaramurthy, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Arokiaraj, J. [3M R and D Center (Singapore); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Rajarathnam, D. [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA-5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore); Jian, L.K. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore (NUS) (Singapore)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple integrated chemical process was adopted for specific ZnO nanorod growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size and orientation of nanorods are well controlled by optimum reaction time and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different site-selective ZnO nanorod growths are demonstrated. - Abstract: A simple and cost effective method has been employed for the random growth and oriented ZnO nanorod arrays over as-prepared and patterned seeded glass substrates by low temperature two step growth process and growth specificity by direct laser writing (DLW) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the growth of vertical ZnO nanorods with perfect (0 0 2) orientation along c-axis which is in conjunction with optimizing the parameters at different reaction times and temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show the formation of vertical ZnO nanorods with diameter and length of {approx}120 nm and {approx}400 nm respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies show a narrow emission at {approx}385 nm and a broad visible emission from 450 to 600 nm. Further, site-selective ZnO nanorod growth is demonstrated for its high degree of control over size, orientation, uniformity, and periodicity on a positive photoresist ZnO seed layer by simple geometrical (line, circle and ring) patterns of 10 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m dimensions. The demonstrated control over size, orientation and periodicity of ZnO nanorods process opens up an opportunity to develop multifunctional properties which promises their potential applications in sensor, piezoelectric, and optoelectronic devices.

  5. SpiCAD: Integrated environment for circuitry simulation with SPICE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amore, D; Padovini, G; Santomauro, M [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dip. di Elettronica

    1991-11-01

    SPICE is one of the most commonly used programs for the simulation of the behaviour of electronic circuits. This article describes in detail the key design characteristics and capabilities of a computer environment called SpiCAD which integrates all the different phases of SPICE based circuitry simulation on a personal computer, i.e., the tracing of the electronics scheme, simulation and visualization of the results so as to help define semiconductor device models, determine input signals, construct macro-models and convert design sketches into formats acceptable to graphic systems.

  6. Integrating INIS into a high energy physics information environment thoughts from CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Yeomans, Joanne; Baudic, Romain; Picchioli, Ingrid; International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management : Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development. Special Session : The Role of INIS in Knowledge Preservation

    2004-01-01

    Information searchers from the high energy physics community expect an integrated information environment. The CERN Library offers its print and electronic collections through a combined Web interface and maintains the database by semi-automated processes to upload bibliographic and full-text records. Suggestions are offered by which INIS could develop its own Web interface and better match HEP users’ expectations. These include implementing full-text linking, increasing currency, expanding search and display functions and developing the richness of the data. Links with the National Nuclear Data Center and Crossref could also increase its visibility.

  7. An integrated environment for fast development and performance assessment of sonar image processing algorithms - SSIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    The sonar simulator integrated environment (SSIE) is a tool for developing high performance processing algorithms for single or sequences of sonar images. The tool is based on MATLAB providing a very short lead time from concept to executable code and thereby assessment of the algorithms tested...... of the algorithms is the availability of sonar images. To accommodate this problem the SSIE has been equipped with a simulator capable of generating high fidelity sonar images for a given scene of objects, sea-bed AUV path, etc. In the paper the main components of the SSIE is described and examples of different...... processing steps are given...

  8. Integrated Management System in construction company-effective tool of quality, environment and safety level improving

    OpenAIRE

    Gašparík, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Contribution Presents the struCture of integrated M anageMent systeM ( iMs) according to international standards ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and STN OHSAS 18001:2009, which consists of 3 management systems focused to quality, environment and safety of building processes. The purpose of paper is to describe basic steps concerning the development of IMS. Paper analises basic processes of IMS like company vision, IMS planning, implementing, monitoring, revive and improving. The paper presents ...

  9. Rehabilitation Program Integrating Virtual Environment to Improve Orientation and Mobility Skills for People Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of a virtual environment (BlindAid) in an orientation and mobility rehabilitation program as a training aid for people who are blind. BlindAid allows the users to interact with different virtual structures and objects through auditory and haptic feedback. This research explores if and how use of the BlindAid in conjunction with a rehabilitation program can help people who are blind train themselves in familiar and unfamiliar spaces. The study, focused on nine participants who were congenitally, adventitiously, and newly blind, during their orientation and mobility rehabilitation program at the Carroll Center for the Blind (Newton, Massachusetts, USA). The research was implemented using virtual environment (VE) exploration tasks and orientation tasks in virtual environments and real spaces. The methodology encompassed both qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, a questionnaire, videotape recording, and user computer logs. The results demonstrated that the BlindAid training gave participants additional time to explore the virtual environment systematically. Secondly, it helped elucidate several issues concerning the potential strengths of the BlindAid system as a training aid for orientation and mobility for both adults and teenagers who are congenitally, adventitiously, and newly blind.

  10. Integrated Simulation Environment for Unmanned Autonomous Systems—Towards a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Perhinschi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper initiates a comprehensive conceptual framework for an integrated simulation environment for unmanned autonomous systems (UAS that is capable of supporting the design, analysis, testing, and evaluation from a “system of systems” perspective. The paper also investigates the current state of the art of modeling and performance assessment of UAS and their components and identifies directions for future developments. All the components of a comprehensive simulation environment focused on the testing and evaluation of UAS are identified and defined through detailed analysis of current and future required capabilities and performance. The generality and completeness of the simulation environment is ensured by including all operational domains, types of agents, external systems, missions, and interactions between components. The conceptual framework for the simulation environment is formulated with flexibility, modularity, generality, and portability as key objectives. The development of the conceptual framework for the UAS simulation reveals important aspects related to the mechanisms and interactions that determine specific UAS characteristics including complexity, adaptability, synergy, and high impact of artificial and human intelligence on system performance and effectiveness.

  11. Electroencephalographic Correlates of Sensorimotor Integration and Embodiment during the Appreciation of Virtual Architectural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Tieri, Gaetano; Jelic, Andrea; De Matteis, Federico; Maglione, Anton G; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is the hope that neuroscientific findings will contribute to the improvement of building design in order to create environments which satisfy man's demands. This can be achieved through the understanding of neurophysiological correlates of architectural perception. To this aim, the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals of 12 healthy subjects were recorded during the perception of three immersive virtual reality environments (VEs). Afterwards, participants were asked to describe their experience in terms of Familiarity, Novelty, Comfort, Pleasantness, Arousal, and Presence using a rating scale from 1 to 9. These perceptual dimensions are hypothesized to influence the pattern of cerebral spectral activity, while Presence is used to assess the realism of the virtual stimulation. Hence, the collected scores were used to analyze the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG for each behavioral dimension in the theta, alpha and mu bands by means of time-frequency analysis and topographic statistical maps. Analysis of Presence resulted in the activation of the frontal-midline theta, indicating the involvement of sensorimotor integration mechanisms when subjects expressed to feel more present in the VEs. Similar patterns also characterized the experience of familiar and comfortable VEs. In addition, pleasant VEs increased the theta power across visuomotor circuits and activated the alpha band in areas devoted to visuospatial exploration and processing of categorical spatial relations. Finally, the de-synchronization of the mu rhythm described the perception of pleasant and comfortable VEs, showing the involvement of left motor areas and embodied mechanisms for environment appreciation. Overall, these results show the possibility to measure EEG correlates of architectural perception involving the cerebral circuits of sensorimotor integration, spatial navigation, and embodiment. These observations can help testing architectural hypotheses in order to design

  12. Integration of the social environment in a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharebaghi, Amin; Mostafavi, Mir-Abolfazl; Edwards, Geoffrey; Fougeyrollas, Patrick; Gamache, Stéphanie; Grenier, Yan

    2017-07-07

    Our contemporary understanding of disability is rooted in the idea that disability is the product of human-environment interaction processes. People may be functionally limited, but this becomes a disability only when they engage with their immediate social and physical environments. Any attempt to address issues of mobility in relation to people with disabilities should be grounded in an ontology that encompasses this understanding. The objective of this study is to provide a methodology to integrate the social and physical environments in the development of a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities (PWMD). We propose to create subclasses of concepts based on a Nature-Development distinction rather than creating separate social and physical subclasses. This allows the relationships between social and physical elements to be modelled in a more compact and efficient way by specifying them locally within each entity, and better accommodates the complexities of the human-environment interaction as well. Based on this approach, an ontology for mobility of PWMD considering four main elements - the social and physical environmental factors, human factors, life habits related to mobility and possible goals of mobility - is presented. We demonstrate that employing the Nature-Development perspective facilitates the process of developing useful ontologies, especially for defining the relationships between the social and physical parts of the environment. This is a fundamental issue for modelling the interaction between humans and their social and physical environments for a broad range of applications, including the development of geospatial assistive technologies for navigation of PWMD. Implications for rehabilitation The proposed perspective may actually have much broader interests beyond the issue of disability - much of the interesting dynamics in city development arises from the interaction between human-developed components - the built environment and its

  13. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  14. An Overview of NASA's Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the design of subsonic and supersonic aircraft has been divided into separate technical disciplines (such as propulsion, aerodynamics and structures), each of which performs design and analysis in relative isolation from others. This is possible, in most cases, either because the amount of interdisciplinary coupling is minimal, or because the interactions can be treated as linear. The design of hypersonic airbreathing vehicles, like NASA's X-43, is quite the opposite. Such systems are dominated by strong non-linear interactions between disciplines. The design of these systems demands that a multi-disciplinary approach be taken. Furthermore, increased analytical fidelity at the conceptual design phase is highly desirable, as many of the non-linearities are not captured by lower fidelity tools. Only when these systems are designed from a true multi-disciplinary perspective, can the real performance benefits be achieved and complete vehicle systems be fielded. Toward this end, the Vehicle Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has been developing the Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment. IDEA is a collaborative environment for parametrically modeling conceptual and preliminary designs for launch vehicle and high speed atmospheric flight configurations using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) as the underlying framework. The environment integrates geometry, packaging, propulsion, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, engine and airframe subsystem design, thermal and structural analysis, and vehicle closure into a generative, parametric, unified computational model where data is shared seamlessly between the different disciplines. Plans are also in place to incorporate life cycle analysis tools into the environment which will estimate vehicle operability, reliability and cost. IDEA is currently being funded by NASA?s Hypersonics Project, a part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program within the Aeronautics

  15. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-Jin [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, 188 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-870 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk, E-mail: yschang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor.

  16. Integrated probabilistic assessment for DHC initiation, growth and leak-before-break of PHWR pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Suk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated approach for probabilistic assessment of PHWR pressure tube. • We examine probabilities of DHC initiation, growth, penetration and LBB failure. • The proposed approach is helpful to calculate rupture probabilities in reactor flaws even in the case of very low rupture probability. - Abstract: A few hundred zirconium alloy pressure tubes in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) serve as the nuclear fuel channel, as well as the reactor coolant pressure boundary. The pressure tubes are inspected periodically and a fitness-for-service assessment (FFSA) must be conducted if any flaw is detected in the inspection. A Canadian standard provides FFSA procedures of PHWR pressure tubes, which include probabilistic assessment for flaws considering delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and leak-before-break (LBB). In the present study, an integrated approach with detailed stepwise calculation procedures and integration methodology for probabilistic assessment of pressure tube was developed. In the first step of this approach, a probability of the DHC initiation, growth and penetration for single initial flaw is calculated. In the next step, a probability of LBB failure, which means tube rupture, for single through-wall crack (TWC) is calculated. Finally, a rupture probability for all initial flaws in a reactor can be calculated using the penetration probability for single flaw and the LBB failure probability for single TWC, as well as the predicted total number of initial flaw in the reactor

  17. On Line Service Composition in the Integrated Clinical Environment for eHealth and Medical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valls, Marisol; Touahria, Imad Eddine

    2017-06-08

    Medical and eHealth systems are progressively realized in the context of standardized architectures that support safety and ease the integration of the heterogeneous (and often proprietary) medical devices and sensors. The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) architecture appeared recently with the goal of becoming a common framework for defining the structure of the medical applications as concerns the safe integration of medical devices and sensors. ICE is simply a high level architecture that defines the functional blocks that should be part of a medical system to support interoperability. As a result, the underlying communication backbone is broadly undefined as concerns the enabling software technology (including the middleware) and associated algorithms that meet the ICE requirements of the flexible integration of medical devices and services. Supporting the on line composition of services in a medical system is also not part of ICE; however, supporting this behavior would enable flexible orchestration of functions (e.g., addition and/or removal of services and medical equipment) on the fly. iLandis one of the few software technologies that supports on line service composition and reconfiguration, ensuring time-bounded transitions across different service orchestrations; it supports the design, deployment and on line reconfiguration of applications, which this paper applies to service-based eHealth domains. This paper designs the integration between ICE architecture and iLand middleware to enhance the capabilities of ICE with on line service composition and the time-bounded reconfiguration of medical systems based on distributed services. A prototype implementation of a service-based eHealth system for the remote monitoring of patients is described; it validates the enhanced capacity of ICE to support dynamic reconfiguration of the application services. Results show that the temporal cost of the on line reconfiguration of the eHealth application is bounded

  18. A study of diverse clinical decision support rule authoring environments and requirements for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient rule authoring tools are critical to allow clinical Knowledge Engineers (KEs, Software Engineers (SEs, and Subject Matter Experts (SMEs to convert medical knowledge into machine executable clinical decision support rules. The goal of this analysis was to identify the critical success factors and challenges of a fully functioning Rule Authoring Environment (RAE in order to define requirements for a scalable, comprehensive tool to manage enterprise level rules. Methods The authors evaluated RAEs in active use across Partners Healthcare, including enterprise wide, ambulatory only, and system specific tools, with a focus on rule editors for reminder and medication rules. We conducted meetings with users of these RAEs to discuss their general experience and perceived advantages and limitations of these tools. Results While the overall rule authoring process is similar across the 10 separate RAEs, the system capabilities and architecture vary widely. Most current RAEs limit the ability of the clinical decision support (CDS interventions to be standardized, sharable, interoperable, and extensible. No existing system meets all requirements defined by knowledge management users. Conclusions A successful, scalable, integrated rule authoring environment will need to support a number of key requirements and functions in the areas of knowledge representation, metadata, terminology, authoring collaboration, user interface, integration with electronic health record (EHR systems, testing, and reporting.

  19. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  20. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, S.; Mba, D.

    2009-01-01

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise

  1. Osmotic stress confers enhanced cell integrity to hydrostatic pressure but impairs growth in Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eScoma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcanivorax is a hydrocarbonoclastic genus dominating oil spills worldwide. While its presence has been detected in oil-polluted seawaters, marine sediment and salt marshes under ambient pressure, its presence in deep-sea contaminated environments is negligible. Recent laboratory evidences highlighted the piezosensitive nature of some Alcanivorax species, whose growth yields are highly impacted by mild hydrostatic pressures (HPs. In the present study, osmotic stress was used as a tool to increase HP resistance in the type strain A. borkumensis SK2. Control cultures grown under standard conditions of salinity and osmotic pressure with respect to seawater (35.6 ppt or 1136 mOsm kg-1, respectively were compared with cultures subjected to hypo- and hyperosmosis (330 and 1720 mOsm kg-1, or 18 and 62 ppt in salinity, equivalent to brackish and brine waters, respectively, under atmospheric or increased HP (0.1 and 10MPa. Osmotic stress had a remarkably positive impact on cell metabolic activity in terms of CO2 production (thus, oil bioremediation and O2 respiration under hyperosmosis, as acclimation to high salinity enhanced cell activity under 10MPa by a factor of 10. Both osmotic shocks significantly enhanced cell protection by reducing membrane damage under HP, with cell integrities close to 100% under hyposmosis. The latter was likely due to intracellular water-reclamation as no trace of the piezolyte ectoine was found, contrary to hyperosmosis. Notably, ectoine production was equivalent at 0.1MPa in hyperosmosis-acclimated cells and at 10MPa under isosmotic conditions, supporting the hypothesis that ectoine synthesis may be primarily triggered by HP rather than osmotic stress. While stimulating cell metabolism and enhancing cell integrity, osmotic stress had always a negative impact on culture growth and performance. No net growth was observed during 4-day incubation tests, and CO2:O2 ratios and pH values indicated that culture performance in

  2. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guillen, Zoe C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dirks, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Yan [Concordia Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  3. Integration of Environment Sensing and Control Functions for Robust Rotorcraft UAV (RUAV) Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah Tehrani, Navid

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) have started supplanting manned aircraft in a broad range of tasks. Vehicles such as miniature rotorcrafts with broad maneuvering range and small size can enter remote locations that are hard to reach using other air and ground vehicles. Developing a guidance system which enables a Rotorcraft UAV (RUAV) to perform such tasks involves combing key elements from robotics motion planning, control system design, trajectory optimization as well as dynamics modeling. The focus of this thesis is to integrate a guidance system for a small-scale rotorcraft to enable a high level of performance and situational awareness. We cover large aspects of the system integration including modeling, control system design, environment sensing as well as motion planning in the presence of uncertainty. The system integration in this thesis is performed around a Blade-CX2 miniature coaxial helicopter. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the parameterized model for the Blade-CX2 helicopter with an emphasis on the coaxial rotor configuration. The model explicitly accounts for the dynamics of lower rotor and uses an implicit lumped parameter model for the upper rotor and stabilizer-bar. The parameterized model was identified using frequency domain system identification. In the second part of the thesis, we use the identified model to design a control law for the Blade-CX2 helicopter. The control augmentation for the Blade-CX2 helicopter was based on a nested attitude-velocity loop control architecture and was designed following classical loop-shaping and dynamic inversion techniques. A path following layer wrapped around the velocity control system enables the rotorcraft to follow reference trajectories specified by a sequence of waypoints and velocity vectors. Such reference paths are common in autonomous guidance systems. Finally, the third part of the thesis addresses the problem of autonomous navigation through a partially known or

  4. An Innovative Approach to the Integrated Management System Development: SIMPRO-IMS Web Based Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Zgodavova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to learning, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer for building organization innovability by integrating the management systems in the SIMPRO-IMS web based environment. The paper content consists of the interpretation of role-play simulation, role-play simulation process description, methodology, and the employment of role-play simulation outcomes, as well as the discussion of the knowledge thus obtained. Primary the model of the SIMPRO-Q education environment has been developed and tested during a period of 15 years in several industrial organizations as well as service organizations such as Higher Education Institution (HEI and Healthcare Organization (HCO. The newest version SIMPRO-IMS has recently been developed to support a need of integration of management systems and information archiving. With the last development, SIMPRO-IMS web based environment, processes of five ISO systems are integrated for parallel development, implementation, auditing, maintaining and leading. SIMPRO-IMS provides management with the apparatus necessary to realize a systematic and verifiable approach to the creation and control of IMS documentation. At the same time contributes to the preservation of organization memory in response to the growing challenges of globalization and digitalization. The research is limited by the complexity of a real system and possible empiric results verification. The results achieved are verified when people really overcome the resistance to change. This can be assessed thoughtfully only after some period of time. Another limitation is presented by measurability of real enhancement achieved in quality, safety and environmentality of production, and business continuity and social responsibility of an organization. Development and progress in the methodology of SIMPRO-IMS web based environment is encoded in upgrading the SIMPRO database by processes of the environmental management

  5. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  6. Preceptors' perspectives of an integrated clinical learning model in a mental health environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Gayelene; Lawrence, Karen; Polacsek, Meg

    2018-02-14

    Supervised clinical practice is an essential component of undergraduate nursing students' learning and development. In the mental health setting, nursing students traditionally undertake four-week block placements. An integrated clinical learning model, where preceptors mentor students on an individual basis, has been used successfully in the clinical learning environment. This flexible model provides the opportunity for students to work across morning, afternoon, night and weekend shifts. There is a need to improve the evidence base for a flexible model for students undertaking a mental health placement. The aim of this study was to understand preceptors' experience of, and satisfaction with, a mental health integrated clinical learning model. Focus groups were used to elicit the views of preceptors from a mental health service. Findings highlight the advantages and disadvantages of an integrated clinical learning model in the mental health setting. Participants suggested that students may benefit from flexible work arrangements, a variety of experiences and a more realistic experience of working in a mental health service. However, they found it challenging to mentor and evaluate students under this model. Most also agreed that the model impeded students' ability to engage with consumers and develop rapport with staff. The findings indicate the need to develop a placement model that meets the unique needs of the mental health setting. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Integrating CAD modules in a PACS environment using a wide computing infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge J; Tilve, Amara; López, Ricardo; Ferro, Gonzalo; Quiles, Javier; Souto, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a project designed to achieve a total integration of different CAD algorithms into the PACS environment by using a wide computing infrastructure. The aim is to build a system for the entire region of Galicia, Spain, to make CAD accessible to multiple hospitals by employing different PACSs and clinical workstations. The new CAD model seeks to connect different devices (CAD systems, acquisition modalities, workstations and PACS) by means of networking based on a platform that will offer different CAD services. This paper describes some aspects related to the health services of the region where the project was developed, CAD algorithms that were either employed or selected for inclusion in the project, and several technical aspects and results. We have built a standard-based platform with which users can request a CAD service and receive the results in their local PACS. The process runs through a web interface that allows sending data to the different CAD services. A DICOM SR object is received with the results of the algorithms stored inside the original study in the proper folder with the original images. As a result, a homogeneous service to the different hospitals of the region will be offered. End users will benefit from a homogeneous workflow and a standardised integration model to request and obtain results from CAD systems in any modality, not dependant on commercial integration models. This new solution will foster the deployment of these technologies in the entire region of Galicia.

  8. Guided Growth of Horizontal ZnSe Nanowires and their Integration into High-Performance Blue-UV Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2015-07-15

    Perfectly aligned horizontal ZnSe nano-wires are obtained by guided growth, and easily integrated into high-performance blue-UV photodetectors. Their crystal phase and crystallographic orientation are controlled by the epitaxial relations with six different sapphire planes. Guided growth paves the way for the large-scale integration of nanowires into optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An integrated healthcare system for personalized chronic disease care in home-hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangjin; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Shim, Eun Bo; Kim, Moonjung; Cho, Young Min; Peng, Limei

    2012-07-01

    Facing the increasing demands and challenges in the area of chronic disease care, various studies on the healthcare system which can, whenever and wherever, extract and process patient data have been conducted. Chronic diseases are the long-term diseases and require the processes of the real-time monitoring, multidimensional quantitative analysis, and the classification of patients' diagnostic information. A healthcare system for chronic diseases is characterized as an at-hospital and at-home service according to a targeted environment. Both services basically aim to provide patients with accurate diagnoses of disease by monitoring a variety of physical states with a number of monitoring methods, but there are differences between home and hospital environments, and the different characteristics should be considered in order to provide more accurate diagnoses for patients, especially, patients having chronic diseases. In this paper, we propose a patient status classification method for effectively identifying and classifying chronic diseases and show the validity of the proposed method. Furthermore, we present a new healthcare system architecture that integrates the at-home and at-hospital environment and discuss the applicability of the architecture using practical target services.

  10. Results from the European Integrated Project '' New Materials for Extreme Environments (ExtreMat) ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Baluc, N.; Garcia-Rosales, G.; Gualco, G. C.; Simancik, F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the European Integrated Project '' ExtreMat '' is to provide and to industrialize new materials and their compounds for applications in extreme environments that are beyond reach with incremental materials development only. The R(and)D activities in this project aim to provide a) self-passivating protection materials for sensitive structures operated in physico-chemically aggressive environments at high temperatures; b) new heat sink materials with the capability of very efficient heat removal, often at very high temperature level; c) radiation resistant materials for very high operation temperatures; d) new processing routes for complex heterogeneous compounds that can be operated in extreme environments. Key applications for these new materials are in the sectors of fusion, advanced fission, space, and electronic applications. Further use of these materials is expected in spin-off fields, such as brake applications and energy conversion. The project started in December 2004 for a duration of five years and is supported by the European Community. The 37 project participants are from 13 EU member states and include 6 universities, 7 research institutes, 10 research centres and 14 industrial companies. Research results regarding the development of materials for application in nuclear fusion, especially on protection, heat sink, and radiation resistant materials will be presented. A view to other applications of these materials in the fields of fission, space and electronics will be given in the presentation. ExtreMat Project Partners: see http://www.extremat.org/. (author)

  11. GEOREFERENCING IN GNSS-CHALLENGED ENVIRONMENT: INTEGRATING UWB AND IMU TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Toth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring geospatial data in GNSS compromised environments remains a problem in mapping and positioning in general. Urban canyons, heavily vegetated areas, indoor environments represent different levels of GNSS signal availability from weak to no signal reception. Even outdoors, with multiple GNSS systems, with an ever-increasing number of satellites, there are many situations with limited or no access to GNSS signals. Independent navigation sensors, such as IMU can provide high-data rate information but their initial accuracy degrades quickly, as the measurement data drift over time unless positioning fixes are provided from another source. At The Ohio State University’s Satellite Positioning and Inertial Navigation (SPIN Laboratory, as one feasible solution, Ultra- Wideband (UWB radio units are used to aid positioning and navigating in GNSS compromised environments, including indoor and outdoor scenarios. Here we report about experiences obtained with georeferencing a pushcart based sensor system under canopied areas. The positioning system is based on UWB and IMU sensor integration, and provides sensor platform orientation for an electromagnetic inference (EMI sensor. Performance evaluation results are provided for various test scenarios, confirming acceptable results for applications where high accuracy is not required.

  12. Integrated Analysis of Environment-driven Operational Effects in Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Alfred J [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    There is a rapidly growing need to evaluate sensor network functionality and performance in the context of the larger environment of infrastructure and applications in which the sensor network is organically embedded. This need, which is motivated by complex applications related to national security operations, leads to a paradigm fundamentally different from that of traditional data networks. In the sensor networks of interest to us, the network dynamics depend strongly on sensor activity, which in turn is triggered by events in the environment. Because the behavior of sensor networks is sensitive to these driving phenomena, the integrity of the sensed observations, measurements and resource usage by the network can widely vary. It is therefore imperative to accurately capture the environmental phenomena, and drive the simulation of the sensor network operation by accounting fully for the environment effects. In this paper, we illustrate the strong, intimate coupling between the sensor network operation and the driving phenomena in their applications with an example sensor network designed to detect and track gaseous plumes.

  13. The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L; Larcombe, Danica-Lea; Logan, Alan C; West, Christina; Burks, Wesley; Caraballo, Luis; Levin, Michael; Etten, Eddie Van; Horwitz, Pierre; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Campbell, Dianne E

    2017-01-01

    Skin barrier structure and function is essential to human health. Hitherto unrecognized functions of epidermal keratinocytes show that the skin plays an important role in adapting whole-body physiology to changing environments, including the capacity to produce a wide variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and cytokine that can potentially influence whole-body states, and quite possibly, even emotions. Skin microbiota play an integral role in the maturation and homeostatic regulation of keratinocytes and host immune networks with systemic implications. As our primary interface with the external environment, the biodiversity of skin habitats is heavily influenced by the biodiversity of the ecosystems in which we reside. Thus, factors which alter the establishment and health of the skin microbiome have the potential to predispose to not only cutaneous disease, but also other inflammatory non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Indeed, disturbances of the stratum corneum have been noted in allergic diseases (eczema and food allergy), psoriasis, rosacea, acne vulgaris and with the skin aging process. The built environment, global biodiversity losses and declining nature relatedness are contributing to erosion of diversity at a micro-ecological level, including our own microbial habitats. This emphasises the importance of ecological perspectives in overcoming the factors that drive dysbiosis and the risk of inflammatory diseases across the life course.

  14. Identification and Optimal Growth Conditions of Actinomycetes Isolated From Mangrove Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameerah Abdul Hamid; Suhaidi Ariffin; Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are classified as saprophytes that play a significant role in the breakdown of organic matters into more readily assimilable nutrients. They are also known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites, which are useful for human, veterinary medicine and agriculture applications. The optimum growth conditions of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove environment at different temperature, pH and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration were studied. The identification of the isolates by both biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis was also done. All isolates were grown in ISP1 medium at different temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degree Celsius); pH (3.5, 5, 7 and 9); and salt concentration (0, 3, 5 and 7 % w/v). The optimum temperature for KMS1 and KMH2 isolates was at 25 degree Celsius. However, the optimum temperature for PCS1 and PMH1A was at 30 and 37 degree Celsius respectively. The optimum pH was pH 7 and the most preferred NaCl concentration of all isolates was at 3 % (w/v). All isolates showed negative result for carbohydrate fermentation except for KMS1 which showed utilisation of D-Fructose sugar with acid production. Only KMS1 and PCS1 exhibited amylolytic and proteolytic activity. The isolates were successfully identified as Streptomyces variables (KMS1), Streptomyces rubrolavendulae (KMH2), Streptomyces spp. CPE333 (PCS1) and Actinomycetales bacterium (PMH1A). (author)

  15. The digital Dalton Plan: Progressive education as integral part of web-based learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Weichhart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available e-Learning systems increasingly support learning management and self-organized learning processes. Since the latter have been studied in the field of progressive education extensively, it is worthwhile to consider them for developing digital learning environments to support self-regulated learning processes. In this paper we aim at transforming one of the most prominent and sustainable approaches to self-organized learning, the “Dalton Plan” as proposed by Helen Parkhurst. Its assignment structure supports learners when managing their learning tasks, thus triggering self-organized acquisition of knowledge, and its feedback graphs enable transparent learning processes. Since e-learning environments have become common use, rather than creating another system, we propose a modular approach that can be used for extending existing e-learning environments. In order to design a respective component, we interviewed experts in self-organized e-learning. Their input facilitated integrating the Dalton Plan with existing features of e-learning environments. After representing each interview in concept maps, we were able to aggregate them for deriving e-learning requirements conform to the Dalton Plan instruments. In the course of implementing them, particular attention had to be paid to the asynchrony of interaction during runtime. Java Server Faces technology enable the Dalton Plan component to be migrated into existing web 2.0 e-learning platforms. The result was evaluated based on the acquired concept maps, as they also captured the transformation process of the Dalton Plan to e-learning features. The findings encourage embodying further progressive education approaches in this way, since the structured (concept mapping of the Dalton Plan to e-learning features turned out to be accurate. The experts were able to recognize the potential of the approach both in terms of structuring the knowledge acquisition process, and in terms of developing

  16. Integrated Management System Incorporating Quality Management and Management of Environment, Health and Occupational Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Nenkova, B.; Tomov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk Engineering Ltd is a Bulgarian private company founded in 1990 to provide engineering and consulting services applicable to each and every field of the energy sector. Since its establishment Risk Engineering Ltd develops, implement and apply a System for quality assurance, certified for the first time by BVQI (now Bureau Veritas Certification) in 1999 for conformity with the standard ISO 9001:1994. Later on, in connection with the revision of the standards of ISO 9000 series and introduction of the standard ISO 9001:2000 a Quality Management System in conformity with the standard ISO 9001:2000 was developed, introduced and certified. At present, Risk Engineering Ltd has got developed, documented, introduced and certified by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance (LRQA) Quality Management System in compliance with ISO 9001:2008 on the process approach basis. On this basis and including the requirements of the ISO 14001:2004 (regarding the environment) and OHSAS 18001:2007 (regarding the health and occupational safety), Risk Engineering Ltd has developed and introduced Integrated Management System aim at achieving and demonstrating good results regarding protection of the environment, health and occupational safety. The processes under control by the Integrated Management System and applicable at the company are divided in two general types: A) Management processes: Strategic management and Management of the human resources. B) Processes describing the main activities: design/development process; project management; management of industrial projects and technical infrastructure project; construction, installation, repair and operation of power industry facilities; commercial activities and marketing; investigation of energy efficiency of industrial systems and certification of buildings regarding energy efficiency; consulting activity in the field of industry and energy as well as consultant in accordance with the Law of the Spatial Planning; management of the

  17. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  18. Ductile crack growth resistance of PWR components. Application for structural integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethmont, M.; Eripret, C.; Le Delliou, P.; Frund, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Structural integrity assessment of PWR components, as pressure vessel and piping, needs to evaluate the ductile crack growth resistance which is generally characterized by J resistance curves (or J-R curves) based on the path-independent J Integral. These curves are more often obtained from laboratory tests with small specimens as CT-specimens and their application to large component safety analysis could be questionable Indeed, it is well known that J-R curves could depend on the specimen size and on the loading mode (i.e. bending stress versus tensile stress) but this dependency could be different from one material to another. This means that it would depend not only on the stress-strain state but also on the actual local fracture mechanisms (i. e. the damage) occurring before the crack initiation or during the crack propagation. The purpose of this paper is to gather some results of crack growth resistance measurement studied at EDF with different materials in order to show how the effect of the parameters, as specimen geometry and mode of loading, is directly related to the local fracture mechanisms or the microstructure of the materials. For that a number of results are analysed by means of the local approach of fracture which is a very useful tool to predict quantitatively the J-R curve dependency, related to fracture mechanisms (authors). 12 refs., 9 figs

  19. The impact of the natural environment on the promotion of active living: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Chroni, Stiliani

    2014-08-24

    An understanding of how the living environment influences physical activity (PA) is of great importance for health promotion. Researchers have reported increased PA when there is a greater availability of nature within people's living environment. However, little has been said about underlying motivational processes. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature on the relationship between the natural environment (NE) and PA, integrating it into a conceptual model that depicts the motivational process underlying this relationship. Through a systematic literature search in line with PRISMA guidelines, peer-reviewed articles were sought using PubMed (search updated to October 2013) and scrutiny of reference lists. In addition, we contacted experts within our network. We reviewed papers in which the research question(s) concerned: 1) Effects of PA in NE on individuals' feelings and beliefs; 2) Relationships between PA and availability of NEs; and 3) Motivational processes underlying visits to NEs in association with PA. Analysis and integration of the 90 selected studies were performed using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). People's experiences in using the NE can enhance attitudes toward PA and perceived behavioural control via positive psychological states and stress-relieving effects, which lead to firmer intentions to engage in PA. Individual and environmental barriers, as expressions of social support and actual behavioural control, impact the process via subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Instrumental beliefs such as a desire to enjoy nature and the expected health benefits also influence the process via attitudes. Different patterns have been identified for neighbourhood-based PA and outdoor recreations that take place in a NE. The availability of a NE and attractive views of nature within an individual's living environment are important contributors to PA, yet attention should focus on personal characteristics and

  20. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions might be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE), social-, associative-, or competitive genetic effects. IGE may contribute to heritable

  1. Cuphea growth, yield, and oil characteristics as influenced by climate and soil environments across the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea is a potential new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0) that may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objec...

  2. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Crawford; Manzello, Derek; Lirman, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations. Growth plasticity may diminish the influence of local adaptation, where foreign corals grew faster than native corals at their home sites. Novel combinations of environment and genotype also significantly affected disturbance response during and after the 2015 bleaching event, where these factors acted synergistically to drive variation in bleaching and recovery. Importantly, small differences in temperature stress elicit variable patterns of survivorship based on genotype and illustrate the importance of novel combinations of coral genetics and small differences between sites representing habitat refugia. In this context, acclimatization and flexibility is especially important given the long lifespan of corals coping with complex environmental change. The combined influence of site and genotype creates short-term differences in growth and survivorship, contributing to the standing genetic variation needed for adaptation to occur over longer timescales and the recovery of degraded reefs through natural mechanisms.

  3. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Drury

    Full Text Available The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations. Growth plasticity may diminish the influence of local adaptation, where foreign corals grew faster than native corals at their home sites. Novel combinations of environment and genotype also significantly affected disturbance response during and after the 2015 bleaching event, where these factors acted synergistically to drive variation in bleaching and recovery. Importantly, small differences in temperature stress elicit variable patterns of survivorship based on genotype and illustrate the importance of novel combinations of coral genetics and small differences between sites representing habitat refugia. In this context, acclimatization and flexibility is especially important given the long lifespan of corals coping with complex environmental change. The combined influence of site and genotype creates short-term differences in growth and survivorship, contributing to the standing genetic variation needed for adaptation to occur over longer timescales and the recovery of degraded reefs through natural mechanisms.

  4. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  5. Integrating Quantitative Reasoning into STEM Courses Using an Energy and Environment Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.; Lyford, M. E.; Mayes, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Many secondary and post-secondary science classes do not integrate math into their curriculum, while math classes commonly teach concepts without meaningful context. Consequently, students lack basic quantitative skills and the ability to apply them in real-world contexts. For the past three years, a Wyoming Department of Education funded Math Science Partnership at the University of Wyoming (UW) has brought together middle and high school science and math teachers to model how math and science can be taught together in a meaningful way. The UW QR-STEM project emphasizes the importance of Quantitative Reasoning (QR) to student success in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). To provide a social context, QR-STEM has focused on energy and the environment. In particular, the project has examined how QR and STEM concepts play critical roles in many of the current global challenges of energy and environment. During four 3-day workshops each summer and over several virtual and short face-to-face meetings during the academic year, UW and community college science and math faculty work with math and science teachers from middle and high schools across the state to improve QR instruction in math and science classes. During the summer workshops, faculty from chemistry, physics, earth sciences, biology and math lead sessions to: 1) improve the basic science content knowledge of teachers; 2) improve teacher understanding of math and statistical concepts, 3) model how QR can be taught by engaging teachers in sessions that integrate math and science in an energy and environment context; and 4) focus curricula using Understanding by Design to identify enduring understandings on which to center instructional strategies and assessment. In addition to presenting content, faculty work with teachers as they develop classroom lessons and larger units to be implemented during the school year. Teachers form interdisciplinary groups which often consist of math and

  6. Integrating knowledge and control into hypermedia-based training environments: Experiments with HyperCLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The issues of knowledge representation and control in hypermedia-based training environments are discussed. The main objective is to integrate the flexible presentation capability of hypermedia with a knowledge-based approach to lesson discourse management. The instructional goals and their associated concepts are represented in a knowledge representation structure called a 'concept network'. Its functional usages are many: it is used to control the navigation through a presentation space, generate tests for student evaluation, and model the student. This architecture was implemented in HyperCLIPS, a hybrid system that creates a bridge between HyperCard, a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to data bases and other applications, and CLIPS, a highly portable government-owned expert system shell.

  7. An integrated computer design environment for the development of micro-computer critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Agostino, E.; Massari, V.

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of micro-computer software for Nuclear Safety System. More specifically, it describes an experimental work in the field of software development methodologies to be used for the implementation of micro-computer based safety systems. An investigation of technological improvements that are provided by state-of-the-art integrated packages for micro-based systems development has been carried out. The work has aimed to assess a suitable automated tools environment for the whole software life-cycle. The main safety functions, as DNBR, KW/FT, of a nuclear power reactor have been implemented in a host-target approach. A prototype test-bed microsystem has been implemented to run the safety functions in order to derive a concrete evaluation on the feasibility of critical software according to new technological trends of ''Software Factories''. (author)

  8. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.

  9. Integrated software environment dedicated for implementation of control systems based on PLC controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon SURMA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes’ control systems based on PLC controllers play today a very important role in all fields of transport, including also sea transport. Construction of control systems is the field of engineering, which has been continuously evolving towards maximum simplification of system design path. Up to now the time needed forthe system construction from the design to commissioning had to be divided into a few stages. A mistake made in an earlier stage caused that in most cases the next stages had to be restarted. Available debugging systems allows defect detection at an early stage of theproject implementation. The paper presents general characteristic of integrated software for implementation of complex control systems. The issues related to the software use for programming of the visualisation environment, control computer, selection oftransmission medium and transmission protocol as well as PLC controllers’ configuration, software and control have been analysed.

  10. Application of the Integrated Site and Environment Data Management System for LILW Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak

    2007-01-01

    During the last five years, Site Information and Total Environmental data management System(SITES) has been developed. SITES is an integrated program for overall data acquisition, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis. SITES is composed of three main modules, such as site database system (SECURE), safety assessment system (SAINT) and environmental monitoring system (SUDAL). In general, for the safe management of radioactive waste repository, the information of site environment should be collected and managed systematically from the initial site survey. For this, SECURE module manages its data for the site characterization, environmental information, and radioactive environmental information etc. The purpose of SAINT module is to apply and analyze the data from SECURE. SUDAL is developed for environmental monitoring of the radioactive waste repository. Separately, it is ready to open to the public for offering partial information

  11. Integration of domain and resource-based reasoning for real-time control in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Keith; Whitebread, Kenneth R.; Kendus, Michael; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time software controller that successfully integrates domain-based and resource-based control reasoning to perform task execution in a dynamically changing environment is described. The design of the controller is based on the concept of partitioning the process to be controlled into a set of tasks, each of which achieves some process goal. It is assumed that, in general, there are multiple ways (tasks) to achieve a goal. The controller dynamically determines current goals and their current criticality, choosing and scheduling tasks to achieve those goals in the time available. It incorporates rule-based goal reasoning, a TMS-based criticality propagation mechanism, and a real-time scheduler. The controller has been used to build a knowledge-based situation assessment system that formed a major component of a real-time, distributed, cooperative problem solving system built under DARPA contract. It is also being employed in other applications now in progress.

  12. Qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Gregory; Corliss, Daniel; Groenendijk, Remco; Carpaij, Rene; van Niftrik, Ton; Landie, Guillaume; Tamura, Takao; Pepin, Thomas; Waddell, James; Woods, Jerry; Robinson, Chris; Tian, Kehan; Johnson, Richard; Halle, Scott; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Mclellan, Erin; Kato, Hirokazu; Scaduto, Anthony; Maier, Carl; Colburn, Matt

    2011-04-01

    This paper will describe the development, qualification, monitoring, and integration into a production environment of the world's first fully programmable illuminator for optical lithography. FlexRay TM, a programmable illuminator based on a MEMs multi-mirror array that was developed for TWINSCAN XT:19x0i and TWINSCAN NXT series ASML immersion scanners, was first installed in January 2010 at Albany Nanotech, with subsequent tools installed in IBM's East Fishkill Manufacturing facility. After a brief overview of the concept and benefits of FlexRay, this paper will provide a comprehensive assessment of its reliability and imaging performance. A CD-based pupil qualification (CDPQ) procedure will be introduced and shown to be an efficient and effective way to monitor pupil performance. Various CDPQ and in-resist measurement results will be described, offering convincing evidence that FlexRay reliably generates high-quality pupils and is well suited for high volume manufacturing at lithography's leading edge.

  13. Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Plan for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting BWID activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to BWID operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program Plans, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and System and Performance audits as they apply to the BWID Program

  14. Integrated model for pricing, delivery time setting, and scheduling in make-to-order environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmdare, Hamid Sattari; Lotfi, M. M.; Honarvar, Mahboobeh

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in make-to-order environments which work only in response to the customer's orders, manufacturers for maximizing the profits should offer the best price and delivery time for an order considering the existing capacity and the customer's sensitivity to both the factors. In this paper, an integrated approach for pricing, delivery time setting and scheduling of new arrival orders are proposed based on the existing capacity and accepted orders in system. In the problem, the acquired market demands dependent on the price and delivery time of both the manufacturer and its competitors. A mixed-integer non-linear programming model is presented for the problem. After converting to a pure non-linear model, it is validated through a case study. The efficiency of proposed model is confirmed by comparing it to both the literature and the current practice. Finally, sensitivity analysis for the key parameters is carried out.

  15. Immersive Learning Environment Using 3D Virtual Worlds and Integrated Remote Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderval Marcelino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to demonstrate the use of remote experimentation and 3D virtual environments applied to the teaching-learning in the areas of exact sciences-physics. In proposing the combination of remote experimentation and 3D virtual worlds in teaching-learning process, we intend to achieve greater geographic coverage, contributing to the construction of new methodologies of teaching support, speed of access and foremost motivation for students to continue in scientific study of the technology areas. The proposed architecture is based on a model implemented fully featured open source and open hardware. The virtual world was built in OpenSim software and integrated it a remote physics experiment called "electrical panel". Accessing the virtual world the user has total control of the experiment within the 3D virtual world.

  16. Assessment of integrated watershed health based on the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Ahn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Watershed health, including the natural environment, hydrology, water quality, and aquatic ecology, is assessed for the Han River basin (34 148 km2 in South Korea by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The evaluation procedures follow those of the Healthy Watersheds Assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. Six components of the watershed landscape are examined to evaluate the watershed health (basin natural capacity: stream geomorphology, hydrology, water quality, aquatic habitat condition, and biological condition. In particular, the SWAT is applied to the study basin for the hydrology and water-quality components, including 237 sub-watersheds (within a standard watershed on the Korea Hydrologic Unit Map along with three multipurpose dams, one hydroelectric dam, and three multifunction weirs. The SWAT is calibrated (2005–2009 and validated (2010–2014 by using each dam and weir operation, the flux-tower evapotranspiration, the time-domain reflectometry (TDR soil moisture, and groundwater-level data for the hydrology assessment, and by using sediment, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen data for the water-quality assessment. The water balance, which considers the surface–groundwater interactions and variations in the stream-water quality, is quantified according to the sub-watershed-scale relationship between the watershed hydrologic cycle and stream-water quality. We assess the integrated watershed health according to the U.S. EPA evaluation process based on the vulnerability levels of the natural environment, water resources, water quality, and ecosystem components. The results indicate that the watershed's health declined during the most recent 10-year period of 2005–2014, as indicated by the worse results for the surface process metric and soil water dynamics compared to those of the 1995–2004 period. The integrated watershed health tended to decrease farther downstream within the watershed.

  17. An integrated study to evaluate debris flow hazard in alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco; Deangeli, Chiara

    2018-05-01

    Debris flows are among the most dangerous natural processes affecting the alpine environment due to their magnitude (volume of transported material) and the long runout. The presence of structures and infrastructures on alluvial fans can lead to severe problems in terms of interactions between debris flows and human activities. Risk mitigation in these areas requires identifying the magnitude, triggers, and propagation of debris flows. Here, we propose an integrated methodology to characterize these phenomena. The methodology consists of three complementary procedures. Firstly, we adopt a classification method based on the propensity of the catchment bedrocks to produce clayey-grained material. The classification allows us to identify the most likely rheology of the process. Secondly, we calculate a sediment connectivity index to estimate the topographic control on the possible coupling between the sediment source areas and the catchment channel network. This step allows for the assessment of the debris supply, which is most likely available for the channelized processes. Finally, with the data obtained in the previous steps, we modelled the propagation and depositional pattern of debris flows with a 3D code based on Cellular Automata. The results of the numerical runs allow us to identify the depositional patterns and the areas potentially involved in the flow processes. This integrated methodology is applied to a test-bed catchment located in Northwestern Alps. The results indicate that this approach can be regarded as a useful tool to estimate debris flow related potential hazard scenarios in an alpine environment in an expeditious way without possessing an exhaustive knowledge of the investigated catchment, including data on historical debris flow events.

  18. An Integrated Study to Evaluate Debris Flow Hazard in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Tiranti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are among the most dangerous natural processes affecting the alpine environment due to their magnitude (volume of transported material and the long runout. The presence of structures and infrastructures on alluvial fans can lead to severe problems in terms of interactions between debris flows and human activities. Risk mitigation in these areas requires identifying the magnitude, triggers, and propagation of debris flows. Here, we propose an integrated methodology to characterize these phenomena. The methodology consists of three complementary procedures. Firstly, we adopt a classification method based on the propensity of the catchment bedrocks to produce clayey-grained material. The classification allows us to identify the most likely rheology of the process. Secondly, we calculate a sediment connectivity index to estimate the topographic control on the possible coupling between the sediment source areas and the catchment channel network. This step allows for the assessment of the debris supply, which is most likely available for the channelized processes. Finally, with the data obtained in the previous steps, we modeled the propagation and depositional pattern of debris flows with a 3D code based on Cellular Automata. The results of the numerical runs allow us to identify the depositional patterns and the areas potentially involved in the flow processes. This integrated methodology is applied to a test-bed catchment located in Northwestern Alps. The results indicate that this approach can be regarded as a useful tool to estimate debris flow related potential hazard scenarios in an alpine environment in an expeditious way without possessing an exhaustive knowledge of the investigated catchment, including data on historical debris flow events.

  19. Integrating Crop Growth Models with Whole Genome Prediction through Approximate Bayesian Computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Technow

    Full Text Available Genomic selection, enabled by whole genome prediction (WGP methods, is revolutionizing plant breeding. Existing WGP methods have been shown to deliver accurate predictions in the most common settings, such as prediction of across environment performance for traits with additive gene effects. However, prediction of traits with non-additive gene effects and prediction of genotype by environment interaction (G×E, continues to be challenging. Previous attempts to increase prediction accuracy for these particularly difficult tasks employed prediction methods that are purely statistical in nature. Augmenting the statistical methods with biological knowledge has been largely overlooked thus far. Crop growth models (CGMs attempt to represent the impact of functional relationships between plant physiology and the environment in the formation of yield and similar output traits of interest. Thus, they can explain the impact of G×E and certain types of non-additive gene effects on the expressed phenotype. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC, a novel and powerful computational procedure, allows the incorporation of CGMs directly into the estimation of whole genome marker effects in WGP. Here we provide a proof of concept study for this novel approach and demonstrate its use with synthetic data sets. We show that this novel approach can be considerably more accurate than the benchmark WGP method GBLUP in predicting performance in environments represented in the estimation set as well as in previously unobserved environments for traits determined by non-additive gene effects. We conclude that this proof of concept demonstrates that using ABC for incorporating biological knowledge in the form of CGMs into WGP is a very promising and novel approach to improving prediction accuracy for some of the most challenging scenarios in plant breeding and applied genetics.

  20. Dynamic environments of fungus-farming termite mounds exert growth-modulating effects on fungal crop parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as (i) temperature and relative humidity (RH) 'stabilisers' showing dampened daily variation and (ii) 'extreme environments' exhibiting elevated RH and CO 2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO 2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i.e., Pseudoxylaria is 'termitariophilic'. Also, ex situ experiments on parasite isolates differing in growth rates and examined under controlled conditions in the absence of termites revealed a variable effect with fungal growth decreasing only under high CO 2 and low temperature conditions, reflecting the in situ parasite growth fluctuations. In essence, the parasite appears to be adapted to survive in the termite mound. Thus the mound microclimate does not inhibit the parasite but the dynamic environmental conditions of the mound affect its growth to varying extents. These results shed light on the impact of animal-engineered structures on parasite ecology, independent of any direct role of animal engineers. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Enhancement of fatigue crack growth rates in pressure boundary materials due to light-water-reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDerSluys, W.A.; Emanuelson, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The high level of reliability required of the primary-coolant pressure boundary in a nuclear reactor system leads to a continuing interest in the interaction among the coolant, pressure boundary materials, and service loadings. One area of concern involves the possible enhancement of the growth rate of fatigue cracks due to the coolant. Advances have occurred recently toward a better understanding of the variables influencing the material/environment interactions and methods of addressing this interaction. Sulfur now appears to be one of the principal agents responsible for the observed enhancement of the fatigue crack growth rates in light-water-reactor (LWR) environments. This paper presents the results of investigations on the effect of sulfur in the steel, bulk water environment, and at the crack tip

  2. An Integrated Chemical Environment to Support 21st-Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Shannon M; Phillips, Jason; Sedykh, Alexander; Tandon, Arpit; Sprankle, Catherine; Morefield, Stephen Q; Shapiro, Andy; Allen, David; Shah, Ruchir; Maull, Elizabeth A; Casey, Warren M; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C

    2017-05-25

    SUMMARY : Access to high-quality reference data is essential for the development, validation, and implementation of in vitro and in silico approaches that reduce and replace the use of animals in toxicity testing. Currently, these data must often be pooled from a variety of disparate sources to efficiently link a set of assay responses and model predictions to an outcome or hazard classification. To provide a central access point for these purposes, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods developed the Integrated Chemical Environment (ICE) web resource. The ICE data integrator allows users to retrieve and combine data sets and to develop hypotheses through data exploration. Open-source computational workflows and models will be available for download and application to local data. ICE currently includes curated in vivo test data, reference chemical information, in vitro assay data (including Tox21 TM /ToxCast™ high-throughput screening data), and in silico model predictions. Users can query these data collections focusing on end points of interest such as acute systemic toxicity, endocrine disruption, skin sensitization, and many others. ICE is publicly accessible at https://ice.ntp.niehs.nih.gov. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1759.

  3. Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW)-Based Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiulin; Guo, Yanjie; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Fei; Dong, Helei; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-05-03

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor structure based on a substrate integrated circular waveguide (SICW) for the temperature test in harsh environments. The sensor substrate material is 99% alumina ceramic, and the SICW structure is composed of upper and lower metal plates and a series of metal cylindrical sidewall vias. A rectangular aperture antenna integrated on the surface of the SICW resonator is used for electromagnetic wave transmission between the sensor and the external antenna. The resonant frequency of the temperature sensor decreases when the temperature increases, because the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic increases with temperature. The temperature sensor presented in this paper was tested four times at a range of 30⁻1200 °C, and a broad band coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed antenna was used as an interrogation antenna during the test process. The resonant frequency changed from 2.371 to 2.141 GHz as the temperature varied from 30 to 1200 °C, leading to a sensitivity of 0.197 MHz/°C. The quality factor of the sensor changed from 3444.6 to 35.028 when the temperature varied from 30 to 1000 °C.

  4. Integrating the environment in local strategic planning : Guidelines (Case of Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim, Hafsa

    2018-05-01

    Since 2010, an advanced regionalization project has been initiated by Morocco, which plans to consolidate the processes of decentralization and deconcentration by extending the powers of the regions and other local authorities. This project, institutionalized in the 2011 Constitution, defines the territorial organization of the Kingdom and reinforces decentralization according to a model of advanced regionalization. Through advanced regionalization, Morocco aims at integrated and sustainable development in economic, social, cultural and environmental terms, through the development of the potential and resources of each region. However, in order to honor this commitment of advanced regionalization, local authorities must be assisted in adopting a local strategic planning approach, allowing them to develop territorial plans for sustainable development in accordance with the national legal framework, specifically the Framework law 99-12, and international commitments in terms of environmental protection. This research deals with the issue of environmental governance in relation to the role and duties of local authorities. Thus, the main goal of our study is to present the guidelines to be followed by the local authorities to improve the quality of the environment integration process in the local strategic planning with the aim of putting it in a perspective of sustainable development.

  5. Recommendations for Integrating a P300-Based Brain Computer Interface in Virtual Reality Environments for Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Cattan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a P300-based brain–computer interface (BCI into virtual reality (VR environments is promising for the video games industry. However, it faces several limitations, mainly due to hardware constraints and constraints engendered by the stimulation needed by the BCI. The main limitation is still the low transfer rate that can be achieved by current BCI technology. The goal of this paper is to review current limitations and to provide application creators with design recommendations in order to overcome them. We also overview current VR and BCI commercial products in relation to the design of video games. An essential recommendation is to use the BCI only for non-complex and non-critical tasks in the game. Also, the BCI should be used to control actions that are naturally integrated into the virtual world. Finally, adventure and simulation games, especially if cooperative (multi-user appear the best candidates for designing an effective VR game enriched by BCI technology.

  6. THE ACTIONS PROGRAMMES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENT AND THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategies to achieve the objectives of sustainable development is to promote a coherent legal system in the European Union. The trends and priorities are mapped and monitored under the Programme of Action on the environment. The environmental Action Programmes are documents underpinning EU environmental policy. The first of these programs was adopted by the European Council in 1972 and was followed by five others. These action programs are actually a combination of medium-term programs, coupled with a strategic approach and is characterized by a vertical and sectoral environmental problems. Since 1973, the European Community action program in the field of environment have become an increasingly important role. The European Community Treaty of 1986 is the legal basis of EU environmental policy. The Article 174 outlines environmental policy objectives and defines its purpose - ensuring a high level of environmental protection taking into account the diversity of situations in different regions of the European Union. The underlying objectives of EU environmental policy, under Article 174, are: • the preserve, protect and improve the environment; • the protection of human health; •the rational use of natural resources; •a promoting measures at international level to treat regional environmental issues. The Article 175 identifies the appropriate legislative procedures to this end and establishes the decisionmaking in environmental policy. The Article 176 allows Member States to adopt and stricter standards if it is deemed important and if it is justified. The "Sustainable development" is mentioned early in Art. 2 of the Treaty of Amsterdam Treaty which underlies the formation of the European Community. The Article 6 promotes sustainable development as a cross-cutting policy of the European Union, highlighting the need to integrate environmental protection requirements into the definition and implementation of EU

  7. An Integrated Real-Time Beamforming and Postfiltering System for Nonstationary Noise Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannot Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for real-time multichannel speech enhancement in environments of nonstationary noise and time-varying acoustical transfer functions (ATFs. The proposed system integrates adaptive beamforming, ATF identification, soft signal detection, and multichannel postfiltering. The noise canceller branch of the beamformer and the ATF identification are adaptively updated online, based on hypothesis test results. The noise canceller is updated only during stationary noise frames, and the ATF identification is carried out only when desired source components have been detected. The hypothesis testing is based on the nonstationarity of the signals and the transient power ratio between the beamformer primary output and its reference noise signals. Following the beamforming and the hypothesis testing, estimates for the signal presence probability and for the noise power spectral density are derived. Subsequently, an optimal spectral gain function that minimizes the mean square error of the log-spectral amplitude (LSA is applied. Experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system in nonstationary noise environments.

  8. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO 2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO 2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO 2 emission by human breathing

  9. Diagonally arranged louvers in integrated facade systems - effects on the interior lighting environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Misawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Building facades play an important role in creating the urban landscape and they can be used effectively to reduce energy usage and environmental impacts, while also incorporating structural seismic-resistant elements in the building perimeter zone. To address these opportunities, the authors propose an integrated facade concept which satisfies architectural facade and environmental design requirements. In Europe, remarkable facade engineering developments have taken place over the last two decades resulting in elegant facades and a reduction in environmental impact; however modifications are needed in Japan to take account of the different seismic and environmental situations. To satisfy these requirements, this paper proposes the use of a diagonally disposed louver system. Diagonally arranged louvers have the potential to provide both seismic resistance and environment adaptation. In many cases, louvers have been designed but not installed due to concerns relating to restricted external sight lines and low levels of natural lighting in the building interior. To overcome these problems, full-scale diagonally arranged louver mock-ups were created to evaluate illumination levels, the quality of the internal daylight environment and external appearance. Interior illumination levels resulting from a series of mock-up experiments were evaluated and correlated with results from a daylight analysis tool.

  10. Detection vs. selection: integration of genetic, epigenetic and environmental cues in fluctuating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Dall, Sasha R X; Hammerstein, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2016-10-01

    There are many inputs during development that influence an organism's fit to current or upcoming environments. These include genetic effects, transgenerational epigenetic influences, environmental cues and developmental noise, which are rarely investigated in the same formal framework. We study an analytically tractable evolutionary model, in which cues are integrated to determine mature phenotypes in fluctuating environments. Environmental cues received during development and by the mother as an adult act as detection-based (individually observed) cues. The mother's phenotype and a quantitative genetic effect act as selection-based cues (they correlate with environmental states after selection). We specify when such cues are complementary and tend to be used together, and when using the most informative cue will predominate. Thus, we extend recent analyses of the evolutionary implications of subsets of these effects by providing a general diagnosis of the conditions under which detection and selection-based influences on development are likely to evolve and coexist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Simulation of worst-case operating conditions for integrated circuits operating in a total dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuva, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Degradations in the circuit performance created by the radiation exposure of integrated circuits are so unique and abnormal that thorough simulation and testing of VLSI circuits is almost impossible, and new ways to estimate the operating performance in a radiation environment must be developed. The principal goal of this work was the development of simulation techniques for radiation effects on semiconductor devices. The mixed-mode simulation approach proved to be the most promising. The switch-level approach is used to identify the failure mechanisms and critical subcircuits responsible for operational failure along with worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation. For precise simulations of critical subcircuits, SPICE is used. The identification of failure mechanisms enables the circuit designer to improve the circuit's performance and failure-exposure level. Identification of worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation reduces the complexity of testing VLSI circuits for radiation environments. The results of test circuits for failure simulations using a conventional simulator and the new simulator showed significant time savings using the new simulator. The savings in simulation time proved to be circuit topology-dependent. However, for large circuits, the simulation time proved to be orders of magnitude smaller than simulation time for conventional simulators

  12. Dietary integration with natural extract in rabbit: effects on growth performances and meat quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chiapparini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of Europe rabbit meat is consumed for its nutritional characteristics, (Dalle Zotte, 2014; Hernández and Gondret, 2006. Since the ban of the use of antibiotic as growth promoter, natural substances have been studied as alternative with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobic and antiviral properties. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation with natural extract mixture in growing rabbit on growth performances, carcass characteristics and Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle parameters. The trial was performed at the Research Institute for Animal Production (Nitra, Slovak Republic and lasted 42 days. At 35 days of age, 144 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected and divided in 3 experimental groups (4 rabbits/cage. The first fed a basal diet, the second (T1 and the third one (T2 received 0.3% and 0.6% of natural extract mixture, containing polyphenols from plants and seaweeds.  Dietary integration with natural extract improve (P<0.05 growth performances (ADG, FI and FC in T1 group. The fatty acid composition of LL muscle was positively affected (P=0.037 by natural extract supplementation with an increase of n-3 FA in T2 group than other treatments. Cholesterol content tended to be lower in T2 group (P=0.082 than T1 and C group (24.8 mg/100g T2 vs 34.6 mg/100g T1 vs 33.2 mg/100g C. Sensory analysis revealed that only the aroma was affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatments. Overall these results highlight that dietary supplementation with natural extract mixture, containing polyphenols from plants and seaweeds enhance growth performances, carcass weight, improving LL muscle nutritional parameters.

  13. Crystal growth of hexaferrite architecture for magnetoelectrically tunable microwave semiconductor integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bolin

    Hexaferrites (i.e., hexagonal ferrites), discovered in 1950s, exist as any one of six crystallographic structural variants (i.e., M-, X-, Y-, W-, U-, and Z-type). Over the past six decades, the hexaferrites have received much attention owing to their important properties that lend use as permanent magnets, magnetic data storage materials, as well as components in electrical devices, particularly those operating at RF frequencies. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in hexaferrites for new fundamental and emerging applications. Among those, electronic components for mobile and wireless communications especially incorporated with semiconductor integrated circuits at microwave frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorbers for electromagnetic compatibility, random-access memory (RAM) and low observable technology, and as composite materials having low dimensions. However, of particular interest is the magnetoelectric (ME) effect discovered recently in the hexaferrites such as SrScxFe12-xO19 (SrScM), Ba2--xSrxZn 2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y), Sr4Co2Fe 36O60 (Co2U) and Sr3Co2Fe 24O41 (Co2Z), demonstrating ferroelectricity induced by the complex internal alignment of magnetic moments. Further, both Co 2Z and Co2U have revealed observable magnetoelectric effects at room temperature, representing a step toward practical applications using the ME effect. These materials hold great potential for applications, since strong magnetoelectric coupling allows switching of the FE polarization with a magnetic field (H) and vice versa. These features could lead to a new type of storage devices, such as an electric field-controlled magnetic memory. A nanoscale-driven crystal growth of magnetic hexaferrites was successfully demonstrated at low growth temperatures (25--40% lower than the temperatures required often for crystal growth). This outcome exhibits thermodynamic processes of crystal growth, allowing ease in fabrication of advanced multifunctional materials. Most importantly, the

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  15. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  16. Developing an automated water emitting-sensing system, based on integral tensiometers placed in homogenous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabach, Sharon; Shani, Uri

    2010-05-01

    As the population grows, irrigated agriculture is using more water and fertilizers to supply the growing food demand. However, the uptake by various plants is only 30 to 50% of the water applied. The remaining water flows to surface water and groundwater and causes their contamination by fertilizers or other toxins such as herbicides or pesticides. To improve the water use efficiency of crops and decrease the drainage below the root zone, irrigation water should be applied according to the plant demand. The aim of this work is to develop an automated irrigation system based on real-time feedback from an inexpensive and reliable integrated sensing system. This system will supply water to plants according to their demand, without any user interference during the entire growth season. To achieve this goal a sensor (Geo-Tensiometer) was designed and tested. This sensor has better contact with the surrounding soil, is more reliable and much cheaper than the ceramic cup tensiometer. A lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate a subsurface drip irrigation regime based on the Geo-Tensiometer and compare it to a daily irrigation regime. All of the drippers were wrapped in Geo-textile. By integrating the Geo-Tensiometer within the Geo-textile which surrounds the drippers, we created a homogenous media in the entire lysimeter in which the reading of the matric potential takes place. This media, the properties of which are set and known to us, encourages root growth therein. Root density in this media is very high; therefore most of the plant water uptake is from this area. The irrigation system in treatment A irrigated when the matric potential reached a threshold which was set every morning automatically by the system. The daily treatment included a single irrigation each morning that was set to return 120% of the evapotranspiration of the previous day. All Geo-Tensiometers were connected to an automated washing system, that flushed air trapped in the Geo

  17. Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; Härdtle, Werner; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Schmidt, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas; Seidler, Gunnar; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-09-01

    While functional diversity (FD) has been shown to be positively related to a number of ecosystem functions including biomass production, it may have a much less pronounced effect than that of environmental factors or species-specific properties. Leaf and wood traits can be considered particularly relevant to tree growth, as they reflect a trade-off between resources invested into growth and persistence. Our study focussed on the degree to which early forest growth was driven by FD, the environment (11 variables characterizing abiotic habitat conditions), and community-weighted mean (CWM) values of species traits in the context of a large-scale tree diversity experiment (BEF-China). Growth rates of trees with respect to crown diameter were aggregated across 231 plots (hosting between one and 23 tree species) and related to environmental variables, FD, and CWM, the latter two of which were based on 41 plant functional traits. The effects of each of the three predictor groups were analyzed separately by mixed model optimization and jointly by variance partitioning. Numerous single traits predicted plot-level tree growth, both in the models based on CWMs and FD, but none of the environmental variables was able to predict tree growth. In the best models, environment and FD explained only 4 and 31% of variation in crown growth rates, respectively, while CWM trait values explained 42%. In total, the best models accounted for 51% of crown growth. The marginal role of the selected environmental variables was unexpected, given the high topographic heterogeneity and large size of the experiment, as was the significant impact of FD, demonstrating that positive diversity effects already occur during the early stages in tree plantations.

  18. Eastern Partnership Integration with the EU and Inclusive Growth of National Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka SEPASHVILI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the circumstances and objectives of the regional integration in the context of global development. The EU is one of the most influential and important actors of the global world, which represents one of the most developed examples of the regional integration. During the development, the EU went through the several stages on enlargement. Even nowadays, without having targeted to the reactive new member in foreseen future, the EU continues the process of integration of adjacent regions by setting goals and priorities through different forms such as the European Neighborhood, the Eastern Partnership, Association Agreements, various types of Trade agreements. The Eastern Partnership which represents the EU’s eastern neighborhood consisting by former soviet republics has steadily gone up with integration: 1. Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine have already signed the Association Agreement (AA including Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs with the EU and now these countries work on further progress in terms of the Implementation of AA/DCFTA; 2. Armenia and Azerbaijan are seeking new framework to up-grade their relationship with the EU, Belarus created EU Belarus Co-ordination Group and acts within the Single Support Framework program for 2017-2020. The evolution of EaP countries’ trade data evidently show the changes and growing dynamics in the region. The obvious increasing tendency of trade volumes predicts for further success in the future after the DC FTAs are enacted fully for some countries and/or other trade facilitation measures are utilized fully for others. A new approach to the economic growth also suggests that benefit from economic growth supports poverty reduction, widely spreads across sectors and affects the majority of the labor force and hence, rise the welfare of the population. In this context, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR appears to be a useful tool to achieve this overwhelming goal

  19. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika Ia; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. The developed protocol can be

  20. Administration of zoledronic acid enhances the effects of docetaxel on growth of prostate cancer in the bone environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vessella Robert L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After development of hormone-refractory metastatic disease, prostate cancer is incurable. The recent history of chemotherapy has shown that with difficult disease targets, combinatorial therapy frequently offers the best chance of a cure. In this study we have examined the effects of a combination of zoledronic acid (ZOL, a new-generation bisphosphonate, and docetaxel on LuCaP 23.1, a prostate cancer xenograft that stimulates the osteoblastic reaction when grown in the bone environment. Methods Intra-tibial injections of LuCaP 23.1 cells were used to generate tumors in the bone environment, and animals were treated with ZOL, docetaxel, or a combination of these. Effects on bone and tumor were evaluated by measurements of bone mineral density and histomorphometrical analysis. Results ZOL decreased proliferation of LuCaP 23.1 in the bone environment, while docetaxel at a dose that effectively inhibited growth of subcutaneous tumors did not show any effects in the bone environment. The combination of the drugs significantly inhibited the growth of LuCaP 23.1 tumors in the bone. Conclusion In conclusion, the use of the osteolysis-inhibitory agent ZOL in combination with docetaxel inhibits growth of prostate tumors in bone and represents a potential treatment option.

  1. Effects of passive integrated transponder tags on survival and growth of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Hage; Thorn, Aske N.; Skov, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background: A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the potential impacts of surgically implanted 23 and 32 mm passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on survival, growth, and body condition of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Rate of tag retention and healing of the tagging incision...... were also evaluated. Atlantic salmon of three different size classes (I: 80 to 99 mm fork length (FL), II: 100 to 119 mm FL, III: 120 to 135 mm FL) were allocated to each of five experimental treatment groups: control, sham-operated (surgery without PIT-tag implantation), 23 mm PIT-tag implantation...... with and without suture closure of the incision, and 32 mm PIT-tag implantation without suture closure. Results: Over the 35-day experiment, mortality occurred only among fish tagged with 32 mm PIT tags (14%) and all fish larger than 103 mm FL survived. Non-sutured Atlantic salmon between 80 and 99 mm FL implanted...

  2. Financial Integration and Tax Efficiency –Premises of Antitrust Policy and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mărginean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper is to highlight the relationship between financial integration, taxation and anti-monopoly policy.We will focus on the arguments that come to strengthen that the effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy depends on effective measures in the area of taxation and hence the effects of taxation. Basically, in our analysis, we built a research that stressed the importance of interplay between the variables involved and the objective of economic growth. Noting that the public income and expeenditures (item that showing the importance of administration sector in the economy, depends on effective antitrust policy. For this analysis, we used data between 2008 and 2014 from the Competition Council and Eurostat.

  3. Epidermal growth factor treatment decreases mortality and is associated with improved gut integrity in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF after the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2 x 23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive injection of either 150 microg kg(-1) d(-1) (i.p.) EGF or 0.9% saline (i.p.). Circulating EGF levels were decreased after CLP compared with sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased after CLP and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF receptor was increased after CLP, whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF receptor. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Fas-associated death domain, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 cip1/waf Epidermal growth factor treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, Fas-associated death domain, and p21 cip1/waf . To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed 7 days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Thus, EGF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity.

  4. An ethanolamine kinase Eki1 affects radial growth and cell wall integrity in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronglin; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Dongyuan

    2015-09-01

    Ethanolamine kinase (ATP:ethanolamine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.82) catalyzes the committed step of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. The functions of eki genes that encode ethanolamine kinase have been intensively studied in mammalian cells, fruit flies and yeast. However, the role of the eki gene has not yet been characterized in filamentous fungi. In this study, Treki1, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EKI1, was identified and functionally characterized using a target gene deletion strategy in Trichoderma reesei. A Treki deletion mutant was less sensitive to cell wall stressors calcofluor white and Congo red and released fewer protoplasts during cell wall digestion than the parent strain QM9414. Further transcription analysis showed that the expression levels of five genes that encode chitin synthases were drastically increased in the ΔTreki1 mutant. The chitin content was also increased in the null mutant of Treki1 comparing to the parent strain. In addition, the ΔTreki1 mutant exhibited defects in radial growth, conidiation and the accumulation of ethanolamine. The results indicate that Treki1 plays a key role in growth and development and in the maintenance of cell wall integrity in T. reesei. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Silencing of Foxp3 delays the growth of murine melanomas and modifies the tumor immunosuppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco-Molina MA

    2016-01-01

    and decreased in tumors derived from B16F10.1 cells. Similar data were obtained from spleen cells. These results suggest that, in melanomas, Foxp3 partly induces tumor growth by modifying the immune system at the local and peripheral level, shifting the environment toward an immunosuppressive profile. Therapies incorporating this transcription factor could be strategies for cancer treatment. Keywords: melanoma, Foxp3, cancer, T-regulatory cells

  6. Issues around radiological protection of the environment and its integration with protection of humans: promoting debate on the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores issues to consider around integrating direct, explicit protection of the environment into the current system of radiological protection, which is focused on the protection of humans. Many issues around environmental radiological protection have been discussed, and ready-to-use toolboxes have been constructed for assessing harm to non-human biota, but it is not clear how (or even if) these should be fitted into the current system of protection. Starting from the position that the current approach to protecting the environment (namely that it follows from adequately protecting humans) is generally effective, this paper considers how explicit radiological protection of the environment can be integrated with the current system, through developing a 'worked example' of how this could be done and highlighting issues peculiar to protection of the environment. The aim of the paper is to promote debate on this topic, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that any changes to the system are consensual and robust

  7. Influence of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walsum, P. E. V.; Supit, I.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrologic climate change modelling is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. To reduce this dependency, we extended the regional hydrologic modelling framework SIMGRO to host a two-way coupling between the soil moisture model MetaSWAP and the crop growth simulation model WOFOST, accounting for ecohydrologic feedbacks in terms of radiation fraction that reaches the soil, crop coefficient, interception fraction of rainfall, interception storage capacity, and root zone depth. Except for the last, these feedbacks are dependent on the leaf area index (LAI). The influence of regional groundwater on crop growth is included via a coupling to MODFLOW. Two versions of the MetaSWAP-WOFOST coupling were set up: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous crop growth simulation, the "dynamic" model. Parameterization of the static and dynamic models ensured that for the current climate the simulated long-term averages of actual evapotranspiration are the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios and two crops: grass and potato. In the dynamic model, higher temperatures in a warm year under the current climate resulted in accelerated crop development, and in the case of potato a shorter growing season, thus partly avoiding the late summer heat. The static model has a higher potential transpiration; depending on the available soil moisture, this translates to a higher actual transpiration. This difference between static and dynamic models is enlarged by climate change in combination with higher CO2 concentrations. Including the dynamic crop simulation gives for potato (and other annual arable land crops) systematically higher effects on the predicted recharge change due to climate change. Crop yields from soils with poor water retention capacities strongly depend on capillary rise if moisture supply from other sources is limited. Thus, including a crop simulation model in an integrated

  8. Assessment of Urbanization on the Integrated Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Environment in Coastal Metropolis in Preparation for HyspIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequera, Pedro; McDonald, Kyle C.; Gonzalez, Jorge; Arend, Mark; Krakauer, Nir; Bornstein, Robert; Luvll, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The need for comprehensive studies of the relationships between past and projected changes of regional climate and human activity in comple x urban environments has been well established. The HyspIRI preparato ry airborne activities in California, associated science and applicat ions research, and eventually HyspIRI itself provide an unprecedented opportunity for development and implementation of an integrated data and modeling analysis system focused on coastal urban environments. We will utilize HyspIRI preparatory data collections in developing ne w remote sensing-based tools for investigating the integrated urban e nvironment, emphasizing weather, climate, and energy demands in compl ex coastal cities.

  9. Constraining the thermal conditions of impact environments through integrated low-temperature thermochronometry and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, N. M.; Marchi, S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Flowers, R. M.; Metcalf, J. R.; Bottke, W. F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts have a significant physical and chemical influence on the surface conditions of a planet. The cratering record is used to understand a wide array of impact processes, such as the evolution of the impact flux through time. However, the relationship between impactor size and a resulting impact crater remains controversial (e.g., Bottke et al., 2016). Likewise, small variations in the impact velocity are known to significantly affect the thermal-mechanical disturbances in the aftermath of a collision. Development of more robust numerical models for impact cratering has implications for how we evaluate the disruptive capabilities of impact events, including the extent and duration of thermal anomalies, the volume of ejected material, and the resulting landscape of impacted environments. To address uncertainties in crater scaling relationships, we present an approach and methodology that integrates numerical modeling of the thermal evolution of terrestrial impact craters with low-temperature, (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The approach uses time-temperature (t-T) paths of crust within an impact crater, generated from numerical simulations of an impact. These t-T paths are then used in forward models to predict the resetting behavior of (U-Th)/He ages in the mineral chronometers apatite and zircon. Differences between the predicted and measured (U-Th)/He ages from a modeled terrestrial impact crater can then be used to evaluate parameters in the original numerical simulations, and refine the crater scaling relationships. We expect our methodology to additionally inform our interpretation of impact products, such as lunar impact breccias and meteorites, providing robust constraints on their thermal histories. In addition, the method is ideal for sample return mission planning - robust "prediction" of ages we expect from a given impact environment enhances our ability to target sampling sites on the Moon, Mars or other solar system bodies where impacts have strongly

  10. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  11. Psychomotor Battery Approaches to Performance Prediction and Evaluation in Hyperbaric, Thermal and Vibratory Environments: Annotated Bibliographies and Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    W77-Mar78 and Vibratory Environments: Annotated Biblia - 4.-EFRIGOO EOT*_1 graphies and Integrative Review. I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSER(a) David J...Papers In the third phase of the effort, the final version of the three speciai-environrneni performance battery bibliographies was corriiled and the...performance at much lower pressu. (e.g. 3 to 4 ATA when nitrogen is involved). The following sections will integrate the available liter - ature on the effects

  12. Economic Growth and the Environment - or the Extinction of the GDP-dinosaur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Market economies are fundamentally characterized by economic growth. Growth rates may be higher or lower, but the GDP seldom stagnates or diminishes - and when it does, this is considered a symptom of crisis. During the past few decades environmental problems have caused increasing conce...

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor Improves Intestinal Integrity and Survival in Murine Sepsis Following Chronic Alcohol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Yoseph, Benyam P; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Burd, Eileen M; Margoles, Lindsay M; Koval, Michael; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective protein that improves survival in preclinical models of sepsis through its beneficial effects on intestinal integrity. Alcohol use disorder worsens intestinal integrity and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical illness. We sought to determine whether chronic alcohol ingestion alters the host response to systemic administration of EGF in sepsis. Six-week-old FVB/N mice were randomized to receive 20% alcohol or water for 12 weeks. All mice then underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal injection of EGF (150 μg/kg/day) or normal saline. Water-fed mice given EGF had decreased 7-day mortality compared with water-fed mice (18% vs. 55%). Alcohol-fed mice given EGF also had decreased 7-day mortality compared with alcohol-fed mice (48% vs. 79%). Notably, while systemic EGF improved absolute survival to a similar degree in both water-fed and alcohol-fed mice, mortality was significantly higher in alcohol+EGF mice compared with water+EGF mice. Compared with water-fed septic mice, alcohol-fed septic mice had worsened intestinal integrity with intestinal hyperpermeability, increased intestinal epithelial apoptosis, decreased proliferation and shorter villus length. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice decreased intestinal permeability compared with septic alcohol-fed mice given vehicle, with increased levels of the tight junction mediators claudin-5 and JAM-A. Systemic administration of EGF to septic alcohol-fed mice also decreased intestinal apoptosis with an improvement in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. EGF also improved both crypt proliferation and villus length in septic alcohol-fed mice. EGF administration resulted in lower levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 10 in alcohol-fed mice. EGF is therefore

  14. The visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Akristiniy Vera A.; Dikova Elena A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to one of the types of urban planning studies - the visual-landscape analysis during the integration of high-rise buildings within the historic urban environment for the purposes of providing pre-design and design studies in terms of preserving the historical urban environment and the implementation of the reconstructional resource of the area. In the article formed and systematized the stages and methods of conducting the visual-landscape analysis taking into account t...

  15. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between t...

  16. Diatom production in the marine environment : implications for larval fish growth and condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St. John, Michael; Clemmesen, C.; Lund, T.

    2001-01-01

    To test the effects of diatom production on larval fish growth and condition. laboratory experiments were performed with larval North Sea cod reared on different algal food chains. These food chains were based on cultures of (a) the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira weissflogii: (b....../omega6 fatty acids in the algal source had no significant effect. The highest and lowest growth rates were observed in food chains based on H. triquetra and T. weissflogii. respectively (means for days 14-16 of 4.0 and - 4.7). The mixed diatom/dinoflagellate diet resulted in inter- mediate growth rates...... and condition. Regressions of growth rates against EPA and DHA content indicated no inhibitory effect of diatom production on growth in larval cod...

  17. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Tim; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress intensity parameter, Kmax, was developed by incorporating into the formulation the remaining stress level concept as measured by simple stress relaxation tests. The newly proposed parameter, Ksrf, did an excellent job in correlating the dwell crack growth rates for the four heat treatments which were shown to have similar intrinsic environmental cyclic fatigue crack growth resistance.

  18. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  19. ARTIE: an Integrated Environment for the development of Affective Robot Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Eduardo Imbernón Cuadrado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social- support behaviours in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a signicant contribution to learning efciency.With the aim of contributing to the rising eld of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment. We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,... in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to

  20. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost......-efficient light control system. Plant dry matter production was in all cases linear related to DLI, despite changes in daily light duration and light intensity of supplemental light suggesting that DLI is the main limiting factor for the prediction of production time in optimal temperature conditions. The results......Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...

  1. Enhancement of fatigue crack growth rates in pressure boundary materials due to light-water-reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Emanuelson, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur now appears to be one of the principal agents responsible for the observed enhancement of the fatigue crack growth rates in light-water-reactor (LWR) environments. This paper presents the results of investigations on the effect of sulfur in the steel, in the bulk water environment, and at the crack tip. A time-based format of data presentation is used in this paper along with the conventional crack growth rate based on cycle format. The time-based format is a useful method of data presentation. When presented in the conventional format, an apparent substantial amount of scatter in the data is eliminated and the data fall within a relatively narrow scatter band. This model permits extrapolation from the frequency and ΔK regions where experiments were conducted into previously unexplored regions. (orig./GL)

  2. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper. In our study we try to assess the causality link between a number of the international economic integration politico-economic factors, institutions and basic production factors with the growth of the economy. We form a sample of 18 post-socialist countries, including Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries-members the European Union, and the rest of CEE non-members countries and CIS countries, who have not acquired the membership in the EU, including Ukraine. The time period of our study is 23 years, starting from 1991 – the year of independence of Ukraine till 2013 – the last year for which statistics are published for our group of a corresponding list of indicators that make up our interest. In the estimating equation we use econometric analysis panel data by least squares method with fixed effects transformation to eliminate countries’ heterogeneity. In the study we use such determinant of the institutions quality as the Index of Economic Freedom (Heritage Foundation, and we investigate various components of the Index of Economic Freedom (freedom of ownership, freedom of trade, freedom from corruption, freedom of investment. We assume that institutions towards freedom of foreign trade and reducing corruption will have a greater effect on the economy of the investigated countries. It is advisable to attach to the international economic integration politico-economic factors the indicator of foreign trade taxation as a measure of tariff barriers, international aid programs of the foreign donors and the European institutions to assess their role for the economic growth of the countries surveyed, and we take into account the capital and the labor as the basic factors of production. Methodology. The methods of synthesis, logic, abstraction and analysis are used in the study. On a sample of 18 post-socialist countries (CEE and CIS for the period of 23 years (1991-2013 we had conducted the econometric panel analysis

  3. Early Effects of Altered Gravity Environments on Plant Cell Growth and Cell Proliferation: Characterization of Morphofunctional Nucleolar Types in an Arabidopsis Cell Culture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, Ana I.; Herranz, Raúl; Manzano, Aránzazu [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Dutch Experiment Support Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands); ESA-ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Medina, F. Javier, E-mail: fjmedina@cib.csic.es [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-05

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR, and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  4. Real-time observation of epitaxial crystal growth in gaseous environment using x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Tomoaki; Bhunia, Satyaban; Watanabe, Yoshio; Fujikawa, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    We made the x-ray diffractometer combined with the MOCVD growth system for the real-time observation of epitaxial growth in gaseous environment, and investigated the growth mechanism of InP crystals. Changes of the (-5/2 O) Bragg diffraction during the growth revealed that the growth starts immediately after the In source has been supplied and gradually stopped, owing to the migrating In atoms on the surface. Additionally, one can easily determine the growth modes, including 3-dimensional mode, layer-by-layer mode, and step-flow mode, by observing the change of x-ray reflectivity with various growth conditions. (author)

  5. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-09-30

    The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE) is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

  6. High-Performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE Tools and Applications for Big Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahan Simonyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE is a high-throughput cloud-based infrastructure developed for the storage and analysis of genomic and associated biological data. HIVE consists of a web-accessible interface for authorized users to deposit, retrieve, share, annotate, compute and visualize Next-generation Sequencing (NGS data in a scalable and highly efficient fashion. The platform contains a distributed storage library and a distributed computational powerhouse linked seamlessly. Resources available through the interface include algorithms, tools and applications developed exclusively for the HIVE platform, as well as commonly used external tools adapted to operate within the parallel architecture of the system. HIVE is composed of a flexible infrastructure, which allows for simple implementation of new algorithms and tools. Currently, available HIVE tools include sequence alignment and nucleotide variation profiling tools, metagenomic analyzers, phylogenetic tree-building tools using NGS data, clone discovery algorithms, and recombination analysis algorithms. In addition to tools, HIVE also provides knowledgebases that can be used in conjunction with the tools for NGS sequence and metadata analysis.

  7. Overview of IMAGE 2.0. An integrated model of climate change and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcamo, J.; Battjes, C.; Van den Born, G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; De Haan, B.J.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Klepper, O.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Krol, M.; Leemans, R.; Van Minnen, J.G.; Olivier, J.G.J.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Toet, A.M.C.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model, designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. In this paper the focus is on the scientific aspects of the model, while another paper in this volume emphasizes its political aspects. The objectives of IMAGE 2.0 are to investigate linkages and feedbacks in the global system, and to evaluate consequences of climate policies. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100, with a spatial scale ranging from grid (0.5x0.5 latitude-longitude) to world political regions, depending on the sub-model. A total of 13 sub-models make up IMAGE 2.0, and they are organized into three fully linked sub-systems: Energy-Industry, Terrestrial Environment, and Atmosphere-Ocean. The fully linked model has been tested against data from 1970 to 1990, and after calibration it can reproduce the following observed trends: regional energy consumption and energy-related emissions, terrestrial flux of carbon dioxide and emissions of greenhouse gases, concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and transformation of land cover. The model can also simulate current zonal average surface and vertical temperatures. 1 fig., 10 refs

  8. Development of JNC geological disposal technical information integration system for geological environment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2004-02-01

    Enormous data on geology, geological structure, hydrology, geochemistry and rock properties should be obtained by various investigation/study in the geological disposal study. Therefore, 'JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System for Geological Environment Field' was developed in order to manage these data systematically and to support/promote the use of these data for the investigators concerned. The system is equipped with data base to store the information of the works and the background information of the assumptions built up in the works on each stage of data flow ('instigative', → 'data sampling' → interpretation' → conceptualization/modeling/simulation' → 'output') in the geological disposal study. In this system the data flow is shown as 'plan' composed of task' and 'work' to be done in the geological disposal study. It is possible to input the data to the database and to refer data from the database by using GUI that shows the data flow as 'plan'. The system was installed to the server computer possessed by JNC and the system utilities were checked on both the server computer and client computer also possessed by JNC. (author)

  9. THE GREEN AREAS MANAGEMENT AND THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The situation that exists at the level of the urban areas from Romania testifies a natural environment with a high risk for the health of the inhabitants as a consequence of the low level of the ecological development resulted from the lack of an integrated management of the green areas and spaces in comparison with the other components of the sustainable development. In the strategic management of the green areas and spaces having as purpose the improvement of the quality of air the priority role is held by the obtainment of necessary information in the view of adopting decision. In this context, monitoring the existent green areas represents a fundamental element that has to provide the necessary information. In correlation with this monitoring it is necessary the realization of the operative informational system for supervising the air quality constituted automatically from fix monitoring points and in a real time of the main air pollutants. The domains of sustainable development at the level of urban areas are considered to be: urban planning, the management of green areas and air quality, the management and the reduction of the sweepings, water quality, energy efficiency, clean and efficient transportation, etc.

  10. Work environment antecedents of bullying: A review and integrative model applied to registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Austin, Stéphanie; Boudrias, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    This review paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on work environment antecedents of workplace bullying and proposes an integrative model of bullying applied to registered nurses. A literature search was conducted on the databases PsycInfo, ProQuest, and CINAHL. Included in this review were empirical studies pertaining to work-related antecedents of workplace bullying in nurses. A total of 12 articles were maintained in the review. An examination of these articles highlights four main categories of work-related antecedents of workplace bullying: job characteristics, quality of interpersonal relationships, leadership styles, and organizational culture. A conceptual model depicting the interplay between these factors in relation to bullying is also presented. Suggestions regarding other factors to incorporate within the model (e.g., individual factors, outcomes of bullying) are provided to increase our understanding of bullying in registered nurses. This paper hopes to guide future efforts in order to effectively prevent and/or address this problem and ultimately ensure patient safety and quality of care provided by health care organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decoupling reconsidered: Does world society integration influence the relationship between the environment and economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhofer, Wesley; Jorgenson, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This study advances scholarship on environment and development by examining whether nations more embedded in the pro-environmental world society are more or less likely to experience a relative decoupling between economic development and carbon emissions over time. The authors calculate a network centrality measure using national-level membership data on environmental international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), and then employ the measure to create four subsamples of nations that are relatively more or less integrated in the environmental world society. The authors use interactions between measures of economic development and time in two-way fixed effects models to estimate the potentially changing effects of development on carbon emissions for the four subsamples of nations from 1970 to 2009. Results indicate that nations that are the most embedded in the environmental world society experienced a moderate decrease through time in the effect of development on carbon emissions, while the effect of development on emissions increased through time in the most peripheral nations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The benefits of integrating Internet technology with standard communications for telemedicine in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, B M; Satava, R; Angood, P; Merriam, N R; Doarn, C R; Merrell, R C

    2001-12-01

    The ability to continuously monitor the vital signs of a person can be beneficial especially if the environment is hazardous or a person simply has general health concerns. We wanted to ascertain if, by integrating the Internet, ubiquitous switching technologies and off-the-shelf tools, this "suite of services" could provide a topology to enable remote monitoring in extreme and remote locations. An evaluation of this approach was conducted at the base camp of Mount Everest in the spring of 1999. Three climbers were outfitted with wireless, wearable sensors and transmitters for 24 h as they ascended through the Khumbu Icefall toward Camp One. The physiologic data was forwarded to the receiving station at Base Camp where it was forwarded to the U.S. mainland. Two of the three devices delivered physiologic data 95%-100% of the time while the third unit operated at only 78%. According to the climbers, the devices were unobtrusive, however, any additional weight while climbing Everest must provide advantage.

  13. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Response of rice to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in control lab environment and field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on different growth parameters of rice variety JP-5. Three bacterial strains (Azospirillum brasilense R1, Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1) were used to inoculate rice varietyJP-5 at control lab environment and field. Plant growth promotion was observed in all inoculated treatments over non-inoculated, which was evident from increase in root area, root length, number of tillers, straw and grain yields and total weight of plant. Azospirillum brasilense R1 was more effective in plant growth promotion than other strains and showed 19% increase in the straw weight and 39.5% increase in grain weight. Inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1 increased grain weight by 18.5% and 13.8% respectively. The study revealed that beneficial strains of PGPR can be used as biofertilizer for rice. (author)

  15. Population growth and the environment in Africa : local informal institutions, the missing link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzucato, V.; Niemeijer, D.

    2002-01-01

    Population and environment debates regarding Africa, whether Malthusian or Boserupian in nature, focus on population levels as the driving force behind the relationship between environment and society. This article argues, instead, that how people adjust to their rise in numbers is more important

  16. Growth performance of commercial temperate mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. under local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    To date, the Malaysian mushroom industry focuses on only seven species of mushroom for commercial purpose. To expand and further develop the mushroom industry, new mushroom species should be introduced into our local market. Temperate mushrooms are possible to be cultivated commercially in Malaysia but the optimisation of growth performance for high quality spawn and high mushroom yield need to be studied. In the present study the growth performance of mycelia of Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. on culture media and substrates were investigated. Four types of culture media, viz. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Nutrient Agar (NA), Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) and Complete Yeast Media (CYM) were used to determine the suitable culturing media for mycelial growth. The mycelia were inoculated on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sawdust substrate and incubated at room temperature and in a low temperature in incubation room (10 - 12 degree Celsius). From the observation, Agaricus bisporus grew better on Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) medium with a growth rate of 0.306 cm/ day. Complete Yeast Media (CYM) was found more suitable for Hypsizygus sp. with a growth rate of 1.049 cm/ day. The linear growth rate of mycelium as measured on the surface of mushroom bag of Agaricus bisporus on EFB incubated at room temperature was 0.4364 cm/ day and cool temperature was 0.055 cm/ day. For Hypsizygus sp. the linear growth rate of the mycelium was 2.11 cm/ day. The linear growth of Hypsizygus sp. on sawdust substrate incubated in cool temperature was 1.4 cm/ day. (author)

  17. Is trade liberalization, economic growth, energy consumption good for the environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Jabeen, Asma

    2015-01-01

    The study attempts to identify the dynamic relationship between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for Pakistan. Johansen's Cointegration procedure has been employed to estimate the coefficients of the Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive model. The results reveal that trade has a favorable effect on environmental quality for Pakistan economy, while income growth, energy consumption tends to worsen the environmental quality thus supporting the existence of Environmental ...

  18. Attachment and growth of human keratinocytes in a serum-free environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrest, B A; Calhoun, J K; Maciag, T

    1982-08-01

    Using a serum-free system, we have investigated the influence of human fibronectin (HFN) and selected growth factors (GF) on the attachment and growth of normal human keratinocytes in vitro. Single-cell suspensions of keratinocytes from near-confluent primary plates, plated on 5-10 microgram/cm2 HFN, showed approximately 30-40% attachment after 2-24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, compared with 4-6% attachment on uncoated platic plates. Percentage of attached cells was independent of seed density, tissue donor age, in vitro culture age, or medium composition, while subsequent cellular proliferation was strongly dependent on these factors. Keratinocytes grown on an adequate HFN matrix in a previously described hormone-supplemented medium (Maciag et al., 1981a) achieved four to eight population doubling over 7-12 days at densities greater than or equal to 104 cell/cm2. Removal of most GF individually from the medium had little or no effect on growth, while removal of epidermal growth factor (EGF) alone reduced growth by 30-35% and removal of bovine brain extract (BE) alone reduced growth by approximately 90%. Conversely, EGF alone in basal medium supported approximately 10% control growth, BE alone supported 30-40% control growth, and the combination of EGF and BE approximately 70%. In addition to its major effect on proliferation in this system, BE was necessary to preserve normal keratinocyte morphology and protein production. These findings expand earlier observations that HFN facilitates keratinocyte attachment in vitro and that a brain-derived extract can exert a major positive influence on cultured keratinocytes.

  19. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  20. Kohonen mapping of the crack growth under fatigue loading conditions of stainless steels in BWR environments and of nickel alloys in PWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    2008-01-01

    In this study, crack growth rate data under fatigue loading conditions generated by Argonne National Laboratories and published in 2006 were analyzed [O.K. Chopra, B. Alexandreanu, E.E. Gruber, R.S. Daum, W.J. Shack, Argonne National Laboratory, NUREG CR 6891-series ANL 04/20, Crack Growth Rates of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Heat Affected Zone in BWR Environments, January, 2006; B. Alexandreanu, O.K. Chopra, H.M. Chung, E.E. Gruber, W.K. Soppet, R.W. Strain, W.J. Shack, Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors, vol. 34 in the NUREG/CR-4667 series annual report of Argonne National Laboratory program studies for Calendar (Annual Report 2003). Manuscript Completed: May 2005, Date Published: May 2006], and reported by DoE [B. Alexandreanu, O.K. Chopra, W.J. Shack, S. Crane, H.J. Gonzalez, NRC, Crack Growth Rates and Metallographic Examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from Field Components and Laboratory Materials Tested in PWR Environments, NUREG/CR-6964, May 2008]. The data collected were measured on austenitic stainless steels in BWR (boiling water reactor) environments and on nickel alloys in PWR (pressurized water reactor) environments. The data collected contained information on material composition, temperature, conductivity of the environment, oxygen concentration, irradiated sample information, weld information, electrochemical potential, load ratio, rise time, hydrogen concentration, hold time, down time, maximum stress intensity factor (K max ), stress intensity range (ΔK max ), crack length, and crack growth rates (CGR). Each position on that Kohonen map is called a cell. A Kohonen map clusters vectors of information by 'similarities.' Vectors of information were formed using the metal composition, followed by the environmental conditions used in each experiments, and finally followed by the crack growth rate (CGR) measured when a sample of pre-cracked metal is set in an environment and the sample is cyclically loaded

  1. The Reality of Economic Growth towards Green Environment: A Study of Selected OECD Countries 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and green environment has a direct relation with health, habitat and well being of our society which depends largely on the natural environment. But on the other side the society is neglecting and often ignoring the benefits that nature provides for economic prosperity. This paper studies the role of environment in economic growth, the role of environmental policy in achieving improved environmental results, closely examine the evidence of decoupling production from environmental damages and discuss decoupling in the context of global economy. In order to study these aspects, we explored our comparative research with special reference to selected eight OECD nations namely-France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Portugal, Turkey, UK and USA with coverage period of 1990-2010. The selection of the countries is based on their prominence in industrialised world and their close economic bounding with each other over a considerable period. The coverage period in the study is 20 years because some of the emission data are available till 2013 and some only up to 2010. In order to do a comparative research on various dimensions we take in to our study period between1990-2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11065 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 78-88

  2. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and... safety and health standards applicable to the work conditions of contractor and subcontractor employees...

  3. Construction and Evaluation of an Integrated Formal/Informal Learning Environment for Foreign Language Learning across Real and Virtual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waragai, Ikumi; Ohta, Tatsuya; Kurabayashi, Shuichi; Kiyoki, Yasushi; Sato, Yukiko; Brückner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a foreign language learning space, based on the construction of an integrated formal/informal learning environment. Before the background of the continued innovation of information technology that places conventional learning styles and educational methods into new contexts based on new value-standards,…

  4. MOOC as a Laboratory of Culture Shock: Helping Non-U.S. Students Integrate into All-American Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhlomin, Valeri; Deshpande, Anant

    2017-01-01

    "iMOOC101: Mastering American e-Learning" is a Coursera-based, free, massive online course aimed at preparing non-U.S. students to succeed in regular, for-credit, online classes in American universities. The course is also intended to help foreign-born professionals integrate into virtual work environments in U.S.-based companies. The…

  5. The Effects of ICT Environment on Teachers' Attitudes and Technology Integration in Japan and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kodai; Frederiksen, Sarah; Jones, LeAnne; Kobayashi, Michiko; Mukoyama, Yui; Yamagishi, Taku; Sadaki, Kengo; Ishizuka, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environment on teachers' attitude toward technology integration in Japanese and U.S. elementary schools. Teacher's attitude plays an important role in influencing the effectiveness of ICT education from a variety of perspectives. A number of studies have been…

  6. Do nurses provide a safe sleep environment for infants in the hospital setting? An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carla; Stiltner, Denise; Wright, Kelly Barnhardt; Kautz, Donald D

    2015-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may be the most preventable cause of death for infants 0 to 6 months of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) first published safe sleep recommendations for parents and healthcare professionals in 1992. In 1994, new guidelines were published and they became known as the "Back to Sleep" campaign. After this, a noticeable decline occurred in infant deaths from SIDS. However, this number seems to have plateaued with no continuing significant improvements in infant deaths. The objective of this review was to determine whether nurses provide a safe sleep environment for infants in the hospital setting. Research studies that dealt with nursing behaviors and nursing knowledge in the hospital setting were included in the review. A search was conducted of Google Scholar, CINAHL, PubMed, and Cochrane, using the key words "NICU," "newborn," "SIDS," "safe sleep environment," "nurse," "education," "supine sleep," "prone sleep," "safe sleep," "special care nursery," "hospital policy for safe sleep," "research," "premature," "knowledge," "practice," "health care professionals," and "parents." The review included research reports on nursing knowledge and behaviors as well as parental knowledge obtained through education and role modeling of nursing staff. Only research studies were included to ensure that our analysis was based on rigorous research-based findings. Several international studies were included because they mirrored findings noted in the United States. All studies were published between 1999 and 2012. Healthcare professionals and parents were included in the studies. They were primarily self-report surveys, designed to determine what nurses, other healthcare professionals, and parents knew or had been taught about SIDS. Integrative review. Thirteen of the 16 studies included in the review found that some nurses and some mothers continued to use nonsupine positioning. Four of the 16 studies discussed nursing knowledge and

  7. The human growth and the healthy environment as a condition of balanced development for the course of human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koukoumpliakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising standard of living has evoked an important burden in the natural environment leading to an immense deterioration of nature. The pollution of the atmosphere and seas, the industrial waste, the climatic changes, the chaotic built-up extension threaten the health of all of us. The responsibility for the pollution of the environment is allocated in everybody. The State is accountable not only for the political planning and the policy that practises, but also for the frame it shapes for the citizens to follow. The improvement of the quality of environment must be combined with the economic progress and growth. The intensity of environmental problems worries the International Community, while the saving and growth of new green forms of energy appear as imperative need. We find already ourselves in a progressive but continuous growth, which has the conditions to develop in the future with spectacular rhythm.The methodology of present work is recommended for: a bibliographic research, mainly Greek, b comparison of the facts that are exported from research, connecting them with the given facts. This comparison leads to the necessary coexistence of a healthy environment and a viable growth.In the results of the research the essential conditions of coexistence are presented between these two. Thus we realise that: a the configuration of an evener environmental conscience is required via the education which would guarantee the balanced and sustainable growth, b the change of perception of people as lords of nature is considered necessary and its replacement by the awareness that the nature does not constitute an inexhaustible resource.With that in mind we conclude that: a the research is required to lead to alternative sources of energy such as the creation of Aeolian parks. It is estimated that more investments in other types of renewable sources of energy such as geothermal and hydroelectric can constitute also advisable solutions. The use of

  8. Stem secondary growth of tundra shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of stem secondary growth of arctic shrubs (a key component of tundra net primary production, NPP) is very limited. Here, we investigated the impact of the physical elements of the environment on shrub secondary growth by comparing annual growth rates of model species from similar...... growth (stem apical growth, stem length, and apical growth of stem plus leaves), in some cases even with opposite responses. Thus caution should be taken when estimating the impact of the environment on shrub growth from apical growth only. Integration of our data set with the (very limited) previously...

  9. Integrated Modelling and Performance Analysis of Green Roof Technologies in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Mijic, Ana; Maksimovic, Cedo

    2014-05-01

    As a result of the changing global climate and increase in urbanisation, the behaviour of the urban environment has been significantly altered, causing an increase in both the frequency of extreme weather events, such as flooding and drought, and also the associated costs. Moreover, uncontrolled or inadequately planned urbanisation can exacerbate the damage. The Blue-Green Dream (BGD) project therefore develops a series of components for urban areas that link urban vegetated areas (green infrastructure) with existing urban water (blue) systems, which will enhance the synergy of urban blue and green systems and provide effective, multifunctional BGD solutions to support urban adaptation to future climatic changes. Coupled with new urban water management technologies and engineering, multifunctional benefits can be gained. Some of the technologies associated with BGD solutions include green roofs, swales that might deal with runoff more effectively and urban river restoration that can produce benefits similar to those produced from sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). For effective implementation of these technologies, however, appropriate tools and methodologies for designing and modelling BGD solutions are required to be embedded within urban drainage models. Although several software packages are available for modelling urban drainage, the way in which green roofs and other BGD solutions are integrated into these models is not yet fully developed and documented. This study develops a physically based mass and energy balance model to monitor, test and quantitatively evaluate green roof technology for integrated BGD solutions. The assessment of environmental benefits will be limited to three aspects: (1) reduction of the total runoff volume, (2) delay in the initiation of runoff, and (3) reduction of building energy consumption, rather than water quality, visual, social or economic impacts. This physically based model represents water and heat dynamics in a

  10. Using an integral projection model to assess the effect of temperature on the growth of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, F J; Childs, D Z; Darnaude, A M; Blanchard, J L

    2018-01-01

    Accurate information on the growth rates of fish is crucial for fisheries stock assessment and management. Empirical life history parameters (von Bertalanffy growth) are widely fitted to cross-sectional size-at-age data sampled from fish populations. This method often assumes that environmental factors affecting growth remain constant over time. The current study utilized longitudinal life history information contained in otoliths from 412 juveniles and adults of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, a commercially important species fished and farmed throughout the Mediterranean. Historical annual growth rates over 11 consecutive years (2002-2012) in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) were reconstructed to investigate the effect of temperature variations on the annual growth of this fish. S. aurata growth was modelled linearly as the relationship between otolith size at year t against otolith size at the previous year t-1. The effect of temperature on growth was modelled with linear mixed effects models and a simplified linear model to be implemented in a cohort Integral Projection Model (cIPM). The cIPM was used to project S. aurata growth, year to year, under different temperature scenarios. Our results determined current increasing summer temperatures to have a negative effect on S. aurata annual growth in the Gulf of Lions. They suggest that global warming already has and will further have a significant impact on S. aurata size-at-age, with important implications for age-structured stock assessments and reference points used in fisheries.

  11. Integration of a laterally acquired gene into a cell network important for growth in a strain of Vibrio rotiferianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labbate Maurizio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT is a major contributor to bacterial evolution and up to 25% of a bacterium's genome may have been acquired by this process over evolutionary periods of time. Successful LGT requires both the physical transfer of DNA and its successful incorporation into the host cell. One system that contributes to this latter step by site-specific recombination is the integron. Integrons are found in many diverse bacterial Genera and is a genetic system ubiquitous in vibrios that captures mobile DNA at a dedicated site. The presence of integron-associated genes, contained within units of mobile DNA called gene cassettes makes up a substantial component of the vibrio genome (1-3%. Little is known about the role of this system since the vast majority of genes in vibrio arrays are highly novel and functions cannot be ascribed. It is generally regarded that strain-specific mobile genes cannot be readily integrated into the cellular machinery since any perturbation of core metabolism is likely to result in a loss of fitness. Results In this study, at least one mobile gene contained within the Vibrio rotiferianus strain DAT722, but lacking close relatives elsewhere, is shown to greatly reduce host fitness when deleted and tested in growth assays. The precise role of the mobile gene product is unknown but impacts on the regulation of outermembrane porins. This demonstrates that strain specific laterally acquired mobile DNA can be integrated rapidly into bacterial networks such that it becomes advantageous for survival and adaptation in changing environments. Conclusions Mobile genes that are highly strain specific are generally believed to act in isolation. This is because perturbation of existing cell machinery by the acquisition of a new gene by LGT is highly likely to lower fitness. In contrast, we show here that at least one mobile gene, apparently unique to a strain, encodes a product that has integrated into central

  12. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Previously, it has been suggested that ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to the cephalad fluid shift that results in altered fluid pressures [1]. We are investigating the impact of changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) using a combination of numerical models, which simulate the effects of various environment conditions, including finite element (FE) models of the posterior eye. The specific interest is to understand how altered pressures due to gravitational changes affect the biomechanical environment of tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath. METHODS: Additional description of the numerical modeling is provided in the IWS abstract by Nelson et al. In brief, to simulate the effects of a cephalad fluid shift on the cardiovascular and ocular systems, we utilized a lumped-parameter compartment model of these systems. The outputs of this lumped-parameter model then inform boundary conditions (pressures) for a finite element model of the optic nerve head (Figure 1). As an example, we show here a simulation of postural change from supine to 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT), with primary outcomes being the predicted change in strains at the optic nerve head (ONH) region, specifically in the lamina cribrosa (LC), retrolaminar optic nerve, and prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT). The strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as the first, second and third principal strains. We compare the peak tensile (first principal) and compressive (third principal) strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induces tissue remodeling. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our lumped-parameter model predicted an IOP increase of c. 7 mmHg after 21 minutes of 15 degree HDT, which agreed with previous reports of IOP in HDT [1]. The corresponding FEM simulations predicted a relative increase in the magnitudes of the peak tensile

  13. Carbon Nanotube Integrative Sampler (CNIS) for passive sampling of nanosilver in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Fischer, Jillian; Martin, Jonathan; Hoque, Md Ehsanul; Telgmann, Lena; Hintelmann, Holger; Metcalfe, Chris D; Yargeau, Viviane

    2016-11-01

    Nanomaterials such as nanosilver (AgNP) can be released into the aquatic environment through production, usage, and disposal. Sensitive and cost-effective methods are needed to monitor AgNPs in the environment. This work is hampered by a lack of sensitive methods to detect nanomaterials in environmental matrixes. The present study focused on the development, calibration and application of a passive sampling technique for detecting AgNPs in aquatic matrixes. A Carbon Nanotube Integrative Sampler (CNIS) was developed using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the sorbent for accumulating AgNPs and other Ag species from water. Sampling rates were determined in the laboratory for different sampler configurations and in different aquatic matrixes. The sampler was field tested at the Experimental Lakes Area, Canada, in lake water dosed with AgNPs. For a configuration of the CNIS consisting of CNTs bound to carbon fiber (i.e. CNT veil) placed in Chemcatcher® housing, the time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of silver estimated from deployments of the sampler in lake mesocosms dosed with AgNPs were similar to the measured concentrations of "colloidal silver" (i.e. <0.22μm in size) in the water column. For a configuration of CNIS consisting of CNTs in loose powder form placed in a custom made housing that were deployed in a whole lake dosed with AgNPs, the estimated TWA concentrations of "CNIS-labile Ag" were similar to the concentrations of total silver measured in the epilimnion of the lake. However, sampling rates for the CNIS in various matrixes are relatively low (i.e. 1-20mL/day), so deployment periods of several weeks are required to detect AgNPs at environmentally relevant concentrations, which can allow biofilms to develop on the sampler and could affect the sampling rates. With further development, this novel sampler may provide a simple and sensitive method for screening for the presence of AgNPs in surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Health, "illth," and economic growth: medicine, environment, and economics at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Garry

    2009-07-01

    Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.

  15. Conifers in cold environments synchronize maximum growth rate of tree-ring formation with day length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Morin, Hubert; Saracino, Antonio; Motta, Renzo; Borghetti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Intra-annual radial growth rates and durations in trees are reported to differ greatly in relation to species, site and environmental conditions. However, very similar dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation are observed in temperate and boreal zones. Here, we compared weekly xylem cell production and variation in stem circumference in the main northern hemisphere conifer species (genera Picea, Pinus, Abies and Larix) from 1996 to 2003. Dynamics of radial growth were modeled with a Gompertz function, defining the upper asymptote (A), x-axis placement (beta) and rate of change (kappa). A strong linear relationship was found between the constants beta and kappa for both types of analysis. The slope of the linear regression, which corresponds to the time at which maximum growth rate occurred, appeared to converge towards the summer solstice. The maximum growth rate occurred around the time of maximum day length, and not during the warmest period of the year as previously suggested. The achievements of photoperiod could act as a growth constraint or a limit after which the rate of tree-ring formation tends to decrease, thus allowing plants to safely complete secondary cell wall lignification before winter.

  16. Crack Growth-Based Predictive Methodology for the Maintenance of the Structural Integrity of Repaired and Nonrepaired Aging Engine Stationary Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barron, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the FAA's goal was to develop "Crack Growth-Based Predictive Methodologies for the Maintenance of the Structural Integrity of Repaired and Nonrepaired Aging Engine Stationary Components...

  17. Nuclides.net: An integrated environment for computations on radionuclides and their radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclides.net computational package is of direct interest in the fields of environment monitoring and nuclear forensics. The 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclide chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The main emphasis in Nuclides.net is on nuclear science applications, such as health physics, radioprotection and radiochemistry, rather than nuclear data for which excellent sources already exist. In contrast to the CD-based Nuclides 2000 predecessor, Nuclides.net applications run over the internet on a web server. The user interface to these applications is via a web browser. Information submitted by the user is sent to the appropriate applications resident on the web server. The results of the calculations are returned to the user, again via the browser. The product is aimed at both students and professionals for reference data on radionuclides and computations based on this data using the latest internet technology. It is particularly suitable for educational purposes in the nuclear industry, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. The Nuclides.net software suite contains the following modules/features: a) A new user interface to view the nuclide charts (with zoom features). Additional nuclide charts are based on spin, parity, binding energy etc. b) There are five main applications: (1) 'Decay Engine' for decay calculations of numbers, masses, activities, dose rates, etc. of parent and daughters. (2) 'Dosimetry and Shielding' module allows the calculation of dose rates from both unshielded and shielded point sources. A choice of 10 shield materials is available. (3) 'Virtual Nuclides' allows the user to do decay and dosimetry and shielding calculations on mixtures of

  18. Towards the integration of sustainable infrastructure into the existing built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector in the United Kingdom is dominated by small and medium size enterprises (SMEs which have less than 250 employees and usually do not have research capacities to develop a range of low carbon innovations applicable in the construction sector. Various European and national funding programmes have addressed this problem by providing funding for research collaboration between universities and SMEs. The paper provides a selection of the outputs of academic/industry research, undertaken by seven Scottish universities through the project CIC Start Online from September 2009 until February 2013, related to low carbon planning, building design, technologies, construction, refurbishment and performance. The studies either contributed to the further development of existing products or processes, or tested new products or processes, often developed for a specific project with a potential for application in future projects. Online dissemination of the project outcomes has assisted in attracting membership across Scotland, the United Kingdom and internationally. Along with the low carbon building products and technologies, new low carbon infrastructure is being planned and developed in order to provide connections and services for energy generation from renewables, energy storage and decentralised distribution, water management (harvesting, saving and reuse, waste management (reduction, reuse and to-energy, transport (electric vehicles, cycling and walking and information communication technology (ICT for monitoring and managing infrastructure systems. The second part of the paper outlines how innovations for integration of sustainable infrastructure into the existing built environment will be supported through the follow-on joint project of nine Scottish universities, named Mainstreaming Innovation.

  19. Proper Valuation of Perpetuities in an Inflationary Environment without Real Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the proper valuation of perpetuities without real growth. The case of a “pure” non growing perpetuity (zero real growth and zero inflation is of academic interest but in practice it might be difficult to find. The findings contradict what is generally accepted in the literature. In particular we examine the textbook formula for calculating thevalue of a perpetuity.When working with perpetuities we are in presence of a Chinese box: we have found that when working with perpetuities in a scenario of non zero inflation and zero real growth value increases with inflation. On the other hand, the textbook formula for calculating a non growing perpetuity in the same scenario under values the value of the perpetuity by relevant amounts.

  20. Development of an integrity evaluation system on the basis of cooperative virtual reality environment for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.; Choi, J.B.; Kim, Y.J.; Choi, Y.H.; Park, Y.W.; Yoshimura, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since early 1950's, the fracture mechanics has brought significant impact on structural integrity assessment in a wide range of industries such as power, transportation, civil and petrochemical industries, especially in nuclear power plant industries. For the last two decades, significant efforts have been devoted in developing defect assessment procedures, and as a result, various fitness-for-purpose or fitness-for-service codes have been developed. From another aspect, recent advances in IT (information technologies) bring rapid changes in various engineering fields. IT enables people to share information through network and thus provides concurrent working environment without limitations of locations. For this reason, a network system based on internet or intranet bas been appeared in various fields of business. Evaluating the integrity of critical components is one of the most critical issues in the nuclear industry. In order to evaluate the integrity of structures, a complicated and collaborative procedure is required including periodical in-service inspection, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. And thus, experts in different fields have to cooperate to resolve the integrity problem. In this paper, an integrity evaluation system on the basis of cooperative virtual reality environment for reactor pressure vessel which adopts IT into a structural integrity evaluation procedure for reactor pressure vessel is introduced. The proposed system uses virtual reality (VR) technique, virtual network computing (VNC) and knowledge based programs. This system is able to support 3-dimensional virtual reality environment and provide experts to co-operate each other by accessing related data through internet. The proposed system is expected to provide a more efficient integrity evaluation for reactor pressure vessel. (orig.)

  1. Oscillations in a Growth Model with Capital, Technology and Environment with Exogenous Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper generalizes the dynamic growth model with wealth accumulation, technological change and environmental change by Zhang (2012 by making all the parameters as time-dependent parameters. The model treats physical capital accumulation, knowledge creation and utilization, and environmental change as endogenous variables. It synthesizes the basic ideas of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning-by-doing model and the traditional dynamic models of environmental change within a comprehensive framework. The behavior of the household is described with an alternative approach to household behavior. We simulated the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points, motion of the dynamic system, and oscillations due to different exogenous shocks.

  2. Clonal integration supports the expansion from terrestrial to aquatic environments of the amphibious stoloniferous herb Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Yu, F-H; Li, P-X; He, W-M; Liu, J; Yu, G-L; Song, Y-B; Dong, M

    2009-05-01

    Effects of clonal integration on land plants have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in amphibious plants that expand from terrestrial to aquatic conditions. We simulated expansion from terrestrial to aquatic habitats in the amphibious stoloniferous alien invasive alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) by growing basal ramets of clonal fragments in soils connected (allowing integration) or disconnected (preventing integration) to the apical ramets of the same fragments submerged in water to a depth of 0, 5, 10 or 15 cm. Clonal integration significantly increased growth and clonal reproduction of the apical ramets, but decreased both of these characteristics in basal ramets. Consequently, integration did not affect the performance of whole clonal fragments. We propose that alligator weed possesses a double-edged mechanism during population expansion: apical ramets in aquatic habitats can increase growth through connected basal parts in terrestrial habitats; however, once stolon connections with apical ramets are lost by external disturbance, the basal ramets in terrestrial habitats increase stolon and ramet production for rapid spreading. This may contribute greatly to the invasiveness of alligator weed and also make it very adaptable to habitats with heavy disturbance and/or highly heterogeneous resource supply.

  3. General theory for integrated analysis of growth, gene, and protein expression in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Pabst, Breana; Klapper, Isaac; Stewart, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    A theory for analysis and prediction of spatial and temporal patterns of gene and protein expression within microbial biofilms is derived. The theory integrates phenomena of solute reaction and diffusion, microbial growth, mRNA or protein synthesis, biomass advection, and gene transcript or protein turnover. Case studies illustrate the capacity of the theory to simulate heterogeneous spatial patterns and predict microbial activities in biofilms that are qualitatively different from those of planktonic cells. Specific scenarios analyzed include an inducible GFP or fluorescent protein reporter, a denitrification gene repressed by oxygen, an acid stress response gene, and a quorum sensing circuit. It is shown that the patterns of activity revealed by inducible stable fluorescent proteins or reporter unstable proteins overestimate the region of activity. This is due to advective spreading and finite protein turnover rates. In the cases of a gene induced by either limitation for a metabolic substrate or accumulation of a metabolic product, maximal expression is predicted in an internal stratum of the biofilm. A quorum sensing system that includes an oxygen-responsive negative regulator exhibits behavior that is distinct from any stage of a batch planktonic culture. Though here the analyses have been limited to simultaneous interactions of up to two substrates and two genes, the framework applies to arbitrarily large networks of genes and metabolites. Extension of reaction-diffusion modeling in biofilms to the analysis of individual genes and gene networks is an important advance that dovetails with the growing toolkit of molecular and genetic experimental techniques.

  4. Integration of growth factor signals at the c-fos serum response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Hill, C; Treisman, R

    1996-04-29

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (SRF) and a second factor, ternary complex factor (TCF), mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element to growth factors and mitogens. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, TCF binding is required for transcriptional activation by the SRE in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway. We compared the properties of three members of the TCF family, Elk-1, SAP-1 and SAP-2 (ERP/NET). Although all the proteins contain sequences required for ternary complex formation with SRF, only Elk-1 and SAP-1 appear to interact with the c-fos SRE efficiently in vivo. Each TCF contains a C-terminal activation domain capable of transcriptional activation in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway, and this is dependent on the integrity of S/T-P motifs conserved between all the TCF family members. In contrast, activation of the SRE by whole serum and the mitogenic phospholipid LPA requires SRF binding alone. Constitutively activated members of the Rho subfamily of Ras-like GTPases are also capable of inducing activation of the SRE in the absence of TCF; unlike activated Ras itself, these proteins do not activate the TCFs in NIH3T3 cells. At the SRE, SRF- and TCF-linked signalling pathways act synergistically to potentiate transcription.

  5. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  6. Neurospora COP9 signalosome integrity plays major roles for hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Zhou

    Full Text Available The COP9 signalosome (CSN is a highly conserved multifunctional complex that has two major biochemical roles: cleaving NEDD8 from cullin proteins and maintaining the stability of CRL components. We used mutation analysis to confirm that the JAMM domain of the CSN-5 subunit is responsible for NEDD8 cleavage from cullin proteins in Neurospora crassa. Point mutations of key residues in the metal-binding motif (EX(nHXHX(10D of the CSN-5 JAMM domain disrupted CSN deneddylation activity without interfering with assembly of the CSN complex or interactions between CSN and cullin proteins. Surprisingly, CSN-5 with a mutated JAMM domain partially rescued the phenotypic defects observed in a csn-5 mutant. We found that, even without its deneddylation activity, the CSN can partially maintain the stability of the SCF(FWD-1 complex and partially restore the degradation of the circadian clock protein FREQUENCY (FRQ in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that CSN containing mutant CSN-5 efficiently prevents degradation of the substrate receptors of CRLs. Finally, we found that deletion of the CAND1 ortholog in N. crassa had little effect on the conidiation circadian rhythm. Our results suggest that CSN integrity plays major roles in hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function in N. crassa.

  7. Financial development and investment market integration: An approach of underlying financial variables & indicators for corporate governance growth empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial development is correlated with several underlying regulatory variables (such as indicators of investor protection, market transparency variables for corporate governance growth and rules for capital market development, which are under the control of national legislators and EU directives. This paper provides estimates of the relationship between financial market development and corporate growth and assesses the impact of financial market integration on this relationship with reference to European Union (EU countries. The regression results obtained using this panel support the hypothesis that financial development promotes growth particularly in industries that are more financially dependent on external finance. For policy purposes, analyzing changes in these regulatory variables may be a more interesting exercise than analyzing integration of the financial systems themselves. Since assuming that EU countries will raise its regulatory and legal standards to the U.S. standards appears unrealistic, in this case we examine a scenario where EU countries raise their standards to the highest current EU standard.

  8. Integration of a browser based operator manual in the system environment of a process computer system; Integration eines browserbasierten Betriebshandbuchs in die Systemumgebung einer Prozessrechneranlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Erfle, Robert [DOSCO GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Feinkohl, Dirk [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Unterweser

    2012-11-01

    The integration of a browser based operator manual in the system environment of a process computer system is an optimization of the operating procedure in the control room and a safety enhancement due to faster and error-free access to the manual contents. Several requirements by the authorities have to be fulfilled: the operating manual has to be available as hard copy, the format has to be true to original, protection against manipulation has to be provided, the manual content of the browser-based version and the hard copy have to identical, and the display presentation has to be consistent with ergonomic principals. The integration of the on-line manual in the surveillance process computer system provides the operator with the relevant comments to the surveillance signal. The described integration of the on-line manual is an optimization of the operator's everyday job with respect to ergonomics and safety (human performance).

  9. [Effects of intercropping Chinese onion cultivars of different allelopathic potential on cucumber growth and soil micro-environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of intercropping various Chinese onion cultivars of different allelopathic potential on the cucumber growth and rhizospheric soil environment. When intercropped with high allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars, the EC value and peroxidase activity of cucumber rhizospheric soil decreased, while the pH value, invertase and catalase activities, and bacterial community diversity increased. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that most DGGE bands amplified from cucumber rhizospheric soil samples showed a high homology to uncultured bacterial species. The common bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Proteobacteria and Anaerolineaceae. Rhodospirillales and Acidobacteria were only found in the cucumber rhizospheric soil intercropped with low allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between rhizospheric soil urease activity and cucumber seedlings height, total dry biomass, leaf area, and DGGE band number. It was suggested that intercropping high allelopathic Chinese onion cultivars could establish a good rhizospheric soil micro-environment for cucumber growth, and promote the growth of cucumber seedlings markedly.

  10. A multinational Andean genetic and health program: growth and development in an hypoxic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W H; Schull, V N; Schull, W J; Soto, P; Rothhammer, F

    1978-07-01

    In 1972 a multidisciplinary study sought to assess the health status of the indigenous peoples of the Department of Arica in northern Chile, the Aymara, and to relate disease, morphological, physiological and biochemical variation, to the wide changes in altitude of the region. Presented here are the morphological changes which accompany age, altitude and ethnicity amoung 1047 children and adults, permanent residents of the coast, sierra and altiplano. At comparable ages, high-altitude residents were shorter, lighter and leaner but with more expansive and rounder chests than sea-level controls. None of these effects was systematically related to ethnicity (Spanish-Aymara surname), although when stature was held constant, children with greater Aymara ancestry had largest chest circumferences and longer bones. These results suggest that (1) altitude confers allometric growth changes (expensive growth of the chest and diminished growth of the structures less related to oxygen transport); and (2) size changes associated with altitude are acquired during development while shape changes may be under genetic control. Altitude appears to account for less of the variation in growth in this relatively homogeneous Chilean sample than has been reported for other Andean samples, suggesting other concomitants confounding the effects of hypoxia in Andean South America.

  11. Growth of plant root cultures in liquid- and gas-dispersed reactor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, S A; Gehrig, J A; Hollar, K A; Curtis, W R

    1993-01-01

    The growth of Agrobacterium transformed "hairy root" cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus was examined in various liquid- and gas-dispersed bioreactor configurations. Reactor runs were replicated to provide statistical comparisons of nutrient availability on culture performance. Accumulated tissue mass in submerged air-sparged reactors was 31% of gyratory shake-flask controls. Experiments demonstrate that poor performance of sparged reactors is not due to bubble shear damage, carbon dioxide stripping, settling, or flotation of roots. Impaired oxygen transfer due to channeling and stagnation of the liquid phase are the apparent causes of poor growth. Roots grown on a medium-perfused inclined plane grew at 48% of gyratory controls. This demonstrates the ability of cultures to partially compensate for poor liquid distribution through vascular transport of nutrients. A reactor configuration in which the medium is sprayed over the roots and permitted to drain down through the root tissue was able to provide growth rates which are statistically indistinguishable (95% T-test) from gyratory shake-flask controls. In this type of spray/trickle-bed configuration, it is shown that distribution of the roots becomes a key factor in controlling the rate of growth. Implications of these results regarding design and scale-up of bioreactors to produce fine chemicals from root cultures are discussed.

  12. Toward an Economy of Information for Organizations in a Limited-Growth Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harvey K.

    Information overload, technological change, and financial problems combine with a possible moratorium on growth to increase the need for more rational, systematic, and quantified approaches to information activities in organizations. For communication managers who wish to develop more cost-effective and user-responsive programs, one possible…

  13. Environment versus growth – A criticism of“degrowth”and a plea for“a-growth”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent debates on environmental problems and policies, the strategy of "degrowth" has appeared as an alternative to the paradigm of economic growth. This new notion is critically evaluated by considering five common interpretations of it. One conclusion is that these multiple interpretations make

  14. DASEES: A Tripartite Decision Analysis Framework to Achieve Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society Growth and Management Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of Societies management and growth decisions are often made without a balanced consideration of pertinent factors from environmental, economic and societal perspectives. All three of these areas are key players in many of the decisions facing societies as they strive to ope...

  15. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  16. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  17. Effects of loading variables on fatigue-crack growth in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE) refers to the loss of ductility in normally ductile metals and alloys when stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behaviour of brass in molten gallium...

  18. Portable energy: autonomy and integration in the human environment; Energie portable: autonomie et integration dans l'environnement humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, F; Delamarche, P [Rennes-2 Universite, Lab. de Physiologie et de Biomecanique de l& #x27; Exercice Mulsculaire, UMR. APS, 35 (France); Lucchese, P [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, Hydrogene et Pile a Combustible, 92 (France); and others

    2002-07-01

    This colloquium was motivated by the possibility to recover in our environment the energy produced by our movements, but also the heat emitted and the radiations received by the human body in order to supply the energy needs of portable electronic devices (telephones, micro-computers, watches, prostheses etc..). It tries to answer the different problems raised by the implementation of portable energy sources: the energy resources in the human environment, the physical and technological processes of energy production and storage, the electronic energy conversion and remote transmission means, the intelligent energy management, and the existing and potential applications of these processes. This document brings together 16 communications presented by searchers from various domains (biology, medicine, electrochemistry, computer science, mechanics, thermodynamics, electronics etc..) on the following topics: energy in the human body, possibilities of miniaturization of fuel cells, thermo-mechanical micro-generators, thermoelectric generation, solar cells and autonomy, micro-chargeable batteries, double-layer super-capacitors (principles and electrical behaviour), renewable energies in watches, electro-mechanical devices for the exploitation of human movements energy, trans-dermal power supply, new mechanical-aided systems for blood circulation, problems and their solutions related to portable telephones, low voltage and high efficiency power electronic systems for portable applications, remote energy transmission, intelligent energy management (equipments and softwares), electromagnetic environments and health. (J.S.)

  19. Growth, physiological and biochemical responses of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings to different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua eMa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity critically affects plant growth. Camptotheca acuminata is a light-demanding species, but its optimum light intensity is not known. To investigate the response of C. acuminata seedlings to different light intensities, specifically 100% irradiance (PAR, 1500±30 μmol m-2 s-1, 75% irradiance, 50% irradiance, and 25% irradiance, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal structure and density, chloroplast ultrastructure, ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities. Plants grown under 75% irradiance had significantly higher total biomass, seedling height, ground diameter, photosynthetic capacity, photochemical efficiency and photochemical quenching than those grown under 100%, 25%, and 50% irradiance. Malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte conductivity (REC, superoxide anion (O2.- production, and peroxide (H2O2 content were lower under 75% irradiance. The less pronounced plant growth under 100% and 25% irradiance was associated with a decline in photosynthetic capacity and photochemical efficiency, with increases in the activity of specific antioxidants (i.e., superoxidase dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and with increases in MDA content and REC. Lower levels of irradiance were associated with significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll (Chl a and b and lower Chla/b ratios. Stomatal development was most pronounced under 75% irradiance. Modification of chloroplast development was found to be an important mechanism of responding to different light intensities in C. acuminata. The results indicated that 75% irradiance is optimal for the growth of C. acuminata seedlings. The improvement in C. acuminata growth under 75% irradiance was attributable to increased photosynthesis, less accumulation of ROS, and the maintenance of the stomatal and chloroplast structure.

  20. Analysis of the Experience of a Virtual Learning Environment Integration Into a Biochemistry Course Offered to Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Espíndola

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As Information and Communication Technology (ICT becomes available in educational contexts, it is important that educators experiment different ways to deal with ICT tools in the teaching -learning process at the University basic sciences level. The challenge is to integrate ICT throughout the learning subjects in order to improve the quality of the learning process to students. This paper presents the results of an experience using a Virtual Learning Management System (VLMS, named Constructore, applied in the Biochemistry discipline at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ for undergraduate medical students. Using Constructore, we developed a learning environment intended for integrating online activities and traditional course content. The course was focused on the integration of energy-yielding metabolism, exploring  metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as starvation, diabetes and exercise. The course environment was structured with three modules, each of them presenting problem-based exercises to be answered after retrieving rele vant information in original scientific articles. Based on the analysis of  a semi-open questionnaire, the results provided evidence that the virtual environment stimulated students to critically read relevant scientific articles and to acquire skills to build and to integrate their knowledge through content association.

  1. The Plant-Window system: A flexible, expandable computing environment for the integration of power plant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed on Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  2. The Plant-Window System: A framework for an integrated computing environment at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The extensive use of computer technology in advanced reactor designs provides the opportunity to greatly expand the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, to support highly efficient and increasingly safe operation of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and sued, to the proper users throughout the plan. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications within a common computing environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces so as to define a flexible computing environment for both current generation nuclear power plants and advanced reactor designs

  3. Propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration influence the establishment and growth of an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua eYou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules may affect the establishment, growth and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments or low (one fragment propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat, with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions.

  4. High-school students' reasoning while constructing plant growth models in a computer-supported educational environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

    2005-08-01

    This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students’ reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels (‘macro-phenomenological’ and ‘micro-conceptual’ level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their ability to shift between or within these levels. The focus is on the types of reasoning developed in the modeling process, as well as on the reasoning coherence around the central concept of plant growth. The findings of the study show that a significant proportion of the 18 participating dyads perform modeling on both levels, while their ability to shift between them as well as between the various elements of the ‘micro-conceptual’ level is rather constrained. Furthermore, the reasoning types identified in peers’ modeling process are ‘convergent’, ‘serial’, ‘linked’ and ‘convergent attached’, with the first type being the most frequent. Finally, a significant part of the participating dyads display a satisfactory degree of reasoning ‘coherence’, performing their task committed to the main objective of exploring plant growth. Teaching implications of the findings are also discussed.

  5. Strain distribution of confined Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles engineered by growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenyan; Yuan, Cailei; Luo, Xingfang; Yu, Ting; Wang, Gongping

    2016-02-01

    The strain distributions of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles confined in different host matrix grown by surface oxidation are investigated. The simulated results by finite element method demonstrated that the strains of the Ge core and the GeO2 shell strongly depend on the growth environments of the nanoparticles. Moreover, it can be found that there is a transformation of the strain on Ge core from tensile to compressive strain during the growth of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles. And, the transformation of the strain is closely related with the Young's modulus of surrounding materials of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles.

  6. Psychosocial environment in childhood and body mass index growth over 32years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hakulinen, Christian; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Mikkilä, Vera; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The psychosocial environment and especially various psychosocial risks in childhood have been shown to predict later negative health behavior and health problems. In this study, we examined whether various psychosocial factor domains in childhood and adolescence: socioeconomic status, the emotional family environment (parental nurturance, life-satisfaction), parental lifestyle, life-events, the child's self-regulatory behavior and the child's social adaptation were associated with body mass index (BMI) trajectories individually by domain and as a cumulative score across domains. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2016 men and women from the Young Finns study aged 3-18years at study entry in 1980. Their BMI was measured at six study phases from 1980 to 2012. Their parents reported all the factors related to their psychosocial environment in 1980. The participants responded to questions on adulthood socioeconomic status in 2007. The accumulation of psychosocial factors in childhood was the main exposure variable. The findings from repeated measures multilevel modeling showed that parental lifestyle and life-events and the more positive cumulative psychosocial factors score were associated with a slower increase in BMI during follow-up (regression coefficient range from -0.06 to -0.50). In conclusion, the psychosocial environment in childhood and adolescence, particularly parental lifestyle and lack of stressful life-events, are associated with a lower increase of BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotype x environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Santini; Francesco Pecori; Alessia L. Pepori; Luisa Ghelardini

    2012-01-01

    The elm breeding program carried out in Italy at the Institute of Plant Protection - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricercje (CNR) during the last 40 years aimed to develop Dutch elm disease (DED)-resistant elm selections specific to the Mediterranean environment. The need for genotypes adapted to Mediterranean conditions was evident from the poor performance of the Dutch...

  8. Plant growth and physiology of vegetable plants as influenced by carbon dioxide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tadashi

    1973-01-01

    In order to obtain basic knowledge on the increased giving of carbon dioxide to vegetables, the carbon dioxide environment in growing houses was analyzed, and the physiological and ecological properties of vegetables cultivated in carbon dioxide environment were elucidated. To improve the carbon dioxide environment, giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide, air flow, ventilation, and others were examined. The concentration of carbon dioxide began to decrease when the illumination intensity on growing layer reached 1 -- 1.5 lux, owing to the photo-synthetic activity of vegetables, and decreased rapidly at 3 -- 5 lux. The lowering of carbon dioxide concentration lowered the photo-synthesis of vegetables extremely, and the transfer of synthesized carbohydrate to roots was obstructed. The effect suffered in low carbon dioxide concentration left some aftereffect even after ventilation and the recovery of carbon dioxide concentration. But this aftereffect was not observed in case of cucumber. To improve carbon dioxide environment, the air flow or ventilation required for minimizing the concentration lowering was determined, but giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide was most effective. The interaction of carbon dioxide concentration and light was examined regarding the effect on photo-synthesis, and some knowledge of practical application was obtained. The effect of giving more carbon dioxide was more remarkable as the treatment was given to younger seedlings and in the period when the capacity of absorbing assimilation products was higher. (Kako, I.)

  9. The Cultural Divide: Exponential Growth in Classical 2D and Metabolic Equilibrium in 3D Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...... that they are dramatically different. Results: Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved...

  10. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  11. Whisker growth: a new mechanism for helium blistering of surfaces in complex radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Implantation of helium concurrent with the generation of large numbers of displaced atoms in surface layers of materials exposed to 252 Cf α-particles and fission fragments produces a unique form of low temperature surface blistering. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a basis for the whisker-growth mechanism for helium blistering as an aid to the specification of conditions under which the mechanism might apply

  12. Growth and yield of Dutch cucumber grown in a protected environment and with alternative organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Meneses Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of imported substrates by local materials is a trend in severaltechnifiedproduction systems, given the cost reduction and the importance of agricultural by-products, formerly considered to be waste. The main objective of this work was to validate the effect of different substrates on the growth and productivity of Dutch cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions. The study took place from October 2012 to January 2013, at the Agricultural Experiment Station Fabio Baudrit, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Variety Fuerte was used and four mixed substrates (volume ratio made of local raw materials as coconut fiber (FC, oil palm leaf fiber (FP, organic compost (ABO, and sawdust (AS as well as a commercial treatment (control constituted by coco coir slabs were analyzed. Substrate water content, plant growth (vegetative phase, and yield were evaluated according to commercial size (S, M, L, XL, and rejected. The growth of Dutch cucumber plants, variety Fuerte, was higher on substrates with coconut fiber 40% + oil palm leaf fiber 40% + organic compost 20%, and coconut fiber 70% + organic compost 30%, while yield of the same two substrates was 15.57 and 15.44 kg/m2, respectively. Both treatments were statistically equal to the commercial coco coir substrate slabs with a yield of 14.77 kg/m2. Result attributed to the nutritional contribution of the organic compost (high K, Ca, and Mg along with and to the effects of aeration and water retention of fibers.

  13. High mortality and poor growth of green mussels, Perna viridis, in high chlorophyll- a environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Tan Kar; Denil, Delta Jenetty; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 to estimate the stock status of P. viridis in Marudu Bay. The gonad development was monitored by histological examination, while the population parameters including asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), mortality rate ( Z, F and M), exploitation level ( E) and recruitment of P. viridis were estimated using the lengthfrequency data. Results of the current study demonstrated that P. viridis in Marudu Bay spawned throughout the year with two major peaks, one in April to May and another one in October to December. The recruitment pattern was continuous with the peak in May to June 2014, which corresponded to the first spawning peak in April. However, no significant recruitment was observed from the second spawning peak due to the difference in spawning timing between male and female populations. The estimated asymptotic length ( L ∞), growth coefficient ( K), total mortality ( Z), natural mortality ( M), fishing mortality ( F) and growth performance ( φ) of P. viridis in Marudu Bay were estimate to be 117 mm, 0.97 yr-1, 4.39 yr-1, 1.23 yr-1, 3.16 yr-1 and 4.123, respectively. The exponent b of the lengthweight relationship was 2.4 and exploitation level ( E) was 0.72. The high mortality, low condition indices and negative allometric of P. viridis in Marudu Bay is caused by a lack of suitable food in the surrounding water.

  14. PGPR Potentially Improve Growth of Tomato Plants in Salt-Stressed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Zameer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are colonized bacterial species that has the capability to improve plant growth by certain direct and indirect means. Environmental factors including both biotic and abiotic stresses are among the major constraints to crop production. In the current study, the effectiveness of microbial inoculation (Bacillus megaterium for enhancing growth of tomato plants under salt stress conditions has been investigated. Significant improvement in shoot length, root length, leaf surface area, number of leaves, total weight of the shoot and root was observed in tomato plants inoculated with zm7 strain post 15 and 30 days of its application. Zm3, Zm4 and Zm6 strains improved the morphological parameters as compared to the control. Chlorophyll content a, chlorophyll content b, anthocyanin and carotenoid content was increased in tomato plants subjected to Zm7, Zm6 and Zm4 strains. Stress responsive genes; metallothionein and glutothion gene were found highly expressed in Zm7 treated tomato plants as compared to control, untreated plants. Significant correlation of anthocyanin was reported for carotenoids, chlorophyll-b, shoot weight and total weight of seedling while carotenoids were significantly correlated with leaf surface area, root length, chlorophyll-b and anthocyanin. Overall, Zm7 strain proved best for improvement in salt stressed plant’s morphological parameters and biochemical parameters as compared to control, untreated plants.

  15. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  16. Laser scattering in a hanging drop vapor diffusion apparatus for protein crystal growth in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casay, G. A.; Wilson, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    One type of hardware used to grow protein crystals in the microgravity environment aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle is a hanging drop vapor diffusion apparatus (HDVDA). In order to optimize crystal growth conditions, dynamic control of the HDVDA is desirable. A critical component in the dynamically controlled system is a detector for protein nucleation. We have constructed a laser scattering detector for the HDVDA capable of detecting the nucleation stage. The detector was successfully tested for several scatterers differing in size using dynamic light scattering techniques. In addition, the ability to detect protein nucleation using the HDVDA was demonstrated for lysozyme.

  17. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  18. Fatigue crack growth characteristics of a533 brade b glass i plate in an environment of high-temperature primary grade nuclear reactor water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, T.R.; Moon, D.M.; Landes, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    To characterize the effect of environment on crack growth rate properties of reactor pressure vessel materials, a program was initiated as part of the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program (HSST) to evaluate the effect of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) primary grade coolant environments. The experiments included such variables as frequency, temperature and R ratio. This paper describes the investigation and presents the results of a fracture mechanics evaluation of the fatigue crack growth rate tests of A533 Grade B Class 1 steel plate material in an environment of primary reactor grade water at 550 0 F (288 0 C). A compliance crack growth monitoring technique was utilized to measure the crack growth. The compliance crack length monitor uses a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) to measure the specimen front face displacement which is converted to crack length by the appropriate compliance calibration curve. The crack growth rate tests were conducted on constant load universal fatigue machines, under sinusoidal tension to tension loading conditions. Tests showed an increase in growth rates at a frequency of 1 cpm over previous results obtained at frequencies of 60 cpm and higher. This increase, the general character of the crack growth rate versus the $DELTA$K curve, and the results from fractographic studies, all indicated that stress corrosion cracking might have occurred for this material and environment. However, a specimen loaded statically in a PWR environment showed no static load crack growth. 13 refs

  19. Research on the Effect of Electrical Signals on Growth of Sansevieria under Light-Emitting Diode (LED Lighting Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Tian

    Full Text Available The plant electrical signal has some features, e.g. weak, low-frequency and time-varying. To detect changes in plant electrical signals, LED light source was used to create a controllable light environment in this study. The electrical signal data were collected from Sansevieria leaves under the different illumination conditions, and the data was analyzed in time domain, frequency domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. These analyses are helpful to explore the relationship between changes in the light environment and electrical signals in Sansevieria leaves. The changes in the plant electrical signal reflected the changes in the intensity of photosynthesis. In this study, we proposed a new method to express plant photosynthetic intensity as a function of the electrical signal. That is, the plant electrical signal can be used to describe the state of plant growth.

  20. Research on the Effect of Electrical Signals on Growth of Sansevieria under Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Lighting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liguo; Meng, Qinghao; Wang, Liping; Dong, Jianghui; Wu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    The plant electrical signal has some features, e.g. weak, low-frequency and time-varying. To detect changes in plant electrical signals, LED light source was used to create a controllable light environment in this study. The electrical signal data were collected from Sansevieria leaves under the different illumination conditions, and the data was analyzed in time domain, frequency domain and time–frequency domain, respectively. These analyses are helpful to explore the relationship between changes in the light environment and electrical signals in Sansevieria leaves. The changes in the plant electrical signal reflected the changes in the intensity of photosynthesis. In this study, we proposed a new method to express plant photosynthetic intensity as a function of the electrical signal. That is, the plant electrical signal can be used to describe the state of plant growth. PMID:26121469