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Sample records for integrated gasification ccgi

  1. Technical and environmental aspects of combined cycle power stations with integrated gasification (CCGI); Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A description is presented of the operation of the Combined Cycle Power Stations with Integrated Gasification (CCGI) where the use of solid fuels (coal, vacuum residues, petroleum coke, and biomass) or liquids is possible in a thermal power station with the efficiency and many of the own environmental benefits of the combined cycles. The gasification process is analyzed, that is a thermo-chemical process by means of which a fuel that is in solid state or liquid becomes to the gaseous state by means of a partial oxidation and the obtained gas of this process is called synthesis gas (syngas, by its abbreviations in English) that is used in Combined Cycle Power Stations as a substitute for the natural gas. Also the other components of this type of power stations are shown, such as the air separating unit, and some of the modifications that are due to make to adapt a gas turbine so that it uses syngas, and the considerations of their integration with the air separating unit to optimize the operation of the plant are detailed. A comparison of efficiency values of power stations CCGI with the conventional carbon-electric and the power stations of combined cycle that use natural gas is also shown. Finally the emissions of pollutants of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} are analyzed. The possibility of using fuels like petroleum coke and vacuum tower residues that are produced in the Cadereyta refinery is studied for the possible construction of a CCGI power station in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la descripcion del funcionamiento de las centrales ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI) donde es posible el uso de combustibles solidos (carbon, residuos de vacio, coque de petroleo, biomasa) o liquidos en una central termica con la eficiencia y muchos de los beneficios ambientales propios de los ciclos combinados. Se analiza el proceso de gasificacion, que es un proceso termoquimico mediante el cual se convierte un combustible que se encuentra en estado solido o

  2. Leveled cost of the generation in a power station of combined cycle with integrated gas producer (CCGI); Costo nivelado de la generacion en una central de ciclo combinado con gasificador integrado (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiriart Le Bert, Gerardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), (Mexico); Beltran Mora, Hector [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A brief description of a combined cycle power station that uses synthesis gas, better known as CCGI, is presented. The costs of the initial investment of several plants of this type, that have been described in literature, are analyzed and the predictions that different experts do on the costs that are expected in the near future are reviewed. Also the maintenance expenses that would be expected during the normal operation and the main maintenance are examined. The availability factors that reasonably must be considered based on the recent experiences are analyzed. Afterwards the sense which that the plant factor has in one of natural gas and one of synthesis, where generally are used as base plant. The costs of the different fuels that can be used in a CCGI are examined. Finally the leveled cost of the energy for both cases is calculated and the sensitivity of both to the cost of the respective fuels is examined. The result is presented in graphical form to show in a first attempt, the circumstances under which one or another technology could be preferable. It is made clear that the data used in this brief study are the best reasoned estimation and in no way they must be considered as definitive, in special in those of investment and maintenance of the CCGI where the operation history is still short. [Spanish] Se presenta una breve descripcion de una Central de Ciclo Combinado que utiliza Gas de Sintesis o mejor conocidas como CCGI. Se analizan los costos de la inversion inicial de varias plantas de este tipo que han sido descritas en la literatura y se resenan las predicciones que hacen diferentes expertos sobre los costos que se esperan para el futuro cercano. Tambien se examinan los gastos de mantenimiento que se esperarian durante la operacion normal y durante los mantenimientos mayores. Se analizan los factores de disponibilidad que razonablemente deben considerarse, basados en las experiencias recientes. Luego se discute el sentido que tiene el factor de

  3. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  4. Performance study of a combined cycle power plant with integral gasification; Estudio del desempeno de una planta de potencia de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rocha, Jose Clemente

    2007-04-15

    At world-wide level, in the last decade the interest has been increased in the use of petroleum coke as fuel in the clean generation of energy applying the gasification technology. This interest is mainly due to the increment the production of petroleum coke as a result of processing larger volumes of crude processed in the refineries and to the increment in the yield of products with high added value, such as turbo-fuel or diesel, among others. With the new reconfiguration of the Mexican refinery of Cd. Madero and Cadereyta and soon with the completion of the reconfiguration of the Minatitlan, Veracruz refinery, larger amounts of coke will be produced, with the possibility of using it, by means of the appropriate gasification technology, to produce a clean synthetic gas (gasl) with the appropriate energy characteristic to be used as fuel in a combined cycle existing in Mexico. In Mexico the possibilities of generation of electrical energy from the utilization of petroleum coke have been considered departing from the use of petroleum coke using the gasification technology or using fluidized bed steam generators as is the case of the power plant TEG in Taquin, San Luis Potosi. Such is the fact, that at the moment PEMEX Refinacion, has completed the project of constructing in Tuxpan, Veracruz a crude processing refinery of Mayan crude with a high sulfur content and next to the Tuxpan Power Plant, being contemplated the possibility of applying the concept of combined cycle with integrated gasification (CCGI); with this infrastructure it will be possible to consume the coke generated by the Mexican refineries. The expected electrical generation is of 500 MW, of which 100 MW will be for own consumption of the refinery and 400 MW free to cover the electrical energy demand within the North East and Center Zone of the country. The petroleum coke derived from the refineries of the country can be used for the clean generation of electricity by means of its gasification and

  5. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  6. Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David J.

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Review of driving forces for change; Gasification technology; Versatility of the gasification process; Commercial Application of gasification; Gas turbine development; Fuel Cell Development; Economics of gasification; Global warming and gasification; Discussion; Summary and Conclusions. (Author)

  7. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  8. Modelling the low-tar BIG gasification concept[Biomass Integrated gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars; Elmegaard, B.; Qvale, B.; Henriksen, Ulrrik [Technical univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bentzen, J.D.; Hummelshoej, R. [COWI A/S (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    A low-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed. The concept is named 'Low-Tar BIG' (BIG = Biomass Integrated Gasification). The concept is based on separate pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially oxidised in a separate chamber, and hereby the tar content is dramatically reduced. Thus, the investment, and running cost of a gas cleaning system can be reduced, and the reliability can be increased. Both pyrolysis and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis/gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG gasifier are presented. Two types of models are presented: 1. The gasifier-dryer applied in different power plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC). The paper determines the differences in efficiency of these systems and shows that the gasifier will be applicable for very different fuels with different moisture contents, depending on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance between four reactors: Pyrolysis, partial oxidation, gasification, gas-solid mixer. The paper describes the results from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low-Tar BIG process can use very wet fuels (up to 65-70% moist) and still produce heat and power with a remarkable high electric efficiency. Hereby the process offers the unique combination of large scale gasification and low-cost gas cleaning and use of low-cost fuels which very likely is the necessary combination that will lead to a breakthrough of gasification technology. (au)

  9. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  10. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  11. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... potential environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated...

  12. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  13. The future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants as affected by various technical, economical and environmental trends in power generation. The topics of the paper include a description of natural gas-fired combined cycle power plants, IGCC plants, coal gasifier concepts, integration of gasifiers into combined cycle power plants, efficiency, environmental impacts, co-products of IGCC power plants, economics of IGCC power plants, and a review of IGCC power plant projects

  14. Integrated gasification combined cycle for acid rain control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    The role of integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants in the abatement of emission of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ which lead to acid rain is discussed. The economics of this IGCC approach are assessed for a nominal 500 MW plant size. Phased construction of IGCC plants is recommended as a means of reducing SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions noting that high-sulfur coals could continue to be used. It is also noted that phased construction IGCC is the only acid rain control technology that greatly reduces NO/sub x/. 17 references.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of IT-SOFC-based integrated coal gasification fuel cell power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming

  16. Assessment of the SRI Gasification Process for Syngas Generation with HTGR Integration -- White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-04-01

    This white paper is intended to compare the technical and economic feasibility of syngas generation using the SRI gasification process coupled to several high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) with more traditional HTGR-integrated syngas generation techniques, including: (1) Gasification with high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE); (2) Steam methane reforming (SMR); and (3) Gasification with SMR with and without CO2 sequestration.

  17. Biomass gasification systems for residential application: An integrated simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Dario; Patuzzi, Francesco; Pernigotto, Giovanni; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The energy policy of the European member States is promoting high-efficiency cogeneration systems by means of the European directive 2012/27/EU. Particular facilitations have been implemented for the small-scale and micro-cogeneration units. Furthermore, the directive 2010/31/EU promotes the improvement of energy performance of buildings and use of energy from renewable sources for the building sector. In this scenario, systems based on gasification are considered a promising technological solution when dealing with biomass and small scale systems. In this paper, an integrated approach has been implemented to assess the energy performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on biomass gasification and installed in residential blocks. The space-heating loads of the considered building configurations have been simulated by means of EnergyPlus. The heat load for domestic hot water demand has been calculated according to the average daily profiles suggested by the Italian and European technical standards. The efficiency of the whole CHP system has been evaluated supplementing the simulation of the gasification stage with the energy balance of the cogeneration set (i.e., internal combustion engine) and implementing the developed routines in the Matlab-Simulink environment. The developed model has been used to evaluate the primary energy saving (PES) of the CHP system compared to a reference case of separate production of heat and power. Economic analyses are performed either with or without subsidizations for the generated electricity. The results highlight the capability of the integrated approach to estimate both energy and economic performances of CHP systems applied to the residential context. Furthermore, the importance of the generated heat valorisation and the proper system sizing have been discussed. - Highlights: • CHP system based on biomass gasification to meet household energy demand is studied. • Influence of CHP size and operation time on

  18. System studies on Biofuel production via Integrated Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Malek, Laura; Hulteberg, Christian [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ. Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly. The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for fair techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project. Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found. In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and

  19. Integrated gasification and Cu-Cl cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghahosseini, S; Dincer, I; Naterer, G F [University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Institute of Technology

    2011-02-15

    This paper develops and analyzes an integrated process model of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity. The process model is developed with Aspen HYSYS software. By using oxygen instead of air for the gasification process, where oxygen is provided by the integrated Cu-Cl cycle, it is found that the hydrogen content of produced syngas increases by about 20%, due to improvement of the gasification combustion efficiency and reduction of syngas NOx emissions. Moreover, about 60% of external heat required for the integrated Cu-Cl cycle can be provided by the IGCC plant, with minor modifications of the steam cycle, and a slight decrease of IGCC overall efficiency. Integration of gasification and thermochemical hydrogen production can provide significant improvements in the overall hydrogen, steam and electricity output, when compared against the processes each operating separately and independently of each other.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of a SOFC is fed wherein...

  1. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein...

  2. Integrated hot fuel gas cleaning for advanced gasification combined cycle process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen, J.; Staahlberg, P.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1996-12-01

    The fate of halogens in pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and hot gas filtration is determined. Potential halogen removal sorbents, suitable for integrated hot gas cleaning, are screened and some selected sorbents are tested in bench scale. Finally, halogen removal results are verified using the PDU-scale pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and integrated hot gas cleaning facilities of VTT. The project is part of the JOULE II Extension programme of the European Union. (author)

  3. The market outlook for integrated gasification combined cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, P.R.; Maslak, C.E.; Stoll, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology was developed in the 1970s and is now competitive with other coal fired technologies. Because it is a new technology, IGCC technology developments are continuing at a rapid pace and the trend in decreasing capital costs is similar to the same trend seen during the early decades of simple cycle gas turbines. Consequently, IGCC technology is expected to be even more economical during the mid and late 1990s than it is today. The objective of this paper is to provide an examination of the basic economic principles of IGCC technology and to illustrate the extent to which this technology is a viable least-cost generation addition technology. Moreover, key reliability and emissions issues are addressed in relation to the technology alternatives. This paper is organized to first review the IGCC technology and to contrast its reliability, emission, performance and cost data with the three key commercially proven technologies: simple cycle combustion turbines, combined cycle plants, and coal-fired steam plants. Economic screening curves are used to illustrate the need for a balanced generation expansion mix of technologies. The regional market opportunity for coal fueled technology orders in the US from 1992 through 2005 is presented

  4. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  5. Critical factors affecting the integration of biomass gasification and syngas fermentation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan D. Ramachandriya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gasification-fermentation is a thermochemical-biological platform for the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass is gasified at high temperatures to make syngas, a gas composed of CO, CO2, H2, N2 and other minor components. Syngas is then fed to anaerobic microorganisms that convert CO, CO2 and H2 to alcohols by fermentation. This platform offers numerous advantages such as flexibility of feedstock and syngas composition and lower operating temperature and pressure compared to other catalytic syngas conversion processes. In comparison to hydrolysis-fermentation, gasification-fermentation has a major advantage of utilizing all organic components of biomass, including lignin, to yield higher fuel production. Furthermore, syngas fermentation microorganisms do not require strict CO:H2:CO2 ratios, hence gas reforming is not required. However, several issues must be addressed for successful deployment of gasification-fermentation, particularly those that involve the integration of gasification and fermentation. Most previous reviews have focused only on either biomass gasification or syngas fermentation. In this review, the critical factors that affect the integration of biomass gasification with syngas fermentation, such as carbon conversion efficiency, effect of trace gaseous species, H2 to CO ratio requirements, and microbial preference of carbon substrate, are thoroughly discussed.

  6. Pre-Combustion Carbondioxide Capture in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeki YILMAZOĞLU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants have a significant place big proportion in the production of electric energy. Thermal power plants are the systems which converts heat energy to mechanical energy and also mechanical energy to electrical energy. Heat energy is obtained from combustion process and as a result of this, some harmful emissions, like CO2, which are the reason for global warming, are released to atmosphere. The contribution of carbondioxide to global warming has been exposed by the previous researchs. Due to this fact, clean energy technologies are growing rapidly all around the world. Coal is generally used in power plants and when compared to other fossil energy sources unit electricity production cost is less than others. When reserve rate is taken into account, coal may be converted to energy in a more efficient and cleaner way. The aim for using the clean coal technologies are to eradicate the harmful emissions of coal and to store the carbondioxide, orginated from combustion, in different forms. In line with this aim, carbondioxide may be captured by either pre-combustion, by O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems or by post combustion. The integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC are available in pre-combustion capture systems, whereas in O2/CO2 recycling combustion systems there are ultrasuper critical boiler technologies and finally flue gas washing systems by amines exists in post combustion systems. In this study, a pre-combustion CO2 capture process via oxygen blown gasifiers is compared with a conventional power plant in terms of CO2 emissions. Captured carbondioxide quantity has been presented as a result of the calculations made throughout the study.

  7. Modeling and simulation of syngas purification and power generation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehmood, N; Zaman, Z U; Mehran, M T [National Development, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of the most promising technologies for power generation; The environmental benefits and the higher energy conversion efficiency distinguish it from traditional coal generation technologies. This work presents a structured and validated conceptual model of purification of coal gas produced during the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) of coal containing high sulfur contents. Gas cleaning operations for CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and moisture removal have been modeled in steady and dynamic state. The power generation from combined cycle is also modeled. The model has been developed using Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulation software. Predicted results of clean gas composition and generated power present a good agreement with industrial data and efficiency parameters. This study is aimed at obtaining optimal assessment of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant configurations. (author)

  8. Modeling and simulation of syngas purification and power generation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, N.; Zaman, Z.U.; Mehran, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is one of the most promising technologies for power generation; The environmental benefits and the higher energy conversion efficiency distinguish it from traditional coal generation technologies. This work presents a structured and validated conceptual model of purification of coal gas produced during the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) of coal containing high sulfur contents. Gas cleaning operations for CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and moisture removal have been modeled in steady and dynamic state. The power generation from combined cycle is also modeled. The model has been developed using Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulation software. Predicted results of clean gas composition and generated power present a good agreement with industrial data and efficiency parameters. This study is aimed at obtaining optimal assessment of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant configurations. (author)

  9. ASPEN Plus simulation of coal integrated gasification combined blast furnace slag waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wenjun; Yu, Qingbo; Wang, Kun; Qin, Qin; Hou, Limin; Yao, Xin; Wu, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated system of coal gasification with slag waste heat recovery was proposed. • The goal of BF slag heat saving and emission reduction was achieved by this system. • The optimal parameters were obtained and the waste heat recovery rate reached 83.08%. • About 6.64 kmol/min syngas was produced when using one ton BF slag to provide energy. - Abstract: This article presented a model for the system of coal gasification with steam and blast furnace slag waste heat recovery by using the ASPEN Plus as the simulating and modeling tool. Constrained by mass and energy balance for the entire system, the model included the gasifier used to product syngas at the chemical equilibrium based on the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and the boiler used to recover the heat of the blast furnace slag (BF slag) and syngas. Two parameters of temperature and steam to coal ratio (S/C) were considered to account for their impacts on the Datong coal (DT coal) gasification process. The carbon gasification efficiency (CE), cold gasification efficiency (CGE), syngas product efficiency (PE) and the heating value of syngas produced by 1 kg pulverized coal (HV) were adopted as the indicators to examine the gasification performance. The optimal operating temperature and S/C were 800 °C and 1.5, respectively. At this condition, CE reached above 90% and the maximum values of the CGE, PE and HV were all obtained. Under the optimal operating conditions, 1000 kg/min BF slag, about 40.41 kg/min DT pulverized coal and 77.94 kg/min steam were fed into the gasifier and approximate 6.64 kmol/min syngas could be generated. Overall, the coal was converted to clean syngas by gasification reaction and the BF slag waste heat was also recovered effectively (reached up to 83.08%) in this system, achieving the objective of energy saving and emission reduction

  10. Hydrogen production from palm kernel shell via integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zakir; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni Melati; Chin, Bridgid Lai Fui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification for H 2 yield. • Effects of adsorbent to biomass, biomass particle size and fluidization velocity on H 2 yield are examined. • The present study produces higher H 2 yield as compared to that obtained in literatures. • The ICA provides enhancement of H 2 yield as compared to independent catalytic and CO 2 adsorption gasification systems. - Abstract: The present study investigates the integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification of palm kernel shell for hydrogen production in a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The biomass steam gasification is performed in the presence of an adsorbent and a catalyst in the system. The effect of adsorbent to biomass (A/B) ratio (0.5–1.5 wt/wt), fluidization velocity (0.15–0.26 m/s) and biomass particle size (0.355–2.0 mm) are studied at temperature of 675 °C, steam to biomass (S/B) ratio of 2.0 (wt/wt) and biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.1 (wt/wt). Hydrogen composition and yield, total gas yield, and lower product gas heating values (LHV gas ) increases with increasing A/B ratio, while particle size has no significant effect on hydrogen composition and yield, total gas and char yield, gasification and carbon conversion efficiency. However, gas heating values increased with increasing biomass particle size which is due to presence of high methane content in product gas. Meanwhile, medium fluidization velocity of 0.21 m/s favoured hydrogen composition and yield. The results showed that the maximum hydrogen composition and yield of 84.62 vol% and 91.11 g H 2 /kg biomass are observed at A/B ratio of 1.5, S/B ratio of 2.0, catalyst to biomass ratio of 0.1 and temperature of 675 °C. The product gas heating values are observed in the range of 10.92–17.02 MJ/N m 3 . Gasification and carbon conversion efficiency are observed in the range of 25.66–42.95% and 20.61–41.95%, respectively. These lower

  11. Thermodynamic and Thermoeconomic investigation of an Integrated Gasification SOFC and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigation of a small scale Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kW have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which......-product and the cost of hot water was found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems at similar scale, it shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology emerges enter commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost rate which is competitive with corresponding renewable...

  12. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Woodchips Gasification Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Integrated gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analysed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which is utilized for feeding the SOFC stacks for electricity...... and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on LHV (lower heating value) can be achieved. Different parameter studies are performed to analysis system behaviour under different conditions. The analysis show that increasing fuel mass flow from the design point results...

  14. Thermodynamic Investigation of an Integrated Gasification Plant with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Steam Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas...... generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system...

  15. Thermodynamic investigation of an integrated gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and steam cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, Masoud [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Energy System

    2012-07-01

    A gasification plant is integrated on the top of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cycle, while a steam turbine (ST) cycle is used as a bottoming cycle for the SOFC plant. The gasification plant was fueled by woodchips to produce biogas and the SOFC stacks were fired with biogas. The produced gas was rather clean for feeding to the SOFC stacks after a simple cleaning step. Because all the fuel cannot be burned in the SOFC stacks, a burner was used to combust the remaining fuel. The off-gases from the burner were then used to produce steam for the bottoming steam cycle in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steam cycle was modeled with a simple single pressure level. In addition, a hybrid recuperator was used to recover more energy from the HRSG and send it back to the SOFC cycle. Thus two different configurations were investigated to study the plants characteristic. Such system integration configurations are completely novel and have not been studied elsewhere. Plant efficiencies of 56% were achieved under normal operation which was considerably higher than the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) in which a gasification plant is integrated with a gas turbine and a steam turbine. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain operating conditions, plant efficiency of about 62 is also possible to achieve. (orig.)

  16. Performance of simulated flexible integrated gasification polygeneration facilities. Part A: A technical-energetic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates technical possibilities and performances of flexible integrated gasification polygeneration (IG-PG) facilities equipped with CO2 capture for the near future. These facilities can produce electricity during peak hours, while switching to the production of chemicals during

  17. Assessing the economic feasibility of flexible integrated gasification Co-generation facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the economic effects of introducing flexibility to state-of-the-art integrated gasification co-generation (IGCG) facilities equipped with CO2 capture. In a previous paper the technical and energetic performances of these flexible IG-CG facilities were evaluated. This paper

  18. 77 FR 59166 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SMEPA lacks sufficient control and responsibility over the Project, RUS determined that financing SMEPA... Ratcliffe, Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities..., Mississippi (the Project). The Acting Administrator of RUS has signed the ROD, which is effective on the...

  19. Integration of coal gasification and packed bed CLC for high efficiency and near-zero emission power generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Romano, M.C.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Lozza, G.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out of large-scale coal gasification-based power plant cycles with near zero CO2 emissions, integrated with chemical looping combustion (CLC). Syngas from coal gasification is oxidized in dynamically operated packed bed reactors (PBRs), generating a

  20. Gasification integrated to combined cycles; Gasificacion integrada a ciclos combinados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Alcaraz C, Agustin M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The mineral coal is one of the most abundant fuels in the planet, but it has important amounts of sulfur and ashes that make difficult their use. On the other hand, many countries at the present time prevent to use the fuel oil as combustible with conventional technologies due to the metal and sulfur contents. Finally, in the new schemes of oil refinement it is anticipated to use the coking to take advantage of the barrel bottoms. The remainder product of this process, known as refinery coke, has a low commercial value, a high calorific power and high sulfur content and metals. The gasification has been developed in the last the two decades, in the highly industrialized countries, as an alternative for the efficient and clean generation of electricity from dirty fuels, as well as for obtaining certain fuels in places where access to petroleum is not available, but to the coal. This technology fulfills the strictest regulations of the world in what polluting emissions refers and it is the only solution, next to the fluidized beds, for the problems that present some fuels that are difficult to burn with conventional technologies, as the mineral coal, the petroleum coke and even the liquid remainders of the refinement. With base in the former, it is possible to think about the integration of this technology to a combined cycle plant for the generation of electricity or to a refinery generating steam, electrical energy, hydrogen and other consumables at a competitive cost, in such a way that the problems of handling and storage of the remainders are solved; on the other hand the use of the primary power resources in the country is maximized. [Spanish] El carbon mineral es uno de los combustibles mas abundantes en el planeta, pero posee cantidades importantes de azufre y cenizas que dificultan su utilizacion. Por otra parte, muchos paises en la actualidad impiden utilizar el combustoleo como combustible para tecnologias convencionales debido a los contenidos de azufre y

  1. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  2. Thermodynamic Analyses of Biomass Gasification Integrated Externally Fired, Post-Firing and Dual-Fuel Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the results are reported of the energy and exergy analyses of three biomass-related processes for electricity generation: the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle, the biomass gasification integrated dual-fuel combined cycle, and the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle. The energy efficiency for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle is 3% to 6% points higher than for the other cycles. Although the efficiency of the externally fired biomass combined cycle is the lowest, it has an advantage in that it only uses biomass. The energy and exergy efficiencies are maximized for the three configurations at particular values of compressor pressure ratios, and increase with gas turbine inlet temperature. As pressure ratio increases, the mass of air per mass of steam decreases for the biomass gasification integrated post-firing combined cycle, but the pressure ratio has little influence on the ratio of mass of air per mass of steam for the other cycles. The gas turbine exergy efficiency is the highest for the three configurations. The combustion chamber for the dual-fuel cycle exhibits the highest exergy efficiency and that for the post-firing cycle the lowest. Another benefit of the biomass gasification integrated externally fired combined cycle is that it exhibits the highest air preheater and heat recovery steam generator exergy efficiencies.

  3. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  4. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance-of-plant is designed and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on the lower heating value (LHV) can be achieved if all input parameters are selected conservatively. Different parameter studies are performed to analyze the system behavior under different conditions. The analysis shows that the decreasing number of stacks from a design viewpoint, indicating that plant efficiency decreases but power production remains nearly unchanged. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is an optimum value for the utilization factor of the SOFC for the suggested plant design with the suggested input parameters. This optimum value is approximately 65%, which is a rather modest value for SOFC. In addition, introducing a methanator increases plant efficiency slightly. If SOFC operating temperature decreases due to new technology then plant efficiency will slightly be increased. Decreasing gasifier temperature, which cannot be controlled, causes the plant efficiency to increase also. - Highlights: • Design of integrated gasification with solid oxide fuel and Stirling engine. • Important plant parameters study. • Plant running on biomass with and without methanator. • Thermodynamics of integrated gasification SOFC-Stirling engine plants

  5. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Prawisudha, Pandji; Prabowo, Bayu; Budiman, Bentang Arief

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  6. An update technology for integrated biomass gasification combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the technical analysis of a 6.4 M W_e integrated biomass gasification combined cycle (IBGCC) plant. It features three numbers of downdraft biomass gasifier systems with suitable gas clean-up trains, three numbers of internal combustion (IC) producer gas engines for producing 5.85 MW electrical power in open cycle and 550 kW power in a bottoming cycle using waste heat. Comparing with IC gas engine single cycle systems, this technology route increases overall system efficiency of the power plant, which in turn improves plant economics. Estimated generation cost of electricity indicates that mega-watt scale IBGCC power plants can contribute to good economies of scale in India. This paper also highlight's the possibility of activated carbon generation from the char, a byproduct of gasification process, and use of engine's jacket water heat to generate chilled water through VAM for gas conditioning. (author)

  7. The reliability of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higman, C.; DellaVilla, S.; Steele, B. [Syngas Consultants Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents two interlinked projects aimed at supporting the improvement of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) reliability. The one project comprises the extension of SPS's existing ORAP (Operational Reliability Analysis Program) reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) tracking technology from its existing base in natural gas open and combined cycle operations into IGCC. The other project is using the extended ORAP database to evaluate performance data from existing plants. The initial work has concentrated on evaluating public domain data on the performance of gasification based power and chemical plants. This is being followed up by plant interviews in some 20 plants to verify and expand the database on current performance. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    % is achieved; plant size and nominal power are selected based on the required cultivation area. SOFC heat recovery with SKC is compared to a Steam Cycle (SC). Although ammonia-water more accurately fits the temperature profile of the off-gases, the presence of a Hybrid Recuperator enhances the available work......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel......A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre...

  9. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing......Oxygen–steam biomass gasification produces a high quality syngas with a high H2/CO ratio that is suitable for upgrading to liquid fuels. Such a gas is also well suited for use in conjunction with solid oxide fuel cells giving rise to a system yielding high electrical efficiency based on biomass...... distillation, especially for small to medium scale plants. This paper examines different configurations for oxygen production using MIEC membranes where the oxygen partial pressure difference is achieved by creating a vacuum on the permeate side, compressing the air on the feed side or a combination of the two...

  10. Simulation of an integrated gasification combined cycle with chemical-looping combustion and carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez Álvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; González Fernández, Celina; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; Nieto Carlier, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical-looping combustion based integrated gasification combined cycle is simulated. • The energetic performance of the plant is analyzed. • Different hydrogen-content synthesis gases are under study. • Energy savings accounting carbon dioxide sequestration and storage are quantified. • A notable increase on thermal efficiency up to 7% is found. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion is an interesting technique that makes it possible to integrate power generation from fuels combustion and sequestration of carbon dioxide without energy penalty. In addition, the combustion chemical reaction occurs with a lower irreversibility compared to a conventional combustion, leading to attain a somewhat higher overall thermal efficiency in gas turbine systems. This paper provides results about the energetic performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant based on chemical-looping combustion of synthesis gas. A real understanding of the behavior of this concept of power plant implies a complete thermodynamic analysis, involving several interrelated aspects as the integration of energy flows between the gasifier and the combined cycle, the restrictions in relation with heat balances and chemical equilibrium in reactors and the performance of the gas turbines and the downstream steam cycle. An accurate thermodynamic modeling is required for the optimization of several design parameters. Simulations to evaluate the energetic efficiency of this chemical-looping-combustion based power plant under diverse working conditions have been carried out, and a comparison with a conventional integrated gasification power plant with precombustion capture of carbon dioxide has been made. Two different synthesis gas compositions have been tried to check its influence on the results. The energy saved in carbon capture and storage is found to be significant and even notable, inducing an improvement of the overall power plant thermal efficiency of

  11. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  12. Integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with membrane reactors: Technological and economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelio, Mario; Morrone, Pietropaolo; Gallucci, Fausto; Basile, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from the fossil fuel power plant have been considered. The main objective was to analyze the thermodynamic performances and the technological aspects of two integrated gasification gas combined cycle plants (IGCC), as well as to give a forecast of the investment costs for the plants and the resulting energy consumptions. The first plant considered is an IGCC* plant (integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with traditional shift reactors) characterized by the traditional water gas shift reactors and a CO 2 physical adsorption system followed by the power section. The second one is an IGCC M plant (integrated gasification gas combined cycle plant with membrane reactor) where the coal thermal input is the same as the first one, but the traditional shift reactors and the physical adsorption unit are replaced by catalytic palladium membrane reactors (CMR). In the present work, a mono-dimensional computational model of the membrane reactor was proposed to simulate and evaluate the capability of the IGCC M plant to capture carbon dioxide. The energetic performances, efficiency and net power of the IGCC* and IGCC M plants were, thus, compared, assuming as standard a traditional IGCC plant without carbon dioxide capture. The economical aspects of the three plants were compared through an economical analysis. Since the IGCC* and IGCC M plants have additional costs related to the capture and disposal of the carbon dioxide, a Carbon Tax (adopted in some countries like Sweden) proportional to the number of kilograms of carbon dioxide released in the environment was assumed. According to the economical analysis, the IGCC M plant proved to be more convenient than the IGCC* one

  13. Investigation on syngas production via biomass conversion through the integration of pyrolysis and air–steam gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour Moghadam, Reza; Yusup, Suzana; Azlina, Wan; Nehzati, Shahab; Tavasoli, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovation in gasifier design. • Integration of pyrolysis and steam gasification processes. • Energy saving, improvement of gasifier efficiency, syngas and hydrogen yield. • Overall investigation on gasification parameters. • Optimization conditions of integration of pyrolysis and gasification process. - Abstract: Fuel production from agro-waste has become an interesting alternative for energy generation due to energy policies and greater understanding of the importance of green energy. This research was carried out in a lab-scale gasifier and coconut shell was used as feedstock in the integrated process. In order to acquire the optimum condition of syngas production, the effect of the reaction temperature, equivalence ratio (ER) and steam/biomass (S/B) ratio was investigated. Under the optimized condition, H 2 and syngas yield achieved to 83.3 g/kg feedstock and 485.9 g/kg feedstock respectively, while LHV of produced gases achieved to 12.54 MJ/N m 3

  14. Thermodynamic evaluation of CHP (combined heat and power) plants integrated with installations of coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Malik, Tomasz; Liszka, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Integration of a CHP steam plant with an installation of coal gasification and gas turbine leads to an IGCC-CHP (integrated gasification combined cycle-combined heat and power). Two installations of coal gasification have been analyzed, i.e. pressurized entrained flow gasifier – case 1 and pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with CO_2 recirculation – case 2. Basing on the results of mathematical modelling of an IGCC-CHP plant, the algorithms of calculating typical energy indices have been derived. The following energy indices are considered, i.e. coefficient of heat performance and relative savings of chemical energy of fuels. The results of coefficients of heat performance are contained between 1.87 and 2.37. Values exceeding 1 are thermodynamically justified because the idea of cogeneration of heat and electricity based on combining cycles of the heat engine and heat pump the efficiency of which exceeds 1. Higher values concerning waste heat replace more thermodynamically effective sources of heat in CHP plants. Relative savings of the chemical energy of fuels are similar in both cases of IGCC-CHP plants and are contained between the lower value of the CHP (combined heat and power) plants fuelled with coal and higher value of CHP plants fired with natural gas. - Highlights: • Energy savings of fuel is an adequate measure of cogeneration. • Relative energy savings of IGCC-CHP is near the result of a gas and steam CHP. • COHP (coefficient of heat performance) can help to divide fuel between heat fluxes. • Higher values of COHP in the case of waste heat recovery result from the lower thermal parameters.

  15. Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding biomass-based ammonia production systems. • Integration of an ammonia production process in a pulp and paper mill. • Integrated ammonia production gains higher system efficiency than stand-alone production. • The economics of an integrated production system is improved compared to stand-alone production. - Abstract: Ammonia (NH 3 ) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH 3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH 3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible

  16. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  17. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  18. Technical comparison between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Andres Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Federal University of Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil). Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation - NEST], e-mails: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Among the emerging clean coal technologies for power generation, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) systems are receiving considerable attention as a potentially attractive option to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The main reason is because these systems has high efficiency and low emissions in comparison with traditional power generation plants. Currently in IGCC and NGCC systems at demonstration stage is been considered to implement CCS technology. CO{sub 2} emissions can be avoided in a gasification-based power plant because by transferring almost all carbon compounds to CO{sub 2} through the water gas shift (WGS) reaction, then removing the CO{sub 2} before it is diluted in the combustion stage. The aim of this study is to compare the technical performance of an IGCC system that uses Brazilian coal and petroleum coke as fuel with a NGCC system, with the same fixed output power of 450 MW. The first section of this paper presents the plant configurations of IGCC systems. The following section presents an analysis of NGCC technology. (author)

  19. Energy efficient thermochemical conversion of very wet biomass to biofuels by integration of steam drying, steam electrolysis and gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2017-01-01

    A novel system concept is presented for the thermochemical conversion of very wet biomasses such as sewage sludge and manure. The system integrates steam drying, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) and gasification for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG). The system is analyzed...

  20. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, VA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (flue gas) stream of a heat-integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) design of the Elcogas plant adopted from previous studies. The underlying support for this idea was the direct relationship between efficiency of the IGCC and the boiler feedwater...

  1. Thermodynamic analyses of municipal solid waste gasification plant integrated with solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification process can compete......Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by their use it is possible to reduce the waste...... storage in landfills and devote these spaces to other human activities. It is also important to point out that this kind of renewable energy suffers significantly less availability which characterizes other type of renewable energy sources such as in wind and solar energy.In a gasification process, waste...

  2. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  3. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  4. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  5. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO2-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  6. Carbon exergy tax applied to biomass integrated gasification combined cycle in sugarcane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Filho, Valdi Freire da; Matelli, José Alexandre; Perrella Balestieri, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies based on energy renewable sources is increasing worldwide in order to diversify the energy mix and satisfy the rigorous environmental legislation and international agreements to reduce pollutant emission. Considering specific characteristics of biofuels available in Brazil, studies regarding such technologies should be carried out aiming energy mix diversification. Several technologies for power generation from biomass have been presented in the technical literature, and plants with BIGCC (biomass integrated gasification combined cycle) emerge as a major technological innovation. By obtaining a fuel rich in hydrogen from solid biomass gasification, BIGCC presents higher overall process efficiency than direct burning of the solid fuel in conventional boilers. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium model of a BIGCC configuration for sugarcane bagasse. The model embodies exergetic cost and CO_2 emission analyses through the method of CET (carbon exergy tax). An exergetic penalty comparison between the BIGCC technology (with and without CO_2 capture and sequestration), a natural gas combined cycle and the traditional steam cycle of sugarcane sector is then presented. It is verified that the BIGCC configuration with CO_2 capture and sequestration presents technical and environmental advantages when compared to traditional technology. - Highlights: • We compared thermal cycles with the exergetic carbon exergy tax. • Thermal cycles with and without carbon capture and sequestration were considered. • Burned and gasified sugarcane bagasse was assumed as renewable fuel. • Exergetic carbon penalty tax was imposed to all studied configurations. • BIGCC with carbon sequestration revealed to be advantageous.

  7. Dynamic modeling of Shell entrained flow gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeon-Hui; Lee, Jae-Chul; Joo, Yong-Jin; Oh, Min; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed dynamic model for the Shell entrained flow gasifier was developed. • The model included sub-models of reactor, membrane wall, gas quench and slag flow. • The dynamics of each zone including membrane wall in the gasifier were analyzed. • Cold gas efficiency (81.82%), gas fraction and temperature agreed with Shell data. • The model could be used as part of the overall IGCC simulation. - Abstract: The Shell coal gasification system is a single-stage, up-flow, oxygen-blown gasifier which utilizes dry pulverized coal with an entrained flow mechanism. Moreover, it has a membrane wall structure and operates in the slagging mode. This work provides a detailed dynamic model of the 300 MW Shell gasifier developed for use as part of an overall IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) process simulation. The model consists of several sub-models, such as a volatilization zone, reaction zone, quench zone, slag zone, and membrane wall zone, including heat transfers between the wall layers and steam generation. The dynamic results were illustrated and the validation of the gasifier model was confirmed by comparing the results in the steady state with the reference data. The product gases (H 2 and CO) began to come out from the exit of the reaction zone within 0.5 s, and nucleate boiling heat transfer was dominant in the water zone of the membrane wall due to high heat fluxes. The steady state of the process was reached at nearly t = 500 s, and our simulation data for the steady state, such as the temperature and composition of the syngas, the cold gas efficiency (81.82%), and carbon conversion (near 1.0) were in good agreement with the reference data

  8. Integrated biomass gasification using the waste heat from hot slags: Control of syngas and polluting gas releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Liu, Qianyi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the thermodynamics of a novel strategy, i.e., biomass/CO 2 gasification integrated with heat recovery from hot slags in the steel industry, were systemically investigated. Both the target syngas yield and the polluting gas release were considered where the effect of gasifying conditions including temperature, pressure and CO 2 reacted was analyzed and then the roles of hot slags were further clarified. The results indicated that there existed an optimum temperature for the maximization of H 2 production. Compared to blast furnace slags, steel slags remarkably increased the CO yield at 600–1400 °C due to the existence of iron oxides and decreased the S-containing gas releases at 400–700 °C, indicating potential desulfurizing ability. The identification of biomass/CO 2 gasification thermodynamics in presence of slags could thus provide important clues not only for the deep understanding of biomass gasification but also for the industrial application of this emerging strategy from the viewpoint of syngas optimization and pollution control. - Highlights: • Biomass/CO 2 gasification was integrated with the heat recovery from hot slags. • Both syngas yield and polluting gas release during gasification were determined. • There existed an optimum temperature for the maximization of H 2 production. • Steel slags increased CO yield at 600–1400 °C due to the existence of iron oxides. • Steel slags remarkably decreased the releases of S-containing gas at 400–700 °C.

  9. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Jayesh [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Hess, Fernando [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Horzen, Wessel van [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Williams, Daniel [Lummus Technology Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States); Peevor, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Dyer, Andy [JM Davy, London (United Kingdom); Frankel, Louis [Canonsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  10. Energetic assessment of air-steam gasification of sewage sludge and of the integration of sewage sludge pyrolysis and air-steam gasification of char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lalaguna, N.; Sánchez, J.L.; Murillo, M.B.; Atienza-Martínez, M.; Gea, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg −1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg −1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process

  11. Numerical Simulation of Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ju-hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall thermal efficiency of the integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC has not been sufficiently improved. In order to achieve higher power generation efficiency,the advanced technology of IGCC has been developed which is on the basis of the concept of exergy recovery. IGCC systems and devices from the overall structure of opinion,this technology will generate electricity for the integration of advanced technology together,the current utilization of power generation technology and by endothermic reaction of steam in the gasifier,a gas turbine exhaust heat recovery or the solid oxide fuel cell. It is estimated that such the use of exergy recycling has the advantage of being easy to use,separating,collecting fixed CO2,making it very attractive,and can increase the overall efficiency by 10% or more. The characteristics of fluidized bed gasifier,one of the core equipment of the IGCC system,and its effect on the whole system were studied.

  12. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  13. Performance of an effectively integrated biomass multi-stage gasification system and a steel industry heat treatment furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarathne, Duleeka Sandamali; Mellin, Pelle; Yang, Weihong; Pettersson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-stage biomass gasification is integrated with steel heat treatment furnace. • Fossil fuel derived CO_2 emission is eliminated by replacing natural gas with syngas. • The integrated system uses waste heat from the furnace for biomass gasification. • Up to 13% increment of the gasifier system energy efficiency is observed. • Fuel switching results in 10% lower flue gas loss and improved furnace efficiency. - Abstract: The challenges of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energy in steel industry furnaces include not only reducing CO_2 emissions but also increasing the system energy efficiency. In this work, a multi-stage gasification system is chosen for the integration with a heat treatment furnace in the steel powder industry to recover different rank/temperature waste heat back to the biomass gasification system, resulting higher system energy efficiency. A system model based on Aspen Plus was developed for the proposed integrated system considering all steps, including biomass drying, pyrolysis, gasification and the combustion of syngas in the furnace. Both low temperature (up to 400 °C) and high temperature (up to 700 °C) heat recovery possibilities were analysed in terms of energy efficiency by optimizing the biomass pretreatment temperature. The required process conditions of the furnace can be achieved by using syngas. No major changes to the furnace, combustion technology or flue gas handling system are necessary for this fuel switching. Only a slight revamp of the burner system and a new waste heat recovery system from the flue gases are required. Both the furnace efficiency and gasifier system efficiency are improved by integration with the waste heat recovery. The heat recovery from the hot furnace flue gas for biomass drying and steam superheating is the most promising option from an energy efficiency point of view. This option recovers two thirds of the available waste heat, according to the pinch analysis performed

  14. Role of steel slags on biomass/carbon dioxide gasification integrated with recovery of high temperature heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Liu, Qianyi; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Zuotai; Wang, Xidong

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of biomass in the agriculture and steel slags in the steel industry provides a significant solution toward sustainability in China. Herein these two sectors were creatively combined as a novel method, i.e., biomass/CO 2 gasification using waste heat from hot slags where the influence of chemical compositions of steel slags, characterized as iron oxide content and basicity, on gasification thermodynamics, was systemically reported for the first time. Both the target gases of CO, H 2 and CH 4 and the polluted gases of NH 3 , NO and NO 2 were considered. It was first found that an increasing iron content and slag basicity continuously improved the CO yield at 600-1000°C and 800-1000°C, respectively; while the effect on polluted gas releases was limited. Moreover, the solid wastes after gasification could be utilized to provide nutrients and improve the soil in the agriculture, starting from which an integrated modern system was proposed herein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  16. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  17. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    of the different operating conditions reveals an optimum for the chosen pressure ratio with respect to the resulting electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization should be maintained at a high level and the cathode temperature gradient maximized. Based on 1st and 2nd law...... based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP plants....... The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  18. Valuing flexibility: The case of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Luis M.; Chamorro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the choice between two technologies for producing electricity. In particular, the firm has to decide whether and when to invest either in a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plant or in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, which may burn either coal or natural gas. Instead of assuming that fuel prices follow standard geometric Brownian motions, here they are assumed to show mean reversion, specifically to follow an inhomogeneous geometric Brownian motion. First we consider the opportunity to invest in a NGCC power plant. We derive the optimal investment rule as a function of natural gas price and the remaining life of the right to invest. In addition, the analytical solution for a perpetual option to invest is obtained. Then we turn to the IGCC power plant. We analyse the valuation of an operating plant when there are switching costs between modes of operation, and the choice of the best operation mode. This serves as an input to evaluate the option to invest in this plant. Finally we derive the value of an opportunity to invest either in a NGCC or IGCC power plant, i.e. to choose between an inflexible and a flexible technology, respectively. Depending on the opportunity's time to maturity, we derive the pairs of coal and gas prices for which it is optimal to invest in NGCC, in IGCC, or simply not to invest. Numerical computations involve the use of one- and two-dimensional binomial lattices that support a mean-reverting process for coal and gas prices. Basic parameter values are taken from an actual IGCC power plant currently in operation. Sensitivity of some results with respect to the underlying stochastic process for fuel price is also checked

  19. Aspen Plus simulation of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Huixiao; Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance

    2013-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) systems are employed to provide heat and electricity to a 0.19 hm 3 y −1 (50 million gallon per year) corn ethanol plant using different fuels (syrup and corn stover, corn stover alone, and natural gas). Aspen Plus simulations of BIGCC/NGCC systems are performed to study effects of different fuels, gas turbine compression pressure, dryers (steam tube or superheated steam) for biomass fuels and ethanol co-products, and steam tube dryer exhaust treatment methods. The goal is to maximize electricity generation while meeting process heat needs of the plant. At fuel input rates of 110 MW, BIGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 20–25 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies (net power generated plus process heat rate divided by fuel input rate) of 69–74%. NGCC systems with steam tube dryers provide 26–30 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 74–78%. BIGCC systems with superheated steam dryers provide 20–22 MW of power to the grid with system thermal efficiencies of 53–56%. The life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction for conventional corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 39% for process heat with natural gas (grid electricity), 117% for BIGCC with syrup and corn stover fuel, 124% for BIGCC with corn stover fuel, and 93% for NGCC with natural gas fuel. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. -- Highlights: •BIGCC and natural gas combined cycle systems at corn ethanol plants are simulated. •The best performance results in 25–30 MW power to grid. •The best performance results in 74–78% system thermal efficiencies. •GHG reduction for corn ethanol with BIGCC systems compared to gasoline is over 100%

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of engineering solutions aimed at raising the efficiency of integrated gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    Raising the efficiency and environmental friendliness of electric power generation from coal is the aim of numerous research groups today. The traditional approach based on the steam power cycle has reached its efficiency limit, prompted by materials development and maneuverability performance. The rival approach based on the combined cycle is also drawing nearer to its efficiency limit. However, there is a reserve for efficiency increase of the integrated gasification combined cycle, which has the energy efficiency at the level of modern steam-turbine power units. The limit of increase in efficiency is the efficiency of NGCC. One of the main problems of the IGCC is higher costs of receiving and preparing fuel gas for GTU. It would be reasonable to decrease the necessary amount of fuel gas in the power unit to minimize the costs. The effect can be reached by raising of the heat value of fuel gas, its heat content and the heat content of cycle air. On the example of the process flowsheet of the IGCC with a power of 500 MW, running on Kuznetsk bituminous coal, by means of software Thermoflex, the influence of the developed technical solutions on the efficiency of the power plant is considered. It is received that rise in steam-air blast temperature to 900°C leads to an increase in conversion efficiency up to 84.2%. An increase in temperature levels of fuel gas clean-up to 900°C leads to an increase in the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 3.42%. Cycle air heating reduces the need for fuel gas by 40% and raises the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 0.85-1.22%. The offered solutions for IGCC allow to exceed net efficiency of analogous plants by 1.8-2.3%.

  1. The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

    1994-06-01

    Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

  2. A SOFC-based integrated gasification fuel cell cycle with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    The application of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in gasification-based power plants would represent a turning point in the power generation sector, allowing to considerably increase the electric efficiency of coal-fired power stations. Pollutant emissions would also be significantly reduced in

  3. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic...... analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...

  4. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutichai, Bhawasut; Authayanun, Suthida; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2013-01-01

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  5. Dynamic modeling of gas turbines in integrated gasification fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James Davenport

    2009-12-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid systems for use in integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems operating on coal will stretch existing fossil fuel reserves, generate power with less environmental impact, while having a cost of electricity advantage over most competing technologies. However, the dynamic performance of a SOFC-GT in IGFC applications has not been previously studied in detail. Of particular importance is how the turbo-machinery will be designed, controlled and operated in such applications; this is the focus of the current work. Perturbation and dynamic response analyses using numerical SimulinkRTM models indicate that compressor surge is the predominant concern for safe dynamic turbo-machinery operation while shaft over-speed and excessive turbine inlet temperatures are secondary concerns. Fuel cell temperature gradients and anode-cathode differential pressures were found to be the greatest concerns for safe dynamic fuel cell operation. Two control strategies were compared, that of constant gas turbine shaft speed and constant fuel cell temperature, utilizing a variable speed gas turbine. Neither control strategy could eliminate all vulnerabilities during dynamic operation. Constant fuel cell temperature control ensures safe fuel cell operation, while constant speed control does not. However, compressor surge is more likely with constant fuel cell temperature control than with constant speed control. Design strategies that provide greater surge margin while utilizing constant fuel cell temperature control include increasing turbine design mass flow and decreasing turbine design inlet pressure, increasing compressor design pressure ratio and decreasing compressor design mass flow, decreasing plenum volume, decreasing shaft moment of inertia, decreasing fuel cell pressure drop, maintaining constant compressor inlet air temperature. However, these strategies in some cases incur an efficiency penalty. A broad comparison of cycles

  6. Comparison of integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems – Economic and greenhouse gas emission implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Berntsson, Thore S.; Andersson, Eva; Rydberg, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The impact of different integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems producing synthetic natural gas, methanol and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) fuels on the NAP (net annual profit), FPC (fuel production cost) and the GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction potential are analysed. The considered integration options are heat deliveries to DH (district heating) systems or to nearby industries and integration with infrastructure for CO_2 storage. The comparison is made to stand-alone configurations in which the excess heat is used for power production. The analysis considers future energy market scenarios and case studies in southwestern Sweden. The results show that integration with DH systems has small impacts on the NAP and the FPC and diverging (positive or negative) impacts on the GHG emissions. Integration with industries has positive effects on the economic and GHG performances in all scenarios. The FPCs are reduced by 7–8% in the methanol case and by 12–13% in the FT production case. The GHG emission reductions are strongly dependent on the reference power production. The storage of separated CO_2 shows an increase in the GHG emission reduction potential of 70–100% for all systems, whereas the impacts on the economic performances are strongly dependent on the CO_2_e-charge. - Highlights: • Three gasification-based biofuel production systems at case study sites are analysed. • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential and economic performance are evaluated. • Impact of integration with adjacent industry or district heating systems is analysed. • The assessment comprises future energy market scenarios including CCS infrastructure. • Utilisation options for excess heat significantly impact the evaluated parameters.

  7. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Randy D [Madison, WI; Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  9. Climate Effect of Bioenergy and Agriculture Integration Based on Lowtar Gasification of Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    potential is included in the analysis, by accounting for both the atmospheric load of biogenic carbon emissions and the carbon captured by forest re-growth. The energy conversion is based on thermal gasification. The gasifier allows changing the carbon conversion fraction, from the conventional maximum...... energy generation to maximum biochar production.For a 100 year time horizon the biogenic global warming potential varies from 0.65 for maximum energy generation to 0.30for maximum biochar production. The total carbon footprint per kWh electricity produced decreases towards maximum biochar production...

  10. Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification – Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Lundgren, Joakim; Marklund, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR. - Highlights: • Techno-economic results regarding integration of methanol synthesis processes in a pulp and paper mill are presented. • The overall energy efficiency increases in integrated methanol production systems compared to stand-alone production units. • The economics of the integrated system improves compared to stand-alone alternatives. • Tax

  11. Modeling and Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Integrated System for Multigeneration Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Khanmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass due to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts has attracted many researchers’ attention in the recent years. Access to an energy conversion system which is able to have the optimum performance for applying valuable low heating value fuels has been considered by many practitioners and scholars. This paper focuses on the accurate modeling of biomass gasification process and the optimal design of a multigeneration system (heating, cooling, electrical power, and hydrogen as energy carrier to take the advantage of this clean energy. In the process of gasification modeling, a thermodynamic equilibrium model based on Gibbs energy minimization is used. Also, in the present study, a detailed parametric analysis of multigeneration system for undersigning the behavior of objective functions with changing design parameters and obtaining the optimal design parameters of the system is done as well. The results show that with exergy efficiency as an objective function this parameter can increase from 19.6% in base case to 21.89% in the optimized case. Also, for the total cost rate of system as an objective function it can decrease from 154.4 $/h to 145.1 $/h.

  12. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO{sub 2}-capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, Mathias

    2014-04-17

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  13. Simulation of biomass and/or coal gasification systems integrated with fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, A; Ozdogan, S; Caglayan, E; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a system simulation study. The HYSYS 3.1 - ASPEN code has been used for simulation. The system consists of a fixed bed gasifier followed by reforming and clean-up units. The produced hydrogen gas is fed to a PEM fuel cell. The gasified hydrocarbons are hazelnut shells, bark, rice straw, animal waste, and two lignites. Hydrocarbon properties, gasification, and reforming process parameters all affect the system efficiency. The effect of the moisture content and oxygen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon fees on the fuel processing and overall system efficiencies are presented. The overall efficiency of the system increases with increasing hydrocarbon fees oxygen to carbon ratio; this tendency is more evident at higher moisture levels.

  14. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of syngas type on the operation and performance of a gas turbine in integrated gasification combined cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop; Sohn, Jeong L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas was investigated. → A full off-design analysis was performed for a wide syngas heating value range. → Restrictions on compressor surge margin and turbine metal temperature were considered. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas. Four different syngases were evaluated as fuels for a gas turbine in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). A full off-design analysis of the gas turbine was performed. Without any restrictions on gas turbine operation, as the heating value of the syngas decreases, a greater net system power output and efficiency is possible due to the increased turbine mass flow. However, the gas turbine is more vulnerable to compressor surge and the blade metal becomes more overheated. These two problems can be mitigated by reductions in two parameters: the firing temperature and the nitrogen flow to the combustor. With the restrictions on surge margin and metal temperature, the net system performance decreases compared to the cases without restrictions, especially in the surge margin control range. The net power outputs of all syngas cases converge to a similar level as the degree of integration approaches zero. The difference in net power output between unrestricted and restricted operation increases as the fuel heating value decreases. The optimal integration degree, which shows the greatest net system power output and efficiency, increases with decreasing syngas heating value.

  16. Effects of syngas type on the operation and performance of a gas turbine in integrated gasification combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Jong Jun [Graduate School, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tong Seop, E-mail: kts@inha.ac.k [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jeong L. [Center for Next Generation Heat Exchangers, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas was investigated. {yields} A full off-design analysis was performed for a wide syngas heating value range. {yields} Restrictions on compressor surge margin and turbine metal temperature were considered. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas. Four different syngases were evaluated as fuels for a gas turbine in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). A full off-design analysis of the gas turbine was performed. Without any restrictions on gas turbine operation, as the heating value of the syngas decreases, a greater net system power output and efficiency is possible due to the increased turbine mass flow. However, the gas turbine is more vulnerable to compressor surge and the blade metal becomes more overheated. These two problems can be mitigated by reductions in two parameters: the firing temperature and the nitrogen flow to the combustor. With the restrictions on surge margin and metal temperature, the net system performance decreases compared to the cases without restrictions, especially in the surge margin control range. The net power outputs of all syngas cases converge to a similar level as the degree of integration approaches zero. The difference in net power output between unrestricted and restricted operation increases as the fuel heating value decreases. The optimal integration degree, which shows the greatest net system power output and efficiency, increases with decreasing syngas heating value.

  17. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  18. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  19. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelisti, Sara [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, Carla [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Clift, Roland [Centre for Environmental Strategy, The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris [Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  20. Novel integrated gasification combined cycles with a carbon dioxide recovery option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J.

    1997-08-01

    Two novel combined cycle configurations offering potential to reduce the cost of electricity from coal-fired IGCCs were investigated - one based on the use of flue gas recycling with heat recovery to the recycled stream, the other, aimed at removing carbon dioxide, using flue gas recycle and heat recovery but with oxygen as the oxidant in the gas turbine. The investigation included the use of fuels other than coal. It was found that gasification efficiency was increased by use of a coal/Orimulsion slurry. Flue gas recycling at 1 bar for the industrial gas turbine offered a gain of about 0.4 percentage points. In a standard IGCC the industrial gas turbine showed an advantage of 1.5 percentage points over the aero-derived machine. The least cost electricity with CO{sub 2} removal was achieved using an oxygen-fed industrial gas turbine with flue gas recycling and recovery. Several recommendations are made for further studies to reduce costs of electricity production. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs., 1 app.

  1. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  2. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  3. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  4. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  5. Integrated biomass gasification combined cycle distributed generation plant with reciprocating gas engine and ORC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalina, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The paper theoretically investigates the performance of a distributed generation plant made up of gasifier, Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) machine as a bottoming unit. The system can be used for maximization of electricity production from biomass in the case where there is no heat demand for cogeneration plant. To analyze the performance of the gasifier a model based on the thermodynamic equilibrium approach is used. Performance of the gas engine is estimated on the basis of the analysis of its theoretical thermodynamic cycle. Three different setups of the plant are being examined. In the first one the ORC module is driven only by the heat recovered from engine exhaust gas and cooling water. Waste heat from a gasifier is used for gasification air preheating. In the second configuration a thermal oil circuit is applied. The oil transfers heat from engine and raw gas cooler into the ORC. In the third configuration it is proposed to apply a double cascade arrangement of the ORC unit with a two-stage low temperature evaporation of working fluid. This novel approach allows utilization of the total waste heat from the low temperature engine cooling circuit. Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. The results obtained were compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency of the system. The lowest obtained value of the efficiency was 23.6% while the highest one was 28.3%. These are very favorable values in comparison with other existing small and medium scale biomass-fuelled power generation plants. - Highlights: →The study presents performance analysis of a biomass-fuelled local power plant. →Downdraft wood gasifier, gas engine and ORC module are modelled theoretically. →Method for estimation of the producer gas fired engine performance is proposed. →Two gas engines of different characteristics are taken into account. →Different arrangements of the bottoming ORC cycle ere examined.

  6. Recent advances in oxygen production for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM) technology that reduces the overall cost of the gasification process by 7 per cent. Gasification is a proven, but expensive technology for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas from low cost hydrocarbon feedstock. Gasification is also an alternative to conventional steam methane reforming based on natural gas. A key cost element in gasification is the production of oxygen. For that reason, Air Products Canada Limited developed a ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates very well with the gasification process and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) option for production of electrical power from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed how the superior economics of ITM can allow gasification to compete with steam methane reforming and thereby reduce dependency of oil sands development on increasingly scarce and costly natural gas.

  7. Pinch technology in theory and its application to a biomass integrated gasification and humid air turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Pinch Technology has become a powerful tool for the optimization of the design of heat exchanger networks during the last 20 years. In this work, the different aspects of the methodology have been studied both in a theoretical way and in a practical approach. The first part of the work is a systematic analysis of the pinch technology: what it is, how it works, what are its advantages and disadvantages. There is also a brief discussion about the pinch method and other methods which handle energy recovery problems. Once the philosophy of the pinch technology has been theoretically studied, the second part of the work is its application to two different processes. The first process analyzed is a relatively simple but realistically practical problem based on a two distillation columns system. The knowledge gained during the calculations of this process is used in the second and more complex one. This second process is an integrated biomass gasification and humid air turbine (IGHAT) which has been already optimized by a heat balance program. The application of the pinch technology to this process shows the huge potential for improvements that this technology can provide in order to save energy. All the calculations are handled by the pinch technology software program `SuperTarget`. This program is evaluated along the work. In spite of some shortcomings that have been noticed, the usefulness of the program can be claimed 26 refs, 28 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  9. Fossil fuel savings, carbon emission reduction and economic attractiveness of medium-scale integrated biomass gasification combined cycle cogeneration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper theoretically investigates the system made up of fluidized bed gasifier, SGT-100 gas turbine and bottoming steam cycle. Different configurations of the combined cycle plant are examined. A comparison is made between systems with producer gas (PG and natural gas (NG fired turbine. Supplementary firing of the PG in a heat recovery steam generator is also taken into account. The performance of the gas turbine is investigated using in-house built Engineering Equation Solver model. Steam cycle is modeled using GateCycleTM simulation software. The results are compared in terms of electric energy generation efficiency, CO2 emission and fossil fuel energy savings. Finally there is performed an economic analysis of a sample project. The results show relatively good performance in the both alternative configurations at different rates of supplementary firing. Furthermore, positive values of economic indices were obtained. [Acknowledgements. This work was carried out within the frame of research project no. N N513 004036, titled: Analysis and optimization of distributed energy conversion plants integrated with gasification of biomass. The project is financed by the Polish Ministry of Science.

  10. Texaco gasification power systems for clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, M.E.; Thone, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Texaco Gasification Power Systems integrate Texaco's proprietary gasification technology with proven power generation and energy recovery schemes for efficient and environmentally superior fuel utilization. Texaco's commercial experience on gasification spans a period of over 40 years. During this time, the Texaco Gasification Process has been used primarily to manufacture synthesis gas for chemical applications in one hundred commercial installations worldwide. Power generation using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) concept has been successfully demonstrated at the Texaco-sponsored Cool Water Coal Gasification Program in California. The environmental superiority of this technology was demonstrated by the consistent performance of Cool Water in exceeding the strict emission standards of the state of California. Currently, several TGPS projects are under evaluation worldwide for power generation in the range of 90MW to 1300MW

  11. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  12. The development of municipal solid waste treatment technology based on refuse derived fuel and bio-gasification integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2006-01-01

    The amount of MSW generated in big cities in Malaysia is very alarming. In Kuala Lumpur, the total waste generated is about 2,500 t/day. The existing landfills are being overused and should have been closed by now. However, till today, the solution is not really in place. The Government is planning to build a 1200 t/day Gasification and Ash Melting (GAMF) plant to partially resolve the above problem in Kuala Lumpur. However, even though environmentally rated as one of the best, technology is not cheap, thus failed to meet the BATNEEC concept. Currently, the Government, through the Strategic Master Plan, encourages the development of local technologies that are cheap and yet comply to international standards. As such, a private company, Recycle Energy Sdn Bhd (RESB), took the initiative to develop the RDF from Malaysian MSW. MINT Incineration and Renewable Energy Center (MIREC) has been commissioned to collaborate in the development of this technology, together with Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). A 15 t/day pilot scale RDF plant was established in 2001 in Kajang, to refine the concept as well as to establish more data. One year later, the company was given permission by the Government to set up a 700 t/day commercial facility in Semenyih, based on early success of the pilot testing done in Kajang. The integration of RDF, Anaerobic Digester and Fuel Cell Technology is adopted to generate in house power and export to the national grid, besides recycling a portion of the waste materials. This integration seems to be the best environmental as well as economic option that complies to BATNEEC concept. This paper highlights and discusses the issues and challenges in the process of developing RDF technology, both at the pilot scale R and D as well as the commercial scale plant planning

  13. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC

  14. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K; Orjala, M [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Carbon behavior in the cyclic operation of dry desulfurization process for oxy-fuel integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Power plant with semi-closed gas turbine and O_2–CO_2 coal gasifier was studied. • Dry gas sulfur removal sorbent was improved for durability to carbon deposition. • The improved sorbent showed very low amount of deposited carbon during operation. • The sorbent is regenerable to be used repeatedly in the cyclic operation. • The sorbent exhibited high sulfur-removal performance in the cyclic operation. - Abstract: The dry sulfur-removal process is essential to provide suitable syngas treatment for the oxy-fuel integrated gasification combined cycle power generation plant. It is required that the dry sulfur-removal process to be durable to the carbon deposition due to syngas containing high concentration of carbon monoxide in addition to achieve sufficient performance for sulfur removal. Zinc ferrite sorbent is the most promising candidate for the dry sulfur-removal process. The sorbent was improved to enhance durability to the carbon deposition by modifying preparation. The improved sorbent was prepared from sulfates as the raw materials of zinc ferrite, while the former sorbent was using nitrates as the raw materials. The improved sorbent as well as the former sorbent were evaluated on the performance and carbon deposition tendency in oxy-fuel syngas condition in a fixed bed reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The results expressed that the improved sorbent has higher desulfurization performance and durability to carbon deposition in the condition expected for cyclic operation of the sulfur-removal process in comparison with the former sorbent. The improved sorbent possessed the superior desulfurization performance as well as the capability for inhibit carbon deposition in the oxy-fuel syngas conditions. The results confirmed the enhanced feasibility of the dry sulfur-removal process by utilizing the improved sorbent.

  17. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  18. Gasification: in search of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whysall, M. [UOP N.V., Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Gasification of low cost feed stocks such as coal and heavy residues enables the supply of synthesis gas, hydrogen, power and utilities at a lower cost relative to conventional methodologies. The resulting synthesis gas can be used, after cleaning and sulphur removal, as a fuel or to produce other chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, or Fischer-Tropsch liquids. The paper covers coal and residue upgrading through the use of gasification, conversion and hydroprocessing and its integration with synthesis gas treatment and hydrogen recovery. Residue conversion choices can be influenced by hydrogen cost which can be controlled by integrating hydrogen production, recovery and purification into the gasification complex. Flow-schemes that maximize generation efficiency and minimize capital and operating costs and offer possibilities for CO{sub 2} capture are discussed. 3 figs.

  19. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzinger, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility

  20. Coal gasification integration with solid oxide fuel cell and chemical looping combustion for high-efficiency power generation with inherent CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiyi; Lior, Noam; Xiang, Wenguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power system integrating coal gasification with SOFC and chemical looping combustion. • The plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with complete CO 2 separation. • Energy and exergy analysis of the entire plant is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis shows a nearly constant power output when SOFC temperature and pressure vary. • NiO oxygen carrier shows higher plant efficiency than using Fe 2 O 3 and CuO. - Abstract: Since solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) produce electricity with high energy conversion efficiency, and chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process for fuel conversion with inherent CO 2 separation, a novel combined cycle integrating coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cell, and chemical looping combustion was configured and analyzed. A thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy was performed to investigate the performance of the integrated system and its sensitivity to major operating parameters. The major findings include that (1) the plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with ∼100% CO 2 capture for SOFC at 900 °C, 15 bar, fuel utilization factor = 0.85, fuel reactor temperature = 900 °C and air reactor temperature = 950 °C, using NiO as the oxygen carrier in the CLC unit. (2) In this parameter neighborhood the fuel utilization factor, the SOFC temperature and SOFC pressure have small effects on the plant net power efficiency because changes in pressure and temperature that increase the power generation by the SOFC tend to decrease the power generation by the gas turbine and steam cycle, and v.v.; an advantage of this system characteristic is that it maintains a nearly constant power output even when the temperature and pressure vary. (3) The largest exergy loss is in the gasification process, followed by those in the CO 2 compression and the SOFC. (4) Compared with the CLC Fe 2 O 3 and CuO oxygen carriers, NiO results in higher plant net power efficiency. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first

  1. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  2. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  3. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H; Morris, M; Rensfelt, E [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  4. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  5. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/investigational study of technology/study of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power system; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen, sekitan gaska fukugo hatsuden system kento hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the following were conducted: element study of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, survey of technology of the coal gasification power generation, study of the practical scale IGCC, etc. The FY 1991 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d furnace equipment, evaluation test on the test coal for pilot plant was made. In the study of gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine use, measuring duct was fabricated for measurement of combustion gas temperature/pressure, etc. In the simulational study of the total system of combined cycle power generation, review/modification of part of the simulation model and detailing of the model were conducted by comparison with the data on pilot plant operation. In the technology study, joint technology conferences were held for discussions between Japan and Australia, Japan and the U.S., and Japan and Canada. As to the practical scale IGCC, the initially planned output capacity and thermal efficiency were studied based on the knowledge/information obtained through the R and D on the 200t/d pilot plant. (NEDO)

  6. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  7. Coal gasification in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S [Commissione delle Comunita' Europee, Bruxelles (Belgio). Direzione Generale dell' Energia, Direzione delle Tecnologie

    1992-02-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes.

  8. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    A description is presented of the different types of integrated gasifiers that at the moment are used in the synthesis gas production to be used, with different fuels in the generation of electricity in Combined Cycle. Three cases of application of integrated gasifiers are analyzed. The first it is the engine power upgrade of a Combined Cycle power plant to natural gas to burn fuel of bad quality in an integrated gasifier (CCGI). The second one examines the incorporation of a shift reactor in which the synthesis gas is transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} which are used to move the turbine to gas, adapted for pure hydrogen. Finally is studied the amount of other by-products that can be obtained from these co-generation cycles such as CO{sub 2} to be used in secondary recovery of oil wells, N{sub 2} to be used in the fertilizer industry or in the proper oil production and H{sub 2} to be used in the oil industry or the generation with fuel cells. All the cases are studied in quantitative form, making the balance of mass and energy of each one of them. In order to give more practical sense to the calculations, the engineering data of the Valladolid Power station of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have been taken as base. This article provides a basic idea, but very practical, to estimate the fuel consumption of the different modes of arrangement of a CCGI power station, as well as the volumes of the different gases that can be produced and the modifications to the size of the equipment that is required. [Spanish] Se presenta una descripcion de los diferentes tipos de gasificadores integrados que actualmente se utilizan en la produccion de gas de sintesis para ser utilizados, con diferentes combustibles, en la generacion de electricidad con Ciclo Combinado. Se analizan tres casos de aplicacion de gasificadores integrados. El primero es la repotenciacion de una planta de Ciclo Combinado a gas natural para quemar combustible de mala calidad en un gasificador

  9. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  10. Comparative evaluation of power generation systems with integrated gasification of biomass; Vergleich von Systemen zur Stromerzeugung mit integrierter Biomassevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Gasification of biomass followed by power generation from the lean product gas can make a significant contribution to power generation without affecting the climate or environment. It is made even more interesting by the high efficiencies and promising pollution ratings that can be achieved. To make full use of this technology, some technical problems still require solving, and some non-technical obstacles need to be removed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass die Biomassevergasung mit anschliessender Verstromung des Schwachgases einen nennenswerten Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energiebereitstellung in Europa leisten kann. Dies gilt insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund der erreichbaren hohen Stromwirkungsgrade und der vielversprechenden Umweltkenngroessen, durch die diese Technik gekennzeichnet ist. Um die Vorteile der Biomassevergasung realisieren zu koennen, muessen jedoch noch verschiedene technische Probleme geloest und nicht technische Hindernisse aus dem Weg geraeumt werden. (orig./SR)

  11. Enhanced degradation of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) under the micro-oxygen condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Zhu, Hao; Li, Kun; Wang, Dexin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study an integration of micro-electrolysis with biological reactor (MEBR) for strengthening removal of phenolic compounds in coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated MEBR achieved high efficiencies in removal of COD and phenolic compounds as well as improvement of biodegradability of CGW under the micro-oxygen condition. The integrated MEBR process was more favorable to improvement of the structural stability of activated sludge and biodiversity of specific functional microbial communities. Especially, Shewanella and Pseudomonas were enriched to accelerate the extracellular electron transfer, finally facilitating the degradation of phenolic compounds. Moreover, MEBR process effectively relieved passivation of Fe-C filler surface and prolonged lifespan of Fe-C filler. Accordingly, the synergetic effect between iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and biological action played a significant role in performance of the integrated process. Therefore, the integrated MEBR was a promising practical process for enhancing CGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  13. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  14. A novel integration of three-dimensional electro-Fenton and biological activated carbon and its application in the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun

    2015-11-01

    A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  17. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  18. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only limited....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...... success in Europe and North America (Klein et al., 2004). However, pyrolysis and gasification of waste are generally expected to become more widely used in the future. A main reason for this is that public perceptions of waste incineration in some countries is a major obstacle for installing new...

  19. Integrated Sensing & Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier & Syngas Cooler. Topical Rerport for Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Aditya

    2011-02-17

    This Topical Report for the final Phase III of the program summarizes the results from the Task 3 of the program. In this task, the separately designed extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and model predictive controls (MPC) with ideal sensing, developed in Phase II, were integrated to achieve the overall sensing and control system for the gasification section of an IGCC plant. The EKF and MPC algorithms were updated and re-tuned to achieve closed-loop system stability as well as good steady-state and transient control response. In particular, the performance of the integrated EKF and MPC solution was tested extensively through multiple simulation studies to achieve improved steady-state as well as transient performance, with coal as well as coal-petcoke blended fuel, in the presence of unknown modeling errors as well as sensor errors (noise and bias). The simulation studies demonstrated significant improvements in steady state and transient operation performance, similar to that achieved by MPC with ideal sensors in Phase II of the program.

  20. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  1. The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.

  2. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  3. Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by an energy integration with the heat cascade concept and considering energy recovery in a steam Rankine cycle. A detailed inventory of energy and exergy losses of the different process sections is presented and potential process improvements due to a better utility choice or feed pretreatment like drying or pyrolysis are discussed. While Viking gasification performs better as an isolated gas generator than state-of-the-art FICFB gasification, there is large potential for improvement of the FICFB system. Furthermore, a concluding analysis of the gasification systems in an integrated plant for synthetic natural gas production shows that FICFB gasification is more suitable overall due to a more advantageous energy conversion related to the producer gas composition.

  4. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  5. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  6. Dry syngas purification process for coal gas produced in oxy-fuel type integrated gasification combined cycle power generation with carbon dioxide capturing feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Electricity production from coal fuel with minimizing efficiency penalty for the carbon dioxide abatement will bring us sustainable and compatible energy utilization. One of the promising options is oxy-fuel type Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (oxy-fuel IGCC) power generation that is estimated to achieve thermal efficiency of 44% at lower heating value (LHV) base and provide compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with concentration of 93 vol%. The proper operation of the plant is established by introducing dry syngas cleaning processes to control halide and sulfur compounds satisfying tolerate contaminants level of gas turbine. To realize the dry process, the bench scale test facility was planned to demonstrate the first-ever halide and sulfur removal with fixed bed reactor using actual syngas from O 2 -CO 2 blown gasifier for the oxy-fuel IGCC power generation. Design parameter for the test facility was required for the candidate sorbents for halide removal and sulfur removal. Breakthrough test was performed on two kinds of halide sorbents at accelerated condition and on honeycomb desulfurization sorbent at varied space velocity condition. The results for the both sorbents for halide and sulfur exhibited sufficient removal within the satisfactory short depth of sorbent bed, as well as superior bed conversion of the impurity removal reaction. These performance evaluation of the candidate sorbents of halide and sulfur removal provided rational and affordable design parameters for the bench scale test facility to demonstrate the dry syngas cleaning process for oxy-fuel IGCC system as the scaled up step of process development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  8. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R; Lindblom, M [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  9. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  10. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  11. Radiolytic carbon gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A vast body of knowledge has been accumulated over the past thirty years related to the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator in carbon dioxide cooled Reactors. In the last ten years the dominance of the internal pore structure of the graphite in controlling the rate of carbon gasification has been steadily revealed. The object of this paper is to sift the large body of evidence and show how internal gas composition and hence carbon gasification is controlled by the virgin pore structure and the changes in pore structure brought about by progressive radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  12. Effect of gasification agent on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell and biomass gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colpan, C.O.; Hamdullahpur, F.; Dincer, I.; Yoo, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an integrated SOFC and biomass gasification system is modeled. For this purpose, energy and exergy analyses are applied to the control volumes enclosing the components of the system. However, SOFC is modeled using a transient heat transfer model developed by the authors in a previous study. Effect of gasification agent, i.e. air, enriched oxygen and steam, on the performance of the overall system is studied. The results show that steam gasification case yields the highest electrical efficiency, power-to-heat ratio and exergetic efficiency, but the lowest fuel utilization efficiency. For this case, it is found that electrical, fuel utilization and exergetic efficiencies are 41.8%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, and the power-to-heat ratio is 4.649. (author)

  13. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  14. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  15. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    -blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  17. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  18. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  19. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  20. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  1. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilized soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Project has started 1995 by determination of fertilized areas in Finland, Portugal and Spain. According to the results obtained from the analysis proper amount of pine and eucalyptus samples were selected for combustion and gasification tests. After that atmospheric and pressurized combustion and gasifications tests, including few series of gas clean up tests, have been performed by INETI and VTT. The 1 MW-scale long term test, were conducted by CIEMAT. The results are indicating that fertilization increases the potassium content in trees up to 50% or more depending upon the climate and conditions in soil. Alkali release seems to be an inverse function of the pressure indicating that the highest alkali release take place under atmospheric conditions corresponding to 111 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is over 25 wt.-% of total potassium in pine and 214 mg/Nm{sup 3} which is 32 wt.-% of total potassium in eucalyptus as received in the 1 MW ABFBC-tests. The potassium release is higher than allowed for the gas turbine process. Therefore the flue gas need to be cleaned up before it enters the gas turbine. For alkali removal at the operation conditions in oxidizing environment, the sorbent technology looks promising. According to the gasification tests the alkali release seems to be somewhat lower. Using for example filter system such as ceramic cancel filter the alkali emissions can be kept below requirements for gas turbine process using temperatures between 460-480 deg C. The research conducted here shows that fertilized biomass accumulate nutrients such potassium more than the non fertilized biomasses. Also the soil conditions has an effect to that. Due to the fact that alkalies in biomass are bonded differently than that of coal, the release is also higher. It could be shown that in combined gas turbine process the release of potassium is too high and need to be removed from the flue gas. It could also be shown that alkalies can be captured between 95-100 % at high temperature

  2. Performance, cost and environmental assessment of gasification-based electricity in India: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Abha; Singh, Udayan; Jayant; Singh, Ajay K.; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2017-07-01

    Coal gasification processes are crucial to decarbonisation in the power sector. While underground coal gasification (UCG) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) are different in terms of the site of gasification, they have considerable similarities in terms of the types of gasifiers used. Of course, UCG offers some additional advantages such as reduction of the fugitive methane emissions accompanying the coal mining process. Nevertheless, simulation of IGCC plants involving surface coal gasification is likely to give reasonable indication of the 3E (efficiency, economics and emissions) prospects of the gasification pathway towards electricity. This paper will aim at Estimating 3E impacts (efficiency, environment, economics) of gasification processes using simulation carried out in the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) software framework. Key plant level controls which will be studied in this paper will be based on Indian financial regulations and operating costs which are specific to the country. Also, impacts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in these plants will be studied. The various parameters that can be studied are plant load factor, impact of coal quality and price, type of CO2 capture process, capital costs etc. It is hoped that relevant insights into electricity generation from gasification may be obtained with this paper.

  3. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  4. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  5. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  6. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.V.; Job, A.E.; Mussel, W.N.; Pasa, V.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn (v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Zn v , that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  7. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O 2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O 2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO 2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  8. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  9. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  10. Incineration and pyrolysis vs. steam gasification of electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2018-05-15

    Constructional complexity of items and their integration are the most distinctive features of electronic wastes. These wastes consist of mineral and polymeric materials and have high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. Elimination of polymeric components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases is the purpose of thermal treatment of electronic wastes. In the case of gasification, gaseous product of the process may be, after cleaning, used for energy recovery or chemical synthesis. If not melted, metals from solid products of thermal treatment of electronic waste could be recovered by hydrometallurgical processing. Three basic, high temperature ways of electronic waste processing, i.e. smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and steam gasification were shortly discussed in the paper, giving a special attention to gasification under steam, illustrated by laboratory experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  12. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  13. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  14. Gasification of Phycoremediation Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been utilized in wastewater treatment strategies in various contexts. Uncontrolled algal species are a cheap and effective remediation strategy. This study investigates the thermochemical potential of wastewater treatment algae (phycoremediation as a means to produce renewable fuel streams and bio-products. Three gasification temperature levels were investigated in an auger gasification platform: 760, 860, and 960 °C. Temperature increases resulted in corresponding increases in CO and H2 concentrations in the producer gas from 12.8% and 4.7% at 760 °C to 16.9% and 11.4% at 960 °C, respectively. Condensable yields ranged between 15.0% and 16.6%, whereas char yields fell between 46.0% and 51.0%. The high ash content (40% on a dry basis was the main cause of the elevated char yields. On the other hand, the relatively high yields of condensables and a high carbon concentration in the char were attributed to the low conversion efficiency in this gasification platform. Combustion kinetics of the raw algae, in a thermogravimetric analyzer, showed three consecutive stages of weight loss: drying, devolatilization, and char oxidation. Increasing the algae gasification temperature led to increases in the temperature of peak char oxidation. Future studies will further investigate improvements to the performance of auger gasification.

  15. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  16. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhaoqiu; Yin, Xiuli; Xu, Jie; Ma, Longlong

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  17. Method and system for controlling a gasification or partial oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelle, Peter L; Der, Victor K

    2015-02-10

    A method and system for controlling a fuel gasification system includes optimizing a conversion of solid components in the fuel to gaseous fuel components, controlling the flux of solids entrained in the product gas through equipment downstream of the gasifier, and maximizing the overall efficiencies of processes utilizing gasification. A combination of models, when utilized together, can be integrated with existing plant control systems and operating procedures and employed to develop new control systems and operating procedures. Such an approach is further applicable to gasification systems that utilize both dry feed and slurry feed.

  18. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  19. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  20. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  1. Cogeneration (hydrogen and electrical power) using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.

    1994-01-01

    The information herein presents preliminary technical and cost data for an actual case study using Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) technology, incorporated as part of an overall refinery upgrade project. This study is based on gasification of asphalt and vacuum residue (see Table 1, feedstock properties) to produce hydrogen plus carbon monoxide (synthesis gas) for the ultimate production of high purity hydrogen and power at a major refinery in Eastern Europe. A hydrogen production of 101,000 Nm 3 /hr (9.1 tons/hr) at 99.9 (wt.%) purity plus 50 MW (net) power slated to be used by the refinery was considered for this study. Figure I shows a block diagram depicting the general refinery configuration upgrade as envisioned by the owner operator; included in the configuration as shown in the shaded area is the TGPS plant. Figure II shows a block flow diagram depicting the TGPS unit and its battery limits as defined for this project. The technology best suited to meet the demand for clean and efficient electric power generation and hydrogen production is the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) process. This technology is based upon Texaco's proprietary gasification technology which is well proven with over 40 years of gasification experience. There are currently 37 operating units in the world today which have licensed the Texaco gasification process technology, with another 12 in design/construction. Total synthesis gas (hydrogen + carbon monoxide) production capacity is over 2,8 billion standard cubic feet per day. The TGPS, which is basically the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) based upon the Texaco gasification technology, was developed by combining and integrating gasification with power generation facilities. (author). 3 figs., 9 tabs., 4 refs

  2. Gasification - effective carbon control. The 8th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: new projects and gasifiers; new feedstocks, fuels and syngas treatment; CO{sub 2} capture and hydrogen production; and devices and development. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the database. The presentations can be downloaded for free from www.icheme.org/gasification2007.

  3. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar; Valmundsson, Arnar Snaer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  4. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2018-06-01

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  8. Rotary Kiln Gasification of Solid Waste for Base Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-02

    design principles : • accept and process mixed, unsorted municipal waste materials • minimize process energy required through careful heat management ...ABSTRACT This project was undertaken to design and construct a battalion-scale waste-to-energy (WTE) system based on the principle of gasification...careful heat management and use of hydraulics, and (3) to integrate into contingency utility systems by using standard diesel generators. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  9. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen [ed.

    2008-11-15

    In total 20 international and national experts were invited to give presentations (The PPT-presentations are collected in this volume).The seminar was divided into three parts: Production technologies; Applications - Gas turbines and gas Engines - Biomethane as vehicle fuel- Syngas in industrial processes; Strategy, policy and vision. Production of synthetic fuels through gasification of biomass is expected to develop rapidly due to political ambitions related to the strong fossil fuel dependency, especially within the transportation sector, security of supply issues and the growing environmental concern. Techniques that offer a possibility to produce high quality fuels in an efficient and sustainable way are of great importance. In this context gasification is expected to play a central part. The indirect gasification concept has been further developed in recent years and there are now pilot and demonstration plants as well as commercial plants in operation. The RandD activities at the semi-industrial plant in Guessing, Austria have resulted in the first commercial plant, in Oberwart. The design data is 8.5 MW{sub th} and 2.7 MW{sub e} which gives an electric efficiency of 32 % and the possibility to produce biomethane. In this scale conventional CHP production based on combustion of solid biomass and the steam cycle would result in a poor electric efficiency. Metso Power has complemented the 12 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden with a 2 MW{sub th} indirect gasifier. The gasifier is financed by Gothenburg Energy and built for RD purposes. Gothenburg Energy in collaboration with E.ON Sweden will in a first stage build a 20 MW plant for biomethane production (as vehicle fuel and for grid injection) in Gothenburg based on the indirect gasification technology. The plant is expected to be in operation in 2012. The next stage involves an 80 MW plant with a planned start of operation in 2015. Indirect gasification of biomass

  10. Ceramic membranes for gas processing in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Lin, C.X.C.; Ding, L.; Thambimuthu, K.; da Costa, J.C.D. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Pre-combustion options via coal gasification, especially integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes, are attracting the attention of governments, industry and the research community as an attractive alternative to conventional power generation. It is possible to build an IGCC plant with CCS with conventional technologies however; these processes are energy intensive and likely to reduce power plant efficiencies. Novel ceramic membrane technologies, in particular molecular sieving silica (MSS) and pervoskite membranes, offer the opportunity to reduce efficiency losses by separating gases at high temperatures and pressures. MSS membranes can be made preferentially selective for H{sub 2}, enabling both enhanced production, via a water-gas shift membrane reactor, and recovery of H{sub 2} from the syngas stream at high temperatures. They also allow CO{sub 2} to be concentrated at high pressures, reducing the compression loads for transportation and enabling simple integration with CO{sub 2} storage or sequestration operations. Perovskite membranes provide a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for air separation by delivering the tonnage of oxygen required for coal gasification at a reduced cost. In this review we examine ceramic membrane technologies for high temperature gas separation and discuss the operational, mechanical, design and process considerations necessary for their successful integration into IGCC with CCS systems.

  11. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  12. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  13. Italian experience in gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, N.U.

    1991-01-01

    After tracing the historical highlights representing the development of the Fauser (Montecatini) technology based gasification processes for the production of ammonia and methanol, this paper outlines the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the Montecatini (Italy) process plant for heavy liquid hydrocarbons gasification by means of partial auto-thermal combustion with oxygen. The outline makes evident the technical-economical validity of the Montecatini design solutions which include energy recovery (even the heat dispersed through the gasifier walls is recovered and utilized to produce low pressure steam to preheat the fuel oil); reduced oxygen consumption by the high temperature preheating of all reagents; the ecologically compatible elimination of gas black; as well as, desulfurization with materials recovery. The plant process descriptions come complete with flowsheets. While demonstrating that the Italian developed technology is historically well rooted, the Author stresses that the current design versions of Montecatini gasification plants are up to date with innovative solutions, especially, with regard to pollution abatement, and cites the need for a more concerted marketing effort on the part of local industry to help improve the competitiveness of the Italian made product

  14. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Larsson, Eva; Thorin, Eva; Dahlquist, Erik; Yu, Xinhai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H 2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  15. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  16. FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS DURING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal treatment is an interesting strategy to dispose of municipal solid waste: it reduces the volume and weight of the material dumped in landfills and generates alternative energy. However, the process emits pollutants, such as dioxins and furans. The present study evaluated MSW gasification-combustion integrated technologies in terms of dioxin and furan emission; and compared the obtained data with literature results on incineration, to point out which operational features differentiate the release of pollutants by these two processes. The results show that the process of integrated gasification and combustion emitted 0.28 ng N-1 m-3, expressed in TEQ (Total Equivalent Toxicity, of PCDD/F, less than the maximum limits allowed by local and international laws, whereas incineration normally affords values above these limits and requires a gas treatment system. The distinct operational conditions of the two thermal processes, especially those related to temperature and the presence of oxygen and fixed carbon, led to a lower PCDD/F emission in gasification.

  17. Fate of alkali and trace metals in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, K.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1998-01-01

    The fate of alkali metals (Na, K) and eleven toxic trace elements (Hg, Cd, Be, Se, Sb, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni) in biomass gasification have been extensively investigated in Finland in the past ten years. The former due to the gas turbine requirements and the latter to comply with environmental regulations. In this paper the results of several experimental studies to measure Na and K in the vapor phase after the gas cooler of a simplified (air-blown) Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) system are reported. Also, trace element emissions from an IGCC plant using alfalfa as the feedstock are discussed and the concentration of a few toxic trace metals in the vapor phase in the gasifier product gas are reported. (author)

  18. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  19. The 7th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'extending resources for clean energy'. Sessions covered coal gasification, gasification of biomass and waste, hydrogen and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and development. The poster papers are also included. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  20. Utilization of gases from biomass gasification in a reforming reactor coupled to an integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell: Simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costamagna Paola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the high-efficiency options currently under study for a rational employment of hydrogen are fuel cells. In this scenario, the integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell is a new concept recently proposed by Rolls-Royce. The basic unit of a modular plant is the so called "strip", containing an electro-chemical reactor formed by a number of IP-SOFC modules, and a reforming reactor. For a better under standing of the behavior of a system of this kind, a simulation model has been set up for both the electrochemical reactor and the reformer; both models follow the approach typically employed in the simulation of chemical reactors, based on the solution of mass and energy balances. In the case of the IP-SOFC electro chemical reactor, the model includes the calculation of the electrical resistance of the stack (that is essentially due to ohmic losses, activation polar is action and mass transport limitations, the mass balances of the gaseous flows, the energy balances of gaseous flows (anodic and cathodic and of the solid. The strip is designed in such a way that the reaction in the reforming reactor is thermally sustained by the sensible heat of the hot air exiting the electrochemical section; this heat exchange is taken into account in the model of the reformer, which includes the energy balance of gaseous flows and of the solid structure. Simulation results are reported and discussed for both the electrochemical reactor in stand-alone configuration (including comparison to experimental data in a narrow range of operating conditions and for the complete strip.

  1. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  2. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  3. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  4. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  5. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  6. A study on ultra heavy oil gasification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidoguchi, Kazuhiro; Ashizawa, Masami; Taki, Masato; Ishimura, Masato; Takeno, Keiji

    2000-07-01

    Raising the thermal efficiency of a thermal power plant is an important issue from viewpoints of effective energy utilization and environmental protection. In view of raising the thermal efficiency, a gas turbine combined cycle power generation is considered to be very effective. The thermal efficiency of the latest LNG combined cycle power plant has been raised by more than 50%. On the other hand, the diversification of fuels to ensure supply stability is also an important issue, particularly in Japan where natural resources are scarce. Because of excellent handling characteristics petroleum and LNG which produces clean combustion are used in many sectors, and so the demand for such fuels is expected to grow. However, the availability of such fuels is limited, and supplies will be exhausted in the near future. The development of a highly efficient and environment-friendly gas turbine combined cycle using ultra heavy oil such as Orimulsion{trademark} (trademark of BITOR) is thus a significant step towards resolving these two issues. Chubu Electric Power Co, Inc., the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) conducted a collaboration from 1994 to 1998 with the objective of developing an ultra heavy oil integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Construction of the ultra heavy oil gasification testing facility (fuel capacity:2.4t/d) was completed in 1995, and Orimulsion{trademark} gasification tests were carried out in 1995 and 1996. In 1997, the hot dedusting facility with ceramic filter and the water scrubber used as a preprocessor of a wet desulfurization process were installed. Gasification and clean up the syngs tests were carried out on Orimulsion{trademark}, Asmulsion{trademark} (trademark of Nisseki Mitsubishi K.K.), and residue oil in 1997 and 1998. The results of the collaboration effort are described below.

  7. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  8. Environmentally favourable electricity production using allothermal coal gasification in accordance with the MBG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, M.; Heek, K.H. van; Knop, K.

    1988-01-01

    Combined gas- and steam turbine power plants with integrated coal gasification are an important foundation alone for the further development of coal processing. The basis of the development is a new allothermal coal gasification system in a fluidized bed, which has been developed from the long operating experience accumulated at a half-scale plant. In contrast with the concept adopted so far of combination with nuclear process heat, in the MGB system (M.A.N.-Bergbauforschung-Gaserzeugung) the reaction heat required for the gasification is obtained by burning part of the coal gas produced. The gasification in the fluidized bed occurs at temperatures of between 800 and 850 0 C within a pressure range of between 20 and 25 bar. The paper describes the integration of the MBG system into a 250 MW power plant as well as the state of development of allothermal coal gasification and test results from the half-scale experimental plant. The construction of a demonstration plant, which will be incorporated in the bypass of a bituminous coal-fired unit, is planned in order to prove the function of the gas generator. (orig.) [de

  9. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  10. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  11. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  12. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  13. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  14. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible. (Auth.)

  15. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires the addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible

  16. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  17. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  18. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  19. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  20. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H 2 . The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H 2 . An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  2. Numerical simulation of coal gasification process using the modifying Watanabe - Otaka model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Papadopoulos; M. Losurdo; H. Spliethoff

    2009-07-01

    High-pressure entrained flow coal gasification is becoming increasingly important particularly in the development of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for the production of electricity. However, there is a lack of knowledge worldwide for the gasification process and more especially for the chemical reactions (reactions rates) that take place under high pressure and temperature. Therefore a gasifier has been designed and is being built at the Institute for Energy Systems (Lehrstuhl fuer Energisysteme - LES) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM). This gasifier is an entrained flow gasifier and has the advantage that it can operate to very high conditions of pressure and temperature, up to 50 bar pressure and 1800{sup o}C temperature. In an ongoing project, a great variety of experiments are planned to determine chemical reactions rates at high pressure conditions. In addition to the experimental work, CFD numerical simulations of pulverized coal gasification are being performed. The aim is to use numerical investigations for preliminary assessment of the facility. The goal is to develop a gasification model suitable for high pressure and condition tailored on the experiments to be used in CFD computations to predict chemical reactions, the heat transfer and the turbulence inside the gasifier. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  5. Combustion and Gasification Collection of Diesel Soot by Means of Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshi YAO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of integrated purification of diesel soot was made by means of microwave heating. The experiment includes combustion and gasification collection. The catalytic effect of ceramic carrier was used in the combustion process. In order to improve the purification efficiency of PM2.5 particles, the surfactants were used in gasification collection. The model of computer control was set up so that the purification course could be controlled. The experimental principle was analyzed. Experiment result indicated that the diesel soot purifying efficiency is more than 90 %. The purification efficiency can be improved further by the optimization design of experimental device.

  6. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  7. Air emission control in a modern industrial gasification-cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifulco, S.; Panico, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper reports the study technology and environmental of new industry integrated gasification - combined cycle - in Priolo Gargallo area at Siracusa. The analysis shows as the suggested industry waste strategy would bring about benefits on both the environmental and economic view points [it

  8. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    -scale DME plants based on gasification of torrefied biomass. 2. Small-scale DME/methanol plants based on gasification of wood chips. 3. Alternative methanol plants based on electrolysis of water and gasification of biomass. The plants were modeled by using the component based thermodynamic modeling...... why the differences, in biomass to DME/methanol efficiency, between the small-scale and the large-scale plants, showed not to be greater, was the high cold gas efficiency of the gasifier used in the small-scale plants (93%). By integrating water electrolysis in a large-scale methanol plant, an almost...... large-scale DME plant) to 63%, due to the relatively inefficient electrolyser....

  9. Pyrolysis and gasification of single biomass particle – new openFoam solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, K; Zuk, P J; Bajer, K; Dudyński, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a new solver biomassGasificationFoam that extended the functionalities of the well-supported open-source CFD code OpenFOAM. The main goal of this development is to provide a comprehensive computational environment for a wide range of applications involving reacting gases and solids. The biomassGasificationFoam is an integrated solver capable of modelling thermal conversion, including evaporation, pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion, of various solid materials. In the paper we show that the gas is hotter than the solid except at the centre of the sample, where the temperature of the solid is higher. This effect is expected because the thermal conductivity of the porous matrix of the solid phase is higher than the thermal conductivity of the gases. This effect, which cannot be considered if thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid is assumed, leads to precise description of heat transfer into wood particles.

  10. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  11. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  12. Allothermal steam gasification of biomass in cyclic multi-compartment bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier/combustor - new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliuta, Ion; Leclerc, Arnaud; Larachi, Faïçal

    2010-05-01

    A new reactor concept of allothermal cyclic multi-compartment fluidized bed steam biomass gasification is proposed and analyzed numerically. The concept combines space and time delocalization to approach an ideal allothermal gasifier. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in periodic time and space sequences of steam biomass gasification and char/biomass combustion is simulated in which the exothermic combustion compartments provide heat into an array of interspersed endothermic steam gasification compartments. This should enhance unit heat integration and thermal efficiency and procure N(2)-free biosyngas with recourse neither to oxygen addition in steam gasification nor contact between flue and syngas. The dynamic, one-dimensional, multi-component, non-isothermal model developed for this concept accounts for detailed solid and gas flow dynamics whereupon gasification/combustion reaction kinetics, thermal effects and freeboard-zone reactions were tied. Simulations suggest that allothermal operation could be achieved with switch periods in the range of a minute supporting practical feasibility for portable small-scale gasification units. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study on the Applicability of Kinetic Models for Shenfu Coal Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient pressure and elevated temperature conditions. Simultaneously, the applicability of the kinetic model for the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars was discussed. The results showed: (i the shrinking un-reacted core model was not appropriate to describe the gasification reaction process of Shenfu coal chars with CO2 in the whole experimental temperature range; (ii at the relatively low temperatures, the modified volumetric model was as good as the random pore model to simulate the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars, while at the elevated temperatures, the modified volumetric model was superior to the random pore model for this process; (iii the integral expression of the modified volumetric model was more favorable than the differential expression of that for fitting the experimental data. Moreover, by simply introducing a function: A = A★exp(ft, it was found that the extensive model of the modified volumetric model could make much better predictions than the modified volumetric model. It was recommended as a convenient empirical model for comprehensive simulation of Shenfu coal char gasification with under conditions close to those of entrained flow gasification.

  14. The influence of chlorine on the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, C von; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Chlorides of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc inhibit the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal. This is observed either by impregnation the wood with the salts before pyrolysis or by mechanically mixing the salts with the charcoal before gasification. Charcoal impregnated or mixed with ammonium chloride reacts more slowly than untreated charcoal. Treating the charcoal with HCl also influences negatively the gasification reactivity, indicating that chlorine plays an important role in the gasification. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T; Frankenhaeuser, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  16. Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Furusjö, Erik; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Landälv, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethanol from co-gasified black liquor and pyrolysis oil at different capacities. • Enables higher biofuel production for given available amount of black liquor. • Opportunity for cost efficient black liquor gasification also in small pulp mills. • The methanol can be cost competitive to 2nd generation ethanol and fossil fuels. • Fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to meet given biofuel demand. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed. It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment

  17. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  18. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  19. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  20. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  1. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  2. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  3. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million

  4. Dynamic models of staged gasification processes. Documentation of gasification simulator; Dynamiske modeller a f trinopdelte forgasningsprocesser. Dokumentation til forgasser simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In connection with the ERP project 'Dynamic modelling of staged gasification processes' a gasification simulator has been constructed. The simulator consists of: a mathematical model of the gasification process developed at Technical University of Denmark, a user interface programme, IGSS, and a communication interface between the two programmes. (BA)

  5. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  6. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  7. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen, J [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1994-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  8. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1993-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  9. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  10. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  11. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  13. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  14. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  15. Gasification processes study of biomass and industrial wastes integrated to a type IGCC cogeneration system. Scientific report PE 5-1, 2003 - BIOCOGAZ; Etude des procedes de gazeification de la biomasse et de residus industriels integres a un systeme de co-generation de type IGCC. Rapport scientifique PE 5-1, 2003 - BIOCOGAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Most, J.M. [Poitiers Univ., Lab. de Combustion et Detonique (LCD) UPR 9028, 86 (France); Lede, J. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 (France)

    2004-07-01

    The exploratory program objective was to define the characteristics of a thermochemical process of pyrolysis-gasification of the biomass or wastes, which can be connected to a direct energy generation application (gas turbines, boilers, engines). This document presents the program methodology. (A.L.B.)

  16. Technologies and trends in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, H.E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Background information is given on the growing interest of energy from biomass. After a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification systems, a state of the art of the technology is given. Finally, recent developments in the Netherlands and abroad are mentioned. 3 figs

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  18. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  19. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  20. Catalytic and noncatalytic gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of pyrolysis oil was studied in a fluidized bed over a wide temperature range (523−914 °C) with and without the use of nickel-based catalysts. Noncatalytically, a typical fuel gas was produced. Both a special designed fluid bed catalyst and a crushed commercial fixed bed catalyst showed

  1. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  2. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, Gil

    1992-04-01

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  4. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  5. Biomass Gasification. The characteristics of technology development and the rate of learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorca Duch, Andreu; Huertas Bermejo, Javier

    2008-09-15

    . In the case of large scale, interest has shifted from electricity generation to biofuel production, primarily due to the failed demonstration projects of the technology coupled with combined cycle for electricity generation. On the other hand, in small scale projects, cogeneration applications have gained interest over heat production. However, there are fewer actors involved in small scale experimentation than in large scale. Once the specific situation of each country has been analyzed, and the main characteristics of the development process have been identified, one of the causes which have hindered the technology to reach the expected commercial stage has been the lack of resources to demonstrate its competitiveness. So far, a significant number of experimentation activities, based on demonstration projects and pilot plants, have proved the future potential of the technology. Nonetheless, the uncertainty, shown by the great majority of actors, about integrating the biomass gasification in their industrial process has hindered the demonstration of its operational feasibility. Following this, further efforts should focus on the creation of incentives for the construction of new plants which integrate this technology in an industrial process already consolidated in the market. An approximation of the number of new plants needed, could be a good indicator of the economical resources required in order to acquire enough experience to make biomass gasification a competitive technology in the short-term. After simulating various future evolutions for small scale cogeneration applications, the learning rate obtained through the learning curves model predict that, building roughly forty plants in six years, the technology can be consolidated firmly in the market. Considering the decrease in the number of new plants built since 2002, the expectancies are not really optimistic. Nevertheless, it is not an unachievable objective if incentives are created by all administrative

  6. Future direction of air separation design for gasification, IGCC and alternative fuel projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, R.J.; Castel-Smith, H.; Smith, A.R.; Sorensen, J.C. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Low pressure and elevated pressure cryogenic air separation units (ASUs) have successfully been applied to support gasification projects worldwide. ASU technology has ranged from traditional, low pressure, standalone facilities supplying products only to the gasification island, to highly integrated, elevated pressure facilities that obtain air feed from and inject excess nitrogen into a gas turbine. The near-term direction of ASUs is increased single unit capacity, process optimizations that will benefit integration with the new generation of higher pressure ratio and increased capacity gas turbines, and overall ASU facility optimization for the specialized requirements of shipboard units for remote gas conversion processes. Longer-term development is proceeding on compression and driver requirements to support cost improvements for 10,000 to 20,000 merit ton per day oxygen facilities for onshore or platform-based gas conversion processes. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Future direction of air separation design for gasification, IGCC and alternative fuel projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, R.J.; Castel-Smith, H.; Smith, A.R.; Sorensen, J.C. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States))

    1998-01-01

    Low pressure and elevated pressure cryogenic air separation units (ASUs) have successfully been applied to support gasification projects worldwide. ASU technology has ranged from traditional, low pressure, standalone facilities supplying products only to the gasification island, to highly integrated, elevated pressure facilities that obtain air feed from and inject excess nitrogen into a gas turbine. The near-term direction of ASUs is increased single unit capacity, process optimizations that will benefit integration with the new generation of higher pressure ratio and increased capacity gas turbines, and overall ASU facility optimization for the specialized requirements of shipboard units for remote gas conversion processes. Longer-term development is proceeding on compression and driver requirements to support cost improvements for 10,000 to 20,000 merit ton per day oxygen facilities for onshore or platform-based gas conversion processes. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Compressed air storage with humidification (CASH) coal gasification power plant investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate and develop a hybrid coal gasification concept which utilizes an air saturator (AS) with an integrated coal gasification/compressed air energy storage (CGS/CAES) plant. This potentially attractive concept is designated as AS/CGS/CAES. In this concept, the coal gasification system provides fuel for the combustors of the CAES reheat turbomachinery train. Motive air from underground storage is humidified by saturators and thereby provides increased power production without additional air consumption. The heat for generating the hot water utilized in the saturators is extracted from waste heat within the overall plant. Multiple alternatives were considered and parametrically analyzed in the study in order to select the most thermodynamically and economically attractive concepts. The major alternatives were differentiated by the type of gasifier, type of CAES turbomachinery, mode of operation, and utilization of waste heat. The results of the study indicate that the use of the air saturation in AS/CGS/CAES plants might reduce capital costs of coal gasification based power used in intermediate load generation by $300 to $400 per kilowatt. Furthermore, heat rates might also be reduced by almost 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour, a major reduction. The major cause of the reduction in electricity costs is a 50% reduction in the required gasification capacity per net kW. In addition to being a load management tool, AS/CGS/CAES concepts provide a method to operate the CGS and turbomachinery in a continuous mode, improving the operation and potentially the life expectancy of both components. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Research and development of coal gasification (Feasibility study and conceptual design regarding high-temperature gasification technology); 1981 nendo sekitan gas ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon gas ka gijutsu ni kansuru feasibility study oyobi gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The melting point of ash is one of the most important physical properties in the process of coal gasification. A fluidized bed gasification furnace is suitable for the gasification of coal whose ash has a high melting point, but it does not work at temperatures higher than the melting point of the ash. A high-temperature gasification furnace, though not suitable for gasifying coal whose ash has a high melting point, gasifies the kinds of coal that the fluidized bed gasification furnace fails to deal with. Accordingly, almost all kinds of coal are to be appropriately gasified when these two types of gasification furnaces are available. The goal of the development effort is the achievement of a coal utilization factor of 99% or more and a thermal efficiency of 80% or more. The technology elements have to deal with the structure of furnace walls and refractory materials for them, discharge of slag, feeding of raw materials, recovery of exhaust heat, measurement and control, gasification furnace simulation, etc. A proposition is presented on a conceptual design and prototype for a 50t/d pilot plant in which the above-mentioned factors are organically integrated. (NEDO)

  10. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  11. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  12. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  13. High temperature gasification and gas cleaning – phase II of the HotVegas project

    OpenAIRE

    Meysel, P.; Halama, S.; Botteghi, F.; Steibel, M.; Nakonz, M.; Rück, R.; Kurowski, P.; Buttler, A.; Spliethoff, H.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the research project HotVeGas is to lay the necessary foundations for the long-term development of future, highly efficient high-temperature gasification processes. This includes integrated hot gas cleaning and optional CO2 capture and storage for next generation IGCC power plants and processes for the development of synthetic fuels. The joint research project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and five industry partners. It is coordi...

  14. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  15. Large-scale production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel from biomass. Optimal gasification and gas cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerrigter, H.; Van der Drift, A.

    2004-12-01

    The paper is presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets. The contents concern definitions, an overview of Integrated biomass gasification and Fischer Tropsch (FT) systems (state-of-the-art, gas cleaning and biosyngas production, experimental demonstration and conclusions), some aspects of large-scale systems (motivation, biomass import) and an outlook

  16. Catalytic gasification in fluidized bed, of orange waste. Comparison with non catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Trujillo, Leonardo; Marquez Montesinos, Francisco; Ramos Robaina, Boris A.; Guerra Reyes, Yanet; Arauzo Perez, Jesus; Gonzalo Callejo, Alberto; Sanchez Cebrian, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    The industry processing of the orange, generates high volumes of solid waste. This waste has been used as complement in the animal feeding, in biochemical processes; but their energy use has not been valued by means of the gasification process. They were carried out gasification studies with air in catalytic fluidized bed (using dolomite and olivine as catalysts in a secondary reactor, also varying the temperature of the secondary reactor and the catalyst mass), of the solid waste of orange and the results are compared with those obtained in the gasification with non catalytic air. In the processes we use a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, valuing the influence of the independent variables and their interactions in the answers, using the software Design-Expert version 7 and a grade of significance of 95 %. The results demonstrate the qualities of the solid waste of orange in the energy use by means of the gasification process for the treatment of these residuals, obtaining a gas of low caloric value. The use of catalysts also diminishes the yield of tars obtained in the gasification process, being more active the dolomite that the olivine in this process. (author)

  17. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  18. Kinetic study of coals gasification into carbon dioxide atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid fuel gasification process was investigated to define chemical reactions rate and activation energy for a gas-generator designing and regime optimizing. An experimental procedure includes coal char samples of Kuznetskiy and Kansko-Achinskiy deposits consequent argon pyrolysis into argon and oxidating into carbon dioxide with different temperatures. The thermogravimetric analysis data of coal char gasification into carbon dioxide was obtained in the temperature range 900–1200 ºC. The mass loss and gasification time dependencies from temperature were defined to calculate chemical reaction frequency factor and activation energy. Two coal char gasification physico-mathematical models were proposed and recommendations for them were formed.

  19. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Gasification potential for process industries in Languedoc-Roussillon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This study, requested by the French 'BioenergieSud' network, aims at identifying the potentialities of gasification in Languedoc-Roussillon region (France). The goals are: evaluating the degree of information of industrialists with respect to gasification, their present day perception and the different obstacles and levers for the adoption of this technology; estimating the potential market of gasification units in this area through the study of the existing industrial actors; better evaluating the energy needs and expectations of the industrialists from different sectors in order to develop suitable gasification solutions

  1. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  2. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  3. Gasification characteristics of auto shredder residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navee, S.; Ramzan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Given the large volume of used tyre waste generated each year it is imperative that suitable re-use and disposal techniques are developed for dealing with this problem; presently these include rethreading, reprocessing for use as safe playground and sports surfaces, use as noise reduction barriers and utilisation as a fuel source. This paper reports on pilot scale studies designed to investigate the suitability of automotive waste for energy recovery via gasification. The study was carried out into auto shredder residue, which is a mixture of three distinct waste streams: tyres, rubber/plastic and general automotive waste. The tests included proximate, ultimate and elemental analysis, TGA, as well as calorific value determinations. In addition, the waste was tested in a desktop gasifier, and analysis was carried out to determine the presence and type of combustible gases. It was concluded that tyre waste and rubber/plastic waste are quite suitable fuels for gasification. (author)

  4. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  5. Pilot-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom

    2011-01-01

    The gasification of pine and mixed-hardwood chips has been carried out in a pilot-scale system at a range of gas flow rates. Consuming ~17-30 kgh-1 of feedstock, the producer gas was composed of ~200 dm3 m-3 carbon monoxide, 12 dm3 m-3 carbon dioxide, 30 dm3 m-3 methane and 190 dm3 m-3 hydrogen, with an energy content of ~6 MJ m-3 for both feedstocks. It was found that...

  6. Introducing novel graphical techniques to assess gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngubevana, Lwazi; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David [Center Of Material and Process Synthesis (COMPS), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    Due to its complexity, coal gasification is perhaps one industry's least understood processes. This is despite the fact that this process is critical to countries such as South Africa, as it is responsible for producing a large portion of the country's fuel needs through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Worldwide, this process has also become critical for applications such as IGCC, for the production of electricity. It is because of this importance that it is necessary to better understand this process. Another motivating factor is that gasifiers are very expensive and are big energy consumers as well as being large carbon dioxide producers. Much experimental work has been done in the area of gasification, but this can be very expensive and is time consuming. It is with this in mind, that we have developed a quick, relatively simple and yet very powerful graphical tool to assess and better understand gasification and to use this tool to look for opportunities to improve efficiencies of process and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The approach used here is to make a few reasonable assumptions to set up mass balances; the energy balance and reaction equilibria around a coal gasifier. This paper deals with how these balances can be set up; it also looks at what effect the feed composition and choice of reaction conditions (temperature and pressure), may have on the possible gasifier product. The result of this approach shows that we can work in a stoichiometric subspace defined by the energy and mass balance. Furthermore we can show that gasification is energy and not work limited which has implications for the design and operation of these units. (author)

  7. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P; Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Hepola, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  8. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  9. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  10. Development of coal hydro gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Nomura, Kazuo; Asaoka, Yoshikiyo; Kato, Shojiro; Seo, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    Taking a potential future decrease in natural gas supply into consideration, we are looking for a way to secure a stable supply of high quality substitute natural gas made from coal (which occurs abundantly throughout the world) in large volumes at low cost. We are working towards our goal of commercializing coal hydro gasification technology in the 2010's and have started developing elemental technology from FY, 1996 as a part of the governmental new energy program. (au)

  11. Integrated gasification combined cycle and the capture of CO{sub 2}: a solution for the mitigation of the CO{sub 2} emissions of coal fired power plants at large scale in the short term?; O ciclo combinado com gaseificacao integrada e a captura de CO{sub 2}: uma solucao para mitigar as emissoes de CO{sub 2} em termeletricas a carvao em larga escala no curto prazo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2010-03-15

    The power sector of many big economies still relies heavily on coal fired plants and emits huge amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is an innovative technology which holds advantages over current conventional coal technologies, including higher efficiency, pathway to carbon capture and storage (CCS) and higher product and fuel flexibility. The most critical obstacles for commercialization of IGCC technology are higher costs, lower reliability, and little operating experiences. The present work aims to analyze the maturity and the costs of the IGCC technology, with and without CCS, in order to evaluate its potential to be introduced in the generation fleet at big scale in the short term and, hence, its potential to guarantee the possibility to use coal in the power sector without compromising the effort to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The focus of the analysis of the technical viability concentrates strongly on the gasification process, since it the most critical process for the operation of the plant. The cost analysis contains three steps: a revision of cost estimates in scientific literature, a revision of reported cost for actually planned projects and a cost simulation that aims to analyze the influences of assumptions regarding the additional technology risk of IGCC plants. (author)

  12. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of$438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December

  13. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  14. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  15. Economic feasibility study of an electric generation project from bagasse gasification in a cuban sugar mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Fernández, Alfredo; Almazán del Olmo, Oscar; Hernández, Bárbara

    2015-01-01

    Some solid fuels which are very pollutant and with low value could be transformed into a clean gas that could be used in many industrial applications for its physical properties and for being easy transported. Then, electricity generation is one of the most important applications. In this case, electricity could be generated, cleanly and efficiently, through the use of synthesis gas that replaces the natural gas in a combined cycle (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC)).In this paper, we carry out an economic feasibility study of the project about the implementation of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) in a 10000 tc/d sugar mill from bagasse gasification in order to demonstrate, from the economic point of view, the possibility of investment in this kind of technology considering the current conditions of Cuban sugar industry.Later, a sensitivity analysis is presented to show first, the break-even point associated to the project and second, the variations of financial indicators due to changes on the total amount of investments, which is a very helpful element for making right decisions in the project investment process. (author)

  16. Gasification processes old and new: a basic review of the major technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breault, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. (author)

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) can be considered a valid biomass to be used in a power plant. The major advantage is the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions not only within large cities but also globally. Another advantage is that by th eir use it is possible to reduce the waste...... studied to optimize the plant efficiency in terms of operating conditions. Compared with modern waste incinerators with heat recovery, the gasification process integrated with SOFC and Stirling engine permits an increase in electricity output up of 50%, which means that the solid waste gasification......, waste is subject to chemical treatments through air or/and steam utilization; the result is a synthesis gas, called “Syngas” which is principally composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Traces of hydrogen sulfide could also be present which can easily be separated in a desulfurization reactor...

  18. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  19. Developments in modelling and simulation of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the considerable increase in the price of crude oil and natural gas and concerns about their security of supply focused attention on whether fuel for power production and feedstocks for the chemical industry could be obtained from the gasification of coal. The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has enhanced the prospects of power generation from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant. However, the higher capital costs and concerns about reliability and availability of IGCC plant have limited their market penetration. The coal gasifier has been a significant source of operational issues. A thorough understanding of the processes occurring in a gasifier is essential both for addressing existing causes of gasifier unavailability and improving designs for the future. Many complex processes take place in a gasifier and developing models of gasifiers results in a greater insight into these processes. Computational models in conjunction with plant data can be used to evaluate gasifier operation, solve operational problems, probe new designs and provide performance data for commercial scale-up. This report has surveyed models which are currently available for modelling gasifiers. The report contains a brief description of the three types of gasifiers which are most commonly used. The models available for each type of gasifier are considered. Insight gained by modelling has advanced the design of gasifiers and can improve gasifier performance. In some cases, the results have been compared with plant data and it has been possible to choose model inputs to give reasonable fit with the measured data. However, there are fewer examples where modelling has directly solved operational problems.

  20. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, L. M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, J. M. [Departamento Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, University of the Basque Country, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  1. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, L. M.; Chamorro, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  2. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  3. Process and catalysts for the gasification of methanol. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.; Dennis, A.J.; Shevels, T.F.

    1975-02-13

    The invention concerns catalysts and catalytic processes for the gasification of methanol which is used to manufacture methane from methanol. Mixtures of iron and chromium oxide, phosphate, phosphoric acid, tungstate, tungstic acid, aluminium phosphate, aluminium oxide are suitable as dehydrating catalysts. Gasification takes place together with steam and dehydrogenating catalysts at high temperature. The molar ratios steam: methanol are described.

  4. Modeling Tar Recirculation in Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineken, Wolfram; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Zobel, Nico

    2016-01-01

    A biomass gasification model is proposed and applied to investigate the benefits of tar recirculation within a gasification plant. In the model, tar is represented by the four species phenol, toluene, naphthalene, and benzene. The model is spatially one-dimensional, assuming plug flow for the

  5. Characterization of Residual Particulates from Biomass Entrained Flow Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Fæster, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification experiments were carried out in a bench scale entrained flow reactor, and the produced solid particles were collected by a cyclone and a metal filter for subsequent characterization. During wood gasification, the major part of the solid material collected in the filter is soot...

  6. Dewatering a gasification zone in the Dnieper region for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedenko, M V

    1957-01-01

    The processes for draining brown coal open-pit mines are described. Experience with water inflow in open-pit mines of the Dnieper region and stratigraphic cross section and hydrogeological conditions in the area of the planned gasification installation are discussed. Expedient draining by boreholes is described, and arrangement of boreholes and filters is shown. Cost data are presented.

  7. Supercritical water gasification of Victorian brown coal: Experimental characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Doki; Aye, Lu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic 3010 (Australia); Sanderson, P. John; Lim, Seng [CSIRO Minerals, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    Supercritical water gasification is an innovative thermochemical conversion method for converting wet feedstocks into hydrogen-rich gaseous products. The non-catalytic gasification characteristics of Victorian brown coal were investigated in supercritical water by using a novel immersion technique with quartz batch reactors. Various operating parameters such as temperature, feed concentration and reaction time were varied to investigate their effect on the gasification behaviour. Gas yields, carbon gasification efficiency and the total gasification efficiency increased with increasing temperature and reaction time, and decreasing feed concentration. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the product gases was lowest at 600 C, and increased to over 30 % at a temperature of 800 C. Varying parameters, especially reaction time, did not improve the coal utilisation for gas production significantly and the measured data showed a large deviation from the equilibrium level. (author)

  8. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  9. CO2 Capture and Storage in Coal Gasification Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand B.; Phadke, Pranav C.

    2017-07-01

    concerns about climate change problem. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is being considered as a promising carbon mitigation technology, especially for large point sources such as coal power plants. Gasification of coal helps in better utilization of this resource offering multiple advantages such as pollution prevention, product flexibility (syngas and hydrogen) and higher efficiency (combined cycle). It also enables the capture of CO2 prior to the combustion, from the fuel gas mixture, at relatively lesser cost as compared to the post-combustion CO2 capture. CCS in gasification projects is considered as a promising technology for cost-effective carbon mitigation. Although many projects (power and non-power) have been announced internationally, very few large-scale projects have actually come up. This paper looks at the various aspects of CCS applications in gasification projects, including the technical feasibility and economic viability and discusses an Indian perspective. Impacts of including CCS in gasification projects (e.g. IGCC plants) have been assessed using a simulation tool. Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) - a modelling framework to simulate power plants - has been used to estimate the implications of adding CCS units in IGCC plants, on their performance and costs.

  10. Coal gasification: A technology in the puberty. Kolenvergassing: Een technologie in de puberteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppink, G. (Sep, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-12-01

    Several aspects of present developments regarding coal gasification are briefly discussed. Attention is paid to the place of the coal gasification in the total electric power generation, its environmental impact, the recently available new coal techniques, coal gasification in the next ten years, cost comparisons, and developments at the coal gasification demonstration plant in Buggenum, Netherlands. 3 figs.

  11. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  12. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Naive forecasting: the fiasco of coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, W S

    1985-01-01

    The decision by the U.S. government to subsidize the development of coal gasification was based on a naive forecast that neglected the influence of price on both conventional sources of supply and consumer demand. Even before substantial construction costs were incurred on the Great Plains plant, a surplus of natural gas has developed. The political process, however, did not include the sort of critical review that often accompanies the financing decision in the private sector and that would surely have prevented this error. 17 references.

  14. Underground gasification of coal. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-06-16

    This article gives an account of the experimental work on underground gasification at Newman Spinney near Sheffield, England. An attempt was made to develop the percolation technique in flat coal seams but to demonstrate first that gas can be made underground. A borehole system was created on an opencast site where an exposed seam face would allow horizontal drilling to be carried out. Details of trails are given, and drilling techniques, electromagnetic device developed by the Great Britain Post Office Research Branch and radioactive location developed by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. An account is given of the inauguration of a series of experiments on May 22, 1950.

  15. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  17. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    , and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...... comparison and for process studies on the influence of the most important fuel and process parameters. They have the advantage of being independent of gasifier design, but they cannot give highly accurate results for all cases. The kinetic-based models are computationally more intensive but give accurate...

  19. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Gasification Boiler and Its Energy Efficiency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valíček

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine a method for multi-parametric output regulation of a gasification boiler especially designed for heating or for hot water heating in buildings. A new method of regulation is offered, namely more parametric regulation via proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers that are capable of controlling the calculated values of pressure, temperature and fan speed. These values of pressure, temperature and fan speed are calculated in a completely new way, and calculations of setpoints for determination of optimal parameters lead to an increase in boilers efficiency and power output. Results of measurements show that changes at the mouth of the stack draft due atmospheric influences occur in times with high intensity and high frequency, while power parameters, or boiler power output amplitudes and fan speed automatically “copy” those changes proportionally due to instantaneous fan speed changes. The proposed method of regulation of the gasification boiler power output according to the technical solution enables a simple, cheap, express and continuous maintenance of high power output at low concentrations of the exhaust gases of the gasification boilers from the viewpoint of the boiler user, as well as from the perspective of development and production it allows a continuous control monitoring of these parameters.

  20. Hybridization of concentrated solar power with biomass gasification in Brazil’s semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Rodrigo; Szklo, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of three hybridization concepts between CSP and biomass gasification. • Modelling of a benchmark power plant for each of the hybridization concepts. • The method relies on using Aspentech Hysys and SAM for thermodynamic analysis. • Technical and economic performance of the three benchmark power plants as result. - Abstract: This study aims to propose and analyze different options for hybridizing Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with biomass, through gasification for power generation. A hybrid CSP-biomass power plant through gasification is an innovative concept which allows the integration of combined cycle for power generation, sun-biomass hybridization and syngas storage. Therefore, this study addressed the proposition of the hybridization concept and the simulation of benchmark power plants for a suitable Brazilian site (high direct normal irradiation and low-cost biomass availability). Three power plant concepts are proposed and simulated in Aspentech Hysys and System Advisor Model (SAM): (i) Series design; (ii) Parallel design, and (iii) Steam Extraction design. For the same gasifier, the Series design holds the highest levelized cost, while the Parallel design presents the highest installed capacity, but the lowest capacity factor. Finally, the Steam Extraction design is placed between the other two proposed plants regarding the capacity factor and the annual energy generation.

  1. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  2. Hydrogen production from coal gasification for effective downstream CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, Nirmal V.; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The coal gasification process is used in commercial production of synthetic gas as a means toward clean use of coal. The conversion of solid coal into a gaseous phase creates opportunities to produce more energy forms than electricity (which is the case in coal combustion systems) and to separate CO{sub 2} in an effective manner for sequestration. The current work compares the energy and exergy efficiencies of an integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle power generation system with that of coal gasification-based hydrogen production system which uses water-gas shift and membrane reactors. Results suggest that the syngas-to-hydrogen (H{sub 2}) system offers 35% higher energy and 17% higher exergy efficiencies than the syngas-to-electricity (IGCC) system. The specific CO{sub 2} emission from the hydrogen system was 5% lower than IGCC system. The Brayton cycle in the IGCC system draws much nitrogen after combustion along with CO{sub 2}. Thus CO{sub 2} capture and compression become difficult due to the large volume of gases involved, unlike the hydrogen system which has 80% less nitrogen in its exhaust stream. The extra electrical power consumption for compressing the exhaust gases to store CO{sub 2} is above 70% for the IGCC system but is only 4.5% for the H{sub 2} system. Overall the syngas-to-hydrogen system appears advantageous to the IGCC system based on the current analysis. (author)

  3. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  4. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  5. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part I: Influence of Coal Properties and Gasification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the entrained-flow gasifiers used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC plants, the majority of mineral matter transforms to liquid slag on the wall of the gasifier and flows out the bottom. However, a small fraction of the mineral matter is entrained (as fly ash with the raw syngas out of the gasifier to downstream processing. This molten/sticky fly ash could cause fouling of the syngas cooler. To improve gasification availability through better design and operation of the gasification process, a better understanding of slag behavior and the characteristics of the slagging process is needed. Char/ash properties, gas compositions in the gasifier, the gasifier wall structure, fluid dynamics, and plant operating conditions (mainly temperature and oxygen/carbon ratio all affect slagging behavior. Because coal has varying ash content and composition, different operating conditions are required to maintain the slag flow and limit problems downstream. In Part I, we review the main types and the operating conditions of entrained-flow gasifiers and coal properties used in IGCC plants; we identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior; finally, we summarize the coal quality criteria and the operating conditions in entrained-flow gasifiers. In Part II, we discuss the constitutive modeling related to the rheological studies of slag flow.

  6. Kinetics of Pyrolysis and Gasification Using Thermogravimetric and Thermovolumetric Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerski Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carbon dioxide gasification process of Miscanthus giganteus biomass was examined using two methods. First an isothermal thermovolumetric method was applied. The measurement was conducted at 950°C and pressure of 0.1 MPa. Based on the continuous analysis of different kinds of gases formed during the gasification process, the thermovolumetric method allowed the determination of yields and composition of the resulting gas as well as the rate constant of CO formation. Then a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method was applied, during which the loss of weight of a sample as a function of temperature was recorded. In the course of the measurement, the temperature was raised from ambient to 950°C and the pressure was 0.1 MPa. As a result, a change in the carbon conversion degree was obtained. Moreover, TGA methods allow distinguishing various stages of the gasification process such as primary pyrolysis, secondary pyrolysis and gasification, and determining kinetic parameters for each stage. The presented methods differs from each other as they are based either on the analysis of changes in the resulting product or on the analysis of changes in the supplied feedstock, but both can be successfully used to the effective examination of kinetics of the gasification process. In addition, an important advantage of both methods is the possibility to carry out the gasification process for different solid fuels as coal, biomass, or solid waste in the atmosphere of a variety of gasification agents.

  7. Hydrogen and syngas production from sewage sludge via steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand); Ahmed, Islam I.; Gupta, Ashwani K. [The Combustion Laboratory, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kerdsuwan, Somrat [The Waste Incineration Research Center, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    High temperature steam gasification is an attractive alternative technology which can allow one to obtain high percentage of hydrogen in the syngas from low-grade fuels. Gasification is considered a clean technology for energy conversion without environmental impact using biomass and solid wastes as feedstock. Sewage sludge is considered a renewable fuel because it is sustainable and has good potential for energy recovery. In this investigation, sewage sludge samples were gasified at various temperatures to determine the evolutionary behavior of syngas characteristics and other properties of the syngas produced. The syngas characteristics were evaluated in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen production, syngas chemical analysis, and efficiency of energy conversion. In addition to gasification experiments, pyrolysis experiments were conducted for evaluating the performance of gasification over pyrolysis. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased generation of hydrogen. Hydrogen yield at 1000 C was found to be 0.076 g{sub gas} g{sub sample}{sup -1}. Steam as the gasifying agent increased the hydrogen yield three times as compared to air gasification. Sewage sludge gasification results were compared with other samples, such as, paper, food wastes and plastics. The time duration for sewage sludge gasification was longer as compared to other samples. On the other hand sewage sludge yielded more hydrogen than that from paper and food wastes. (author)

  8. Gasification of various types of tertiary coals: A sustainability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Özek, Nuri; Yüksel, Yunus Emre

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production energy by burning of coals including high rate of ash and sulfur is harmful to environment. ► Energy production via coal gasification instead of burning is proposed for sustainable approach. ► We calculate exergy and environmental destruction factor of gasification of some tertiary coals. ► Sustainability index, improvement potential of gasification are evaluated for exergy-based approach. - Abstract: The utilization of coal to produce a syngas via gasification processes is becoming a sustainability option because of the availability and the economic relevance of this fossil source in the present world energy scenario. Reserves of coal are abundant and more geographically spread over the world than crude oil and natural gas. This paper focuses on sustainability of the process of coal gasification; where the synthesis gas may subsequently be used for the production of electricity, fuels and chemicals. The coal gasifier unit is one of the least efficient step in the whole coal gasification process and sustainability analysis of the coal gasifier alone can substantially contribute to the efficiency improvement of this process. In order to evaluate sustainability of the coal gasification process energy efficiency, exergy based efficiency, exergy destruction factor, environmental destruction factor, sustainability index and improvement potential are proposed in this paper.

  9. Small Scale Gasification Application and Perspectives in Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Bisters, Valdis; Burlakovs, Juris

    2018-06-01

    Gasification is the process converting solid fuels as coal and organic plant matter, or biomass into combustible gas, called syngas. Gasification is a thermal conversion process using carbonaceous fuel, and it differs substantially from other thermal processes such as incineration or pyrolysis. The process can be used with virtually any carbonaceous fuel. It is an endothermic thermal conversion process, with partial oxidation being the dominant feature. Gasification converts various feedstock including waste to a syngas. Instead of producing only heat and electricity, synthesis gas produced by gasification may be transformed into commercial products with higher value as transport fuels, fertilizers, chemicals and even to substitute natural gas. Thermo-chemical conversion of biomass and solid municipal waste is developing as a tool to promote the idea of energy system without fossil fuels to a reality. In municipal solid waste management, gasification does not compete with recycling, moreover it enhances recycling programs. Pre-processing and after-processing must increase the amount of recyclables in the circular economy. Additionally, end of life plastics can serve as an energy feedstock for gasification as otherwise it cannot be sorted out and recycled. There is great potential for application of gasification technology within the biomass waste and solid waste management sector. Industrial self-consumption in the mode of combined heat and power can contribute to sustainable economic development within a circular economy.

  10. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Mark J.; Ptasinski, Krzysztof J.; Janssen, Frans J.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O/C and H/C ratio as illustrated in a Van Krevelen diagram, is compared. It was found that exergy losses in gasifying wood (O/C ratio around 0.6) are larger than those for coal (O/C ratio around 0.2). At a gasification temperature of 927 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.4 is recommended, which corresponds to a lower heating value above 23 MJ/kg. For gasification at 1227 deg. C, a fuel with O/C ratio below 0.3 and lower heating value above 26 MJ/kg is preferred. It could thus be attractive to modify the properties of highly oxygenated biofuels prior to gasification, e.g. by separation of wood into its components and gasification of the lignin component, thermal pre-treatment, and/or mixing with coal in order to enhance the heating value of the gasifier fuel

  11. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  12. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Siemens fuel gasification technology - solutions and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, F.; Schingnitz, M.; Schmid, C. [Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In 2006, Siemens Power Generation Group acquired the GSP Gasification technology, and renamed it SFGT. The presentation reviews the technology and provides an update on current projects. The future plans for the development of the technology based on extensive experience and comprehensive development work gathered over many years and proven in a number of gasification plants is covered. SFGT operates, at its Freiberg facility, a 5 MWth pilot plant which was built to test prototype designs and to determine process conditions for various feed streams. An overview is given of the results of tests completed on a wide range of carbonaceous materials including all types of solid fuels from lignite to anthracite, as well as brown coal, oil, sludge or biomass, and low-temperature coke or petcoke. The technical focus of the paper is on the unique design features such as the cooling screen and alternative refractory lining, as well as the dense flow feeding system that allows the preferable use of lignite applications.

  15. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  16. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  17. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  18. Steam gasification of coal using a pressurized circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.F.J.

    1989-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is the process engineering of a coal gasification using nuclear heat. A special aspect is the efficiency. To this purpose a new method for calculating the kinetics of hard coal steam gasification in a fluidized bed is presented. It is used for evaluations of gasification kinetics in a large-scale process on the basis of laboratory-scale experiments. The method is verified by experimental data from a large-scale gasifier. The investment costs and the operating costs of the designed process are estimated. (orig.) [de

  19. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  20. Carbon conversion predictor for fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels - from TGA measurements to char gasification particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, J.T. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Renewable Energy Programme, POB 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Moilanen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, Espoo (Finland); Martini, N. de; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Process Chemistry Centre, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    When a solid fuel particle is injected into a hot fluidized bed, the reactivity of fuel char in gasification reactions (between char carbon and steam and CO{sub 2}) plays a significant role for reaching a good carbon conversion. In this paper, the gasification reactivity data of some solid waste recovered fuels (SRF) obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments is presented. Gas mixtures (H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO), were used in the experiments to find the inhibitive effects of CO and H{sub 2}. Average char gasification reactivity values are determined from the TGA results. Kinetic parameters for char carbon gasification reactivity correlations are determined from this data. The Uniform Conversion model is used to account for the change of gasification reaction rate as function of carbon conversion. Some discrepancies, due to complicated ash-carbon interactions, are subjects of further research. In the carbon conversion predictor, laboratory measured reactivity numbers are converted into carbon conversion numbers in a real-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The predictor is a relatively simple and transparent tool for the comparison of the gasification reactivity of different fuels in fluidized bed gasification. The residence times for solid fuels in fluidized bed gasifiers are simulated. Simulations against some pilot-scale results show reasonable agreement. (orig.)

  1. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached. (author)

  2. A study on pyrolytic gasification of coffee grounds and implications to allothermal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masek, Ondrej; Konno, Miki; Hosokai, Sou; Sonoyama, Nozomu; Norinaga, Koyo; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    The increasing interest in biomass, as a renewable source of energy, is stimulating a search for suitable biomass resources as well as the development of technologies for their effective utilization. This work concentrated on characteristics of processes occurring during pyrolytic gasification of upgraded food industry residues, namely residue from industrial production of liquid coffee, and assessed its suitability for conversion in an allothermal gasifier. The influence of several operating parameters on product composition was examined with three different laboratory-scale reactors, studying the primary pyrolysis and secondary pyrolysis of nascent volatiles, and the steam gasification of char. The experimental results show that a high degree of conversion of UCG into volatiles and gases (up to 88% C-basis) can be achieved by fast pyrolysis even at temperatures as low as 1073 K. In addition, the degree of conversion is not influenced by the presence or concentration of steam, which is an important factor in allothermal gasification. Mathematical simulation of an allothermal gasifier showed that net cold-gas efficiency as high as 86% can be reached

  3. Development of biomass gasification systems for gas turbine power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Svenningsson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Gas turbines are of interest for biomass applications because, unlike steam turbines, they have relatively high efficiencies and low unit capital costs in the small sizes appropriate for biomass installations. Gasification is a simple and efficient way to make biomass usable in gas turbines. The authors evaluate here the technical requirements for gas turbine power generation with biomass gas and the status of pressurized biomass gasification and hot gas cleanup systems. They also discuss the economics of gasifier-gas turbine cycles and make some comparisons with competing technologies. Their analysis indicates that biomass gasifiers fueling advanced gas turbines are promising for cost-competitive cogeneration and central station power generation. Gasifier-gas turbine systems are not available commercially, but could probably be developed in 3 to 5 years. Extensive past work related to coal gasification and pressurized combustion of solid fuels for gas turbines would be relevant in this effort, as would work on pressurized biomass gasification for methanol synthesis

  4. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere

  5. Recovery of distillation, gasification, and if necessary redistilled products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, H

    1885-05-17

    Collection chambers are operated in pairs. In one of a pair of chambers there is alternately gasification (heating gas generation or complete combustion), in the other distillation, and continually the products from combustion carry on the distillation.

  6. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  7. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  9. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H P; Adlhoch, W [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  10. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  11. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  12. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Syngas production from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Study on gasification of OPF (oil palm fronds) is scarce although the biomass constitutes more than 24% of the total oil palm waste. The lack of research related to gasification of oil palm fronds calls for a study on gasification behaviour of the fuel. In this paper the effects of reactor temperature and ER (equivalence ratio) on gas composition, calorific value and gasification efficiency of downdraft gasification of OPF were investigated. The heating value of syngas and the values of cold gas and carbon conversion efficiencies of gasification obtained were found to be comparable with woody biomass. The study showed that oxidation zone temperature above 850 °C is favourable for high concentration of the fuel components of syngas CO, H 2 and CH 4 . Average syngas lower heating value of 5.2 MJ/Nm 3 was obtained for operation with oxidation zone temperatures above 1000 °C, while no significant change in heating value was observed for temperature higher than 1100 °C. The average and peak heating values of 4.8 MJ/Nm 3 and 5.5 MJ/Nm 3 , and cold gas efficiency of 70.2% at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.37 showed that OPF have a high potential as a fuel for gasification. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of pyrolysis and combustion of OPF (oil palm fronds) was done. • Experimental study on syngas production utilizing OPF and parametric study was done. • OPF was found to have a comparable performance with wood in downdraft gasification

  14. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  15. Thermovolumetric investigations of steam gasification of coals and their chars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of steam gasification of three coals of various rank and three chars obtained from these coals by the ex-situ method at 900 °C was compared. In the coal gasification process, the pyrolysis stage plays a very important part, which is connected with its direct impact on the kinetics of gasification of the resulting char. What is more, taking into consideration the impact of pyrolysis conditions on char properties, it should be anticipated that the gasification kinetics of coal and char, formed from it by the ex situ method, will be different. In order to examine and compare the process of gasification of coals and chars, an isothermal thermovolumetric method, designed by the authors, was applied. For all the examined samples the measurements were performed at three temperatures, i.e. 850, 900, and 950 °C, and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. An evaluation of the impact of raw material on the steam gasification of the examined samples was made. The carbon conversion degree and the kinetic parameters of CO and H2 formation reaction were calculated. It was observed that the course of gasification is different for coals and chars obtained from them and it can be concluded that coals are more reactive than chars. Values of kinetic parameters of carbon monoxide and hydrogen formation calculated for coals and corresponding chars are also different. Due to the observed differences the process of gasification of coals and of chars with steam should not be equated.

  16. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Theory and experimentation of wood gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matton, G; Thomas, D G [Lab. d' Etude de l' Utilisation Rationnelle des Energies, et de la Diversification des Sources d' Energie, Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambresis, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Delval, P [Moteurs DUVANT, 59 - Valenciennes (France)

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simplified theory of gasification of wood at various moisture contents. After writing the combustion equation of wood with a known moisture content, we balance the atoms on each side of this equation and introduce a reaction temperature which gives the equilibrium constant for the equation of gasification. Solving these simultaneous equations by combining them with the energy equation and the heating value of wood, we get the wet or dry volume compositions of the producer-gas. The experiments were made during a collaboration between The University of Valenciennes and the sub-company SERMIE from MOTEURS DUVANT. The gasifier is a double-body De Lacotte gazogene which works with air and has a capacity of ten tons per day. The gas has a flow rate of about 0,28 m/sup 3//s and its mean composition is the following one: CO/sub 2/: 16% CO: 12% H/sub 2/: 20% N/sub 2/: 51% CH/sub 4/: 0,50%. The theoretical and experimental compositions of the gas fit fairly well with a reaction temperature of 1000 K and about 28 per cent moisture content on a green basis. The gas-generator has an energy efficiency of 70%. As gas-flow rate of 0,15 m/sup 3//s with a lower calorific value of 3726-4331 kJ/N m/sup 3/ is enough to supply a 510 kW dual-fuel engine DUVANT with a thermal efficiency of 34% against 37% for the same gas-oil engine. The engine coupled to an alternator of 600 kVA can provide electric power in factories or forest-areas.

  18. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the

  19. Survey report for fiscal 1981 of 3rd subcommittee of Coal Gasification Committee; 1981 nendo sekitan gasu ka iinkai dai 3 bukai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Survey and research are conducted to grasp the current status of the development of the coal gasification combined power cycle generation technology, in which the coal gasification technology and the combined power cycle generation technology are combined, and to clarify the relevant tasks to be discharged. The latest information on the coal gas direct combustion system and fuel cell system is also compiled into this report. Although coal is abundant all the world over, yet Japan has to import it. It is afraid that the coal to be imported will be diverse in property and that the use will increase of coal inferior in quality with much ash and moisture. As for gasification furnaces, efforts of development are concentrated on the fluidized bed type and entrained bed type, both of which will have to deal with various kinds of coal, to be large in capacity, high in gasification efficiency, and excellent in serviceability. As for cleaning-up systems, the dry type is advantageous in terms of thermal efficiency, but it needs to be verified for refining capacity and serviceability. When it comes to gas turbines, efforts need to be started at an early date for developing a high-temperature/high-pressure gas turbine which is fueled with coal gas. Since the development of an integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation plant demands enormous amounts of funds, a check-and-review process is indispensable for each development stage. (NEDO)

  20. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  1. Siemens fuel gasification technology for the Canadian oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Siemens Energy Inc., Orlando, FL (United States). IGCC and Gasification Sales and Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The Siemens fuel gasification (SFG) technology can be used to gasify a range of feedstocks, including petcoke, hard coal, lignite, and low-ranking fuels such as biomass and refinery residuals. The technology has recently been applied to a number of projects over the last 3 years. This paper discussed some of the issues related to the technology and it's use at a start-up facility in China. Five entrained-flow gasifiers with a thermal capacity of 500 MW are being installed at a coal gasification plant in northwestern China. The technology's use in hydrogen, steam and power production applications for the oil sands industry was also discussed. Issues related to feedstock quality, process characteristics, and equipment requirements for commercial gasifier systems were reviewed. The paper concluded by observing that improvements in gasification technology will make coal and petcoke gasification feasible options for power generation. IGCC is the most advanced and cost-effective technology for reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. Gasification-based plants are also able to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for storage and sequestration. Details of the Siemens gasification test center in Germany were also included. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  3. CO2 gasification of microalgae (N. Oculata – A thermodynamic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Muflih Arisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model of CO2 gasification has been developed in the Aspen Plus. The potential of microalgae (N. oculata for CO2 gasification also has been investigated. The present gasification process utilizes the CO2 at atmospheric pressure as the gasifying agent. The steam is also injected to the gasification to enhance the H2 production. The composition of the producer gas and gasification system efficiency (GSE are used for performance evaluation. It is found that the CO2 gasification of microalgae produces a producer gas with a high concentration of CO and H2. The GSE indicates that the process works at high performance.

  4. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, G.H.

    2000-10-01

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  6. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two ...

  7. Biomass gasification : The understanding of sulfur, tar, and char reaction in fluidized bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.

    2012-01-01

    As one of the currently available thermo-chemical conversion technologies, biomass gasification has received considerable interest since it increases options for combining with various power generation systems. The product gas or syngas produced from biomass gasification is environmental friendly

  8. National conception for gasification development in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, S.; Tenev, A.

    1997-01-01

    In Bulgaria, as in the other East European countries the transition from centrally planned to market economy is accompanied by problems such as energy consumption efficiency, development of energy saving technologies, ecology etc. In this connection the corporation 'Overgas' started the development of 'National concept of the country gasification'. An analysis is done of the energy supply, energy and ecology efficiency and the natural gas consumption. The concept includes a program for a legal framework in the gas sector. Recently the question of energy dependence of the country became very important. It is known that Bulgaria has resources to supply only 1/4 of the energy needs. Natural gas is used now for satisfying of 16% of energy demand in the country. The participation of the country in the Balkan countries gasification projects by transition of Russian gas is considered necessary for the establishment of additional guarantees for stability and internal market supply conditions. Bulgaria has e good gas transition system, connected with the most perspective gas fields in the world but so far only 175 units in industry and energetics use natural gas due to some principle differences between inherited structure of gas consumption in Bulgaria and that in other Central and Western European countries. The absence of a clear logical approach in the price formation is one of the main reasons for the complicated situation with the gas prices. It is expected, under the currency board conditions, the tendency of a less increase in the gas prices (now around or above the market prices) and compared to the increase in other fuel prices to remain. A stabilization of the market is also expected. The energy efficiency can be improved 2-3 times by using of natural gas instead of electricity in the industry and households due to the minimal energy loss during the transportation and the greater efficiency coefficient of the natural gas combustion. In case of development of the

  9. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  10. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120 kW e have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then utilized to feed the anode side of the SOFC stacks. A thermal efficiency of 0.424 LHV (lower heating value) for the plant is found to use 89.4 kg/h of feedstock to produce the above mentioned electricity. Thermoeconomic analysis shows that the production price of electricity is 0.1204 $/kWh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214 $/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost that is competitive with the corresponding renewable systems of the same size. - Highlights: • A 120 kW e integrated gasification SOFC–Stirling CHP is presented. • Effect of important parameters on plant characteristic and economy are studied. • A modest thermal efficiency of 0.41 is found after thermoeconomic optimization. • Reducing stack numbers cuts cost of electricity at expense of thermal efficiency. • The plant cost is estimated to be about 3433 $/kW when disposal costs are neglected

  11. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  12. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  13. Analysis of graphite gasification by water vapor at different conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaowei, Luo; Xiaoyu, Yu; Suyuan, Yu; Jean-Charles, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite was gasified at different conversions. • The reaction temperature influences on the dimensionless the reaction rate. • The thickness or radius influence on the dimensionless reaction rate. - Abstract: The gasification rate of porous solids varies with the conversions with the rate increasing to a maximum and then decreasing. Many graphite gasification experiments have illustrated that the maximum gasification rates occur at different conversions for different temperatures and sample geometries. Thus, the gasification rate is related to the conversion, temperature and geometry of the graphite. The influences of those factors were studied for the graphite gasification by water vapor. A theoretical analysis was done on the basis of several logical assumptions. The influence of temperatures on the reaction rate was investigated for plate-like and cylindrical graphite. The effects of thickness for a plate-like graphite sample and of radius for a cylindrical sample on the reaction rate were also studied theoretically. The results reveal that the maximum dimensionless reaction rate decreases with reaction temperature. The plate thickness or the cylinder radius also affects the maximum dimensionless reaction rate

  14. Enhanced gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. L.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, Jr., L. J.; Robertus, R. J.; Mitchell, D. E.

    Experimental results obtained in laboratory investigations of steam gasification of wood in the presence of mixed catalysts are presented. These studies are designed to test the technical feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from wood by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of combined catalysts. The desired products include substitute natural gas, hydrocarbon synthesis gas and ammonia synthesis gas. The gasification reactions are controlled through the use of specific catalyst combinations and operating parameters. A primary alkali carbonate gasification catalyst impregnated into the wood combined with specific commercially available secondary catalysts produced the desired products. A yield of 50 vol % methane was obtained with a randomly mixed combination of a commercial nickel methanation catalyst and silica-alumina cracking catalyst at a weight ratio of 3:1 respectively. Steam gasification of wood in the presence of a commercial Si-Al cracking catalyst produced the desired hydrocarbon synthesis gas. Hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratios needed for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of hydrocarbons were obtained with this catalyst system. A hydrogen-to-nitrogen ratio of 3:1 for ammonia synthesis gas was achieved with steam-air gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts. The most effective secondary catalyst system employed to produce the ammonia synthesis gas included two commercially prepared catalysts formulated to promote the water-gas shift reaction.

  15. The Effect of Temperature on the Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baláš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is a technology that uses fuel to produce power and heat. This technology is also suitable for biomass conversion. Biomass is a renewable energy source that is being developed to diversify the energy mix, so that the Czech Republic can reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and on raw materials for energy imported from abroad. During gasification, biomass is converted into a gas that can then be burned in a gas burner, with all the advantages of gas combustion. Alternatively, it can be used in internal combustion engines. The main task during gasification is to achieve maximum purity and maximum calorific value of the gas. The main factors are the type of gasifier, the gasification medium, biomass quality and, last but not least, the gasification mode itself. This paper describes experiments that investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on gas composition and low calorific value. The experiments were performed in an atmospheric gasifier in the laboratories of the Energy Institute atthe Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology.

  16. Combined production of hydrogen and power from heavy oil gasification: Pinch analysis, thermodynamic and economic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M. [Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa, via Caboto 1, 20094 Corsico (Milano) (Italy); Lazzaretto, A. [University of Padova, Department of Mechanical Engineering, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO{sub 2} capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price. (author)

  17. Combined production of hydrogen and power from heavy oil gasification: Pinch analysis, thermodynamic and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO 2 capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO 2 avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO 2 capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price.

  18. Biomass steam gasification for production of SNG – Process design and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröbl, Thomas; Walter, Heimo; Haider, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model for the SNG-production process from biomass to raw-SNG is prepared. ► A thermodynamic equilibrium model of the Biomass-Heatpipe-Reformer is developed. ► A sensitivity analysis on the most important operation parameters is carried out. ► Adopting the steam excess ratio a syngas ideally suitable for SNG production is generated. ► Thermodynamic equilibrium models are a useful tool for process design. -- Abstract: A process design for small-scale production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) by steam gasification of woody biomass is performed. In the course of this work, thermodynamic models for the novel process steps are developed and implemented into an already existing model library of commercial process simulation software IPSEpro. Mathematical models for allothermal steam gasification of biomass as well as for cleaning and methanation of product gas are provided by applying mass balances, energy balances and thermodynamic equilibrium equations. Using these models the whole process is integrated into the simulation software, a flowsheet for an optimum thermal integration of the single process steps is determined and energy savings are identified. Additionally, a sensitivity study is carried out in order to analyze the influence of various operation parameters. Their effects on amount and composition of the product gas and process efficiency are evaluated and discussed within this article.

  19. Analysis of tars produced in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Y.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Parametric tests on tar formation, varying temperature, equivalence ratio, and residence time, are performed on a bench-scale, indirectly-heated fluidized bed gasifier. Prepared tar samples are analyzed in a gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector, using a capillary column. Standards containing dominant tar species have been prepared for GC calibration. The identified peaks include single-ring hydrocarbons, such as benzene, to five-ring hydrocarbons, such as perylene; depending on the gasification conditions, the identified species represent about 70 to 90% (mass basis) of the tar constituents. Under all conditions tested, benzene and naphthalene were the most dominant species. Temperature and equivalence ratio have significant effect on tar yield and tar composition. Tar yield decreases with increasing temperature or equivalence ratio. The test results suggest that lower temperature favors the formation of more aromatic tar species with diversified substituent groups, while higher temperature favors the formation of fewer aromatic tar species without substituent groups. Higher temperature or equivalence ratio favors the formation of polyaromatic compounds. Oxygen-containing compounds exist in significant quantities only at temperature below 800{degrees}C and decrease with increasing temperature, equivalence ratio, or residence time.

  20. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  1. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

  2. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  4. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  5. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO 2 capture potential plus CO 2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO 2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO 2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO 2 abatement i.e. both possible CO 2 capture and CO 2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  6. Transportation fuel production from gasified biomass integrated with a pulp and paper mill – Part A: Heat integration and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Johan; Jansson, Mikael; Åsblad, Anders; Berntsson, Thore

    2016-01-01

    Production of transportation fuels from biorefineries via biomass gasification has been suggested as a way of introducing renewable alternatives in the transportation system with an aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. By co-locating gasification-based processes within heat demanding industries, excess heat from the gasification process can replace fossil or renewable fuels. The objective of this study was to compare the heat integration potential of four different gasification-based biorefinery concepts with a chemical pulp and paper mill. The results showed that the choice of end-product which was either methanol, Fischer-Tropsch crude, synthetic natural gas or electricity, can have significant impact on the heat integration potential with a pulp and paper mill and that the heat saving measures implemented in the mill in connection to integration of a gasification process can increase the biomass resource efficiency by up to 3%-points. Heat saving measures can reduce the necessary biomass input to the biorefinery by 50% if the sizing constraint is to replace the bark boiler with excess heat from the biorefinery. A large integrated gasification process with excess steam utilisation in a condensing turbine was beneficial only if grid electricity is produced at below 30% electrical efficiency. - Highlights: • Biomass gasification integrated with a pulp and paper mill. • Different sizing constraints of integrated biofuel production. • The biofuel product largely influence the heat integration potential. • An oversized gasifier for increased power production could be favourable.

  7. Biomass gasification and fuel cells: system with PEM fuel cell; Gaseificacao de biomassa e celula a combustivel: sistema com celula tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, Alexandre; Lobkov, Dmitri D.; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Rodrigues, Jean Robert Pereira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: asordi@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: lobkov@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: danielg@fem.unicamp.br, e-mail: jrobert@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin], e-mail: Lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the operation flow diagram of an electricity generation system based on the biomass integrated gasification fuel cell of the type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). The integration between the gasification and a fuel cell of this type consists of the gas methane (CH4) reforming contained in the synthesis gas, the conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO), and the cleaning of the gaseous flow through a PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) system. A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate the efficiency of the system with and without methane gas reforming. The performance was also analyzed for different gasification gas compositions, for larger molar fractions of hydrogen and methane. The system electrical efficiency was 29% respective to the lower heating value of the gasification gas. The larger the molar fraction of hydrogen at the shift reactor exit, the better the PSA exergetic performance. Comparative analysis with small gas turbines exhibited the superiority of the PEMFC system. (author)

  8. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  9. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  10. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  11. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association, is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  12. Gasification and combined cycles: Present situation and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustia, G.F.; Bressan, L.; Domenichini, R.

    1992-01-01

    The gasification of coal and/or residual fuels from refineries together with the use of combined cycle power generation systems represents a technically and economically feasible method for the conversion of poor quality fossil fuels into electric power. The conversion is accomplished with maximum respect for the severest environmental normatives. In addition, foreseen technical improvements for components and plant systems are expected to heighten the marketing potential of gasification/combined cycle power plants. After Italy's moratorium on nuclear energy, the passing eras of conventional fossil fuel and then combined cycle power plants, the need for highly competitive industrial production technologies and the urgency of nation-wide energy conservation appear to be ushering in the new era of gasification with combined cycles

  13. Thermochemical Biomass Gasification: A Review of the Current Status of the Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted on the use of thermochemical biomass gasification for producing biofuels, biopower and chemicals. The upstream processes for gasification are similar to other biomass processing methods. However, challenges remain in the gasification and downstream processing for viable commercial applications. The challenges with gasification are to understand the effects of operating conditions on gasification reactions for reliably predicting and optimizing the product compositions, and for obtaining maximal efficiencies. Product gases can be converted to biofuels and chemicals such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels, green gasoline, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, and higher alcohols. Processes and challenges for these conversions are also summarized.

  14. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  15. Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Large Biomass Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Jenny; Hagstroem, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Pettersson, Jan B.C. [Goteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dep. of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science; Davidsson, Kent O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the project is to provide experimental data on single biomass particle pyrolysis that have an applied as well as a fundamental bearing. Transport phenomena and kinetics on the single particle level are characterized, including heat and mass transport processes. New experimental techniques and methods are applied and developed within the project. A single-particle reactor has been developed for the investigations, and several detection techniques including fast thermogravimetric analysis, molecular beam mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy, video recording and pyrometry are applied. The experimental data are used to develop robust models for pyrolysis and gasification, which are essential components in the design of gasification and combustion reactors.

  16. The behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO 2 /O 2 -and air gasification will be studied by using an equilibrium model developed at the Aabo Akademi. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant are measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 -project. Furthermore, in the project carried out at DUT the behaviour of a honeycomb-structured filter under CO 2 /O 2 -gasification environment is going to be studied. (author)

  17. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  18. Gasification in petroleum refinery of 21. century; La gazeification dans la raffinerie du petrole du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The worldwide trends in the crude oil supply indicate a continuous increase of the heavy crudes. The increase in the yield of distillation residues is complemented by an increase in their sulfur content. Additional distillates are produced by upgrading the residues. The upgrading step generates final residues, such as visbreaking tar, coke and asphalt which are produced by visbreaking, coking and de-asphalting, respectively. The final residues can be converted to usable products such as hydrogen, steam, electricity, ammonia and chemicals. For this purpose, gasification has emerged as the technology of choice because of its superior environmental performance when compared with the competing means for residue utilization. Also, refinery sludges can be co-gasified with the final residues and as such, be converted to usable products. If integrated with the petroleum refinery, gasification can diminish any environmental problems associated with residue and sludge disposal. The economic indicators of the refinery can improve as well. The trends in deregulation of the power market enable petroleum refineries to enter this lucrative market either alone or in a partnership with the utilities. The potential of co-production of chemicals and steam with electricity offers the flexibility to respond to market demands. Gasification technology is commercially proven. Among several types, entrained bed gasifiers are the gasifiers of choice. A number of commercial projects in Europe, Asia and United States use a gasifier employing either a slurry feeding system or a dry feeding system. (author)

  19. Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J.M.A. Rincon; M. Romero [University of Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy

    2006-11-15

    Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and pressure in reducing atmosphere. Under that conditions, gases such as H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} or CO, which are the main components of the gas mixture in the gasifier, show a high solubility in the melt and during the cooling remain enclosed in the vitreous slag. When these wastes are afterward thermal treated in oxidizing conditions, two phenomena occur. The development of a crystalline phase by devitrification of the glassy matrix and the releasing of the enclosed gas, which starts at temperatures nearly to the softening point. At higher temperatures the bubbles with increasing kinetic energy tend to ascend with difficulty through the viscous liquid phase and promotes an expansive reaction, giving rise to a foam glass-ceramic product. This paper has been focused on the study of thermal expansion in slag and fly ash samples from the ELCOGAS IGCC power plant located in Puertollano (Spain). 18 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Release of inorganic trace elements from high-temperature gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaesing, Marc

    2012-05-30

    The development of cleaner, more efficient techniques in next-generation coal power plants is becoming increasingly important, especially regarding to the discussion of the influence of CO{sub 2} emissions on global warming. A promising coal utilisation process is the integrated gasification combined cycle process. The direct use of the raw gas requires gas clean-up to prevent downstream parts of the gasifier from several problems. An increased efficiency and a decreased amount of harmful species can be achieved through hot fuel gas cleaning. This clean-up technique requires a comprehensive knowledge of the release characteristics of inorganic coal constituents. The aim of this thesis was to provide enhanced knowledge of the effect of key process parameters and of the chemical constitution of coal on the release of Na, K, S, and Cl species from high-temperature coal gasification. The experimental setup consisted of atmospheric flow tube furnaces and a pressurised furnace. In-situ analysis of the product gas was carried out using molecular beam mass spectrometry. A broad spectrum of different coals with assumed qualitative and quantitative differences in the release characteristics was investigated. Additionally, experiments with model substances were performed. The results of the experimental investigation were compared with thermodynamic calculations. Finally, recommendations, for the operation of a high-temperature gasifier are formulated. (orig.)

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  2. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  3. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  4. Simulation of biomass-steam gasification in fluidized bed reactors: Model setup, comparisons and preliminary predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Lim, C Jim; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu; Grace, John R

    2016-12-01

    A user-defined solver integrating the solid-gas surface reactions and the multi-phase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) approach is built based on the OpenFOAM software. The solver is tested against experiments. Then, biomass-steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasifier is preliminarily predicted. It is found that the predictions agree well with the experimental results. The bed material circulation loop in the DFB can form automatically and the bed height is about 1m. The voidage gradually increases along the height of the bed zone in the bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of the DFB. The U-bend and cyclone can separate the syngas in the BFB and the flue gas in the circulating fluidized bed. The concentration of the gasification products is relatively higher in the conical transition section, and the dry and nitrogen-free syngas at the BFB outlet is predicted to be composed of 55% H 2 , 20% CO, 20% CO 2 and 5% CH 4 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass gasification for electricity generation with internal combustion engines. Process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia Faure, Luis; Recio Recio, Angel; Oliva Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla Suarez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable source of energy worldwide increased prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By processes and energy conversion technologies it is possible to obtain fuels in solid, liquid and gaseous form from any biomass. The biomass gasification is the thermal conversion thereof into a gas, which can be used for electricity production with the use of internal combustion engines with a certain level of efficiency, which depends on the characteristics of biomass and engines used. In this work the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification in Integrated Forestry Enterprise of Santiago de Cuba, designed to generate electricity from waste from the forest industry is presented. Is a downdraft gasifier reactor, COMBO-80 model and engine manufacturing Hindu (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was carried out for different loads (electric power generated) engine from experimental measurements of flow and composition of the gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25%. (full text)

  6. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d gasifier equipment, the following were carried out: test on gasification of the coal proposed for pilot plant, test on changes in coal feed ratio, analysis of trace gas elements in coal, study of the fixed bed gas refining system, etc. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine, development of combustor which makes stable combustion in the low load region possible, development of low NOx combustor which controls the conversion of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia in coal gasification gas to NOx, development of combustor which makes the optimum and effective cooling possible by combining film cooling, impingement cooling, etc. In the study of simulation of the combined power generation total system, verification tests on the control mode switching function of the general load pressure control system, movement to meet anomaly of the control system, integrated cooperation control system, etc. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. In the study by the gasification test on 2t/d furnace, gasification test was conducted for the OM coal newly selected as a coal proposed for the expansion of coal kind. As a result, the pulverized coal/char of OM coal have almost good handling property and showed favorable gasification performance. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstrative machine, with the aim of developing a combustor that makes stable combustion also in the low load region possible, fabrication of the accessory equipment of combustor (choke mechanism, measuring use duct and heat insulating plate) was made for the actual-pressure/actual-size combustion test. In the study by simulation of the total system of combined cycle power generation, etc., the following were conducted: verification of characteristics of the integrated control (state of the ordinary operation, state of the mock load control, etc.), load dump simulation (state of the bleed cooperation, state of the bleed separation (state of the air booster operation, etc.)), etc. (NEDO)

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  9. Evaluation of selected sewage sludge gasification technological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałko, Grzegorz; Król, Danuta

    2018-02-01

    Evaluation of selected sewage sludge gasification technological parameters was shown in this paper. Degree of carbon conducted in combustible substance and syngas efficiency (technological readiness coefficient) in accordance with equations were calculated. Enthalpy of individual compounds formation and energy balance were calculated in accordance with rule of Hess.

  10. Autothermal gasification of low-grade fuels in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Belyaev [Scientific Center for Comprehensive Processing of Solid Combustible Minerals (IGI), Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Combustible Minerals Federal State Unitary Enterprise

    2009-01-15

    Autothermal gasification of high-ash flotation wastes of Grade Zh Kuzbass coal and low-ash fuel in a suspended-spouted (fluidized) bed at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and a comparison is presented of experimental results that indicate that the ash content of fuels has only slight influence on the generator gas heating value.

  11. Market for small waste gasification projects - preliminary scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a market analysis for small waste gasification/pyrolysis plant in the UK. The overall objectives of the study are to assess the potential merits in establishing a demonstration plant in the UK, and to identify the size, profile and characteristics of the potential market based on municipal solid waste (MSW) feedstock. (author)

  12. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  13. Pretreatment and Feeding of Biomass for Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Hartman, Miloslav; Martinec, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2009), s. 629-635 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720701 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) CT/2007/00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass * feeding * gasification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  14. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of industrial and municipal wastes. Anurag Pandey, Anupam Shukla. Abstract. Energy from biological organic waste as an aspect of sustainable waste management is probably the most contentious. Solid and liquid wastes are a rapidly growing problem ...

  15. Staged catalytic gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil was studied in a staged reactor concept, which consisted of an inert fluidized bed and a catalytic fixed bed. Methane and C2−C3 free syngas is produced at a single temperature around 800 °C at atmospheric pressure. By lowering the temperature of the

  16. Gasification Performance of a Top-Lit Updraft Cook Stove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Mehta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an experimental study of a top-lit updraft cook stove with a focus on gasification. The reactor is operated with primary air only. The performance is studied for a variation in the primary airflow, as well as reactor geometry. Temperature in the reactor, air flow rate, fuel consumption rate, and producer gas composition were measured. From the measurements the superficial velocity, pyrolysis front velocity, peak bed temperature, air fuel ratio, heating value of the producer gas, and gasification rate were calculated. The results show that the producer gas energy content was maximized at a superficial velocity of 9 cm/s. The percent char remaining at the end of gasification decreased with increasing combustion chamber diameter. For a fixed superficial velocity, the gasification rate and producer gas energy content were found to scale linearly with diameter. The energy content of the producer gas was maximized at an air fuel (AF ratio of 1.8 regardless of the diameter.

  17. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Gasification Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a highly instrumented half-ton/day pilot scale plant capable of demonstrating industrially relevant thermochemical technologies from lignocellulosic biomass conversion, including gasification. Gasification creates primarily Syngas (a mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide) that can be utilized with synthesis catalysts to form transportation fuels and other valuable chemicals. Biomass derived gasification products are a very complex mixture of chemical components that typically contain Sulfur and Nitrogen species that can act as catalysis poisons for tar reforming and synthesis catalysts. Real-time hot online sampling techniques, such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS), and Gas Chromatographs with Sulfur and Nitrogen specific detectors can provide real-time analysis providing operational indicators for performance. Sampling typically requires coated sampling lines to minimize trace sulfur interactions with steel surfaces. Other materials used inline have also shown conversion of sulfur species into new components and must be minimized. Sample line Residence time within the sampling lines must also be kept to a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Solids from ash and char contribute to plugging and must be filtered at temperature. Experience at NREL has shown several key factors to consider when designing and installing an analytical sampling system for biomass gasification products. They include minimizing sampling distance, effective filtering as close to source as possible, proper line sizing, proper line materials or coatings, even heating of all components, minimizing pressure drops, and additional filtering or traps after pressure drops.

  18. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  19. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  20. Gasification of Coal and PET in Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Vosecký, Martin; Kameníková, Petra; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej; Staf, M.; Vošta, J.; Koutský, B.; Svoboda, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, 17-18 (2006), s. 2458-2468 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fludized bed * gasification * plastic waste Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2006

  1. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale

    2014-08-01

    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gasification versus combustion of solid wastes. Environmental aspects. Supplementary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenholm, M.; Dalager, S.; Kristensen, O.

    1994-04-01

    The report is supplementary to the main one of the same title and contains detailed descriptions of the plants for gasification and pyrolysis of biomass visited in Europe, Canada and USA in order to evaluate the technology development, especially with regard to the use of solid wastes as fuel. (AB)

  3. Technologies relevant for gasification and methanation in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2012-09-15

    This report is a Milestone report for Task 3.1 of the project ''Detailed analysis of bio-SNG technologies and other RE-gases'', Forsk-NG 10689. It is a report on inventory of relevant bio-SNG technologies. In this report a list of technologies relevant for production of bio-SNG from gasification of biomass is presented. During a long period of time a range of gasification technologies has been developed in Denmark. All Danish gasification technologies are characterised by the fact that the producer gases - immediately after gasification - are used in a boiler or an engine. This use is initially the most effective because after purification and without modification the gases can be used directly in a boiler or an engine. However, a gasifier plant is rather expensive, which means that in order to be cost-effective the gasifier must operate as base load. In the future, an expected larger production of producer gases will, therefore, cause a need for storage of the energy - because there won't be correspondence between production and utilisation. This storage is possible by producing bio-SNG by methanation and then adding it to the natural gas grid and storages. There are two ways of making gasification plants more cost effective: ''Saving by size'' and ''Saving by number''. Large plants of course have the advantage of smaller specific price for the installation. On the other hand a great number of equal plants scattered across the country would also reduce the specific cost of installations and the expenses for transport would reduce as well. Even a third possibility is to install at a plant several parallel units for gasification technologies that have maximum unit size and attaching one common methanation unit. This increases the operational reliability of the plant and save installation costs where possible. In Denmark, as an example, a plant of 60 MW (output) might be considered, corresponding to

  4. PFB air gasification of biomass. Investigation of product formation and problematic issues related to ammonia, tar and alkali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader

    2000-09-01

    Fluidised bed thermal gasification of biomass is an effective route that results in 100 % conversion of the fuel. In contrast to chemical, enzymatic or anaerobic methods of biomass treatment, the thermal conversion leaves no contaminated residue after the process. The product gas evolved within thermal conversion can be used in several applications such as: fuel for gas turbines, combustion engines and fuel cells, and raw material for production of chemicals and synthetic liquid fuels. This thesis treats a part of the experimental data from two different gasifiers: a 90 kW{sub th} pressurised fluidised bubbling bed gasifier at Lund University and a 18 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed gasifier integrated with gas turbine (IGCC) in Vaernamo. A series of parallel and consecutive chemical reactions is involved in thermal gasification, giving origin to formation of a variety of products. These products can be classified within three major groups: gases, tars and oils, and char. The proportion of these categories of species in the final product is a matter of the gasifier design and the process parameters. The thesis addresses the technical and theoretical aspects of the biomass thermochemical conversion and presents a new approach in describing the gasification reactions. There is an evidence of fuel effect on the characteristics of the final products: a mixture of plastic waste (polyethylene) and biomass results in higher concentration of linear hydrocarbons in the gas than gasification of pure biomass. Mixing the biomass with textile waste (containing aromatic structure) results in a high degree of formation of aromatic compounds and light tars. Three topic questions within biomass gasification, namely: tar, NO{sub x} and alkali are discussed in the thesis. The experimental results show that gasification at high ER or high temperature decreases the total amount of the tars and simultaneously reduces the contents of the oxygenated and alkyl-substituted poly

  5. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  6. Reed as a gasification fuel: a comparison with woody fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Link

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reed and coniferous wood can be used for energy production via thermochemical conversion, for instance by gasification. The rate-determining step of the gasification process is the reaction between the char and the gaseous environment in the gasifier, whose rate depends on variables such as pressure, temperature, particle size, mineral matter content, porosity, etc. It is known that reactivity can be improved by increasing the temperature, but on the other hand the temperature achieved in the reactor is limited due to the ash fusion characteristics. Usually, the availability of reed as a fuel is locally modest and, therefore, it must be blended with other fuels such as wood. Blending of fuels brings together several problems relating to ash behaviour, i.e. ash fusion issues. Because there is no correlation between the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends and their individual components, it is essential to carry out prior laboratory-scale ash fusion tests on the blends. This study compares the reactivity of reed and coniferous wood, and the ash fusion characteristics of blends of reed and coniferous wood ashes. When compared with Douglas fir and reed chars, pine pellets have the highest reactivity. Reed char exhibits the lowest reactivity and, therefore, it is advantageous to gasify reed alone at higher gasification temperatures because the ash fusion temperatures of reed are higher than those of woody fuels. The ash produced by reed and wood blends can melt at lower temperatures than ash from both reed and wood gasified separately. Due to this circumstance the gasification temperature should be chosen carefully when gasification of blends is carried out.

  7. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  8. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Underground coal gasification (UCG: A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has a huge demand for energy. Under the present energy structure of rich coal, lean oil, less gas, limited and low-rising rate renewable energy, discussion focus is now on the high-efficient mining of coal as well as its clean-and-low-carbon use. In view of this, based on an analysis of the problems in the coal chemical industry and the present coal utilization ways such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC, this paper proposes that underground coal gasification (UCG technology is a realistic choice. By virtue of its advantages in many aspects such as safety & environment, integrated use of superior resources, economic feasibility, etc. this technology can serve as the front-end support and guarantee for coal chemical industry and IGCC. Under the present situation, the following proposals were presented to promote the development of this technology. First, R&D of technical products should be strengthened, a comprehensive feasibility study assessment system should be established, and the relevant criteria in the industry should be formulated. Second, precise market positioning of UCG products should be made with much concern on the integrated economic indicators of each product's complete flow scheme, following the principle of “Technical Feasibility First, Economic Optimization Followed”. Third, a perfect operation and management pattern should be established with strict control over high-efficient, environmentally-friendly, safe, harmonious & compact objectives in the whole industry chain. In conclusion, to realize the large-scale UCG commercial production will strongly promote the optimization and innovation of fossil fuels supply-side economics in China.

  10. Report on the gasification technology sub-committee of the coal gasification committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the coal gasification committee and the gasification technology sub-committee in fiscal 1992. The paper summarizes the report mainly on the data distributed at the gasification technology sub-committee meetings in fiscal 1992. In developing the coal utilizing hydrogen manufacturing technology, the trial operation was started on the pilot plant in fiscal 1991, wherein two comprehensive trial operations were carried out on gasification of 10 kg/cm{sup 2} to extract troubles throughout the whole system, smooth temperature rise and pressure rise were performed, and coal and oxygen were supplied into a furnace to have verified ignition of the coal. Furthermore, one trial operation for gasification of 30 kg/cm{sup 2} was executed. Fiscal 1992 will continue the gasification test of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}. In addition, a test on measures to improve efficiency purposed for gasification efficiency enhancement is carried out, and so is a coal type diversification test purposed to expand coal type applicability. A study was performed by using a small device as a pilot plant supporting study. Prototype fabrication, development, and in-plant tests were made on materials for plant devices (refractories and ceramics). The paper also describes the current status of HYCOL pilot plant operation study. Discussions were given also on heat balance of a gasification furnace. (NEDO)

  11. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 2: Evaluation of ash materials as phosphorus fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottomashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded thatLT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  12. Gasification and co-gasification of biomass wastes: Effect of the biomass origin and the gasifier operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Hernandez, Juan J.; Pazo, Amparo; Lopez, Julio [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Edificio Politecnico), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Air gasification of different biomass fuels, including forestry (pinus pinaster pruning) and agricultural (grapevine and olive tree pruning) wastes as well as industry wastes (sawdust and marc of grape), has been carried out in a circulating flow gasifier in order to evaluate the potential of using these types of biomass in the same equipment, thus providing higher operation flexibility and minimizing the effect of seasonal fuel supply variations. The potential of using biomass as an additional supporting fuel in coal fuelled power plants has also been evaluated through tests involving mixtures of biomass and coal-coke, the coke being a typical waste of oil companies. The effect of the main gasifier operating conditions, such as the relative biomass/air ratio and the reaction temperature, has been analysed to establish the conditions allowing higher gasification efficiency, carbon conversion and/or fuel constituents (CO, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) concentration and production. Results of the work encourage the combined use of the different biomass fuels without significant modifications in the installation, although agricultural wastes (grapevine and olive pruning) could to lead to more efficient gasification processes. These latter wastes appear as interesting fuels to generate a producer gas to be used in internal combustion engines or gas turbines (high gasification efficiency and gas yield), while sawdust could be a very adequate fuel to produce a H{sub 2}-rich gas (with interest for fuel cells) due to its highest reactivity. The influence of the reaction temperature on the gasification characteristics was not as significant as that of the biomass/air ratio, although the H{sub 2} concentration increased with increasing temperature. (author)

  13. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  15. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  16. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In fiscal 1995, 1328 hours and 3 minutes (8 gasification operations) was recorded with gasification furnace facility, 899 hours and 53 minutes with the gas clean-up facility, 831 hours and 27 minutes with the gas turbine facility (11 startups for the generation of 6657 MWh), and 1958 hours and 2 minutes with the treatment furnace and 1331 hours and 10 minutes with the denitration unit of the safety/environment-related facility. The details of starts and stops were described in graphs which covered Runs D13, D14-1, D14-2, E1, D15, and A14. Operating procedures were studied and compiled for the plant start/stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and the safety/environment-related facility. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for the establishment of the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation was operated for testing, and the results are put together. Operating hours recorded were 1347 hours and 7 minutes for the gasification furnace facility (7 gasification operations), 752 hours and 22 minutes for the gas clean-up facilities, 425 hours and 20 minutes for the gas turbine facility (6 startups for generating 2616.1 MWh), and 1852 hours for the treatment furnace and 1304 hours and 32 minutes for the denitration system in the safety/environment-related facility. Detailed graphs were drawn for the description of starts and stops in Run D8, Run D9 (1-3), Run D10, Run D11, and in Run D12. Operating procedures were studied and then compiled for the plant start-stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and for the safety/environment related facility. (NEDO)

  18. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and

  19. CFD Analysis of Coal and Heavy Oil Gasification for Syngas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreedharan, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the gasification of coal and heavy oil for syngas production using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Gasification which includes complex physical and chemical processes such as turbulence, multiphase flow, heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions has been modeled using...... phases. Gasification consists of the processes of passive heating, devolatilization, volatiles oxidation, char gasification and gas phase reactions. Attention is given here to the chemical kinetics of the gasification processes. The coal gasification model has been validated for entrained-flow gasifiers...... a discrete phase model. In this model, the continuous phase is described by Eulerian conservation equations and the discrete phase is described by tracking individual particles in a Lagrangian framework. A two-way coupling accounts for momentum, heat and mass transfer between the continuous and discrete...

  20. Energy options and the role of coal: an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Considers energy goals and options with particular regard to providing affordable energy to Canada. Gasification of coal and carbon to provide a reliable source of clean power and heat to the oil sand industry and for feedstocks for the production of fertilizer, methanol, petrochemicals, and ultra-clean fuels is examined. The layout for integrated gasification polygeneration with carbon feed and plans for Canada's first commercial gasification plant (the Nexen Long Lake Project) are shown in diagrams. Progress in coal gasification at a clean coal Luscar/Sherritt pilot plant is outlined. Clean coal technology is part of a strategy to provide integration across energy systems, generate value for all hydrocarbon resources, and minimize emissions. 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Casado, Raquel; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Coca, Pilar; Pena, Francisco Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga 2 O 3 and as Ga 3+ and V 3+ substituting for Al 3+ in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 deg. C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash

  2. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: ofont@ija.csic.es; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: xquerol@ija.csic.es; Juan, Roberto [Institute of Coal Chemistry, CSIC. Luis Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: rjuan@carbon.icb.csic.es; Casado, Raquel [Institute of Coal Chemistry, CSIC. Luis Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruiz, Carmen R. [Institute of Coal Chemistry, CSIC. Luis Luesma Castan 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: cruiz@carbon.icb.csic.es; Lopez-Soler, Angel [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: alopez@ija.csic.es; Coca, Pilar [ELCOGAS S.A., 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: pcoca@elcogas.es; Pena, Francisco Garcia [ELCOGAS S.A., 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: fgarciapena@elcogas.es

    2007-01-31

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and as Ga{sup 3+} and V{sup 3+}substituting for Al{sup 3+} in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 deg. C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash.

  3. Recovery of gallium and vanadium from gasification fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Juan, Roberto; Casado, Raquel; Ruiz, Carmen R; López-Soler, Angel; Coca, Pilar; García Peña, Francisco

    2007-01-31

    The Puertollano Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant (Spain) fly ash is characterized by a relatively high content of Ga and V, which occurs mainly as Ga2O3 and as Ga3+ and V3+ substituting for Al3+ in the Al-Si fly ash glass matrix. Investigations focused on evaluating the potential recovery of Ga and V from these fly ashes. Several NaOH based extraction tests were performed on the IGCC fly ash, at different temperatures, NaOH/fly ash (NaOH/FA) ratios, NaOH concentrations and extraction times. The optimal Ga extraction conditions was determined as 25 degrees C, NaOH 0.7-1 M, NaOH/FA ratio of 5 L/kg and 6 h, attaining Ga extraction yields of 60-86%, equivalent to 197-275 mg of Ga/kg of fly ash. Re-circulation of leachates increased initial Ga concentrations (25-38 mg/L) to 188-215 mg/L, while reducing both content of impurities and NaOH consumption. Carbonation of concentrated Ga leachate demonstrated that 99% of the bulk Ga content in the leachate precipitates at pH 7.4. At pH 10.5 significant proportions of impurities, mainly Al (91%), co-precipitate while >98% of the bulk Ga remains in solution. A second carbonation of the remaining solution (at pH 7.5) recovers the 98.8% of the bulk Ga. Re-dissolution (at pH 0) of the precipitate increases Ga purity from 7 to 30%, this being a suitable Ga end product for further purification by electrolysis. This method produces higher recovery efficiency than currently applied for Ga on an industrial scale. In contrast, low V extraction yields (<64%) were obtained even when using extreme alkaline extraction conditions, which given the current marked price of this element, limits considerably the feasibility of V recovery from IGCC fly ash.

  4. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1998-01-01

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  5. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  6. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  7. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  8. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  9. The gasification of biomass: A technological challenge. Biomassa vergassen: Een technologische uitdaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portegijs, J

    1993-05-01

    The gasification of specially for that purpose cultivated poplars and bamboo or other biomass is an attractive option for the production of electricity. An overview is given of projects and the techniques, by which this option can be realized. Examples of biomass gasification projects in Sweden and Finland are briefly discussed. Possibilities to implement small-scale biomass gasification in the Netherlands are outlined. 1 ill., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  10. The research and development of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yitian; Wu Jinhu; Chen Hanshi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Coal gasification tests in a pressurized ash agglomeration fluidized bed coal gasifier were carried out. The effects of pressure and temperature on the gasification capacity, carbon conversion, carbon content in discharged ash and gas composition were investigated. Gasification capacity was shown to be in direct proportion to operation pressure. Tests of hot gas dedusting using a moving granular bed were also carried out. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. ► No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. ► PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. ► Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. ► The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by

  12. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  13. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  14. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  15. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  16. FY 1991 report on the Coal Gasification Committee; 1991 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee, gasification power generation section and gasification technology section in FY 1991. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 16,1991, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1991 research plan on the development of coal gasification technology. The 2nd Meeting was held on March 12, 1992, and report/discussion were made about activities of each section meeting and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In the section meeting of coal gasification power generation, report/discussion were made about the progress and study object of the development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant and support study for the development of the plant. In the 1st section meeting of coal gasification technology, as to the developmental plan on coal utilization hydrogen production technology, report/discussion were made about design/construction/operational study of pilot plant and support study for pilot plant (study using small equipment, study of trial manufacture of plant use equipment/materials). In the 2nd section meeting, report/discussion were made about the results of the development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology. (NEDO)

  17. Hydrogen enriched gas production in a multi-stage downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.; Jarungthammachote, S.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve hydrogen enriched and low-tar producer gas, multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification were studied in this research. Results showed that the tar content from multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification was lower compared to the average value of that from downdraft gasification. It was also seen that an air-steam gasification process could potentially increase the hydrogen concentration in the producer gas in the expense of carbon monoxide; however, the summation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the producer gas was increased. (author)

  18. The Shell gasification technology offers clean solutions for refineries and utility companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaswinkel, E.E.; Posthuma, S.A.; Zuideveld, P.L. [Shell International Oil Products BV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Shell has developed two dedicated gasification technologies, the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) for gaseous and liquid feed stocks and the Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) for coal, lignite and petroleum coke. These processes are described. One of the most recent applications of SGP is the PER+ Shell Refinery project in the Netherlands which is nearly completed. A 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on SCGP has recently been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). These two projects are discussed.

  19. Thermogravimetric characterization and gasification of pecan nut shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Hugo; Lozano, Francisco J; Acevedo, Joaquín; Mendoza, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of pecan nut shells as an alternative source of energy through pyrolysis and gasification. The physicochemical characteristics of the selected biomass that can influence the process efficiency, consumption rates, and the product yield, as well as create operational problems, were determined. In addition, the thermal decomposition kinetics necessary for prediction of consumption rates and yields were determined. Finally, the performance of a downdraft gasifier fed with pecan nut shells was analyzed in terms of process efficiency and exit gas characteristics. It was found that the pyrolytic decomposition of the nut shells can be modeled adequately using a single equation considering two independent parallel reactions. The performance of the gasification process can be influenced by the particle size and air flow rate, requiring a proper combination of these parameters for reliable operation and production of a valuable syngas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tar dew point analyser as a tool in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Kuipers, J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Application of the Tar Dew point Analyzer (TDA) in different biomass based gasification systems and subsequent gas cleaning setups has been proven feasible. Such systems include BFB gasifiers, CFB gasifier and fixed bed gasifiers, with tar crackers or different scrubbers for tar removal. Tar dew points obtained with the TDA give direct insight in the performance of the gas cleaning section and help prevent any tar related problems due to condensation. The current TDA is capable of measuring tar dew points between -20 to 200C. This manuscript will present results from 4 different gasification setups. The range of measured tar dew points is -7 to 164C with comparable results from the calculated dew points based on the SPA measurements. Further detail will be presented on the differences between TDA and SPA results and explanations will be given for deviations that occurred. Improvements for the TDA regarding future work will be presented.

  1. Use of moist run-of-mine coal for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowka, K.; Duerlich, M.; Rabe, W. (VEB Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    A Series of experiments was performed in 1982 and 1986 to assess the feasibility of substituting brown coal briquets by raw brown coal in the fixed bed gasification plant for producing town gas at Schwarze Pumpe, GDR. Raw brown coal (50% coal moisture, screened coal of fractions 20 to 80 mm) had to be mixed with dry briquets to maintain a maximum 35% coal charge moisture. Briquet substitution degree varied from 20 to 50%. Short-term gasification tests were also carried out at an experimental generator examining 80 to 100% substitution degrees. Parameters of generator operation that were achieved are provided. Experiments proved that 50% briquet substitution is technologically feasible in industrial plant operation employing unscreened coal containing all coal fines. An economic assessment is further made that shows substantial energy savings in coal drying and briquetting.

  2. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  3. Gasification of coal with steam using heat from HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juentgen, H.; Heek, K.H. van

    1975-01-01

    In existing coal gasification processes a substantial part of the coal is used to provide the heat for the reaction, for the generation and superheating of steam and for the production of oxygen. By using heat from HTRs to substitute this part, the coal is then completely used as raw material for gas production. This offers the following advantages compared with the existing processes: a saving of coal, less CO 2 emission and, in countries with high coal costs, lower gas production costs. A survey is given of the state of the project, discussing the first design of a commercial gasifier, the influence of the helium outlet temperature of the HTR, kinds of products, and the overall efficiency of the plant. The aim of the development is to demonstrate the use of heat from an HTR for full scale coal gasification, starting in 1985. (Auth.)

  4. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  5. Thermogravimetric analysis of the gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Camila Emilia; Moreira, Paulo Firmino; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-12-01

    The gasification of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris under an atmosphere of argon and water vapor was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The data were interpreted by using conventional isoconversional methods and also by the independent parallel reaction (IPR) model, in which the degradation is considered to happen individually to each pseudo-component of biomass (lipid, carbohydrate and protein). The IPR model allows obtaining the kinetic parameters of the degradation reaction of each component. Three main stages were observed during the gasification process and the differential thermogravimetric curve was satisfactorily fitted by the IPR model considering three pseudocomponents. The comparison of the activation energy values obtained by the methods and those found in the literature for other microalgae was satisfactory. Quantification of reaction products was performed using online gas chromatography. The major products detected were H2, CO and CH4, indicating the potential for producing fuel gas and syngas from microalgae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gasification for fuel production in large and small scale polygeneration plants; Foergasning foer braensleproduktion i stor- och smaaskaliga energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Jennie; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    This report investigates the possibility of integrating biofuel production through gasification with an existing energy production system. Previous work within Vaermeforsk (report 904, 1012) has concluded that gasification for motor fuel production as a part of a polygeneration plant seems promising when looking at the energy efficiency. However, comparable data between different types of integration, energy plants and fuels was found to be needed in order to get a better understanding of how a gasifier would affect an energy system. The systems studied are the heat- and power production of a bigger city (Goeteborg) and a medium sized city (Eskilstuna), and a pulp mill (Soedra Cell Vaeroe). The latter already runs a commercial gasifier for burner gas production, where the gas is used in the lime kiln. The different types of polygeneration plants have been studied by setting up and evaluating mass- and energy balances for each system. The fuel products that are looked upon in this project are DME, methane, methanol and burner gas. The burner gas is used on site. The case studies have been evaluated based on energy efficiency for fuel production, electricity and district heating. The efficiency is foremost calculated for the higher heating value. In the case of the boiler integrated gasifier in Eskilstuna, the efficiencies have been calculated on the marginal fuel. We have also let the district heating remain unchanged

  7. System aspects of black liquor gasification - Consequences for both industry and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The pulp and paper industry consumes large quantities of biofuels (mainly bark and black liquor) to satisfy process requirements. Biomass is however a limited resource, and biofuel usage should therefore be as effective as possible. Modern pulp mills and integrated pulp and paper mills have excess fuel compared to the amounts needed to satisfy the process steam demand. The excess fuel is often used for cogeneration of electric power in CHP units. For integrated pulp and paper mills, this usually requires import of supplementary fuel to the plant. For market pulp mills, the excess internal biofuel quantities are sufficient to also allow electric power generation in condensing power plant units. If biofuel availability at a reasonable price is limited, import/export to, from a mill changes the amount of such biofuel available to alternative users. The goal of this thesis is to compare different mill powerhouse technologies and CHP plant configurations (including conventional recovery boiler technology and black liquor gasification technology) in order to identify the technology and CHP plant configuration that can produce the most electric power output from a given fuel resource for a given process steam demand. Different process steam demand levels for different representative mill types are considered. The comparison accounts for increased/decreased electricity production in an alternative energy system when biofuel is imported/exported to/from from the mill. The alternative energy system considered includes a district heating system with CHP capacity and natural gas fired combined cycle power plant capacity. The results show that black liquor gasification is in all cases considered an attractive powerhouse recovery cycle technology compared to conventional recovery boiler technology. If the marginal electric power generation efficiency for biofuel exported to the reference alternative energy system is 49%, excess mill internal biofuel should be used on mill

  8. Gasification of biomass chars in steam-nitrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2006-01-01

    Some agricultural and waste biomass samples such as sunflower shell, pinecone, rapeseed, cotton refuse and olive refuse were first pyrolyzed in nitrogen, and then, their chars were gasified in a gas mixture of steam and nitrogen. Experiments were performed using the thermogravimetric analysis technique. Pyrolysis of the biomass samples was performed at a heating rate of 20 K/min from ambient to 1273 K in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cm 3 min -1 . The obtained chars were cooled to ambient temperature and then gasified up to 1273 K in a dynamic atmosphere of 40 cm 3 min -1 of a mixture of steam and nitrogen. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis profiles from gasification of the chars were derived, and the mass losses from the chars were interpreted in terms of temperature. It was concluded that gasification characteristics of biomass chars were fairly dependent on the biomass properties such as ash and fixed carbon contents and the constituents present in the ash. Different mechanisms in the three temperature intervals, namely water desorption at lower temperatures, decomposition of hydroxide minerals to oxide minerals and formation of carbon monoxide at medium temperatures and production of hydrogen at high temperatures govern the behavior of the char during the gasification process. The chars from pinecone and sunflower shell could be easily gasified under the mentioned conditions. In order to further raise the conversion yields, long hold times should be applied at high temperatures. However, the chars from rapeseed and olive refuse were not gasified satisfactorily. Low ash content and high fixed carbon content biomass materials are recommended for use in gasification processes when char from pyrolysis at elevated temperatures is used as a feedstock

  9. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  10. Furnace for degasification and gasification of combustibles rich in ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-13

    A furnace is described for the degasification and the gasification of combustibles rich in ashes with continuous-functioning vertical chambers of transversal rectangular sections in which the washing gas flows from one side to the other, traversing the combustible, characterized by the fact that the height of the combustible surrounded by the washing gas stays in a proportion higher than 10:1 to the thickness of the width of combustible.

  11. Designing of gasification power plant for remote area in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Vendrell, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to define the biomass gasification technology for ensuring 30kW of electric supply to remote areas in Thailand. On one hand, must be determined the type of biomass fuel, the suitable gasifier and obtained producer gas. On the other hand, establish the electrical generation technology by using producer gas. Finally, an economic evaluation is conducted to define the feasibility of the project. Therefore, the project is the analysis of the i...

  12. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  13. Numerical Modelling of Wood Gasification in Thermal Plasma Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirka, Ivan; Živný, Oldřich; Hrabovský, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2017), s. 947-965 ISSN 0272-4324 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma modelling * CFD * Thermal plasma reactor * Biomass * Gasification * Syngas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11090-017-9812-z

  14. Gasification under EPACT2005. US Emerging Energy and Environmental Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, W.G.

    2005-11-01

    To celebrate its 50th anniversary, ECN gathered a group of 30 high-level energy experts to discuss climate change mitigation strategies and their implications for energy technology development. This summary reports the main findings of the international scientific symposium. It also gives an account of the principal lessons learned, and formulates recommendations for energy innovation policy-making in the European Union. In this presentation attention is paid to gasification under the USA Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT2005)

  15. Ten residual biomass fuels for circulating fluidized-bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drift, A. van der; Doorn, J. van [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Vermeulen, J.W. [NV Afvalzorg, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    In co-operation with a Dutch company (NV Afvalzorg) and the Dutch agency for energy and environment (Novem), ECN has successfully tested 10 different biomass residues in its 500 kW{sub th} circulating fluidized-bed gasification facility. Among the fuels used as demolition wood (both puree and mixed with sewage sludge and paper sludge), verge grass, railroad ties, cacao shells and different woody fuels. Railroad ties turn out to contain very little (heavy) metals. Initially, fuel feeding problems often impeded smooth operation. Contrary to feeding systems, the circulating fluidized-bed gasification process itself seems very flexible concerning the conversion of different kinds of biomass fuels. The fuel moisture content is one of the most important fuel characteristics. More moisture means that more air is needed to maintain the process temperature resulting in better carbon conversion and lower tar emission but also lower product gas heating value and lower cold gas efficiency. So, for a good comparison of the gasification behaviour of different fuels, the moisture content should be similar. However, the moisture content should be defined on an ash-free basis rather than on total mass (the usual way). Some of the ashes produced and retained in the second cyclone were analysed both for elemental composition and leaching behaviour. It turned out that the leaching rate of Mo and Br, elements only present in small concentrations, are preventing the ash to be considered as inert material according to the Dutch legislation for dumping on landfill sites. (Author)

  16. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  18. Supercritical gasification of wastewater from updraft wood gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Blasi, Colomba; Branca, Carmen; Galgano, Antonio; Meier, Dietrich; Brodzinski, Ina; Malmros, Olof

    2007-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the wood tar fraction soluble in water is discussed. The mixture is collected downstream of an updraft wood gasification plant and presents tar compounds typical of low-temperature pyrolysis, with the highest yields attained by acetic acid, levoglucosan and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. SCWG tests, using a laboratory-scale reactor with a plug-flow behavior, temperatures of 723-821 K, residence times of 46-114 s and initial total organic carbon (TOC) contents of 6.5-31 g/l (pressure equal to 25 MPa), show TOC conversion roughly between 30% and 70%. The corresponding yields of gas (l) with respect to the initial TOC contents (g) vary from 0.4 to 1. Gasification of TOC is well described by an irreversible, first-order, Arrhenius rate reaction with an activation energy of 75.7±22 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor of 897±30 s -1 . Quantification of 23 tar compounds of the product stream shows the prompt conversion of sugars and complex phenols, with the formation of intermediate products, such as furfurals, which successively decompose, and more thermally resistant species, such as acetic acid, propionic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, ketones and especially cresols and phenols

  19. Biomass gasification for electric power generation. Biomassa vergassing voor elektriciteitsopwekking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H J

    1992-10-01

    Attention is paid to power generation by means of the use of synthesis gas, produced by biomass gasification, in internal combustion engines and gas turbines. Descriptions are given of the biomass gasification process and several types of gasifiers: cocurrent or downcraft gasifiers, countercurrent gasifiers, crosscurrent gasifiers and fluidized bed gasifiers. The first aim of this report is to assess which gasifier is the most appropriate gasifier to be used in combination with an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine. The second aim is to determine the quality of the biomass fuel, which must be gasified in a particular gasifier. In chapter two the notion biomass is discussed, and in chapter three attention is paid to the gasification process. An overview of the characteristics of available gasifiers is presented in chapter four (performance, quality of the synthesis gas and the biomass fuel, investment costs, and state of the art). In chapter five and six the internal combustion engine and the gas turbine are dealt with, as well as the experiences with and the consequences of the use of synthesis gas. Also the economic feasibility of the application of combined gasifier/engine systems and gasifier/gas turbine systems is discussed. 39 figs., 20 tabs., 43 refs.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  1. The study of reactions influencing the biomass steam gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Franco; F. Pinto; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-05-01

    Steam gasification studies were carried out in an atmospheric fluidised bed. The gasifier was operated over a temperature range of 700 900{sup o}C whilst varying a steam/biomass ratio from 0.4 to 0.85 w/w. Three types of forestry biomass were studied: Pinus pinaster (softwood), Eucalyptus globulus and holm-oak (hardwood). The energy conversion, gas composition, higher heating value and gas yields were determined and correlated with temperature, steam/biomass ratio, and species of biomass used. The results obtained seemed to suggest that the operating conditions were optimised for a gasification temperature around 830{sup o}C and a steam/biomass ratio of 0.6 0.7 w/w, because a gas richer in hydrogen and poorer in hydrocarbons and tars was produced. These conditions also favoured greater energy and carbon conversions, as well the gas yield. The main objective of the present work was to determine what reactions were dominant within the operation limits of experimental parameters studied and what was the effect of biomass type on the gasification process. As biomass wastes usually have a problem of availability because of seasonal variations, this work analysed the possibility of replacing one biomass species by another, without altering the gas quality obtained. 19 refs., 8 figs. 2 tabs.

  2. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  3. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1,000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to high-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. However, because coal has widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where it is mined, it is difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, ERDA, together with the American Gas Association is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high Btu and to low Btu gas have reached the pilot plant stage. The responsibility for designing, constructing and operating each of these pilot plants is defined and progress on each during the quarter is described briefly. The accumulation of data for a coal gasification manual and the development of mathematical models of coal gasification processes are reported briefly. (LTN)

  4. Analytical characterization of an industrial waste treated by gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, M.D.; Larsen, D.W.; Manahan, S.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1999-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that an effective general treatment for hazardous wastes is sorption of the waste onto a specially prepared, macroporous coal char followed by gasification of the mixture in reverse mode. In the present study, an industrial waste comprised of styrene manufacturing and petroleum byproducts was gasified, and the waste, coal, virgin char, and char/waste mixture (before and after gasification) were examined by various instrumental methods, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultimate and proximate analyses, to determine which methods give useful information. The composition of the waste was found to be 38% water, 27% inorganic, and 35% organic. NMR showed that the organic components are a mixture of aliphatic and olefinic/aromatics. About 8% of the sludge is chromatographable and GC/MS revealed the presence of aromatics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Solid-state NMR showed that the sludge components are strongly immobilized on the char up to a 1:1 (wt:wt) ratio. SEM results showed changes in the char macroporous surface as waste is incorporated by the char and as the mixture is subsequently gasified. In addition, a portion of the elemental content of the char surface was revealed by energy dispersive (EDAX) measurements. IR photoaccoustic spectroscopy showed that peaks attributable to aqueous and organic fractions of the waste disappear upon gasification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Challenges And Opportunities For Coal Gasification In Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    Coal gasification for chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels production can fulfil an important strategic need in those developing countries where coal is the primary fuel source and oil and gas energy security is an issue. At the same time, the establishment of major projects in such countries can be problematical for a number of technical and economic reasons, although it is encouraging that some projects appear to be moving forward. There are two developing countries where coal conversion projects to produce chemicals, gaseous and liquid fuels have been taken forward strongly. The first is South Africa, which established the world's only commercial-scale coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals facilities at Secunda and Sasolburg respectively. The other is China, where there is a major gasification-based coal conversion development and deployment programme that is set to become a significant, large-scale commercial element in the nation's energy development plans. This will provide further major opportunities for the deployment of large-scale coal gasification technologies, various syngas conversion units and catalysts for the subsequent production of the required products. The role of China is likely to be critical in the dissemination of such technologies to other developing countries as it can not only provide the technical expertise but also financially underpin such projects, including the associated infrastructure needs.

  6. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  7. Report for fiscal 1994 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    As the result of a RUN-9 operation in the research on technologies for hydrogen production from coal and for pilot plants, it is found that the Muswellbrook, Datong, and Blair Athol coals are all suitable for gasification in pilot plants. Their handlability is considerably improved when the grain sizes after crushing are allowed to remain coarse (with the Blair Athol coal still retaining some disadvantage). A concept design is prepared for a HYCOL (hydrogen from coal) process demonstration plant. The reference coal is an imported coal similar to the Taiheiyo coal, and the hydrogen production target is set at 1-million m{sup 3}N/d (590t/d in terms of Taiheiyo coal) and hydrogen purity at 95% or higher. The whole process consists of coal gasification (with oxygen serving as gasification agent), dedusting, conversion to CO, desulfurization and decarboxylation (recovery of sulfur), and methanation. The gasification furnace is a 1-chamber entrained bed type with a 2-stage gyration flow. Dried and pulverized coal is conveyed aboard an air flow into the gasification furnace, where it is thrown into partial combustion reaction with the gasification agent for gasification in a high-temperature zone (1,500-1,600 degrees C), and the ash is taken out as slag. The generated gas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler, dedusted in a cyclone dust filter, and then forwarded to the washing unit. (NEDO)

  8. Numerical modelling of the CHEMREC black liquor gasification process. Conceptual design study of the burner in a pilot gasification reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Magnus

    2001-02-01

    The work presented in this report is done in order to develop a simplified CFD model for Chemrec's pressurised black liquor gasification process. This process is presently under development and will have a number of advantages compared to conventional processes for black liquor recovery. The main goal with this work has been to get qualitative information on influence of burner design for the gas flow in the gasification reactor. Gasification of black liquor is a very complex process. The liquor is composed of a number of different substances and the composition may vary considerably between liquors originating from different mills and even for black liquor from a single process. When a black liquor droplet is gasified it loses its organic material to produce combustible gases by three stages of conversion: Drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. In the end of the conversion only an inorganic smelt remains (ideally). The aim is to get this smelt to form a protective layer, against corrosion and heat, on the reactor walls. Due to the complexity of gasification of black liquor some simplifications had to be made in order to develop a CFD model for the preliminary design of the gasification reactor. Instead of modelling droplets in detail, generating gas by gasification, sources were placed in a prescribed volume where gasification (mainly drying and pyrolysis) of the black liquor droplets was assumed to occur. Source terms for the energy and momentum equations, consistent with the mass source distribution, were derived from the corresponding control volume equations by assuming a symmetric outflow of gas from the droplets and a uniform degree of conversion of reactive components in the droplets. A particle transport model was also used in order to study trajectories from droplets entering the reactor. The resulting model has been implemented in a commercial finite volume code (AEA-CFX) through customised Fortran subroutines. The advantages with this simple

  9. Biomass gasification as project for the rural development; A gaseificacao da biomassa como projeto para o desenvolvimento rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga; Parodi, Fernando Aurelio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mcortes@fem.unicamp.br; caio@fem.unicamp.br; mariobarriga@hotmail.com; jambock@rocketmail.com

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the gasification of the biomass as a project for the rural development. Consider the biomass gasification as an sustainable alternative for energy generation, with low pollutant emission.

  10. Performance simulations for Co-gasification of coal and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Stephen [Niksa Energy Associates LLC, Belmont, CA (United States); Lim, J.P.; Del Rio Diaz Jara, D.; Eckstrom, D.; Steele, D.; Malhotra, R.; Wilson, R.B. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2013-07-01

    In the process under development, coal suspended in mixtures of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and steam is rapidly heated to temperatures above 1,400 C under 5-7 MPa for at least 1 s. The coal first decomposes into volatiles and char while CH{sub 4} is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures. Then the char is converted into CO/H{sub 2} mixtures via steam gasification on longer time scales, and into CH{sub 4} via hydrogasification. Throughout all stages, homogeneous chemistry reforms all intermediate fuel components into the syngas feedstock for methanol synthesis. Fully validated reaction mechanisms for each chemical process were used to quantitatively interpret a co-gasification test series in SRI's lab-scale gasification facility. Homogeneous reforming chemistry generates equilibrium gas compositions at 1,500 C in the available transit time of 1.4 s, but not at any of the lower temperatures. Methane conversion in the gas phase increases for progressively hotter temperatures, in accord with the data. But the strong predicted dependence on steam concentration was not evident in the measured CH{sub 4} conversions, even when steam concentration was the subject test variable. Char hydrogasification adds CH{sub 4} to the product gas stream, but this process probably converts no more than 15-20% of the char in the lab-scale tests and the bulk of the char is converted by steam gasification. The correlation coefficient between predicted and measured char conversions exceeded 0.8 and the std. dev. was 3.4%, which is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. The evaluation of the predicted CH{sub 4} conversions gave a std. dev. greater than 20%. Simulations of commercial conditions with realistic suspension loadings and no diluents in the feed gave slightly lower conversions of both CH{sub 4} and coal, because hydrogasification accounts for more of the char conversion, and occurs at rates slower than for steam gasification.

  11. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  12. Unconventional Coal in Wyoming: IGCC and Gasification of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    Two unconventional uses for Wyoming Powder River Basin coal were investigated in this study. The first was the use of coal fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to generate electricity. Twenty-eight different scenarios were modeled using AspenPlusRTM software. These included slurry, mechanical and dried fed gasifiers; Wyodak and Green River coals, 0%, 70%, and 90% CO2 capture; and conventional evaporative vs air cooling. All of the models were constructed on a feed basis of 6,900 tons of coal per day on an "as received basis". The AspenPlus RTM results were then used to create economic models using Microsoft RTM Excel for each configuration. These models assumed a 3 year construction period and a 30 year plant life. Results for capital and operating costs, yearly income, and internal rates of return (IRR) were compared. In addition, the scenarios were evaluated to compare electricity sales prices required to obtain a 12% IRR and to determine the effects of a carbon emissions tax on the sales price. The second part of the study investigated the gasification potential of residue remaining from solvent extraction or liquefaction of Powder River Basin Coal. Coal samples from the Decker mine on the Wyoming-Montana border were extracted with tetralin at a temperature of 360°C and pressure of 250 psi. Residue from the extraction was gasified with CO2 or steam at 833°C, 900°C and 975°C at pressures of 0.1 and 0.4 MPa. Product gases were analyzed with a mass spectrometer. Results were used to determine activation energies, reaction order, reaction rates and diffusion effects. Surface area and electron microscopic analyses were also performed on char produced from the solvent extraction residue.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation Techniques for Gasification-based Power Generation Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)

    2007-06-01

    The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.

  14. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Jurascik, M.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by

  15. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  16. Improvement of biomass char-CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity using microwave irradiation and natural catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahijani, Pooya, E-mail: pooya.lahijani@gmail.com [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh, E-mail: m.mohammadi@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, 47148 Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin, E-mail: mezainal@eng.usm.my [Biomass and Bioenergy Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, E-mail: chrahman@usm.my [Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We study microwave-induced gasification of EFB ash-loaded biomass char with CO{sub 2}. • Synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst resulted in CO{sub 2} conversion of 93%. • Gasification of pristine char using conventional heating gives CO{sub 2} conversion of 58%. • E{sub a} of 74 and 247 kJ/mol were obtained for microwave and conventional CO{sub 2} gasification. - Abstract: In char-CO{sub 2} gasification, the highly endothermic nature of the Boudouard reaction (CO{sub 2} (g) + C (s) ↔ 2CO (g)) dictates use of very high temperatures to shift the equilibrium towards CO production. In this study, such high temperature (750–900 °C) was provided by microwave irradiation. A microwave heating system was developed to perform the gasification tests by passing CO{sub 2} through a packed bed of oil palm shell (OPS) char. In order to speed up the microwave-induced CO{sub 2} gasification, ash of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was used as natural catalyst (rich in potassium) and incorporated into the skeleton of the OPS char. The synergistic effect of microwave and catalyst concluded to very encouraging results, where a CO{sub 2} conversion of 93% was achieved at 900 °C, within 60 min microwave gasification. In comparison, CO{sub 2} conversion in thermal gasification (conventional heating) of pristine OPS char was only 58% under the same operating condition.

  17. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part II: Kinetic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.

  18. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  19. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  20. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...