WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated environmental assessment

  1. Integrating environmental and socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Cluett, C.; Page, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, considerable scientific and regulatory attention has been given to the preparation of environmental impact assessments. Part of this attention has been directed to definition of the proper scope of an environmental assessment and to debate about how the ''human environment'' should be addressed. This debate continues, and is reflected in the ongoing evolution of the definition of and relationship between the ''environmental'' and ''socioeconomic'' components of an integrated environmental impact assessment. This paper discusses the need for close integration between the environmental and socioeconomic assessment efforts and examines some of the benefits and difficulties of achieving this integration

  2. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardanz, R; Gimeno, B S; Bermejo, V; Elvira, S; Martin, F; Palacios, M; Rodriguez, E; Donaire, I [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effect emission reduction strategies based on critical threshold. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/FIN/336). The subproject has focused on three tasks. Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain. Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystem and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alternative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs.

  3. Strategic Environmental Assessment: Integrated environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism_2004.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 70155 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism_2004.pdf... and Tourism Other topics in the series of overview information documents on the concepts of, and approaches to, integrated environmental management are listed below. Further titles in this series are being prepared and will be made available periodically...

  4. Strategic environmental assessment: Integrated environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This document has been written for a wide audience. Its objective is to serve as an initial reference text. The aim is to provide an introductory information source to government authorities, environmental practitioners, nongovernmental...

  5. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    in the “Optimization approach” the scenarios are the results of an optimization process. • The cost approach describes cost principles and level of LCA integration. Conventional and Environmental LCCs are financial assessments, i.e. include marketed goods/services, but while Environmental LCCs include environmental...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...... of SWM technologies and systems. The method resulted from developing further the generic Life Cycle Costing (LCC) framework suggested by Hunkeler et al. (2008) and Swarr et al. (2011) to apply it on the field of SWM. The method developed includes: two modelling approaches (Accounting and Optimization...

  6. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  7. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  8. Canadian insights: The challenges of an integrated environmental assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaig, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The paper draws results from a review of literature to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated environmental assessment framework in Canada with respect to the inclusion of health impact assessment. Insights include the legislative nature, rigid structure and priority for the natural environment that may restrict progress and the pool of government agencies that need to be convinced of the benefits of health impact assessment that may provide a strong structure for compliance in the long term

  9. Integrated assessment and environmental policy making. In pursuit of usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Current integrated assessment projects primarily seek end to end integration through formal models at a national to global scale, and show three significant representational weaknesses: determinants of decadal-scale emissions trends; valuing impacts and adaptive response; and the formation and effects of policies. Meeting the needs of policy audiences may require other forms of integration; may require integration by formal modeling or by other means; and may require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. While rational global environmental policy making requires integrated assessment, current practice admits no single vision of how to do it, so understanding will be best advanced by a diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches. Further practice may yield some consensus on best practice, possibly including generic assessment skills generalizable across issues. (Author)

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  11. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of today's environmental problems are regional in scope and their effects overlap and interact. We developed a simple method to provide an integrated assessment of environmental conditions and estimate cumulative impacts across a large region, by combining data on land-cove...

  13. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  14. Using integrated environmental modeling to automate a process-based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, an...

  15. Using Integrated Environmental Modeling to Automate a Process-Based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, and...

  16. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  17. An integrated risk assessment approach: Risk assessment in the programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The following paper is an informal summary of salient points made in the presentation entitled open-quotes An Integrated Risk Assessment Approach: Risk Assessment in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS).close quotes. This presentation was given at the U.S. DOE Integrated Planning Workshop in Denver, Colorado on June 2, 1994. Integrated decision analysis is very important in environmental restoration and waste management in the evaluation of such things as land use planning, waste load forecasting, cost analyses, and technology development activities. Integrated risk assessment is an approach that addresses multiple components of risk, including: risks from surplus facilities as well as typical environmental restoration sites, risks to the public, risks to workers, ecological risk, risks before, during and after remediation activities, and others

  18. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  19. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of the US Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; K.B. Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; R.V. O' Neill; R.D. Tankersley; E.R. Smith; A.C. Neale; D.J. Chaloud

    1999-01-01

    Many of today's environmental problems are in scope and their effects overlap and interact. We developed a simple method to provide an integrated assessment of environmental conditions and estimate cumulative impacts across a large region, by combining data on land-cover, population, roads, streams, air pollution, and topography. The integrated assessment...

  20. Assessing the environmental sustainability of ethanol from integrated biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falano, Temitope; Jeswani, Harish K; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the life cycle environmental sustainability of ethanol produced in integrated biorefineries together with chemicals and energy. Four types of second-generation feedstocks are considered: wheat straw, forest residue, poplar, and miscanthus. Seven out of 11 environmental impacts from ethanol are negative, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, when the system is credited for the co-products, indicating environmental savings. Ethanol from poplar is the best and straw the worst option for most impacts. Land use change from forest to miscanthus increases the GHG emissions several-fold. For poplar, the effect is opposite: converting grassland to forest reduces the emissions by three-fold. Compared to fossil and first-generation ethanol, ethanol from integrated biorefineries is more sustainable for most impacts, with the exception of wheat straw. Pure ethanol saves up to 87% of GHG emissions compared to petrol per MJ of fuel. However, for the current 5% ethanol-petrol blends, the savings are much smaller (biorefineries to the reduction of GHG emissions will be insignificant. Yet, higher ethanol blends would lead to an increase in some impacts, notably terrestrial and freshwater toxicity as well as eutrophication for some feedstocks. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  2. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  3. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  4. Integration of environmental flow assessment and freshwater conservation planning: a new era in catchment management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resources management offers an ideal platform for addressing the goals of freshwater conservation and climate change adaptation. Environmental flow assessment and systematic conservation planning have evolved separately...

  5. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...... in the People's Republic of China, this paper proposes an integrated model for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of highway. The model has two main characteristics. Firstly, the whole highway is divided into several sections, and then weight of each section is distributed by its importance. Secondly...

  6. Integration of strategic environmental assessment in spatial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    The paper explores the similarities between the content of the EU directive, SEA practice and the existing spatial planning in Denmark, and how SEA can be integrated into plan making and plan implementation.......The paper explores the similarities between the content of the EU directive, SEA practice and the existing spatial planning in Denmark, and how SEA can be integrated into plan making and plan implementation....

  7. Developing a Cyberinfrastructure for integrated assessments of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Goodale, Wing M; Kramar, David; Nelson, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to design and implement prototype software for capturing field data and automating the process for reporting and analyzing the distribution of mercury. The four phase process used to design, develop, deploy and evaluate the prototype software is described. Two different development strategies were used: (1) design of a mobile data collection application intended to capture field data in a meaningful format and automate transfer into user databases, followed by (2) a re-engineering of the original software to develop an integrated database environment with improved methods for aggregating and sharing data. Results demonstrated that innovative use of commercially available hardware and software components can lead to the development of an end-to-end digital cyberinfrastructure that captures, records, stores, transmits, compiles and integrates multi-source data as it relates to mercury.

  8. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, U M; Balfors, B; Knol, W C

    2007-03-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape ecology can provide a conceptual framework for the assessment of consequences of long-term development processes like urbanisation on biodiversity components, and for evaluating and visualising the impacts of alternative planning scenarios. The aim of this paper was to develop methods for integrating biodiversity issues in planning and strategic environmental assessment in an urbanising environment, on landscape and regional levels. In order to test developed methods, a case study was conducted in the region of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, and the study area embraced the city centre, suburbs and peri-urban areas. Focal species were tested as indicators of habitat quality, quantity and connectivity in the landscape. Predictive modelling of habitat distribution in geographic information systems involved the modelling of focal species occurrences based on empirical data, incorporated in a landscape ecological decision support system. When habitat models were retrieved, they were applied on future planning scenarios in order to predict and assess the impacts on focal species. The scenario involving a diffuse exploitation pattern had the greatest negative impacts on the habitat networks of focal species. The scenarios with concentrated exploitation also had negative impacts, although they were possible to mitigate quite easily. The predictions of the impacts on habitats networks of focal species made it possible to quantify, integrate and visualise the effects of urbanisation scenarios on aspects of biodiversity on a landscape level.

  9. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonati, G.; Panzeri, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption [it

  10. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  11. Lessons learned and new challenges for integrated assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the first government-sponsored demands for integrated assessment to support decision making in the United States is embodied in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Over the past 25 years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported federal agencies` in evaluating health and environmental impacts as required by NEPA. Many of ORNL`s efforts have focused on complex, programmatic assessments that break new ground and require and integrate expertise from a wide range of technical disciplines. Examples of ORNL projects that illustrate the use of integrated assessment approaches include environmental documentation for: (1) the Department of the Army`s Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s licensing activities related to the Owens River Basin in eastern California and along a 500-mile reach of the upper Ohio River, and (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s decision regarding restart of the undamaged reactor (Unit 1) at Three Mile Island. Our discussion of these examples illustrates successful integrated assessment approaches and identifies new challenges facing integrated assessment activities.

  12. Integrated farm sustainability assessment for the environmental management of rural activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachetii Rodrigues, Geraldo; Aparecida Rodrigues, Izilda; Almeida Buschinelli, Claudio Cesar de; Barros, Inacio de

    2010-01-01

    Farmers have been increasingly called upon to respond to an ongoing redefinition in consumers' demands, having as a converging theme the search for sustainable production practices. In order to satisfy this objective, instruments for the environmental management of agricultural activities have been sought out. Environmental impact assessment methods are appropriate tools to address the choice of technologies and management practices to minimize negative effects of agricultural development, while maximizing productive efficiency, sound usage of natural resources, conservation of ecological assets and equitable access to wealth generation means. The 'system for weighted environmental impact assessment of rural activities' (APOIA-NovoRural) presented in this paper is organized to provide integrated farm sustainability assessment according to quantitative environmental standards and defined socio-economic benchmarks. The system integrates sixty-two objective indicators in five sustainability dimensions - (i) Landscape ecology, (ii) Environmental quality (atmosphere, water and soil), (iii) Sociocultural values, (iv) Economic values, and (v) Management and administration. Impact indices are expressed in three integration levels: (i) specific indicators, that offer a diagnostic and managerial tool for farmers and rural administrators, by pointing out particular attributes of the rural activities that may be failing to comply with defined environmental performance objectives; (ii) integrated sustainability dimensions, that show decision-makers the major contributions of the rural activities toward local sustainable development, facilitating the definition of control actions and promotion measures; and (iii) aggregated sustainability index, that can be considered a yardstick for eco-certification purposes. Nine fully documented case studies carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, focusing on different scales, diverse rural activities/farming systems, and contrasting

  13. Strategic environmental assessment policy integration model for solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, Dennis; Agamuthu, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We identified policy drivers of SEA in solid waste policy planning. • The SEA primary policy drivers are benefits, barriers and enablers need. • The SEA sub-drivers are environmental attitude and environmental awareness. • Optimal SEA policy integration requires public participation and capacity building. • SEA integration should be a long-term sustainable policy strategy for SWM. -- Abstract: This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) systemic policy drivers for solid waste management (SWM) policies, plans and programmes (PPP) in Malaysia. Solid waste generation in Malaysia has been increasing drastically from 9.0 million tonnes in 2000 to an expected 15.6 million tonnes in 2020. This projected rate of solid waste generation is expected to burden the country's environmental and water quality resources. The key problem the study frames is the lack of environmental integration in the SWM process which is only conducted during the environmental impact assessments (EIA) stage of SWM facilities. The purpose of this study is to expand the SEA subject knowledge by validating a behaviour based theoretical framework and identifying key policy drivers that influence the integration of SEA in SWM policy planning. The study methodology utilized a confirmatory covariance based structural equation modelling approach to validate the proposed theoretical model based on the policy makers/implementers interview questionnaire data collection. The study findings indicate five latent SEA policy drivers which were named policy knowledge, environmental attitude, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and perceived enablers. The study has conceptualized and tested a SEA policy model which indicates that SEA integration behaviour is influenced directly by three main drivers (perception of benefits, perception of barriers and perception of enablers) and influenced indirectly by two sub-drivers environmental attitude and environmental knowledge

  14. Integrative Application of Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment to Environmental Impacts of Anthropogenic Pollutants at a Watershed Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaodan; Yu, Shen; Ma, Hwongwen

    2018-01-01

    Intense human activities have led to increasing deterioration of the watershed environment via pollutant discharge, which threatens human health and ecosystem function. To meet a need of comprehensive environmental impact/risk assessment for sustainable watershed development, a biogeochemical process-based life cycle assessment and risk assessment (RA) integration for pollutants aided by geographic information system is proposed in this study. The integration is to frame a conceptual protocol of "watershed life cycle assessment (WLCA) for pollutants". The proposed WLCA protocol consists of (1) geographic and environmental characterization mapping; (2) life cycle inventory analysis; (3) integration of life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) with RA via characterization factor of pollutant of interest; and (4) result analysis and interpretation. The WLCA protocol can visualize results of LCIA and RA spatially for the pollutants of interest, which might be useful for decision or policy makers for mitigating impacts of watershed development.

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich; Berezhnyy Aleksandr Yurevich

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, the author proposes a mathematical model designated for the assessment of the ecological impact produced on the environment within the territory of the construction site. Integrated index EI (Environmental Index) is introduced as a vehicle designated for the evaluation of the ecological load. EI represents the intensity of the ecological load, or a generalized and optimized parameter reflecting the intensity of the anthropogenic impact of the construction site onto the natural e...

  16. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  17. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-03

    information. An integrated assessment might help to focus and save capacities in highly technical areas such as molecular characterization or profiling, which are often necessary for both assessments. In the area of establishing international standards for traded foods, such as for the newly created Standards in Trade and Development Facility (STDF), an integrated assessment might help in the consideration of important environmental aspects involved in health and food safety. Furthermore, an established integrated view on GMOs may create greater consumer confidence in the technology.

  18. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Production with Case Studies from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas

    technologies appear relatively more attractive. Fruit and cocoa residue‐based biogas production in a fruit processing facility, with return of compost to pineapple farmers also proved to be a viable technology. It is recommended that relevant stakeholders explore the implementation of biogas and nutrient......The use of agricultural residues for the production of bioenergy offers tantalising prospects of reduced pollution and greater food sovereignty. Integrated food and bioenergy systems seek to optimise the joint production of food and energy. Integrated food and bioenergy systems may be evaluated...... and compared with other food and energy systems using Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA). This thesis investigates a range of integrated food and residuebased bioenergy production systems and provide methodological developments that are relevant for the assessment of such systems. The methodological...

  19. The Symbiose project: an integrated framework for performing environmental radiological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonze, M.A.; Mourlon, C.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Beaugelin, K.; Chen, T.; Le Dizes, S.

    2004-01-01

    Human health and ecological risk assessments usually require the integration of a wide range of environmental data and modelling approaches, with a varying level of detail dependent on the management objectives, the complexity of the site and the level of ignorance about the pollutant behaviour/toxicity. Like most scientists and assessors did it recently, we recognized the need for developing comprehensive, integrated and flexible approaches to risk assessment. To meet these needs, IRSN launched the Symbiose project (2002-2006) which aims first, at designing a framework for integrating and managing data, methods and knowledge of some relevance in radiological risk to humans/biota assessment studies, and second, at implementing this framework in an information management, modelling and calculation platform. Feasibility developments (currently completed) led to the specification of a fully integrated, object-oriented and hierarchical approach for describing the fate, transport and effect of radionuclides in spatially-distributed environmental systems. This innovative approach has then been implemented in a platform prototype, main components of which are a user-friendly and modular simulation environment (e.g. using GoldSim toolbox), and a hierarchical object-oriented biosphere database. Both conceptual and technical developments will be presented here. (author)

  20. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and 'best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and 'best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the 'response assemblage', for the study of 'responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio-ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and 'problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders 'best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  1. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The scientific and policy interest in the human responses to environmental degradation usually focuses on responses sensu stricto and `best practices' that potentially abate degradation in affected areas. The transfer of individual, discrete instruments and `best practices' to different contexts is challenging, however, because socio-ecological systems are complex and environmental degradation is contextual and contingent. To sensibly assess the effectiveness of formal and informal interventions to combat environmental degradation, the paper proposes an integrative, non-reductionist analytic, the `response assemblage', for the study of `responses-in-context,' i.e., products of human decisions to utilize environmental resources to satisfy human needs in socio-ecological systems. Response assemblages are defined as geographically and historically unique, provisional, open, territorial wholes, complex compositions emerging from processes of assembling biophysical and human components, including responses sensu stricto, from affected focal and other socio-ecological systems, to serve human goals, one of which may be combatting environmental degradation. The degree of match among the components, called the socio- ecological fit of the response assemblage, indicates how effectively their contextual and contingent interactions maintain the socio-ecological resilience, promote sustainable development, and secure the continuous provision of ecosystem services in a focal socio-ecological system. The paper presents a conceptual approach to the analysis of the socio-ecological fit of response assemblages and details an integrated assessment methodology synthesizing the resilience, assemblage, and `problem of fit' literature. Lastly, it summarizes the novelty, value, and policy relevance of conceptualizing human responses as response assemblages and of the integrated assessment methodology, reconsiders `best practices' and suggests selected future research directions.

  2. Practitioner survey of the state of health integration in environmental assessment: The case of northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Bronson, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of health integration in Canadian northern EA, this paper further demonstrates the lack of consistent integration of health in EA practice. A survey was administered to northern EA and health practitioners, administrators and special interest groups to assess current northern health assessment practices, the scope of health in EA, EA performance with regard to health assessment and the perceived barriers to health integration. Results suggest that health is currently recognized as an important component of northern EA and is addressed in the majority of cases; however, health is addressed primarily during the pre-decision stages of EA and less often during post-decision follow-up and monitoring. Moreover, when health is addressed, attention is limited to the physical components of health and health impacts due to physical environmental change, with considerably less attention given to the social aspects of health. Results also suggest dissent between EA practitioners, health practitioners and other interests concerning the overall state of health in EA; however, there is consensus on the key challenges to improved integration, namely differences in understanding of the scope of health and expectations of EA to assess health impacts; limited coordination between EA and health practitioners; limited scope and requirements of current EA legislation for health assessment; and the lack of supporting EA methods and frameworks

  3. Foundation stones for a real socio-environmental integration in projects' impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Dominguez-Gomez, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA), have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it a parallel progress in addressing their main shortcomings: insufficient integration of environmental and social features into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their diagnosis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of schemes which impact on the environment, and in consequence, to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argue that, in a sociological context of growing complexity, four foundation-stones are required to underpin research methodologies (for both diagnosis and assessment) in the socio-environmental risks of development projects: a theoretical foundation in actor-network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized though not always carried through into practice; a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation.

  4. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés, E-mail: andres@uhu.es

    2016-01-15

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation.

  5. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation

  6. Integrating uncertainties to the combined environmental and economic assessment of algal biorefineries: A Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Montazeri, Mahdokht; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    The economic and environmental performance of microalgal processes has been widely analyzed in recent years. However, few studies propose an integrated process-based approach to evaluate economic and environmental indicators simultaneously. Biodiesel is usually the single product and the effect of environmental benefits of co-products obtained in the process is rarely discussed. In addition, there is wide variation of the results due to inherent variability of some parameters as well as different assumptions in the models and limited knowledge about the processes. In this study, two standardized models were combined to provide an integrated simulation tool allowing the simultaneous estimation of economic and environmental indicators from a unique set of input parameters. First, a harmonized scenario was assessed to validate the joint environmental and techno-economic model. The findings were consistent with previous assessments. In a second stage, a Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the influence of variable and uncertain parameters in the model output, as well as the correlations between the different outputs. The simulation showed a high probability of achieving favorable environmental performance for the evaluated categories and a minimum selling price ranging from $11gal -1 to $106gal -1 . Greenhouse gas emissions and minimum selling price were found to have the strongest positive linear relationship, whereas eutrophication showed weak correlations with the other indicators (namely greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand and minimum selling price). Process parameters (especially biomass productivity and lipid content) were the main source of variation, whereas uncertainties linked to the characterization methods and economic parameters had limited effect on the results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated numerical platforms for environmental dose assessments of large tritium inventory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Ardao, J.; Velarde, M.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.

    2013-01-01

    Related with a prospected new scenario of large inventory tritium facilities [KATRIN at TLK, CANDUs, ITER, EAST, other coming] the prescribed dosimetric limits by ICRP-60 for tritium committed-doses are under discussion requiring, in parallel, to surmount the highly conservative assessments by increasing the refinement of dosimetric-assessments in many aspects. Precise Lagrangian-computations of dosimetric cloud-evolution after standardized (normal/incidental/SBO) tritium cloud emissions are today numerically open to the perfect match of real-time meteorological-data, and patterns data at diverse scales for prompt/early and chronic tritium dose assessments. The trends towards integrated-numerical-platforms for environmental-dose assessments of large tritium inventory facilities under development.

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESIGNATED FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PRODUCED BY A BUILDING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2012-10-01

    The theoretical background of the proposed approach consists in an integrated methodology implemented in the system engineering of construction projects. A building system may be represented as the aggregate of all stages of construction works and participants involved in them. The building system is object-oriented, and it is implemented under the impact of pre-determined environmental factors. The core constituent of the building system represents a Production Technology Module (PTM, or summarized groups of processes. The model formula designated for the assessment of the intensity of the ecological load produced by the construction project onto the environment may be represented as follows:

  9. A comparison between integrated risk assessment and classical health/environmental assessment: Emerging beneficial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Jun; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Both humans and wildlife are exposed to various types of halogenated organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), typically old chemicals, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPM) and brominated flame retardants, some new chemicals, simultaneously. Classical risk assessment has evaluated health and ecological risks independently by experts from different disciplines. Taking into considerations the recent concerns about endocrine disrupting chemicals and the progress of research in related areas, we integrated and assessed data on exposure and potential effects in humans and wildlife. Comparisons were made for organ concentrations, body burdens of several organochlorine compounds (OCs), metabolic capacities between humans and various wildlife. When we integrate the knowledge on effects and exposure in humans and in wildlife, new insights were suggested about similarities and/or differences in potential effects among various human populations living on different foods and having different body burdens. Combining existing information with emerging knowledge of mechanisms of actions on endocrine disrupting chemicals after exposure to above chemicals during early developmental stages will further elucidate potential risks from exposure to those chemicals

  10. Formalizing knowledge on international environmental regimes: A first step towards integrating political science in integrated assessments of global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, M.G.; Janssen, P.H.M.; Kok, M.T.J.; Frantzi, S.; Dellas, E.D.; Pattberg, P.H.; Petersen, A.C.; Biermann, F.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental regimes are considered key factors in dealing with global environmental change problems. It is important to understand if and how regimes are effective in tackling these problems, which requires knowledge on their potential impact on these problems as well as on their

  11. Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    The Inspection Panel

    2017-01-01

    The Inspection Panel, the World Bank’s independent accountability mechanism, has released the third report in its Emerging Lessons Series. The latest report identifies lessons from Panel cases related to environmental assessment (EA) issues. The Panel is an impartial fact-finding body, independent from the World Bank management and staff, reporting directly to the Board. In response to com...

  12. Integrated environmental assessment of future energy scenarios based on economic equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, E.; Rugani, B.; Rege, S.; Benetto, E.; Drouet, L.; Zachary, D.; Haas, T.

    2014-01-01

    The future evolution of energy supply technologies strongly depends on (and affects) the economic and environmental systems, due to the high dependency of this sector on the availability and cost of fossil fuels, especially on the small regional scale. This paper aims at presenting the modeling system and preliminary results of a research project conducted on the scale of Luxembourg to assess the environmental impact of future energy scenarios for the country, integrating outputs from partial and computable general equilibrium models within hybrid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) frameworks. The general equilibrium model for Luxembourg, LUXGEM, is used to evaluate the economic impacts of policy decisions and other economic shocks over the time horizon 2006-2030. A techno-economic (partial equilibrium) model for Luxembourg, ETEM, is used instead to compute operation levels of various technologies to meet the demand for energy services at the least cost along the same timeline. The future energy demand and supply are made consistent by coupling ETEM with LUXGEM so as to have the same macro-economic variables and energy shares driving both models. The coupling results are then implemented within a set of Environmentally-Extended Input-Output (EE-IO) models in historical time series to test the feasibility of the integrated framework and then to assess the environmental impacts of the country. Accordingly, a dis-aggregated energy sector was built with the different ETEM technologies in the EE-IO to allow hybridization with Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and enrich the process detail. The results show that the environmental impact slightly decreased overall from 2006 to 2009. Most of the impacts come from some imported commodities (natural gas, used to produce electricity, and metalliferous ores and metal scrap). The main energy production technology is the combined-cycle gas turbine plant 'Twinerg', representing almost 80% of the domestic electricity production in Luxembourg

  13. Combining exposure and effect modeling into an integrated probabilistic environmental risk assessment for nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Meesters, Johannes A.J.; Braak, ter Cajo J.F.; Meent, van de Dik; Voet, van der Hilko

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need for good environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Environmental risk assessment of ENPs has been hampered by lack of data and knowledge about ENPs, their environmental fate, and their toxicity. This leads to uncertainty in the risk assessment. To

  14. Combining exposure and effect modeling into an integrated probabilistic environmental risk assessment for nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.; Meesters, J.A.J.; Ter Braak, C.J.; Meent, D. van de; van der Voet, H.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need for good environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Environmental risk assessment of ENPs has been hampered by lack of data and knowledge about ENPs, their environmental fate, and their toxicity. This leads to uncertainty in the risk assessment. To deal

  15. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  16. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  17. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  18. Multi-actor involvement for integrating ecosystem services in strategic environmental assessment of spatial plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozas-Vásquez, Daniel, E-mail: danielrozas@gmail.com [Center for Development Research, Dept. Ecology and Natural Resources Management, University of Bonn, Walter Flex Str. 3, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Laboratorio de Planificación Territorial, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Rudecindo ortega, 02950 Temuco (Chile); Fürst, Christine [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Dept. Natural Sciences III, Institute for Geosciences and Geography, Von Seckendorff-Platz 4, 06120 Halle-Saale (Germany); Geneletti, Davide [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano, 77, Trento 38123 (Italy); Muñoz, Francisco [Laboratorio de Planificación Territorial, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Rudecindo ortega, 02950 Temuco (Chile)

    2017-01-15

    Integrating an ecosystem services (ES) approach into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans potentially enhances the consideration of the value of nature in decision making and policy processes. However, there is increasing concern about the institutional context and a lack of a common understanding of SEA and ecosystem services for adopting them as an integrated framework. This paper addresses this concern by analysing the current understanding and network relations in a multi-actor arrangement as a first step towards a successful integration of ES in SEA and spatial planning. Our analysis focuses on a case study in Chile, where we administered a questionnaire survey to some of the main actors involved in the spatial planning process. The questionnaire focused on issues such as network relations among actors and on conceptual understanding, perceptions and challenges for integrating ES in SEA and spatial planning, knowledge on methodological approaches, and the connections and gaps in the science-policy interface. Our findings suggest that a common understanding of SEA and especially of ES in a context of multiple actors is still at an initial stage in Chile. Additionally, the lack of institutional guidelines and methodological support is considered the main challenge for integration. We conclude that preconditions exist in Chile for integrating ES in SEA for spatial planning, but they strongly depend on appropriate governance schemes that promote a close science-policy interaction, as well as collaborative work and learning. - Highlights: • Linking ecosystem services in SEA is an effective framework for sustainability. • Multi-actor understanding and networks in ecosystem services and SEA were analyzed. • Understanding of SEA and especially of ES is still in an initial stage in Chile. • A lack of institutional guidelines is one of the key challenges for this link.

  19. Multi-actor involvement for integrating ecosystem services in strategic environmental assessment of spatial plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozas-Vásquez, Daniel; Fürst, Christine; Geneletti, Davide; Muñoz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Integrating an ecosystem services (ES) approach into Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans potentially enhances the consideration of the value of nature in decision making and policy processes. However, there is increasing concern about the institutional context and a lack of a common understanding of SEA and ecosystem services for adopting them as an integrated framework. This paper addresses this concern by analysing the current understanding and network relations in a multi-actor arrangement as a first step towards a successful integration of ES in SEA and spatial planning. Our analysis focuses on a case study in Chile, where we administered a questionnaire survey to some of the main actors involved in the spatial planning process. The questionnaire focused on issues such as network relations among actors and on conceptual understanding, perceptions and challenges for integrating ES in SEA and spatial planning, knowledge on methodological approaches, and the connections and gaps in the science-policy interface. Our findings suggest that a common understanding of SEA and especially of ES in a context of multiple actors is still at an initial stage in Chile. Additionally, the lack of institutional guidelines and methodological support is considered the main challenge for integration. We conclude that preconditions exist in Chile for integrating ES in SEA for spatial planning, but they strongly depend on appropriate governance schemes that promote a close science-policy interaction, as well as collaborative work and learning. - Highlights: • Linking ecosystem services in SEA is an effective framework for sustainability. • Multi-actor understanding and networks in ecosystem services and SEA were analyzed. • Understanding of SEA and especially of ES is still in an initial stage in Chile. • A lack of institutional guidelines is one of the key challenges for this link.

  20. FUZZY DECISION ANALYSIS FOR INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators is developed. This is a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is capable ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumula...

  1. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  2. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  3. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  4. Landscape ecological assessment: a tool for integrating biodiversity issues in strategic environmental assessment and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mörtberg, U.M.; Balfors, B.; Knol, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts on biodiversity of urbanisation, new infrastructure projects and other land use changes must be considered on landscape and regional scales. This requires that important decisions are made after a systematic evaluation of environmental impacts. Landscape

  5. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data: The Cartagena coastal zone as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D; Campillo, J Antonio; León, Víctor M; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were selected as target species. Concentrations of contaminants in sediment and biota, and contaminant-related biomarkers were analysed. To assess environmental quality in the Cartagena coastal zone with respect to chemical pollution, data were assessed using available assessment criteria, and then integrated for different environmental matrices. A qualitative scoring method was used to rank the overall assessments into selected categories and to evaluate the confidence level of the final integrated assessment. The ICES/OSPAR integrated assessment framework, originally designed for the North Atlantic, was found to be applicable for Mediterranean species and environmental matrices. Further development of assessment criteria of chemical and biological parameters in sediments and target species from the Mediterranean will, however, be required before this framework can be fully applied for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in these regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  7. In itinere strategic environmental assessment of an integrated provincial waste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Giovanna; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Traverso, Marzia

    2009-06-01

    In the paper, the practical problem of analysing in an integrated way the performance of provincial waste systems is approached, in the framework of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In particular, the in itinere phase of SEA is analysed herein. After separating out a proper group of ambits, to which the waste system is supposed to determine relevant impacts, pertinent sets of single indicators are proposed. Through the adoption of such indicators the time trend of the system is investigated, and the suitability of each indicator is critically revised. The structure of the evaluation scheme, which is essentially based on the use of ambit issues and analytical indicators, calls for the application of the method of the Dashboard of Sustainability for the integrated evaluation of the whole system. The suitability of this method is shown through the paper, together with the possibility of a comparative analysis of different scenarios of interventions. Of course, the reliability of the proposed method strongly relies on the availability of a detailed set of territorial data. The method appears to represent a useful tool for public administration in the process of optimizing the policy actions aimed at minimizing the increasing problem represented by waste production in urban areas.

  8. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, B.F.; Bronson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  9. The EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). Environmental assessment of scenarios as a web service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Isabelle; Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    With the International Energy Agency estimating that global energy demand will increase between 40 and 50 percent by 2030 (compared to 2003), scientists and policymakers are concerned about the sustainability of the current energy system and what environmental pressures might result from the development of future energy systems. EnerGEO is an ongoing FP7 Project (2009-2013) which assesses the current and future impact of energy use on the environment by linking environmental observation systems with the processes involved in exploiting energy resources. The idea of this European project is to determine how low carbon scenarios, and in particular scenarios with a high share of renewable electricity, affect emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute to mitigation of negative energy system impacts on human health and ecosystems. A Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA) has been elaborated to provide impact results for a selection of scenarios via a set of models (large-scale energy models, Life Cycle Assessment models,..). This PIA is currently available through a web service. The concept of the PIA is detailed and to illustrate its interest, a set of results is given with the use of the simulation mode of the European version of GAINS for a selection of scenarios. (orig.)

  10. [Integrated assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability in Pearl River Delta based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing-Yong; Huang, Mei; Liu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the remote sensing data and with the help of geographic information system, an integrated assessment was conducted on the eco-environmental vulnerability of Pearl River Delta in 2004-2008. Spatial principal component analysis was used to generate the evaluation indicators, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to determine the weights of the evaluation factors. The reasons causing the vulnerability of the eco- environment in Pearl River Delta were discussed. In the study area, its middle part was the most vulnerable region, occupying 34.0% of the total, eastern part was the moderately vulnerable region, accounting for 25.5%, and western part was the lightly and slightly vulnerable areas, accounting for 28.7 and 11.8%, respectively. Totally, the moderately and lightly vulnerable areas occupied 54.2%, indicating that a majority of the Delta was under moderate and light vulnerability. The natural factors affecting the eco-environmental vulnerability of the Delta were altitude, heavy rain days, water and soil erosion rate, flooded infield rate, normalized difference vegetation index (ND VI) and landscape diversity index, whereas the human factors were population density, waste discharge per unit area, exhaust emission per unit area, land use change, chemical fertilization intensity, pesticide application intensity, amount of motor vehicles possessed by ten thousands people, and index of environmental protection investment. The main characteristics of the extremely and heavily vulnerable regions were low altitude, high frequency of flood disaster, large flooded infield, serious vegetation degradation, high pollution level and low environment protection investment index.

  11. Combining exposure and effect modeling into an integrated probabilistic environmental risk assessment for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Meesters, Johannes A J; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; van de Meent, Dik; van der Voet, Hilko

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for good environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Environmental risk assessment of ENPs has been hampered by lack of data and knowledge about ENPs, their environmental fate, and their toxicity. This leads to uncertainty in the risk assessment. To deal with uncertainty in the risk assessment effectively, probabilistic methods are advantageous. In the present study, the authors developed a method to model both the variability and the uncertainty in environmental risk assessment of ENPs. This method is based on the concentration ratio and the ratio of the exposure concentration to the critical effect concentration, both considered to be random. In this method, variability and uncertainty are modeled separately so as to allow the user to see which part of the total variation in the concentration ratio is attributable to uncertainty and which part is attributable to variability. The authors illustrate the use of the method with a simplified aquatic risk assessment of nano-titanium dioxide. The authors' method allows a more transparent risk assessment and can also direct further environmental and toxicological research to the areas in which it is most needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2958-2967. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  12. Integrating environmental impact assessment into new product development and processing-technology selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depping, Verena; Grunow, Martin; Middelaar, van Corina; Dumpler, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Environmental-impact reduction potential is great early in new product development. To exploit this potential, this study evaluates novel combinations of existent processing technologies. Process engineering is combined with an environmental product assessment along the supply chain. In the dairy

  13. Selecting among five common modelling approaches for integrated environmental assessment and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Rebecca A.; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Borsuk, Mark E.; El-Sawah, Sondoss; Hamilton, Serena H.; Henriksen, Hans Jorgen; Kuikka, Sakari; Maier, Holger R.; Rizzoli, Andrea Emilio; van Delden, H.; Voinov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The design and implementation of effective environmental policies need to be informed by a holistic understanding of the system processes (biophysical, social and economic), their complex interactions, and how they respond to various changes. Models, integrating different system processes into a

  14. Fuzzy Decision Analysis for Integrated Environmental Vulnerability Assessment of the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem T. Tran; C. Gregory Knight; Robert V. O' Neill; Elizabeth R. Smith; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham

    2002-01-01

    A fuzzy decision analysis method for integrating ecological indicators was developed. This was a combination of a fuzzy ranking method and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The method was capable of ranking ecosystems in terms of environmental conditions and suggesting cumulative impacts across a large region. Using data on land cover, population, roads, streams,...

  15. Integrating environmental and economic performance to assess modern silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Werf, van der W.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental and economic performance of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe is highly variable. Multi-criteria analysis, using the PROMETHEE outranking approach, was used to evaluate the integrated performance of silvoarable agroforestry on hypothetical farms in nineteen landscape test sites in

  16. Integrated environmental risk assessment for petroleum-contaminated sites - a North American case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Huang, G.H.; Chakma, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an integrated risk assessment approach is proposed for evaluating environmental risks derived from petroleum-contaminated sites. The proposed approach is composed of (i) a hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM) which is used for simulating immiscible flow of released hydrocarbons in vadose zone, formation of lens in capillary fringe, dissolution of pollutants at water table, and transport of the pollutants to receptors, and (ii) a fuzzy relation analysis (FRA) model which is developed for comprehensively evaluating risks caused by a number of pollutants with different impact characteristics, based on the HSSM results. This hybrid HSSM-FRA approach was applied to a case study for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada, where soil and groundwater was contaminated by industrial wastes containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEXs). The results suggest that the HSSM-FRA can provide insight into the potential risk to the receptor of concern downward the aquifer and can serve as a basis for further remediation-related decision analysis. (author)

  17. ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRAGILITY USING MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCE FOR INTEGRATED LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael Cereda Junior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geographic Information Systems brought greater possibilitie s to the representation and interpretation of the landscap e as well as the integrated a nalysis. However, this approach does not dispense technical and methodological substan tiation for achieving the computational universe. This work is grounded in ecodynamic s and empirical analysis of natural and anthr opogenic environmental Fragility a nd aims to propose and present an integrated paradigm of Multi-criteria Analysis and F uzzy Logic Model of Environmental Fragility, taking as a case study of the Basin of Monjolinho Stream in São Carlos-SP. The use of this methodology allowed for a reduct ion in the subjectivism influences of decision criteria, which factors might have its cartographic expression, respecting the complex integrated landscape.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of transportation projects: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Mohamed Anwar

    Transportation projects will have impact on the environment. The general environmental pollution and damage caused by roads is closely associated with the level of economic activity. Although Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are dependent on geo-spatial information in order to make an assessment, there are no rules per se how to conduct an environmental assessment. Also, the particular objective of each assessment is dictated case-by-case, based on what information and analyses are required. The conventional way of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study is a time consuming process because it has large number of dependent and independent variables which have to be taken into account, which also have different consequences. With the emergence of satellite remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), this research presents a new framework for the analysis phase of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for transportation projects based on the integration between remote sensing technology, geographic information systems, and spatial modeling. By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, the framework analyzes comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around the road and its impact on the environment. This framework is expected to: (1) improve the quality of the decision making process, (2) be applied both to urban and inter-urban projects, regardless of transport mode, and (3) present the data and make the appropriate analysis to support the decision of the decision-makers and allow them to present these data to the public hearings in a simple manner. Case studies, transportation projects in the State of Florida, were analyzed to illustrate the use of the decision support framework and demonstrate its capabilities. This cohesive and integrated system will facilitate rational decisions through cost effective coordination of environmental information and data management that can be tailored to

  19. Comparative analysis of methods for integrating various environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed several methods for integrating characterized environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment. Each of them, however, may lead to different results. This study presents internal and external normalization methods, weighting factors proposed by panel methods, and a monetary valuation based on an endpoint life cycle impact assessment method as the integration methods. Furthermore, this study investigates the differences among the integration methods and identifies the causes of the differences through a case study in which five elementary school buildings were used. As a result, when using internal normalization with weighting factors, the weighting factors had a significant influence on the total environmental impacts whereas the normalization had little influence on the total environmental impacts. When using external normalization with weighting factors, the normalization had more significant influence on the total environmental impacts than weighing factors. Due to such differences, the ranking of the five buildings varied depending on the integration methods. The ranking calculated by the monetary valuation method was significantly different from that calculated by the normalization and weighting process. The results aid decision makers in understanding the differences among these integration methods, and, finally, help them select the method most appropriate for the goal at hand.

  20. Comparative analysis of methods for integrating various environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Previous studies have proposed several methods for integrating characterized environmental impacts as a single index in life cycle assessment. Each of them, however, may lead to different results. This study presents internal and external normalization methods, weighting factors proposed by panel methods, and a monetary valuation based on an endpoint life cycle impact assessment method as the integration methods. Furthermore, this study investigates the differences among the integration methods and identifies the causes of the differences through a case study in which five elementary school buildings were used. As a result, when using internal normalization with weighting factors, the weighting factors had a significant influence on the total environmental impacts whereas the normalization had little influence on the total environmental impacts. When using external normalization with weighting factors, the normalization had more significant influence on the total environmental impacts than weighing factors. Due to such differences, the ranking of the five buildings varied depending on the integration methods. The ranking calculated by the monetary valuation method was significantly different from that calculated by the normalization and weighting process. The results aid decision makers in understanding the differences among these integration methods, and, finally, help them select the method most appropriate for the goal at hand.

  1. Integrating strategic environmental assessment with industry planning: a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram F

    2004-03-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is gaining widespread recognition as a tool for integrating environmental considerations in policy, plan, and program development and decision-making. Notwithstanding the potential of SEA to improve higher-order decision processes, there has been very little attention given to integrating SEA with industry planning practices. As a result, the benefits of SEA have yet to be fully realized among industrial proponents. That said, SEA practice is ongoing, albeit informally and often under a different label, and is proving to be a valuable tool for industry planning and decision-making. Based on a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan in Saskatchewan, Canada, this paper illustrates how an integrated approach to SEA can contribute to industry environmental decision-making and can enhance the quality and deliverability of industry plans.

  2. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  3. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Holly M.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be applied to account for the lack of information about susceptibility. Defining genetic susceptibility in response to environmental chemicals across human populations is an area of interest in the NAS' new paradigm of toxicity pathway-based risk assessment. Data from high-throughput/high content (HT/HC), including -omics (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) technologies, have been integral to the identification and characterization of drug target and disease loci, and have been successfully utilized to inform the mechanism of action for numerous environmental chemicals. Large-scale population genotyping studies may help to characterize levels of variability across human populations at identified target loci implicated in response to environmental chemicals. By combining mechanistic data for a given environmental chemical with next generation sequencing data that provides human population variation information, one can begin to characterize differential susceptibility due to genetic variability to environmental chemicals within and across genetically heterogeneous human populations. The integration of such data sources will be informative to human health risk assessment

  4. An overview of the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The ERICA project (environmental risks from ionising contaminants: assessment and management, EC contract no. FI6R-CT-2004-508847) concluded with the publication of two main outputs: the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising radiation, of which also introduces the user to the second main output, the ERICA Tool, which is a software programme with supporting databases, that together with its associated help will guide users through the assessment process. More than 60 European scientists contributed to the ERICA Integrated Approach. In addition, a large number of experts, policy makers, and decision-makers in different areas have contributed views on the ERICA Integrated Approach and its associated Tool from the user's perspective, through participation in the End-Users Group set up under the ERICA project. Databases on transfer, dose conversion coefficients and radiation effects on biota have been developed specifically for the purpose of the Integrated Approach, and incorporated into, or interacting with, the Tool. Species sensitivity distributions of biological effects data have been performed and did not reveal, for chronic exposure, any statistical grounds for separation between terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems in terms of species sensitivity to radiation; on the basis of such analysis a universal screening dose rate criterion of 10 μGy h -1 incremental dose rate is suggested for exiting the assessment procedure while being confident that environmental risks are negligible. This criterion is used for the two first tiers (conservative assessment with limited data requirement and various possibilities of incorporating user-defined parameter values, including the screening dose rate criterion) of the assessment methodology. Exposure situations of concern are carried through a third tier, making use of all relevant databases and with a number of issues and options listed to support and guide

  5. A proposed tool to integrate environmental and economical assessments of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, Kumaran D.; Ong, S.K.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the outcomes of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of environmental costs. This attempt ensures the environmental accountability of the products while LCA ensures their eco-friendly nature. Keeping this as an objective, a Life Cycle Environmental Cost Analysis (LCECA) model was developed. This new tool incorporates costing into the LCA practice. This model prescribes a life cycle environmental cost model to estimate and correlate the effects of these costs in all the life cycle stages of the product. The newly developed categories of eco-costs are: costs of effluent treatment/control/disposal, environmental management systems, eco-taxes, rehabilitation, energy and savings of recycling and reuse strategies. The mathematical model of LCECA determines quantitative expressions between the total cost of products and the various eco-costs. The eco-costs of the alternatives are compared with the computational LCECA model. This method enables the environmental as well as the economic assessment of products, which leads to cost-effective, eco-friendly design of products

  6. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  7. Integrated assessment briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  9. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  10. Strategic environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone

    1997-01-01

    The integration of environmental considerations into strategic decision making is recognized as a key to achieving sustainability. In the European Union a draft directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is currently being reviewed by the member states. The nature of the proposed SEA...... that the SEA directive will influence the decision-making process positively and will help to promote improved environmental decisions. However, the guidelines for public participation are not sufficient and the democratic element is strongly limited. On the basis of these findings, recommendations relating...

  11. An integrated stochastic environmental risk assessment method and its application to a petroleum-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Fuller, G.A.; Huang, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of soil and water and the resulting threat to public health and the environment are the frequent results of oil spills, leaks and other releases of gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil and other petroleum products. Integrating an analytical groundwater solute transport model within its general framework, this paper proposes an integrated stochastic risk assessment method and ways to apply it to petroleum-contaminated sites. Both the analytical solute transport model and the general risk assessment framework are solved by the Monte Carlo simulation technique for approaching the theoretical output distribution. Results of this study show that the total cancer risk has approximately log-normal distribution, irrespective of the fact that a variety of distributions were used to define the related parameters. It is claimed that the method can improve the effectiveness of the risk assessment for subsurface, and provide useful result for site remediation decisions. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Integrating environment into land-use planning through strategic environmental assessment in China: Towards legal frameworks and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Tang; Tan Zhu; He Xu

    2007-01-01

    China currently put forwards 'striving to build an environmentally friendly society' as one of the most important development goals. The land administration authorities are facing the challenge of effectively incorporating environment considerations into their planning system. This paper aims to investigate why and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is enacted as an effective tool to integrate the environment into land-use planning during the construction process of an environmentally friendly society in China, and identify factors that influence the integration. It presents characteristics of the land-use planning system, and reviews the progress and current state of SEA in China. Results show that SEA provides many benefits in promoting environmental considerations into the land-use planning process. The legal frameworks and operational procedures, in the context of land-use master planning SEA, are summarized and an assessment made of their effectiveness. Some barriers are highlighted through examination of the latest case studies, and several recommendations are presented to overcome these obstacles

  13. Integrated environmental assessment of agriculture in the Czech Republic : the case of dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural activities strongly affect landscapes and also cause a variety of environmental
    and health problems in many European countries. Environmental policies to minimise this
    negative impacts of agriculture differ between countries. This thesis focuses on
    environmental

  14. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2007-04-01

    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis.

  15. Integrated environmental assessment and pollution prevention in Vietnam: the case of anthracite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinh, L.D.; Gheewala, S.H.; Bonnet, S. [King Mongkuts University of Technology at Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Abstract: Using the concept of life cycle analysis, the whole life cycle of anthracite production in Vietnam was assessed and the environmental 'hot-spots' were identified. These include (I) dust pollution at coal transfer points or piles in storage; (ii) noise pollution resulting from the usage of heavy equipment, and (iii) high volume of acid and turbid mine water discharged into the environment. Pollution prevention and treatment options were identified and discussed in this study which consists of wet treatment of dust, planning, collection and treatment of mine water, planting of trees for dust and noise reduction as well as minimization of erosion. Some recommendations are made for pollution abatement from coal production and improvement of anthracite production in the region.

  16. Integrated Socio-Environmental Assessment of Deltas to Support Strategic Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Lázár, A. N.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas are some of the most densely populated areas in the world, as exemplified by the coastal zone of Bangladesh which has a rural population densities of >1,000 people/km2. These people's livelihoods and food security are strongly dependent on natural resources which are influenced by multiple drivers. These include climate variability and change, subsidence, upstream river flow modifications, and land use changes such as polderisation and conversion of rice to shrimp production. Hydro-environmental changes, such as saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impacts that severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. These changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. These multiple drivers raise fundamental policy questions about how we might develop the delta over the coming decades. The Delta Dynamic Integrated Emulator (ΔDIEM) model has been developed to examine these interactions between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. ΔDIEM allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). A range of proposed interventions can be simulated. This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including comprehensive analysis of their different choices in terms of natural resource conservation, poverty, etc. This presentation will focus on key results and insights from the analysis.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment of Rosia Jiu Opencast Area Using AN Integrated SAR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenaru, V. D.; Negula, I. F. Dana; Badea, A.; Cuculici, R.

    2016-06-01

    The satellite data provide a new perspective to analyse and interpret environmental impact assessment as function of topography and vegetation. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the new Staring Spotlight TerraSAR-X mode capabilities to monitor land degradation in Rosia Jiu opencast area taking into account the mining engineering standards and specifications. The second goal is to relate mining activities with spatio-temporal dynamics of land degradation by using differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (DInSAR). The experimental analysis was carried out on data acquired in the LAN_2277 scientific proposal framework during 2014-2015 period. A set of 25 very height resolution SAR data gathered in the VV polarisation mode with a resolution of 0.45 m x 0.16m and an incidence angle of 37° have been used in this study. Preliminary results showed that altered terrain topography with steep slopes and deep pits has led to the layover of radar signal. Initially, ambiguous results have been obtained due to the highly dynamic character of subsidence induced by activities which imply mass mining methods. By increasing the SAR data number, the land degradation assessment has been improved. Most of the interferometric pairs have low coherence therefore the product coherence threshold was set to 0.3. A coherent and non-coherent analysis is performed to delineate land cover changes and complement the deformation model. Thus, the environmental impact of mining activities is better studied. Moreover, the monitoring of changes in pit depths, heights of stock-piles and waste dumps and levels of tailing dumps provide additional information about production data.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF ROSIA JIU OPENCAST AREA USING AN INTEGRATED SAR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Poenaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The satellite data provide a new perspective to analyse and interpret environmental impact assessment as function of topography and vegetation. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the new Staring Spotlight TerraSAR-X mode capabilities to monitor land degradation in Rosia Jiu opencast area taking into account the mining engineering standards and specifications. The second goal is to relate mining activities with spatio-temporal dynamics of land degradation by using differential Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (DInSAR. The experimental analysis was carried out on data acquired in the LAN_2277 scientific proposal framework during 2014-2015 period. A set of 25 very height resolution SAR data gathered in the VV polarisation mode with a resolution of 0.45 m x 0.16m and an incidence angle of 37° have been used in this study. Preliminary results showed that altered terrain topography with steep slopes and deep pits has led to the layover of radar signal. Initially, ambiguous results have been obtained due to the highly dynamic character of subsidence induced by activities which imply mass mining methods. By increasing the SAR data number, the land degradation assessment has been improved. Most of the interferometric pairs have low coherence therefore the product coherence threshold was set to 0.3. A coherent and non-coherent analysis is performed to delineate land cover changes and complement the deformation model. Thus, the environmental impact of mining activities is better studied. Moreover, the monitoring of changes in pit depths, heights of stock-piles and waste dumps and levels of tailing dumps provide additional information about production data.

  19. Bio-economic farm modelling for integrated assessment of agricultural and environmental policies: towards re-usability and improved empirical validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanellopoulos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: integrated assessment, environmental policy, agricultural policy, market liberalization, bio-economic model, farming systems, mathematical programming, maximum entropy estimation, data envelopment analysis, agricultural activity, land use, future studies.

    The main objective of

  20. A multidisciplinary weight of evidence approach for environmental risk assessment at the Costa Concordia wreck: Integrative indices from Mussel Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Francesco; Pellegrini, David; Cicero, Anna Maria; Nigro, Marco; Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Carlo, Marta; Nardi, Alessandro; Gaion, Andrea; Scuderi, Alice; Giuliani, Silvia; Romanelli, Giulia; Berto, Daniela; Trabucco, Benedetta; Guidi, Patrizia; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Frenzilli, Giada

    2014-05-01

    A complex framework of chemical, biological and oceanographic activities was immediately activated after the Costa Concordia shipwreck, to assess possible contamination events and the environmental impact during both emergency and wreck removal operations. In the present paper, we describe the results obtained with caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, chosen as bioindicator organisms to detect variations of bioavailability and the early onset of molecular and cellular effects (biomarkers). Seven translocation experiments were carried out during the first year from the incident, with organisms deployed at 2 depths in 3 different sites. After 4-6 weeks, tissue concentrations were measured for the main classes of potentially released chemicals (trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile and aliphatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated pesticides, organotin compounds, brominated flame retardants, anionic surfactants); a wide battery of biomarkers covered responses indicative of exposure, detoxification, oxidative stress, cell damage and genotoxic effects. Results excluded serious contamination events or a consistent increase of environmental pollution although some episodic spills with reversible effects were detected. Data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model which provided synthetic hazard indices for each typology of data, before their overall integration in an environmental risk index, which generally ranged from slight to moderate. The proposed WOE model was confirmed a useful tool to summarize large datasets of complex data in integrative indices, and to simplify the interpretation for stakeholders and decision makers, thus supporting a more comprehensive process of "site-oriented" management decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program: Surry Steam Generator Project, Hanford site, Richland, Benton County, Washington: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has placed a Nuclear Regulatory Research Order with the Richland Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) for expanded investigations at the DOE Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) related to defective pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing. This program, the Steam Generator Tube Integrity (SGTI) program, is sponsored by the Metallurgy and Materials Research Branch of the NRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. This research and testing program includes an additional task requiring extensive investigation of a degraded, out-of-service steam generator from a commercial nuclear power plant. This comprehensive testing program on an out-of-service generator will provide NRC with timely and valuable information related to pressurized water reactor primary system integrity and degradation with time. This report presents the environmental assessment of the removal, transport, and testing of the steam generator along with decontamination/decommissioning plans

  2. Energy and environmental assessment of integrated biogas trigeneration and photovoltaic plant as more sustainable industrial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Stanek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas cooling, heating and power and photovoltaic systems were studied. • Biogas and solar energy for production of energy carriers were used. • Primary energy savings for trigeneration and photovoltaic plants were examined. • Reduction of CO_2 emission were estimated. - Abstract: The biogas fired tri-generation system for cooling, heating and electricity generation (BCCHP + PV) supported by a photovoltaic system (PV) is discussed and analyzed from energetic and ecological effectiveness point of view. Analyzed system is based on the internal combustion engine and the adsorption machine. For the evaluation of primary energy savings in the BCCHP aided by PV system, the indicators of the total primary energy savings (TPES) and relative primary energy savings ΔPES were defined. Also an analysis is carried out of the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. In the ecological potential evaluation, the environmental impact as an indicator of the total greenhouse gasses reduction (TGHGR) is taken into account. The presented detailed algorithm for the evaluation of the multigeneration system in the global balance boundary can be applied for the analysis of energy effects (consumption of primary energy) as well as ecological effect (emission of greenhouse gasses) for real data (e.g. hour by hour through the year of operation) taking into account random availability of renewable energy. It allows to take into account a very important factor characterized for renewable energy systems (RES) which is the variability or random availability (e.g. in the case of photovoltaic – PV) of primary energy. Particularly in the presented work the effects of the analysis and the application of the discusses algorithms have been demonstrated for the hour-by-hour availability of solar radiation and for the daily changing availability of chemical energy of biogas. Additionally, the energy and ecological evaluation algorithms have been integrated with the methods offered

  3. Assessment of Integrated Environmental Management in Public and Private Schools in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makisa, Kaponda

    2016-01-01

    Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…

  4. "We Like to Listen to Stories about Fish": Integrating Indigenous Ecological and Scientific Knowledge to Inform Environmental Flow Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that apply indigenous ecological knowledge to contemporary resource management problems are increasing globally; however, few of these studies have contributed to environmental water management. We interviewed three indigenous landowning groups in a tropical Australian catchment subject to increasing water resource development pressure and trialed tools to integrate indigenous and scientific knowledge of the biology and ecology of freshwater fish to assess their water requirements. The differences, similarities, and complementarities between the knowledge of fish held by indigenous people and scientists are discussed in the context of the changing socioeconomic circumstances experienced by indigenous communities of north Australia. In addition to eliciting indigenous knowledge that confirmed field fish survey results, the approach generated knowledge that was new to both science and indigenous participants, respectively. Indigenous knowledge influenced (1 the conceptual models developed by scientists to understand the flow ecology and (2 the structure of risk assessment tools designed to understand the vulnerability of particular fish to low-flow scenarios.

  5. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  6. Integrated technique for assessing environmental dose of radioactive waste storage installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor-Jing Chang; Chien-Liang Shih; Ing-Jane Chen [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan, Taiwan (China); Ren-Dih Sheu; Shiang-Huei Jiang [National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shu-Jun Chang [Nuclear Science and Technology Association, Taiwan (China); Ruei-Ying Liao; Pei Yu; Chin-Yi Huang [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    The ability to accurately predict exposure rates at large distances from a gamma radiation source is becoming increasingly important. This is because that the related regulation for the control of radiation levels in and around nuclear facilities becomes more stringent. Since the continuous increase of the radwaste storage capacity requirement on site, the requirement of a more realistic evaluation is very necessary. Those doses are usually at past time evaluated by QADCG/INER-2 code for direct dose and by SKYSHINE-III code for skyshine dose in which evaluation were over conservatively considered. This study is to update the evaluation code package accompanied with adequate methodology and to establish integrated analysis procedure. Thereafter, radiation doses can be accurately calculated in a reasonably conservative way. The purpose of the investigation is divided into three categories. First, SPECTRUM-506 is used instead of SPECTUM. Nuclide databases are enlarged from 100 up to 506. And the operation is ported to personal computer. Secondly, the QADCG/INER-3 code is developed to enhance the original QADCG/INER-2 code. The most important difference is the use of the geometric progression (GP) fitting function for the gamma-ray buildup factor. SKYSHINE-III code is replaced by McSKY and SKYDOSE codes. They are well benchmarked by using the Monte Carlo code MCNP and sensitive parameters are detailed investigated. Thirdly, the well developed analysis procedure is applicable for nuclear utility radwaste storage sites. Finally, the case studies were performed by using those packages to assess the radiological impact of utility radwaste storage site. The results are verified in detail by using Monte Carlo code MCNP and the results seems pretty consistent from both method. (author)

  7. Connecting reason to power : Assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policymaking system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Three questions are in focus. First, how can policy integration be understood analytically and what is its actual status in sector policy?

  8. Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plants: A data envelopment analysis approach integrating technical, economic, and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellet, Lledó; Molinos-Senante, María

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential to compare their performance and consequently to identify the best operational practices that can contribute to the reduction of operational costs. Previous studies have evaluated the efficiency of WWTPs using conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. Most of these studies have considered the operational costs of the WWTPs as inputs, while the pollutants removed from wastewater are treated as outputs. However, they have ignored the fact that each pollutant removed by a WWTP involves a different environmental impact. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates for the first time the efficiency of a sample of WWTPs by applying the weighted slacks-based measure model. It is a non-radial DEA model which allows assigning weights to the inputs and outputs according their importance. Thus, the assessment carried out integrates environmental issues with the traditional "techno-economic" efficiency assessment of WWTPs. Moreover, the potential economic savings for each cost item have been quantified at a plant level. It is illustrated that the WWTPs analyzed have significant room to save staff and energy costs. Several managerial implications to help WWTPs' operators make informed decisions were drawn from the methodology and empirical application carried out. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was develope...

  10. MEETING IN CHICAGO: SADA: A FREEWARE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL INTEGRATING GIS, SAMPLE DESIGN, SPATIAL MODELING, AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporates tools from environmental assessment into an effective problem-solving environment. SADA was developed by the Institute for Environmental Modeling at the University of Tennessee and inc...

  11. Building-integrated rooftop greenhouses: An energy and environmental assessment in the mediterranean context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadal, Ana; Llorach-Massana, Pere; Cuerva, Eva; López-Capel, Elisa; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Josa, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • iRTG incorporates urban agriculture into and improves energy efficiency in buildings. • iRTG concept recycles low-grade, waste thermal energy for growing vegetables. • iRTG is an adaptable concept to promotes food security through urban agriculture. • Indoor building climate affects iRTG more than outdoor climatic conditions. • iRTG achieved annual CO_2 and cost savings of 113.8 kg CO_2 (eq)/m"2/yr and 19.63 €/m"2/yr. - Abstract: A sustainable and secure food supply within a low-carbon and resilient infrastructure is encapsulated in several of The United Nations’ 17 sustainable development goals. The integration of urban agriculture in buildings can offer improved efficiencies; in recognition of this, the first south European example of a fully integrated rooftop greenhouse (iRTG) was designed and incorporated into the ICTA-ICP building by the Autonomous University of Barcelona. This design seeks to interchange heat, CO_2 and rainwater between the building and its rooftop greenhouse. Average air temperatures for 2015 in the iRTG were 16.5 °C (winter) and 25.79 °C (summer), making the iRTG an ideal growing environment. Using detailed thermophysical fabric properties, 2015 site-specific weather data, exact control strategies and dynamic soil temperatures, the iRTG was modelled in EnergyPlus to assess the performance of an equivalent ‘freestanding’ greenhouse. The validated result shows that the thermal interchange between the iRTG and the ICTA-ICP building has considerable moderating effects on the iRTG’s indoor climate; since average hourly temperatures in an equivalent freestanding greenhouse would have been 4.1 °C colder in winter and 4.4 °C warmer in summer under the 2015 climatic conditions. The simulation results demonstrate that the iRTG case study recycled 43.78 MWh of thermal energy (or 341.93 kWh/m"2/yr) from the main building in 2015. Assuming 100% energy conversion efficiency, compared to freestanding greenhouses

  12. Sustainability performance for Brazilian electricity power industry: An assessment integrating social, economic and environmental issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, S.; Witjes, S.; Campos, L.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The increased pressure on companies to address sustainability issues has resulted in the development of several voluntary corporate sustainability integration approaches. The array of existing approaches is large and overwhelming, resulting in companies not understanding what corporate

  13. Life-cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental impact of an integrated food waste-based biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Chen, Xin; Yu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 47.76% of the energy consumption is from the primary treatment process. • The dominant environmental impact comes from GWP100 emission (96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t). • Increasing recycling rate of product can effectively reduce consumption and impact. - Abstract: Recycling food waste to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can both provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process affects the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions. By lifecycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the energy consumption (EC) and environmental impact (EI) of an integrated food waste-based biogas system and its subsystems. Data were collected from an actual plant in China that adopted a combination of wet-heat treatment and wet AD process at thermophilic condition. The EC of the system for processing 1 ton of waste was 663.89 MJ, among which 47.76% was from the primary treatment process (including pretreatment and AD). The GWP 100 (100-year global warming potential) emission of the system reached 96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t, and the AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTP inf (human toxicity potential) and FAETP inf (fresh water ecotoxicity) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the primary treatment and the secondary pollution control. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 40% increase of the feed fat content resulted in 38% increase in the net energy value output and 48% decrease in EP effect. The increase in oil content and biogas production rate could significantly reduce the EC and EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process and increasing the recycling rate of products will result in the reduction of EC and EI of the biogas system. In addition, a quantitative assessment model of EC and EI in integrated food waste-based biogas technology is established

  14. A "weight of evidence" approach for the integration of environmental "triad" data to assess ecological risk and biological vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Alessandro; Sforzini, Susanna; Dondero, Francesco; Fenoglio, Stefano; Bona, Elisa; Jensen, John; Viarengo, Aldo

    2008-07-01

    A new Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) that can integrate Triad data for assessing environmental risk and biological vulnerability at contaminated sites has been developed. Starting with ecosystem relevance, the EDSS assigns different weights to the results obtained from Triad disciplines. The following parameters have been employed: 1) chemical soil analyses (revealing the presence of potentially dangerous substances), 2) ecotoxicological bioassays (utilizing classical endpoints such as survival and reproduction rates), 3) biomarkers (showing sublethal pollutant effects), and 4) ecological parameters (assessing changes in community structure and functions). For each Triad discipline, the EDSS compares the data obtained at the studied field sites with reference values and calculates different 0-1 indexes (e.g., Chemical Risk Index, Ecotoxicological Risk Index, and Ecological Risk Index). The EDSS output consists of 3 indexes: 1) Environmental Risk index (EnvRI), quantifying the levels of biological damage at population-community level, 2) Biological Vulnerability Index (BVI), assessing the potential threats to biological equilibriums, and 3) Genotoxicity Index (GTI), screening genotoxicity effects. The EDSS has been applied in the integration of a battery of Triad data obtained during the European Union-funded Life Intervention in the Fraschetta Area (LINFA) project, which has been carried out in order to estimate the potential risk from soils of a highly anthropized area (Alessandria, Italy) mainly impacted by deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Results obtained during 4 seasonal sampling campaigns (2004-2005) show maximum values of EnvRI in sites A and B (characterized by industrial releases) and lower levels in site D (affected by vehicular traffic emissions). All 3 potentially polluted sites have shown high levels of BVI and GTI, suggesting a general change from reference conditions (site C).

  15. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  16. Spatial data integration for mineral exploration, resource assessment and environmental studies: A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has played a significant role over the years in the improvement and use of uranium exploration techniques and data obtained through uranium exploration. Numerous documents on uranium geology and exploration methods have been published. The purpose of this document is to provide an introduction to the new tools and applications of computer based spatial data integration as used by geologists. In order to provide the experts involved in uranium exploration with information on recent developments in computer applications for spatial data integration and image processing, the IAEA convened consultants meetings in November 1991 and November 1992 to produce this guidebook, which contains information on spatially distributed data, data capture, database creation and visualization of data. Vector, and in particular, raster data types and the aspects of integration modelling are discussed. Refs, figs, tabs, 16 plates.

  17. Spatial data integration for mineral exploration, resource assessment and environmental studies: A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has played a significant role over the years in the improvement and use of uranium exploration techniques and data obtained through uranium exploration. Numerous documents on uranium geology and exploration methods have been published. The purpose of this document is to provide an introduction to the new tools and applications of computer based spatial data integration as used by geologists. In order to provide the experts involved in uranium exploration with information on recent developments in computer applications for spatial data integration and image processing, the IAEA convened consultants meetings in November 1991 and November 1992 to produce this guidebook, which contains information on spatially distributed data, data capture, database creation and visualization of data. Vector, and in particular, raster data types and the aspects of integration modelling are discussed. Refs, figs, tabs, 16 plates

  18. Application of Life Cycle Assessment for Corporate Sustainability : Integrating environmental sustainability in business for value creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, B.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to make a contribution to bridge the gap between sustainability science and business management by improving the integration of sustainability in core business of corporations. The core business of corporations is to provide products and services to meet

  19. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Bolwig, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may...... be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP) of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled...

  20. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C. W.; Lázár, A. N.; Allan, A.; Adger, W. N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas provide diverse ecosystem services and benefits for their populations. At the same time, deltas are also recognised as one of the most vulnerable coastal environments, with a range of drivers operating at multiple scales, from global climate change and sea-level rise to deltaic-scale subsidence and land cover change. These drivers threaten these ecosystem services, which often provide livelihoods for the poorest communities in these regions. The imperative to maintain ecosystem services presents a development challenge: how to develop deltaic areas in ways that are sustainable and benefit all residents including the most vulnerable. Here we present an integrated framework to analyse changing ecosystem services in deltas and the implications for human well-being, focussing in particular on the provisioning ecosystem services of agriculture, inland and offshore capture fisheries, aquaculture and mangroves that directly support livelihoods. The framework is applied to the world's most populated delta, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta within Bangladesh. The framework adopts a systemic perspective to represent the principal biophysical and socio-ecological components and their interaction. A range of methods are integrated within a quantitative framework, including biophysical and socio-economic modelling and analyses of governance through scenario development. The approach is iterative, with learning both within the project team and with national policy-making stakeholders. The analysis is used to explore physical and social outcomes for the delta under different scenarios and policy choices. We consider how the approach is transferable to other deltas and potentially other coastal areas.

  1. Thermodynamic performance assessment of a novel environmentally-benign solar energy based integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Yunus Emre; Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a novel solar energy based system for multigenaration applications. • Evaluation of the exergy efficiency and destruction rate in each system component. • Investigation of the varying operating conditions on the system performance. • Evaluation of complete parametric studies and performance analysis of the system. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel solar energy based multigeneration system for producing electricity, hydrogen, hot water, heating and cooling is presented and analyzed thermodynamically for potential applications. The energy and exergy analyses are conducted for entire system and its sub-systems, which are a parabolic trough collector system, a double-stage organic Rankine cycle, a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cycle and a quadruple effect absorption cooling system. The parametric studies are performed in order to indicate the impacts of some key indicators on the integrated system performance. These analyses are simulated by using the Engineering Equation Solver software. The results show that the increase in ambient temperature increases the exergetic coefficient performance of the Quadruple Effect Absorption Cooling System. In addition, the increase in solar intensity, temperature of absorber pipes inner surface and concentration of ammonia in working fluid mixture has the positive effect on produced electricity from the expanders and turbine, and hydrogen from the PEM electrolyzer. According to exergy analyses, the largest exergy destruction rates are obtained in the parabolic trough collector, PEM fuel cell and turbine. Therefore, any improvements in these components would lead to a better efficiency of the integrated system.

  2. Local Productive Arrangements for Biodiesel Production in Brazil – Environmental Assessment of Small-holder’s Integrated Oleaginous Crops Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments were carried out in small-holders’ farms in four territories where productive arrangements have been organized for production of minor oleaginous crops under the Brazilian biodiesel program. The study aimed at checking local impacts of the biodiesel productive chains at the rural establishment scale, and promoting the environmental performance of the selected farms, henceforth proposed as sustainable management demonstration units. Assessments were carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, which integrates 62 objective and quantitative indicators related to five sustainability dimensions: i Landscape Ecology, ii Environmental Quality (Atmosphere, Water and Soil, iii Socio-cultural Values, iv Economic Values and v Management and Administration. The main results point out that, in general, the ecological dimensions of sustainability, that is, the Landscape Ecology and Atmosphere, Water, and Soil quality indicators, show adequate field conditions, seemingly not yet negatively affected by increases in chemical inputs and natural resources use predicted as important potential impacts of the agro-energy sector. The Economic Values indicators have been favorably influenced in the studied farms, due to a steadier demand and improved prices for the oleaginous crops. On the other hand, valuable positive consequences expected for favoring farmers’ market insertion, such as improved Socio-cultural Values and Management & Administration indicators, are still opportunities to be materialized. The Environmental Management Reports issued to the farmers, based on the presented sustainability assessment procedures, offer valuable documentation and communication means for consolidating the organizational influence of the local productive arrangements studied. These productive arrangements were shown to be determinant for the selection of crop associations and diversification, as well as for the provision of technical assistance

  3. The Effect of Government Actions on Environmental Technology Innovation: Applications to the Integrated Assessment of Carbon Sequestration Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E. S.; Hounshell, D. A.; Yeh, S.; Taylor, M.; Schrattenholzer, L.; Riahi, K.; Barreto, L.; Rao, S.

    2004-01-15

    This project seeks to improve the ability of integrated assessment models (IA) to incorporate changes in technology, especially environmental technologies, cost and performance over time. In this report, we present results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems. In particular, we focus on U.S. and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technologies over the past 30 years, and derive empirical learning rates for these technologies. The patterns of technology innovation are captured by our analysis of patent activities and trends of cost reduction over time. Overall, we found learning rates of 11% for the capital costs of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system for SO{sub 2} control, and 13% for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO{sub x} control. We explore the key factors responsible for the observed trends, especially the development of regulatory policies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control, and their implications for environmental control technology innovation.

  4. Concept for integrated environmental monitoring. Scientific approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, W [comp.; Schoenthaler, K; Kerner, H F; Koeppel, J; Spandau, L

    1998-09-01

    Despite considerable expenditures for environmental protection and intensified efforts in the areas of environmental research and monitoring, environmental damage increasingly occurs, sometimes with global effects, largely due to the lack of early diagnosis. In the past few years various institutions have therefore demanded improvements in environmental monitoring. The Council of Experts on Environmental Issues (`Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen`, SRU), in particular, in its `Environmental Report` of 1987 and in its Special Report on `General Ecological Environmental Monitoring` (1990) presented far-reaching demands for a nationwide ecological early warning system which should integrate the various local, regional, national, and even global monitoring levels, and which should encompass an environmental monitoring of entire ecosystems at representative locations. This is aimed at creating the prerequisites for - detection of long-term gradual environmental change, - confirmation of refutation of initial assumptions regarding the causes of these environmental changes, - permitting decisions on preventive actions to stabilize or improve environmental conditions and - making it possible to assess the success of environmental protection policies. This report includes an abbreviated version and documentation of the conference on the `Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring` and the final report `Specification of the Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring from the Perspective of Nature Conservation`. (orig.)

  5. Integrating economic and environmental indicators in the assessment of desertification risk: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, L. [Piazza F. Morosini 12, Rome (Italy); Zitti, M.; Ceccarelli, T. [Ufficio Centrale di Ecologia Agraria, Rome (Italy)

    2008-09-30

    Desertification is a complex phenomenon which reduces the soil fertility involving ecological and economic processes that characterize the environment at different geographic scales. The most widely accepted definition of desertification is the one given by the United Nations Convention. It defines desertification as 'land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human actities'.Desertification involves many countries featuring different ecological, economic, and social conditions. In Mediterranean Europe, high human pressure, economic development, and climatic changes combine to produce land consumption, soil erosion, salinization, and fire risk, all considered as key factors to start desertification processes. For many years the term desertification has been strictly associated to geo-physical conditions, but in very complex ecosystems the study of the interaction of physical patterns with population and social characteristics is necessary to better delineate areas at risk. The aims of this paper are therefore (i) to review recent findings in term of desertification processes and risk assessment in the Mediterranean basin, (ii) to illustrate a simplified model in which social and economic variables may significantly accelerate land degradation leading to desertification, (iii) to suggest a set of demographic, economic, and institutional indicators suitable to contribute to the assessment of desertification risk in the Mediterranean basin, (iv) to built a synthetic index based on a multivariate approach and, finally, (v) to compare such index with a standard index of desertification risk only referring to geo-physical conditions. As a conclusion, new findings to be achieved in the context of human impact on environment as an original contribution to the study of desertification were delineated.

  6. Safflower oil: an integrated assessment of phytochemistry, antiulcerogenic activity, and rodent and environmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walber Toma

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcers are a significant medical problem and the development of complications lead to significant mortality rates worldwide. In Brazil, Carthamus tinctorius L., Asteraceae, seeds essential oil, the safflower oil, is currently used as a thermogenic compound and as treatment for problems related to the cardiovascular system. In this study, by Raman spectroscopy, it was shown that oleic and linoleic acids are the compounds present in higher concentrations in the safflower oil. We demonstrated that safflower oil (750 mg/kg, p.o. decrease the ulcerogenic lesions in mice after the administration of hydrochloric acid-ethanol. The gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in mice treated with cholinomimetics were treated with four different doses of safflower oil, of which, the dose of 187.5 mg/kg (p.o. showed significant antiulcerogenic properties (**p < 0.01. Moreover, the safflower oil at doses of 187.5 mg/kg (i.d. increased the pH levels, gastric volume (**p < 0.01 and gastric mucus production (***p < 0.001, and decreased the total gastric acid secretion (***p < 0.001. The acute toxicity tests showed that safflower oil (5.000 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on mortality or any other physiological parameter. Ecotoxicological tests performed using Daphnia similis showed an EC50 at 223.17 mg/l, and therefore safflower oil can be considered “non-toxic” based on the directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances by European legislation. These results indicate that the antiulcer activity of Safflower oil may be due to cytoprotective effects, which serve as support for new scientific studies related to this pathology.

  7. Environmental impact assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, E. H.; Choi, K. S

    2000-10-01

    This report is the revised Environmental Impact Assessment Report which was made and submitted as one of the license documents for TRIGA Research Reactor D and D Project. The Environmental Impact Assessment Report includes introduction of decommissioning plan, status of reactors and environmental impact of surroundings. Also it was assessed and analyzed on radioactivity for environment, and the plan was established to minimize radioactive material release. Finally environmental monitoring plan was established to confirm whether contaminated or not from radioactivity during decommissioning period. According to the assessment results, the risk of excess exposure will be not on environment and public. The first Environmental Impact Assessment Report was submitted to the government for the license and reviewed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first Report was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

  8. Integration, status and potential of environmental justice and the social impact assessment process in transportation development in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This research examines the Social Impact Assessment Process at the Missouri Department of Transportation as directed by the : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The analysis includes an examination of the influences of the more recent directiv...

  9. A System of Integrated Indicators for Socio-Environmental Assessment and Eco-Certification in Agriculture – Ambitec-Agro

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Caldeira Monteiro; Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) has proposed a “System for Environmental Impact Assessment of Agricultural Technology Innovations” (Ambitec-Agro) for the appraisal of research projects and technology innovations in the institutional context of R&D. A derived system, directed at eco-certification of rural activities (Eco-cert.Rural), has been proposed in order to extend the environmental assessment practice to rural activities. The Ambitec-Agro System comprises a set of we...

  10. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  11. Environmental Workplace Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental workplace assessments as tools in developing customized training, highlighting the group process and individual interview techniques. Suggests that, by assessing the cultural climate of an organization, education providers can gather essential baseline information on an organization and thereby provide a guide for further…

  12. Assessing regional environmental quality by integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial multi-criteria evaluation for prioritization of environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Rejaur; Shi, Z H; Chongfa, Cai

    2014-11-01

    This study was an attempt to analyse the regional environmental quality with the application of remote sensing, geographical information system, and spatial multiple criteria decision analysis and, to project a quantitative method applicable to identify the status of the regional environment of the study area. Using spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach with expert knowledge in this study, an integrated regional environmental quality index (REQI) was computed and classified into five levels of regional environment quality viz. worse, poor, moderate, good, and very good. During the process, a set of spatial criteria were selected (here, 15 criterions) together with the degree of importance of criteria in sustainability of the regional environment. Integrated remote sensing and GIS technique and models were applied to generate the necessary factors (criterions) maps for the SMCE approach. The ranking, along with expected value method, was used to standardize the factors and on the other hand, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied for calculating factor weights. The entire process was executed in the integrated land and water information system (ILWIS) software tool that supports SMCE. The analysis showed that the overall regional environmental quality of the area was at moderate level and was partly determined by elevation. Areas under worse and poor quality of environment indicated that the regional environmental status showed decline in these parts of the county. The study also revealed that the human activities, vegetation condition, soil erosion, topography, climate, and soil conditions have serious influence on the regional environment condition of the area. Considering the regional characteristics of environmental quality, priority, and practical needs for environmental restoration, the study area was further regionalized into four priority areas which may serve as base areas of decision making for the recovery, rebuilding, and

  13. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
    This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability

  14. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data : The Cartagena coastal zone as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D.; Campillo, J. Antonio; León, Víctor M.; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A. Dick

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the

  15. Integrated Assessment Of Groundwater Recharge In The North Kelantan River Basin Using Environmental Water Stable Isotopes, Tritium And Chloride Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Nur Hayati Hussin; Ismail Yusof; Kamaruzaman Mamat; Johari Abdul Latif; Rohaimah Demanah

    2014-01-01

    Estimation and understanding of groundwater recharge mechanism and capacity of aquifer are essential issues in water resources investigation. An integrated study of environmental chloride content in the unsaturated zone using chloride mass balance method (CMB) and isotopic analyses of deuterium, oxygen-18, and tritium values range in the alluvial channel aquifer profiles (quaternary sediments) of the North Kelantan River basin has been carried out in order to estimate and understand groundwater recharge processes. However, the rate of aquifer recharge is one of the most difficult factors to measure in the evaluation of ground water resources. Estimation of recharge, by whatever method, is normally subject to large uncertainties and errors. In this paper, changes in stable isotopic signatures in different seasons and tritium analysis of the sampled groundwater observed at different depth in the aquifer system were evaluated. Stable isotope data are slightly below the local meteoric water line (LMWL) indicating that there is some isotopic enrichment due to direct evaporation through the soil surface which is exposed prior or during the recharging process. The overall data on water isotopic signatures from boreholes and production wells (shallow and relatively deep aquifer system) are spread over a fairly small range but somewhat distinct compared to river water isotopic compositions. Such a narrow variation in isotopic signatures of the sampled groundwaters may suggest that all groundwater samples originated from the same area of direct recharge predominantly from rainfall and nearby rivers. Environmental tritium data measured in groundwater at different depths and locations together with a medium-term of limited monthly rainfall collections were used to investigate the groundwater age distributions (residence times). The existence of groundwater in the aquifer system (sampled wells) is predominantly designated as modern (young) water that has undergone recharged

  16. The Environmental Burdens of Lead-Acid Batteries in China: Insights from an Integrated Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead-acid batteries (LABs, a widely used energy storage equipment in cars and electric vehicles, are becoming serious problems due to their high environmental impact. In this study, an integrated method, combining material flow analysis with life cycle assessment, was developed to analyze the environmental emissions and burdens of lead in LABs. The environmental burdens from other materials in LABs were not included. The results indicated that the amount of primary lead used in LABs accounted for 77% of the total lead production in 2014 in China. The amount of discharged lead into the environment was 8.54 × 105 tonnes, which was mainly from raw material extraction (57.2%. The largest environmental burden was from the raw materials extraction and processing, which accounted for 81.7% of the total environmental burdens. The environmental burdens of the environmental toxicity potential, human toxicity potential-cancer, human toxicity potential-non-cancer, water footprint and land use accounted for more than 90% at this stage. Moreover, the environmental burdens from primary lead was much more serious than regenerated lead. On the basis of the results, main practical measures and policies were proposed to reduce the lead emissions and environmental burdens of LABs in China, namely establishing an effective LABs recycling system, enlarging the market share of the legal regenerated lead, regulating the production of regenerated lead, and avoiding the long-distance transportation of the waste LABs.

  17. Integration of artificial intelligence methods and life cycle assessment to predict energy output and environmental impacts of paddy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Chau, Kwok-Wing

    2018-08-01

    Prediction of agricultural energy output and environmental impacts play important role in energy management and conservation of environment as it can help us to evaluate agricultural energy efficiency, conduct crops production system commissioning, and detect and diagnose faults of crop production system. Agricultural energy output and environmental impacts can be readily predicted by artificial intelligence (AI), owing to the ease of use and adaptability to seek optimal solutions in a rapid manner as well as the use of historical data to predict future agricultural energy use pattern under constraints. This paper conducts energy output and environmental impact prediction of paddy production in Guilan province, Iran based on two AI methods, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The amounts of energy input and output are 51,585.61MJkg -1 and 66,112.94MJkg -1 , respectively, in paddy production. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental impacts of paddy production. Results show that, in paddy production, in-farm emission is a hotspot in global warming, acidification and eutrophication impact categories. ANN model with 12-6-8-1 structure is selected as the best one for predicting energy output. The correlation coefficient (R) varies from 0.524 to 0.999 in training for energy input and environmental impacts in ANN models. ANFIS model is developed based on a hybrid learning algorithm, with R for predicting output energy being 0.860 and, for environmental impacts, varying from 0.944 to 0.997. Results indicate that the multi-level ANFIS is a useful tool to managers for large-scale planning in forecasting energy output and environmental indices of agricultural production systems owing to its higher speed of computation processes compared to ANN model, despite ANN's higher accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing and Applying a Participative web-Based GIS for Integration of Public Perceptions in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Gilmer, Alan; Foley, Ronan; Sweeney, John; Fry, John

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic spatial nature of development plans poses specific requirements on the analytical tools applied to support Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) processes. Geographic information systems (GIS), with their mapping and analytical potential, can assist and enhance the various stages of SEA. A method has been developed to apply GIS as a support tool to assist SEA of land use plans in the Republic of Ireland. This chapter describes one phase in the development and testing of th...

  19. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...

  20. INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Ada Mirela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of management as significant factor of business activity can be established on various management systems. These will help to obtain, organise, administrate, evaluate and control particulars: information, quality, environmental protection, health and safety, various resources (time, human, finance, inventory etc. The complexity of nowadays days development, forced us to think ‘integrated’. Sustainable development principles require that environment management policies and practices are not good in themselves but also integrate with all other environmental objectives, and with social and economic development objectives. The principles of sustainable development involve that environment management policies and practices. These are not sound in them-self but also integrate with all other environmental objectives, and with social and economic development objectives. Those objectives were realized, and followed by development of strategies to effects the objective of sustainable development. Environmental management should embrace recent change in the area of environmental protection, and suit the recently regulations of the field -entire legal and economic, as well as perform management systems to meet the requirements of the contemporary model for economic development. These changes are trailed by abandon the conventional approach of environmental protection and it is replaced by sustainable development (SD. The keys and the aims of Cleaner Productions (CP are presented being implemented in various companies as a non-formalised environmental management system (EMS. This concept is suggested here as a proper model for practice where possible environmental harmful technologies are used -e.g. Rosia Montana. Showing the features and the power of CP this paper is a signal oriented to involve the awareness of policy-makers and top management of diverse Romanian companies. Many companies in European countries are developing

  1. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  2. A comparison of Capri and SEAMLESS-IFas Integrated Modelling Systems, Chapter 11 in Environmental and Agricultural Modelling: Integrated Approaches for Policy Impact Assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Britz, W.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Heckelei, T.

    2010-01-01

    SEAMLESS-IF and CAPRI are both integrated agricultural modelling systems for policy impact assessment at EU level, linking model components across scales and between the economic and bio-physical domains. However, the overall design, focus and representation of agricultural sub-systems vary between

  3. INTEGRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Tomescu Ada Mirela

    2012-01-01

    The relevance of management as significant factor of business activity can be established on various management systems. These will help to obtain, organise, administrate, evaluate and control particulars: information, quality, environmental protection, health and safety, various resources (time, human, finance, inventory etc). The complexity of nowadays days development, forced us to think ‘integrated’. Sustainable development principles require that environment management policies and p...

  4. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  5. Novel approach to integrated DNA adductomics for the assessment of in vitro and in vivo environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Jhe; Cooke, Marcus S; Hu, Chiung-Wen; Chao, Mu-Rong

    2018-06-25

    Adductomics is expected to be useful in the characterization of the exposome, which is a new paradigm for studying the sum of environmental causes of diseases. DNA adductomics is emerging as a powerful method for detecting DNA adducts, but reliable assays for its widespread, routine use are currently lacking. We propose a novel integrated strategy for the establishment of a DNA adductomic approach, using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS), operating in constant neutral loss scan mode, screening for both known and unknown DNA adducts in a single injection. The LC-QqQ-MS/MS was optimized using a representative sample of 23 modified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides reflecting a range of biologically relevant DNA lesions. Six internal standards (ISTDs) were evaluated for their ability to normalize, and hence correct, possible variation in peak intensities arising from matrix effects, and the quantities of DNA injected. The results revealed that, with appropriate ISTDs adjustment, any bias can be dramatically reduced from 370 to 8.4%. Identification of the informative DNA adducts was achieved by triggering fragmentation spectra of target ions. The LC-QqQ-MS/MS method was successfully applied to in vitro and in vivo studies to screen for DNA adducts formed following representative environmental exposures: methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and five N-nitrosamines. Interestingly, five new DNA adducts, induced by MMS, were discovered using our adductomic approach-an added strength. The proposed integrated strategy provides a path forward for DNA adductomics to become a standard method to discover differences in DNA adduct fingerprints between populations exposed to genotoxins, and facilitate the field of exposomics.

  6. Integrated assessment for establishing an oil environmental vulnerability map: case study for the Santos Basin region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A F; Abessa, D M S; Fontes, R F C; Silva, G H

    2013-09-15

    The growth of maritime transport and oil exploitation activities may increase the risk of oil spills. Thus, plans and actions to prevent or mitigate impacts are needed to minimize the effects caused by oil. However, tools used worldwide to support contingency plans have not been integrated, thus leading to failure in establishing priority areas. This investigation aimed to develop indices of environmental vulnerability to oil (IEVO), by combining information about environmental sensibility to oil and results of numerical modeling of spilled oil. To achieve that, a case study concerning to oil spills scenarios in a subtropical coastal area was designed, and IEVOs were calculated and presented in maps, in order to make the information about the areas' vulnerability more easily visualized. For summer, the extension of coastline potentially affected by oil was approximately 150 km, and most of the coastline presented medium to high vulnerability. For winter, 230 km coastline would be affected, from which 75% were classified as medium to high vulnerability. Thus, IEVO maps allowed a rapid and clearer interpretation of the vulnerability of the mapped region, facilitating the planning process and the actions in response to an oil spill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrating human and environmental health in antibiotic risk assessment: A critical analysis of protection goals, species sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Gareth; Gunnarsson, Lina; Snape, Jason; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are vital in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases but when released into the environment they may impact non-target organisms that perform vital ecosystem services and enhance antimicrobial resistance development with significant consequences for human health. We evaluate whether the current environmental risk assessment regulatory guidance is protective of antibiotic impacts on the environment, protective of antimicrobial resistance, and propose science-based protection goals for antibiotic manufacturing discharges. A review and meta-analysis was conducted of aquatic ecotoxicity data for antibiotics and for minimum selective concentration data derived from clinically relevant bacteria. Relative species sensitivity was investigated applying general linear models, and predicted no effect concentrations were generated for toxicity to aquatic organisms and compared with predicted no effect concentrations for resistance development. Prokaryotes were most sensitive to antibiotics but the range of sensitivities spanned up to several orders of magnitude. We show reliance on one species of (cyano)bacteria and the 'activated sludge respiration inhibition test' is not sufficient to set protection levels for the environment. Individually, neither traditional aquatic predicted no effect concentrations nor predicted no effect concentrations suggested to safeguard for antimicrobial resistance, protect against environmental or human health effects (via antimicrobial resistance development). Including data from clinically relevant bacteria and also more species of environmentally relevant bacteria in the regulatory framework would help in defining safe discharge concentrations for antibiotics for patient use and manufacturing that would protect environmental and human health. It would also support ending unnecessary testing on metazoan species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  9. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliday, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  11. Proposal of an integrated methodology for environmental assessment of risks and impacts to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies for the oil and natural gas sector in offshore areas; Proposta de metodologia de avaliacao integrada de riscos e impactos ambientais para estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica do setor de petroleo e gas natural em areas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza

    2007-03-15

    This thesis aims to purpose an integrated methodology of environmental risk and impact assessment of the exploration and production oil and natural gas activities, to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies. It also analyzes the environmental issues associated with the upstream segment of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry after the market opening, occurred in 1997. In this context, and under the international experience of countries that also have an open market, the strategic environmental assessment demonstrates to be the more suitable tool of public environmental management to consider the environment already during the planning phase of the oil and natural gas sector. (author)

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  13. Integrating information for better environmental decisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.; Morgan, K.; Newland, L.; Environmental Assessment; Texas Christian Univ.

    2002-01-01

    As more is learned about the complex nature and extent of environmental impacts from progressive human disturbance, scientists, policy analysts, decision makers, educators, and communicators are increasingly joining forces to develop strategies for preserving and protecting the environment. The Eco-Informa Foundation is an educational scientific organization dedicated to promoting the collaborative development and sharing of scientific information. The Foundation participated in a recent international conference on environmental informatics through a special symposium on integrating information for better environmental decisions. Presentations focused on four general themes: (1) remote sensing and data interpretation, including through new knowledge management tools; (2) risk assessment and communication, including for radioactively contaminated facilities, introduced biological hazards, and food safety; (3) community involvement in cleanup projects; and (4) environmental education. The general context for related issues, methods and applications, and results and recommendations from those discussions are highlighted here.

  14. Criticism on Environmental Assessment Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.; Maas, G.J.; Huyghe, J.; Oostra, M.; Saji Baby, xx; Bogdan Zygmunt, xx

    2011-01-01

    Using environmental assessment tools to assess the sustainability of buildings, homes and mixed- use area is increasing. Environmental tools assign scores to projects using some sustainability (sub) aspects according to design and realization documents and evidences. Six European sustainable urban

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protect the environment, it is imperative to conduct environmental impact assessment ... Ethiopia enacted the Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation in 2002 ... flora, fauna, soil, air, water, climate, natural or cultural heritage, other.

  16. Integrated dynamic policy management methodology and system for strategic environmental assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) focuses primarily on assessing how policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) influence the sustainability of the involved regions. However, the processes of assessing policies and developing management strategies for pollution load and resource use are usually separate in the current SEA system. This study developed a policy management methodology to overcome the defects generated during the above processes. This work first devised a dynamic management framework using the methods of systems thinking, system dynamics, and Managing for Results (MFRs). Furthermore, a driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator system was developed. The golf course installation policy was applied as a case study. Taiwan, counties of Taiwan, and the golf courses within those individual counties were identified as a system, subsystems, and objects, respectively. This study identified an object-linked double-layer framework with multi-stage-option to simultaneously to quantify golf courses in each subsystem and determine ratios of abatement and allocation for pollution load and resource use of each golf course. The DPSIR indicator values for each item of each golf course in each subsystem are calculated based on the options taken in the two decision layers. The summation of indicator values for all items of all golf courses in all subsystems according to various options is defined as the sustainability value of the policy. An optimization model and a system (IDPMS) were developed to obtain the greatest sustainability value of the policy, while golf course quantity, human activity intensity, total quantities of pollution load and resource use are simultaneously obtained. The solution method based on enumeration of multiple bounds for objectives and constraints (EMBOC) was developed for the problem with 1.95 x 10 128 combinations of possible options to solve the optimal solution in ten minutes using a personal computer with 3.0 GHz CPU

  17. Environmental assessment: Industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadley, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian mining industry supports the concept of environmental assessment, but the current process at the time of the conference had a number of problems that the industry felt should be addressed. The author makes the following suggestions: that the process for individual projects should be separated from policy issues; that panel members should be drawn from a full-time staff; that there should be better referral criteria to determine which projects require full scale assessment including public hearings; that either the government or project opponents should participate but not both; that the financial burden on proponents should be reduced; that funding of intervenors should be controlled; that there should be a definite time frame

  18. Phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater: An integrated comparative technological, environmental and economic assessment of P recovery technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, L; Rechberger, H; Krampe, J; Zessner, M

    2016-11-15

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential and limited resource. Municipal wastewater is a promising source of P via reuse and could be used to replace P derived from phosphate rocks. The agricultural use of sewage sludge is restricted by legislation or is not practiced in several European countries due to environmental risks posed by organic micropollutants and pathogens. Several technologies have been developed in recent years to recover wastewater P. However, these technologies target different P-containing flows in wastewater treatment plants (effluent, digester supernatant, sewage sludge, and sewage sludge ash), use diverse engineering approaches and differ greatly with respect to P recycling rate, potential of removing or destroying pollutants, product quality, environmental impact and cost. This work compares 19 relevant P recovery technologies by considering their relationships with existing wastewater and sludge treatment systems. A combination of different methods, such as material flow analysis, damage units, reference soil method, annuity method, integrated cost calculation and a literature study on solubility, fertilizing effects and handling of recovered materials, is used to evaluate the different technologies with respect to technical, ecological and economic aspects. With regard to the manifold origins of data an uncertainty concept considering validity of data sources is applied. This analysis revealed that recovery from flows with dissolved P produces clean and plant-available materials. These techniques may even be beneficial from economic and technical perspectives under specific circumstances. However, the recovery rates (a maximum of 25%) relative to the wastewater treatment plant influent are relatively low. The approaches that recover P from sewage sludge apply complex technologies and generally achieve effective removal of heavy metals at moderate recovery rates (~40-50% relative to the WWTP input) and comparatively high costs. Sewage sludge ash is

  19. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  20. Environmental data for the planning of off-shore wind parks from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelle, Hein; Mika, Agnes; Calkoen, Charles; Santbergen, Peter [BMT ARGOSS, Marknesse (Netherlands); Blanc, Isabelle; Guermont, Catherine; Menard, Lionel; Gschwind, Benoit [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The EU-sponsored EnerGEO project aims at providing decision makers with a modelling platform to assess the environmental impacts of different sources of renewable energy. One of the pillars of the project is the Wind Energy Pilot, addressing the effects of offshore wind parks on air pollution and energy use. The methods used in the pilot and the underlying environmental databases are integrated into a WebGIS client tool and made available to the public. This paper is dedicated to describing the environmental databases and supporting data incorporated in the client tool. A 27-km resolution, 11-year wind database is created using the WRF model. The wind database is used to assess the wind climate in the north-west Atlantic region and to derive the potential power output from offshore wind parks. Auxiliary data concerning water depth, distance to shore and distance to the nearest suitable port are created to aid the planning and maintenance phases. Seasonal workability conditions are assessed using a 20-year wave database. The distance at which future wind parks should be placed to exhibit different wind climates is investigated. (orig.)

  1. Environmental data for the planning of off-shore wind parks from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelle, Hein; Mika, Agnes; Calkoen, Charles; Santbergen, Peter; Blanc, Isabelle; Guermont, Catherine; Menard, Lionel; Gschwind, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The EU-sponsored EnerGEO project aims at providing decision makers with a modelling platform to assess the environmental impacts of different sources of renewable energy. One of the pillars of the project is the Wind Energy Pilot, addressing the effects of offshore wind parks on air pollution and energy use. The methods used in the pilot and the underlying environmental databases are integrated into a WebGIS client tool and made available to the public. This paper is dedicated to describing the environmental databases and supporting data incorporated in the client tool. A 27-km resolution, 11-year wind database is created using the WRF model. The wind database is used to assess the wind climate in the north-west Atlantic region and to derive the potential power output from offshore wind parks. Auxiliary data concerning water depth, distance to shore and distance to the nearest suitable port are created to aid the planning and maintenance phases. Seasonal workability conditions are assessed using a 20-year wave database. The distance at which future wind parks should be placed to exhibit different wind climates is investigated. (orig.)

  2. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-11-15

    This study evaluates the environmental impacts of biorefinery products using consequential (CLCA) and attributional (ALCA) life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches. Within ALCA, economic allocation method was used to distribute impacts among the main products and the coproducts, whereas within the CLCA system expansion was adopted to avoid allocation. The study seeks to answer the questions (i) what is the environmental impacts of process integration?, and (ii) do CLCA and ALCA lead to different conclusions when applied to biorefinery?. Three biorefinery systems were evaluated and compared: a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy of the integration was the exchange of useful energy necessary for biomass processing in the two standalone systems. The systems were compared against a common reference flow: "1MJ EtOH +1kg LA ", which was set on the basis of products delivered by the system C. Function of the reference flow was to provide service of both fuel (bioethanol) at 99.9% concentration (wt. basis) and biochemical (biobased lactic acid) in food industries at 90% purity; both products delivered at biorefinery gate. The environmental impacts of interest were global warming potential (GWP 100 ), eutrophication potential (EP), non-renewable energy (NRE) use and the agricultural land occupation (ALO). Regardless of the LCA approach adopted, system C performed better in most of the impact categories than both standalone systems. The process wise contribution to the obtained environmental impacts also showed similar impact pattern in both approaches. The study also highlighted that the recirculation of intermediate materials, e.g. C 5 sugar to boost bioethanol yield and that the use of residual streams in the energy

  3. Workshop on environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.

    1982-07-01

    Objectives of the workshop were: to review and evaluate the state-of-the-art of environmental impact assessments as applied to the regulation of applications of nuclear energy and related ancillary systems; to identify areas where existing technology allows establishing acceptable methods or standard practices that will meet the requirements of the NRC regulations, standards and guides for both normal operations and off-standard conditions including accident considerations; to illuminate topics where existing models or analytical methods are deficient because of unverified assumptions, a paucity of empirical data, conflicting results reported in the literature or a need for observation of operation systems; to compile, analyze and synthesize a prioritized set of research needs to advance the state-of-the-art to the level which will meet all of the requirements of the Commission's regulations, standards and guides; and to develop bases for maintaining the core of regulatory guidance at the optimum level balancing technical capabilities with practical considerations of cost and value to the regulatory process. The discussion held in small group sessions on aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial pathways are presented. The following research needs were identified as common to all three groups: validation of models; characterization of source terms; development of screening techniques; basis for de minimis levels of contamination; and updating of objectives for environmental monitoring programs

  4. FRAPCON-3: Integral assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Berna, G.A.; Berna, G.A.

    1997-12-01

    An integral assessment has been performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the predictive capabilities of FRAPCON-3, a steady-state fuel behavior code designed to analyze fuel behavior from beginning-of-life to burnup levels of 65 GWd/MTU. FRAPCON-3 code calculations are shown to compare satisfactorily to a pre-selected set of experimental data with steady-state operating conditions. 30 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  6. Integrating Environmental and Stakeholder Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2001-01-01

    Regulation has been an important instrument in pushing the business community towards im-proved environmental performance. However, there has also been increasing pressure from a growing number of stakeholders, including employees, customers, neighbours and NGOs, etc. In order to improve corporate...... relationships with various stakeholders, companies need to be able to identify these stakeholders and assess their influence. The first part of this paper will discuss the relevant theory and introduce a model to analyse and identify the most significant stakeholder groups and their influence on corporate...

  7. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J; Ledna, Catherine M; West, J Jason; Nolte, Christopher G; Loughlin, Daniel H

    2018-04-15

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways for the United States. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage, while another set emphasizes renewable energy, including wind, solar, geothermal power, and bioenergy. These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter, and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% carbon dioxide reduction targets in 2050. The renewable low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the nuclear and carbon capture pathways. However, the renewable low-carbon pathways modeled in this study produce higher particulate matter-related mortality costs due to greater use of biomass in residential heating. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies.

  8. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies

  9. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies. Refs, figs, tabs.

  10. Methodologies of environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroll, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction covering the objectives of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and sustainable development, before going on to describe the screening procedure to define the environmental and socio-economic impacts of projects. The EIA procedure outlined encompasses a description of the project, examination of all environmental effects (scoping), identification of existing and predicted environmental conditions and impacts, alternative measures and mitigating measures, co-ordination, with environmental regulations, public participation, and monitoring and approval of the EIA. (UK)

  11. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part II: Environmental and economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio; Scorpio, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were

  12. Economic and environmental assessment of n-butanol production in an integrated first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery: Fermentative versus catalytic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.G.; Dias, M.O.S.; Mariano, A.P.; Maciel Filho, R.; Bonomi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financial and environmental impacts of n-butanol production were investigated. • Analysis showed promising economic results for ABE fermentation scenarios. • Ethanol catalysis to butanol presented discouraging figures. • n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable GHG emissions results. - Abstract: n-Butanol produced from renewable resources has attracted increasing interest, mostly for its potential use as liquid biofuel for transportation. Process currently used in the industry (Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol fermentation – ABE) faces major technical challenges, which could be overcome by an alternative production through ethanol catalysis. In this study, both routes are evaluated by means of their financial viabilities and environmental performance assessed through the Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery methodological framework. Comparative financial analysis of the routes integrated to a first and second generation sugarcane biorefinery shows that, despite the drawbacks, ABE process for fermentation of the pentoses liquor is more attractive than the catalysis of ethanol to n-butanol and co-products. n-Butanol use as fuel demonstrated favorable environmental results for climate change as figures showed over 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared with gasoline.

  13. Integrated environmental monitoring -- prototype demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Vail, L.W.; Hostetler, D.D.; Meyer, P.D.; Carlson, T.J.; Miller, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important activity at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Monitoring programs at DOE facilities have evolved in response to operational needs at the facilities, public outcries for information, regulatory requirements, DOE orders, and improvements in monitoring technology. Decisions regarding sampling location, sampling frequency, analyses performed, and other aspects of monitoring network design can have major implications for detecting releases and for making subsequent higher level decisions about facility operation and remediation. The Integrated Environmental Monitoring (IEM) concept is a set of analytical procedures and software tools that can be used to improve monitoring network design decisions. Such decisions include the choice of monitoring locations, sampling frequencies, sensor technologies, and monitored constituents. IEM provides a set of monitoring alternatives that balance the tradeoffs between competing monitoring objectives such as the minimization of cost and the minimization of uncertainty. The alternatives provided are the best available with respect to the monitoring objectives, consistent with the physical and chemical characteristics of the site, and consist with applicable regulatory requirements. The selection of the best monitoring alternative to implement is made by the stakeholders after reviewing the alternatives and tradeoffs produced by the IEM process

  14. Final Environmental Assessment for Implementation of Proposed Actions in the Moody Air Force Base Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    systems, wind turbines , green roofs, and habitat-oriented storm water management) would be incorporated where practicable. A-12 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...requirements. There are numerous projects that would have a beneficial impact on Bird /Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard including prescribed burning...Force Instruction BASH Bird /Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard BMP best management practice CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of

  15. INTEGRATING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS TO IMPROVE WILDFIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE U.S.: TESTING A NEW ORGANIZING APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducting an integrated analysis to evaluate the societal and ecological consequences of environmental management actions requires decisions about data collection, theory development, modeling and valuation. Approaching these decisions in coordinated fashion necessitates a syste...

  16. Environmental Tools and Radiological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation details two tools (SADA and FRAMES) available for use in environmental assessments of chemicals that can also be used for radiological assessments of the environment. Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporate...

  17. Efficacy of Cefquinome against Escherichia coli Environmental Mastitis Assessed by Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Integration in Lactating Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the pharmacodynamic effectiveness of cefquinome against environmental Escherichia coli mastitis infection, following an intramammary administration. We established the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD model in lactating mice. The PK/PD parameters were identified to achieve an antibacterial efficacy as indicated by PD activity, cytokine expression and PK/PD simulation. From our findings, given an 200 μg/gland dose once daily can achieve a considerable therapeutic effectiveness in experimental circumstance.

  18. Social and environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management scenarios in Cali: from landfilling towards integrated recycling schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Osorio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The environmental and social challenges of Solid Waste Management in developing countries have become an increasingly pressing issue. Disparities between the rich and poor continues to increase in many of these regions where growing urban areas often witness the worst signs of maltreatment of human labour and misallocation of waste as a resource. This thesis is a case study of the Municipality of Cali in Colombia, where city managers and the stakeholders involved are wrestling with the challe...

  19. Glocal assessment of integrated wastewater treatment and recovery concepts using partial nitritation/Anammox and microalgae for environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiewwijit, Rungnapha; Rijnaarts, Huub; Temmink, Hardy; Keesman, Karel J

    2018-07-01

    This study explored the feasibility and estimated the environmental impacts of two novel wastewater treatment configurations. Both include combined bioflocculation and anaerobic digestion but apply different nutrient removal technologies, i.e. partial nitritation/Anammox or microalgae treatment. The feasibility of such configurations was investigated for 16 locations worldwide with respect to environmental impacts, such as net energy yield, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, CO 2 emission, and area requirements. The results quantitatively support the applicability of partial nitritation/Anammox in tropical regions and some locations in temperate regions, whereas microalgae treatment is only applicable the whole year round in tropical regions that are close to the equator line. Microalgae treatment has an advantage over the configuration with partial nitritation/Anammox with respect to aeration energy and nutrient recovery, but not with area requirements. Differential sensitivity analysis points out the dominant influence of microalgal biomass yield and wastewater nutrient concentrations on area requirements and effluent quality. This study provides initial selection criteria for worldwide feasibility and corresponding environmental impacts of these novel municipal wastewater treatment plant configurations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Yang; Shi, Wenjing; Smith, Steven J.; Ledna, Catherine M.; West, J. Jason; Nolte, Christopher G.; Loughlin, Daniel H.

    2018-04-01

    There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the U.S. energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (NUC/CCS), while another set emphasizes renewable energy (RE). These are compared with pathways in which all technologies are available. Air pollutant emissions, mortality costs attributable to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and energy-related water demands are evaluated for 50% and 80% CO2 reduction targets in the U.S. in 2050. The RE low-carbon pathways require less water withdrawal and consumption than the NUC/CCS pathways because of the large cooling demands of nuclear power and CCS. However, the NUC/CCS low-carbon pathways produce greater health benefits, mainly because the NUC/CCS assumptions result in less primary PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion. Environmental co-benefits differ among states because of factors such as existing technology stock, resource availability, and environmental and energy policies. An important finding is that biomass in the building sector can offset some of the health co-benefits of the low-carbon pathways even though it plays only a minor role in reducing CO2 emissions.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  2. Environmental stress and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Brisbin, I.L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress is reported in sections entitled: Savannah River Plant (SRP) studies provide general models for thermal research; in vivo studies of thermal stabilities of cattail isozymes reveal interspecific differences; thermal regimes in Par Pond have little effect on micronutrient uptake by cattails; continued tree kill in the SRP swamp may have an adverse impact on the swamp's cooling capabilities; Par Pond provides understanding of complexity of lake ecosystems affected by thermal effluents; temperature affects size, species distribution, and emergence date of dragonfly larvae; the midge subcommunity in Par Pond maintains relative integrity across a multi-faceted environmental gradient; temperature does not alter contribution of predators to community stability; habitat affects enzyme activity levels in natural populations of Gambusia affinis; studies of large-mouth bass in Par Pond system reveal lipid cycles; long-term turtle research provides information on survivorship and longevity; data on SRP watersnakes contribute to understanding of sexual dimorphism in animals; terrestrial drift fences and pitfall traps prove to be an effective technique for quantitative sampling of animal populations; and, Steel Creek targeted for environmental assessment

  3. Integration of operational research and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof - Ruwaard, J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The subject of this thesis is the integration of Operational Research and Environmental Management. Both sciences play an important role in the research of environmental issues. Part I describes a framework for the interactions between Operational Research and Environmental Management.

  4. Integrated approach to assessing streamflow and precipitation alterations under environmental change: Application in the Niger River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbegnon Clement Sohoulande Djebou

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Over the period 1961–2012, I conduct a change point analysis of the streamflow and report two sub-periods 1961–1982 and 1983–2012. A comparison of precipitation and streamflow during these two time-slices shows meaningful changes. I describe a Kernel density analysis of streamflow and yield a probabilistic estimate of discharge anomalies along the river. Later, I evaluate seasonal trends of precipitation and streamflow. The analyses bring out critical alterations in time and space. However, these alterations seem to foreshadow critical environmental degradations occurring across the watershed. I consider LAI series derived from MODIS images, then I examine and discuss trends in land-cover dynamics in relation with the patterns in precipitation and streamflow. This late analytical step yields a holistic picture of the ongoing alterations in the Niger River Basin. Finally, I emphasize suggestions, valuable for a comprehensive water resources and environment management.

  5. [Development of technologies of population health management in Kazakhstan based on an integrated assessment of the combined exposure to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraubaev, E N; Serik, B

    2013-01-01

    At present there is overdue necessity of an integral approach to the assessment of health status and the impact of environmental factors on it, in the development of science-based management decisions and programs on improvement of the health status of the population of Kazakhstan and in the increase in life expectancy from the birth and healthy life expectancy. The purpose of the proposed program--improving health and increasing life expectancy from the birth and healthy life expectancy of the population of Kazakhstan. Based on a meta-analysis to justify the target age group in which an implementation of complex of preventive measures will increase both the life expectancy from the birth and healthy life expectancy, to perform a comprehensive health screening for the basic classes of diseases and behavioral characteristics of the target group in the course of a multicentre studies to give a comprehensive hygienic characteristics of the ecological status of the studied regions and to develop the Health Passport of the region, to develop a model of the combined effects of environmental factors on health; to create a theoretical model for the calculation of life expectancy from the birth and healthy life expectancy, taking into account the limits of modifiability of factors that affect them, and justify a comprehensive program of management decisions on modification of factors, to carry out pilot studies on the development and validation technological (managemental) solutions to control modifiable factors that affect life expectancy from the birth and healthy life expectancy.

  6. Integrated Assessment Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J. A.; Weyant, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment models of climate change (IAMs) are widely used to provide insights into the dynamics of the coupled human and socio-economic system, including emission mitigation analysis and the generation of future emission scenarios. Similar to the climate modeling community, the integrated assessment community has a two decade history of model inter-comparison, which has served as one of the primary venues for model evaluation and confirmation. While analysis of historical trends in the socio-economic system has long played a key role in diagnostics of future scenarios from IAMs, formal hindcast experiments are just now being contemplated as evaluation exercises. Some initial thoughts on setting up such IAM evaluation experiments are discussed. Socio-economic systems do not follow strict physical laws, which means that evaluation needs to take place in a context, unlike that of physical system models, in which there are few fixed, unchanging relationships. Of course strict validation of even earth system models is not possible (Oreskes etal 2004), a fact borne out by the inability of models to constrain the climate sensitivity. Energy-system models have also been grappling with some of the same questions over the last quarter century. For example, one of "the many questions in the energy field that are waiting for answers in the next 20 years" identified by Hans Landsberg in 1985 was "Will the price of oil resume its upward movement?" Of course we are still asking this question today. While, arguably, even fewer constraints apply to socio-economic systems, numerous historical trends and patterns have been identified, although often only in broad terms, that are used to guide the development of model components, parameter ranges, and scenario assumptions. IAM evaluation exercises are expected to provide useful information for interpreting model results and improving model behavior. A key step is the recognition of model boundaries, that is, what is inside

  7. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Implementation of the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Kirtland Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar collection, heat recovery systems, wind turbines , green roofs, and habitat-oriented storm water management) would...comprehensive range planning, cultural resources management planning, Bird /Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazard planning, and pest management planning. In addition...manage wildlife resources. Assessment of wildlife populations at Kirtland AFB (e.g., bats, birds , predators, and herptiles) would provide a baseline that

  8. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities. 2 figs. 7 refs.

  9. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  10. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  11. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the United States government announced the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) that included a proposal directed at doubling the nation's investment in nanotechnology to ensure the United States' competitive position in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. As part of the NNI, the National Science and Technology Council Interagency Working Group on Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (IWGN) concluded that research centers would permit activities that cannot be accomplished in the traditional mode of small groups or single investigators or with the current research infrastructure. The IWGN recognized the importance of establishing research centers with major Department of Energy (DOE) specialized and user facilities. Consequently, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) plans to support the NNI, in part, through the establishment of an integrated national program of Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) affiliated with major facilities at DOE's national laboratories. Specific objectives of the NSRCs are to accomplish the following: (1) Advance the fundamental understanding and control of materials at the nanoscale regime; (2) Provide an environment to support research of a scope, complexity, and disciplinary breadth not possible under traditional investigator or small group efforts; (3) Provide the foundation for the development of nanotechnologies important to the DOE; (4) Provide state-of-the-art equipment to in-house laboratory, university, and industry researchers and optimize the use of national user facilities for materials characterization employing electrons, photons, and neutrons; (5) Provide a formal mechanism for both short- and long-term collaborations and partnerships among DOE laboratory, academic, and industrial researchers; and (6) Provide training for graduate students and postdoctoral associates in interdisciplinary nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Roura, R.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    This publication focuses on the instrument of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that has been developed within the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) as one of the tools to promote environmental protection. The states involved in the ATS already recognized the importance of this instrument in 1975

  14. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R ampersand D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  15. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R&D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. The Cornerstone of Development: Integrating Environmental, Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The integration of environmental, social, and economic policies is viewed as the ... The book highlights insights into learning theory and identifies how we might ... of Canada's National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy, and a ...

  17. Selecting environmental indicator for use in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; O'Mahony, Tadhg; Byrne, Gerry

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of carrying out Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is to provide for a high level of environmental protection and to integrate environmental considerations into the planning process. The SEA Directive (2001/42/EC) recommends monitoring to determine the environmental impact of the implementation of plans and programmes. Environmental indicators are a useful tool by which this impact may be measured. However, careful consideration must be given to developing a set of indicators in order to isolate, plan or programme specific impacts. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a workshop-based approach to develop appropriate criteria for selecting environmental indicator for use in SEA. A multi-disciplinary team was used in the approach which consisted of representatives from each of four environmental fields i.e. biodiversity, water, air and climatic factors, together with SEA experts, planning experts, academics and consultants. The team reviewed various sets of criteria, already in existence, for environmental indicator development but not specifically for SEA indicators. The results of this review together with original criteria were applied to the final list agreed upon. Some of the criteria recommended includes, relevance to plan, ability to prioritise, and ability to identify conflict with other plan or SEA objectives

  18. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward…

  19. Assessing the Ecological Integrity of a Major Transboundary Mediterranean River Based on Environmental Habitat Variables and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Aoos-Vjose River, Greece-Albania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing

  20. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  1. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  2. Environmental assessment: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbig, J.; Moffett, D.; Beri, K.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a $4.5 billion investment,Bruce Power is refurbishing Bruce A Units 1 and 2, having successfully completed an environmental assessment to return these units to service after a lay-up of almost 10 years. The project includes implementing a series of refurbishments and upgrades which will enhance safety, increase electricity generation capacity and improve reliability for the 30-year extended life of the units. This paper describes four challenges that were successfully managed during the extensive environmental assessment: (i) defining the scope of the Project; (ii) understanding the EA trigger under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; (iii) maintaining an effective relationship with the regulatory agencies; and (iv) managing stakeholder communications. (author)

  3. Environmental assessment: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbig, J.; Moffett, D.; Beri, K.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a $4.5 billion investment, Bruce Power is refurbishing Bruce A Units 1 and 2, having successfully completed an environmental assessment to return these units to service after a lay-up of almost 10 years. The project includes implementing a series of refurbishments and upgrades which will enhance safety, increase electricity generation capacity and improve reliability for the 30-year extended life of the units. This paper describes four challenges that were successfully managed during the extensive environmental assessment: (i) defining the scope of the Project; (ii) understanding the EA trigger under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; (iii) maintaining an effective relationship with the regulatory agencies; and (iv) managing stakeholder communications. (author)

  4. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  5. Technical Assessment: Integrated Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and resources we routinely demand are predicated on the delivery of high-bandwidth services. At the same time, new computing paradigms such as cloud ...state of the art IPCs onshore. Recommendation 11: Continue to implement policies designed to ensure production integrity of IPC technology. This...operators include both content providers such as Netflix, and Amazon , and neutral providers such as Digital Realty, Equinix, and Rackspace. Cloud operators

  6. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  7. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  8. State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first national data collection on state Medicaid program...

  9. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  10. The methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities and activities. The stages of evaluation of environmental impacts are proved. The algorithm and technology of decision-making in the system of environmental impact assessments based on a multi-criteria utility theory are proposed.

  11. International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Washington, DC 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universitie...

  12. Environmental Policy Integration: Towards an Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, W.M.; Hovden, Eivind

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) is a key defining feature of sustainable development. Despite the fact that EPI has been the subject of much debate both in academic and policy-making circles, conceptual issues relating to EPI have received relatively little treatment. The conceptual work that

  13. Technology and Environmental Education: An Integrated Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jana M.; Weiser, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    Preparing teacher candidates to integrate technology into their future classrooms effectively requires experience in instructional planning that utilizes technology to enhance student learning. Teacher candidates need to work with curriculum that supports a variety of technologies. Using Project Learning Tree and environmental education (EE),…

  14. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  15. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  16. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  17. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...

  18. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries management in lower ... Environmental impact assessments were taken to determine the causes of ... Of significance of impact assessment were activities like air, traffic, noise, had ...

  19. Environmental assessment [of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1989-01-01

    The European Community has introduced a directive which instructs that for all projects likely to have a significant effect on the environment consent should only be given after a rigorous assessment of such effects has been carried out and presented as an environmental statement. Projects requiring environmental assessment include nuclear power stations, any thermal power station over 300MW, any radioactive waste storage or disposal facility, any installation which produces electricity, power lines, installations for fuel production, fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste processing and fuel enrichment. The statement must include a description of the likely effects, direct and indirect, on the environment of the development, with reference to human beings, flora, fauna, soil, water, air, climate, landscape, interactions of two or more of these, material assets and cultural heritage. Measures to avoid or remedy the impact must be included. (U.K.)

  20. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.A.; King, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement

  1. Federal environmental assessment panel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R A; King, J M [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The Government of Canada inaugurated an environmental assessment process in 1973. Since that time, the Department of Natural Resources, or its predecessor, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources, and industrial clients of the Department, have been major participants in the process. In 1995, the authors interviewed representatives of a number of client industries and selected individuals, to ask their opinion of the public hearing part of the environmental assessment process, with the objective of identifying shortcomings and proposing improvements. Respondents criticized the hearings as costly, time-wasting, bureaucratic, and uncertain in cost, time, and outcome. A number of observations on noted areas of shortcoming are presented in this paper, with suggestions for improvement.

  2. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  3. Integrated assessment of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers are working on all the separate parts of the climate problem. The objective of integrated assessment is to put the results from this work together in order to look carefully at the big picture so as to: (1) keep a proper sense of perspective about the problem, since climate change will occur in the presence of many other natural and human changes; (2) develop the understanding necessary to support informed decision making by many different key public and private actors around the world; and (3) assure that the type and mix of climate-related research that is undertaken will be as useful as possible to decisions makers in both the near and long term. This paper outlines a set of design guidelines for formulating integrated assessment programs and projects and then outlines some of the current problems and opportunities. Selected points are illustrated by drawing on results from the integrated assessment research now in progress at Carnegie Mellon University

  4. An integrated risk assessment of the environmental hazards influence on Kazakhstan section (from Khorgas and Dostyk dry ports to Aktau seaport) of the international transport corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyanova, F. Zh; Arykbayeva, Z. K.; Atalikhova, A. M.; Dauilbayev, B. A.; Zinabdin, N. B.; Kubeyev, A. B.; Tkach, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article outlines research results on the assessment of natural hazards impact risk on the international transport corridors’ Kazakhstan section (from Khorgas and Dostyk dry ports to the seaport of Aktau) functioning. Based on the component-by-stage analysis of physical and geographical conditions with the use of qualimetric approach, the areas with different risk levels of natural disasters were identified. To minimize the risk of natural problems exposure, a set of environmental recommendations has been developed.

  5. Environmental Assessments and Stakeholder Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Directives and legislation on EIA and SEA need to provide more guidance on how and when public participation should be used. There are now several examples of how well public participation can be performed and the methods are becoming more proactive and innovative. By increasing the role of public participation within the Environmental Assessment process, plans, programmes and projects will become more publicly acceptable. There does need to be a balance as to where public participation is performed in the system, as too much can be a stress on resources and time, as well as producing ineffective results. Key stages such as scoping, preparing the environmental statement or report and decision-making need to be highlighted for the benefits public participation can have. The Aarhus Convention is certainly making a difference in the UK; however it is difficult to judge exactly how much difference yet. It was only fully implemented in the UK in 2005 although some Authorities were applying the three pillars prior to implementation. It is not clear how aware the general public are of the Convention and their rights. Empowering communities in the UK. will communities for decision-making in Environmental Assessments? Providing the public with resources to enable them to fully engage in the process will improve the participation and increase their confidence, but how will this increase their influence within the decision-making process? Ultimately, should the stakeholders and public just influence the incremental decisions made in Environmental Assessments or have more responsibility within the major decisions taken? It will be interesting to see how these issues are addressed over the coming years

  6. Environmental Assessments and Stakeholder Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, Cassandra [Univ. of Manchester, School of Environment and Development (United Kingdom). Planning and Landscape

    2006-09-15

    Directives and legislation on EIA and SEA need to provide more guidance on how and when public participation should be used. There are now several examples of how well public participation can be performed and the methods are becoming more proactive and innovative. By increasing the role of public participation within the Environmental Assessment process, plans, programmes and projects will become more publicly acceptable. There does need to be a balance as to where public participation is performed in the system, as too much can be a stress on resources and time, as well as producing ineffective results. Key stages such as scoping, preparing the environmental statement or report and decision-making need to be highlighted for the benefits public participation can have. The Aarhus Convention is certainly making a difference in the UK; however it is difficult to judge exactly how much difference yet. It was only fully implemented in the UK in 2005 although some Authorities were applying the three pillars prior to implementation. It is not clear how aware the general public are of the Convention and their rights. Empowering communities in the UK. will communities for decision-making in Environmental Assessments? Providing the public with resources to enable them to fully engage in the process will improve the participation and increase their confidence, but how will this increase their influence within the decision-making process? Ultimately, should the stakeholders and public just influence the incremental decisions made in Environmental Assessments or have more responsibility within the major decisions taken? It will be interesting to see how these issues are addressed over the coming years.

  7. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  8. Spatial assessment of Geo-environmental data by the integration of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques for Sitakund Region, Eastern foldbelt, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, M. Y.; Rahman, M.; Islam, M. A.; Kabir, S. M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) have been applied for the analysis and interpretation of the Geo-environmental assessment to Sitakund area, located within the administrative boundaries of the Chittagong district, Bangladesh. Landsat ETM+ image with a ground resolution of 30-meter and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) has been adopted in this study in order to produce a set of thematic maps. The diversity of the terrain characteristics had a major role in the diversity of recipes and types of soils that are based on the geological structure, also helped to diversity in land cover and use in the region. The geological situation has affected on the general landscape of the study area. The problem of research lies in the possibility of the estimating the techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems in the evaluation of the natural data for the study area spatially as well as determine the appropriate in grades for the appearance of the ground and in line with the reality of the region. Software for remote sensing and geographic information systems were adopted in the analysis, classification and interpretation of the prepared thematic maps in order to get to the building of the Geo-environmental assessment map of the study area. Low risk geo-environmental land mostly covered area of Quaternary deposits especially with area of slope wash deposits carried by streams. Medium and high risk geo-environmental land distributed with area of other formation with the study area, mostly the high risk shows area of folds and faults. The study has assessed the suitability of lands for agricultural purpose and settlements in less vulnerable areas within this region.

  9. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  10. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  11. 78 FR 38318 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9827-4] Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY... availability of a final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075F). The... lead (Pb). DATES: The document will be available on or around June 26, 2013. ADDRESSES: The...

  12. Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO 2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Integrated environmental monitoring and information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of the environmental monitoring within the territory of the Slovak Republic and the concept of the integrated environmental information system of the Slovak Republic were accepted and confirmed by the Government Order No. 449/1992. The state monitoring system covering the whole territory of Slovakia is the most important and consists of 13 Partial Monitoring Systems (PMSs). List of PMSs is included. The listed PMSs are managed according to the concept of the Sectoral Information System (SIS) of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic (MESR) which was established by the National Council Act No. 261/1995 Coll. on the SIS. The SIS consists of 18 subsystems which are listed. The overviews of budget of PMSs as well as of environmental publications and periodicals of the MESR are included

  14. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  16. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale

  17. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: nathan.merchant@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  18. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcas, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.; Merchant, Nathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  19. Integrated analysis of two biomarkers in Sciades herzbergii (Ariidae, Siluriformes, to assess the environmental impact at São Marcos' Bay, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Batista Pinheiro-Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Guribu catfish (Sciades herzbergii is a resident species in estuaries of Maranhão, Brazil. The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of integrated analysis of the branchial lesions and gonadosomatic index of Sciades herzbergii in order to evaluate the effects of pollutants in São Marcos' Bay. The first site (S1 is located near the Ilha dos Caranguejos and was used as a reference area for being an environmental protection area. The second site (S2 is located near the ALUMAR/ALCOA port, and was used as a potentially polluted area. Fish were collected at each site, forty-eight in S1 and forty in S2. Gills were fixed in 10% formalin, and usual histological techniques were used in the first right gill arch, with inclusion in paraffin and sections of 5 µm thickness. There were no histopathological changes in animals captured at the reference site. However, in those catfish collected in the potentially contaminated area it was observed several branchial lesions, such as lifting of the lamellar epithelium, fusion of some secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of epithelial cells and lamellar aneurysm. The analysis using the gonadosomatic index (GSI showed significant differences, being higher in fish analyzed from the reference area (P < 0.05. The branchial lesions and GSI were sensitive for monitoring environmental impacts of different locations at São Marcos' Bay, Maranhão, Brazil.

  20. Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.; Chen, W.

    2011-01-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based

  1. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  2. Sensory Synergy as Environmental Input Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady eAlnajjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with 9 healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis’ sensory system to make the controller simpler

  3. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler.

  4. Framework for conducting environmental assessments of trade negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This document described the complex task of assessing the environmental impacts of trade negotiations with particular emphasis on the framework of the Strategic Environmental Assessment which the Government of Canada will conduct through a systematic process which can identify and evaluate possible and significant environmental impacts of an initiative. The objective of the assessment is to integrate environmental considerations into decision-making processes at the earliest possible stage. The first part of the framework identifies the importance of recognizing environmental considerations of trade and explains how the framework will contribute to environmental policy. The second part of the framework outlines the process and analytical requirements for conducting an environmental assessment of a trade negotiation. Environmental Assessment Committees will be formed by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and will include representatives from federal government departments and agencies. All analyses will be conducted in four stages which will include identifying the economic effect of the negotiation, identifying the likely environmental impact of such changes, assessing the significance of the likely environmental impacts, and identifying enhancement/mitigation options to inform the negotiations. The framework is designed to be flexible enough to be used at current and future trade negotiations in the World Trade Organization, the Free Trade Area of the Americas and in bilateral Free Trade Agreements. An environmental assessment of trade negotiations is considered to be an important decision-making tool for promoting sustainable development. 16 refs., 1 tab

  5. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: environmental integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A

    2010-12-01

    Memory for objects declines when people move from one location to another (the location updating effect). However, it is unclear whether this is attributable to event model updating or to task demands. The focus here was on the degree of integration for probed-for information with the experienced environment. In prior research, the probes were verbal labels of visual objects. Experiment 1 assessed whether this was a consequence of an item-probe mismatch, as with transfer-appropriate processing. Visual probes were used to better coordinate what was seen with the nature of the memory probe. In Experiment 2, people received additional word pairs to remember, which were less well integrated with the environment, to assess whether the probed-for information needed to be well integrated. The results showed location updating effects in both cases. These data are consistent with an event cognition view that mental updating of a dynamic event disrupts memory.

  6. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  7. Environmental assessment in the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the subject matter to be dealt with in environmental impact assessments for uranium production facilities, the development of environmental impact statements and the processes used for assessing projects. Different types of regulatory process used to assess projects are described, using Canadian and Australian examples. Some of the techniques used in developing environmental assessments are described. Public participation, including that of special interest groups, is discussed. Some examples of assessments are examined, particularly looking at recent assessments for uranium mining projects in Canada. Trends in environmental assessment are described, using examples from a number of different projects over the past 25 years. Some recommendations for the future are offered. (author)

  8. Integrated age-structured length-based stock assessment model with uncertain process variances, structural uncertainty and environmental covariates: case of Central Baltic herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäntyniemi, Samu; Uusitalo, Laura; Peltonen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    We developed a generic, age-structured, state-space stock assessment model that can be used as a platform for including information elicited from stakeholders. The model tracks the mean size-at-age and then uses it to explain rates of natural and fishing mortality. The fishery selectivity is divided...... to two components, which makes it possible to model the active seeking of the fleet for certain sizes of fish, as well as the selectivity of the gear itself. The model can account for uncertainties that are not currently accounted for in state-of-the-art models for integrated assessments: (i) The form...... of the stock–recruitment function is considered uncertain and is accounted for by using Bayesian model averaging. (ii) In addition to recruitment variation, process variation in natural mortality, growth parameters, and fishing mortality can also be treated as uncertain parameters...

  9. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  10. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report

  11. Mining and Integration of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, V.; Hluchy, L.; Habala, O.; Ciglan, M.

    2009-04-01

    spatio-temporal data integration to following phases: • pre-integration data processing - different data set can be physically stored in different formats (e.g. relational databases, text files); it might be necessary to pre-process the data sets to be integrated, • identification of transformation operations necessary to integrate data in spatio-temporal dimensions, • identification of transformation operations to be performed on non-spatio-temporal attributes and • output data schema and set generation - given prepared data and the set of transformation, operations, the final integrated schema is produces. Spatio-temporal dimension brings its specifics also to the problem of mining spatio-temporal data sets. Spatio-temporal relationships exist among records in (s-t) data sets and those relationships should be considered in mining operation. This means that when analyzing a record in spatio-temporal data set, the records in its spatial and/or temporal proximity should be taken into account. In addition, the relationships discovered in spatio-temporal data can be different when mining the same data on different scales (e.g. mining the same data sets on 50 km grid with daily data vs. 10 km grid with hourly data). To be able to do effective data mining, we first needed to gather a sufficient amount of environmental data covering similar area and time span. For this purpose we have engaged in cooperation with several organizations working in the environmental domain in Slovakia, some of which are also our partners from previous research efforts. The organizations which volunteered some of their data are the Slovak Hydro-meteorological Institute (SHMU), the Slovak Water Enterprise (SVP), the Soil Science and Conservation Institute (VUPOP), and the Institute of Hydrology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (UHSAV). We have prepared scenarios from general meteorology, as well as specialized in hydrology and soil protection.

  12. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  13. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  14. Hanford Site waste management and environmental restoration integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Hanford Site Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Integration Plan'' describes major actions leading to waste disposal and site remediation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide a management tool for use by executives who need to quickly comprehend the waste management and environmental restoration programs. The Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Programs have been divided into missions. Waste Management consists of five missions: double-shell tank (DST) wastes; single-shell tank (SST) wastes (surveillance and interim storage, stabilization, and isolation); encapsulated cesium and strontium; solid wastes; and liquid effluents. Environmental Restoration consists of two missions: past practice units (PPU) (including characterization and assessment of SST wastes) and surplus facilities. For convenience, both aspects of SST wastes are discussed in one place. A general category of supporting activities is also included. 20 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Environmental Accounting: Concepts, Practive and Assessment of Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Vardon, Michael; Harrison, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of sustainable development requires accounting for the depletion and degradation of natural resources and other environmental impacts of economic development. The United Nations System of Integrated Economic and Environmental Accounting (SEEA) provides a system that links economic activities to changes in the environment and natural resources. SEEA has guided the development of environmental accounts by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. This paper describes how SEEA...

  16. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.8 Environmental assessment. (a) National Environmental Policy... and analysis to determine whether issuing the Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims...

  17. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjisolomou, Ekaterini; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Papatheodorou, George; Papastergiadou, Evanthia

    2018-03-19

    During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM) were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters' relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl - a), water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

  18. Assessment of the Eutrophication-Related Environmental Parameters in Two Mediterranean Lakes by Integrating Statistical Techniques and Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Hadjisolomou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, Mediterranean freshwater ecosystems, especially lakes, have been under severe pressure due to increasing eutrophication and water quality deterioration. In this article, we compared the effectiveness of different data analysis methods by assessing the contribution of environmental parameters to eutrophication processes. For this purpose, principal components analysis (PCA, cluster analysis, and a self-organizing map (SOM were applied, using water quality data from two transboundary lakes of North Greece. SOM is considered as an advanced and powerful data analysis tool because of its ability to represent complex and nonlinear relationships among multivariate data sets. The results of PCA and cluster analysis agreed with the SOM results, although the latter provided more information because of the visualization abilities regarding the parameters’ relationships. Besides nutrients that were found to be a key factor for controlling chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, water temperature was related positively with algal production, while the Secchi disk depth parameter was found to be highly important and negatively related toeutrophic conditions. In general, the SOM results were more specific and allowed direct associations between the water quality variables. Our work showed that SOMs can be used effectively in limnological studies to produce robust and interpretable results, aiding scientists and managers to cope with environmental problems such as eutrophication.

  19. Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment : An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.; Bastmeijer, K.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  20. Environmental assessment of lightweight electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This monograph adresses the challenge of the environmental assessment of leightweight electric vehicles. It poses the question whether the use of lightweight materials in electric vehicles can reduce the vehicles’ environmental impact and compares the environmental performance of a lightweight electric vehicle (LEV) to other types of vehicles. The topical approach focuses on methods from life cycle assessment (LCA), and the book concludes with a comprehensive concept on the environmental assessment of LEVs. The target audience primarily comprises LCA practitioners from research institutes and industry, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students specializing in the field of environmental assessment.

  1. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined

  2. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  3. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  4. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  5. Assessment of the implementation of environmental management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the implementation of environmental management system in the construction ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The Environmental Management System (EMS) illustrates a possible solution to reduce the ...

  6. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-07-15

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  7. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-01-01

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  8. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has been using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a tool for predicting and assessing the impact of development projects on the environment. This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. Desktop study of ...

  9. Integrated approach to assess the environmental impact of mining activities: estimation of the spatial distribution of soil contamination (Panasqueira mining area, Central Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula F; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-03-01

    the precipitation of hydrated metal sulfates) in warm, dry periods, but such minerals are easily dissolved during rainy periods. Climate is an important instability factor, and the hot and dry summers and cold, rainy, and windy winters in this region are physical phenomena that enhance the good receptivity of these soils to retain some of the metals present in the primary and also the secondary mineralogy. Considering the obtained results from both the sequential chemical extraction and the environmental risk assessment according to the risk assessment code, Ag, Cd, Cu, and Zn are classified with very high risk while As is classified with medium risk.

  10. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  11. Personal samplers of bioavailable pesticides integrated with a hair follicle assay of DNA damage to assess environmental exposures and their associated risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Anderson, Kim A; Chen, Haiying; Anderson, Rebecca; Salvador-Moreno, Naike; Mora, Dana C; Poutasse, Carolyn; Laurienti, Paul J; Daniel, Stephanie S; Arcury, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children. Our approach combines silicone wristband personal samplers and DNA damage quantification from hair follicles, and was tested as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project involving ten Latino children from farmworker households in North Carolina. Our study documents high acceptance among Latino children and their caregivers of these noninvasive sampling methods. The personal samplers detected organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids in the majority of the participants (70%, 90%, 80%, respectively). Pesticides were detected in all participant samplers, with an average of 6.2±2.4 detections/participant sampler. DNA damage in epithelial cells from the sheath and bulb of plucked hairs follicles was quantified by immunostaining 53BP1-labled DNA repair foci. This method is sensitive, as shown by dose response analyses to γ radiations where the lowest dose tested (0.1Gy) led to significant increased 53BP1 foci density. Immunolabeling of DNA repair foci has significant advantages over the comet assay in that specific regions of the follicles can be analyzed. In this cohort of child participants, significant association was found between the number of pesticide detections and DNA damage in the papilla region of the hairs. We anticipate that this monitoring approach of bioavailable pesticides and genotoxicity will enhance our knowledge of the biological effects of pesticides to guide education programs and

  12. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  13. Integrated Assessment for an Integrated Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockrish, Rob

    1989-01-01

    In a sixth grade science classroom for able students, major grades are broken down into four categories: lab reports, projects, creative writing, and written tests. These four components of assessment structure how the curriculum content is presented. (JDD)

  14. Environmental assessment of freight transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodstroem, E. [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    This report is a short version in English of two reports in Swedish: KFB report 1994:6 `Environmental effects of change of transport mode for goods transportation` and `Combining of transport models` which was performed as a commission for the Swedish environmental protection agency. The aim of both studies is to investigate the environmental effects of political measures to transfer goods from one transport mode to another. To be able to calculate the environmental effects a method to follow the transport chains has been developed. By defining the transport chains with a main transport mode it has been possible to relate the emissions to the different modes. The main results are that the transferable volumes are limited and even if a maximum volume is transferred, the positive environmental effects are small compared to the effects of measures to reduce the emissions from the vehicles 3 refs, 22 figs, 34 tabs

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and Sustainability in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Sanguinetto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at conducting a bibliographical research on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and their relation to the Ecological Economic Zoning (EEZ in the state of Minas Gerais. It is believed that the EIA is subject to failures as it does not take into account larger impacts upon space, time, cumulative and synergistic effects, whereas reflecting a reductionist point of view of the undertaking to the detriment of a broader, systemic, holistic perspective. With a view to compensate for such failure, the SEA is seen as an appropriate tool for the evaluation of political impacts, plans and programs which, conversely, guides the implementation of projects in an more integrated manner. Therefore, two EIAs can be used as reference; one refers to a rural electrification program in the state of Minas Gerais and the other approaches the integration planning of water sources in the metropolitan area of the state of São Paulo. While planning the Ecological Economic Zoning of the state, Minas Gerais takes a decisive step forward the reduction of conflicts related with multiple interests of economic development, providing and forming the basis for the essential balance among profit, preservation and environmental conservation, social justice, respect and cultural diversity, political and institutional maturation, ethic and plurality, which splash the sustainability colors on the canvas of the future.

  16. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    . To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related...

  17. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  18. Geomorphological hazards and environmental impact: Assessment and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    In five sections the author develops the methods for the integration of geomorphological concepts into Environmental Impact and Mapping. The first section introduces the concepts of Impact and Risk through the relationships between Geomorphological Environment and Anthropical Element. The second section proposes a methodology for the determination of Geomorphological Hazard and the identification of Geomorphological Risk. The third section synthesizes the procedure for the compilation of a Geomorphological Hazards Map. The fourth section outlines the concepts of Geomorphological Resource Assessment for the analysis of the Environmental Impact. The fifth section considers the contribution of geomorphological studies and mapping in the procedure for Environmental Impact Assessment.

  19. Simplified risk model support for environmental management integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Jones, J.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the process and results of human health risk assessments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide programs for high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level, mixed low-level waste, and spent nuclear fuel. The DOE baseline programs and alternatives for these five material types were characterized by disposition maps (material flow diagrams) and supporting information in the May 1997 report 'A Contractor Report to the Department of Energy on Environmental Baseline Programs and Integration Opportunities' (Discussion Draft). Risk analyses were performed using the Simplified Risk Model (SRM), developed to support DOE Environmental Management Integration studies. The SRM risk analyses consistently and comprehensively cover the life cycle programs for the five material types, from initial storage through final disposition. Risk results are presented at several levels: DOE complex-wide, material type program, individual DOE sites, and DOE site activities. The detailed risk results are documented in the February 1998 report 'Human Health Risk Comparisons for Environmental Management Baseline Programs and Integration Opportunities' (Discussion Draft)

  20. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Poroddsson, P.

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  1. The role of business information management in advanced integrated environmental management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2000-01-01

    investments in the individual company. Secondly, based on the above, to calculate and assess some typical quantifiable savings, e.g. on energy and raw materials, over a period of four years (after the implementation of the integrated environmental management system). In line with other similar investigations......, the study shows that the implementation of systematic and integrated environmental management systems results in significant savings. This supports the general, albeit rarely tested, hypothesis that it pays to be an environmentally responsible enterprise....

  2. Critical Analysis of Methods for Integrating Economic and Environmental Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing

  3. An Integrated Computer-Aided Approach for Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Chen, Fei; Jaksland, Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    A general framework for an integrated computer-aided approach to solve process design, control, and environmental problems simultaneously is presented. Physicochemical properties and their relationships to the molecular structure play an important role in the proposed integrated approach. The sco...... and applicability of the integrated approach is highlighted through examples involving estimation of properties and environmental pollution prevention. The importance of mixture effects on some environmentally important properties is also demonstrated....

  4. Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Data (REMAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) was initiated to test the applicability of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program...

  5. Implementation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEAF provides a uniform and integrated approach for evaluating leaching from solid materials (e.g., waste, treated wastes such as by solidification/stabilization, secondary materials such as blast furnace slags, energy residuals such as coal fly ash, soil, sediments, mining and mineral processing wastes). Assessment using LEAF applies a stepwise approach that considers the leaching behavior of COPCs in response to chemical and physical factors that control and material properties across a range of plausible field conditions (US EPA, 2010). The framework provides the flexibility to tailor testing to site conditions and select the extent of testing based on assessment objectives and the level of detailed information needed to support decision-making. The main focus will be to discuss the implementation of LEAF in the US and the How to Guide that has recently been completed. To present the How To Guide for the implementation of the leaching environmental assessment framework to an international audience already familiar with comparable leaching tests in use in Europe. Will be meeting with European colleagues on their interest in expanding methods to include organics.

  6. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Thorne, M.; Egan, M.; Calvez, M.; Kautsky, U.

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY: A SCOPING REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; De Angelis, Gino; Kaunelis, David; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2018-06-13

    The Health Technology Expert Review Panel is an advisory body to Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) that develops recommendations on health technology assessments (HTAs) for nondrug health technologies using a deliberative framework. The framework spans several domains, including the environmental impact of the health technology(ies). Our research objective was to identify articles on frameworks, methods or case studies on the environmental impact assessment of health technologies. A literature search in major databases and a focused gray literature search were conducted. The main search concepts were HTA and environmental impact/sustainability. Eligible articles were those that described a conceptual framework or methods used to conduct an environmental assessment of health technologies, and case studies on the application of an environmental assessment. From the 1,710 citations identified, thirteen publications were included. Two articles presented a framework to incorporate environmental assessment in HTAs. Other approaches described weight of evidence practices and comprehensive and integrated environmental impact assessments. Central themes derived include transparency and repeatability, integration of components in a framework or of evidence into a single outcome, data availability to ensure the accuracy of findings, and familiarity with the approach used. Each framework and methods presented have different foci related to the ecosystem, health economics, or engineering practices. Their descriptions suggested transparency, repeatability, and the integration of components or of evidence into a single outcome as their main strengths. Our review is an initial step of a larger initiative by CADTH to develop the methods and processes to address the environmental impact question in an HTA.

  8. Estimating environmental co-benefits of U.S. low-carbon pathways using the GCAM-USA integrated assessment model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on...

  9. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  11. Methodology to translate policy assessment problems into scenarios: the example of the SEAMLESS integrated framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Therond, O.; Belhouchette, H.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Louhichi, K.; Ewert, F.; Bergez, J.E.; Wery, J.; Heckelei, T.; Olsson, J.A.; Leenhardt, D.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scenario-based approaches in environmental and policy assessment studies are increasingly applied within integrated assessment and modelling frameworks. The SEAMLESS project develops such an integrated framework (SEAMLESS-IF) aiming to assess, ex-ante, impacts of alternative agro-environmental

  12. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  13. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidstrup, Morten, E-mail: bidstrup@plan.aau.dk; Hansen, Anne Merrild, E-mail: merrild@plan.aau.dk

    2014-07-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic.

  14. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidstrup, Morten; Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2014-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic

  15. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  16. [Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

    2009-03-01

    Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability.

  17. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  18. Biological responses to dioxin-like compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Contributions to an integrated environmental assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna

    This PhD project attempts to link exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to effects in the marine fish eelpout Zoarces viviparus by combining different in vivo and in vitro biomarkers in both...

  19. Biological Environmental Sampling Technologies Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    modular set of aerosol detector, collector, and identifier components. Before the award, the JBTDS program office engaged its combat developers and...collection and identification processes are not integrated into one unit. Concern was also expressed regarding operation of the smartphone -based Biomeme one3...DESCRIPTION (JBTDS) The Joint Biological Tactical Detection System (JBTDS) will be employed as a modular set of capabilities (detector, collector, and

  20. Environmental impacts of producing bioethanol and biobased lactic acid from standalone and integrated biorefineries using a consequential and an attributional life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    : a standalone system producing bioethanol from winter wheat-straw (system A), a standalone system producing biobased lactic acid from alfalfa (system B), and an integrated biorefinery system (system C) combining the two standalone systems and producing both bioethanol and lactic acid. The synergy...

  1. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  2. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  3. Assessing Environmental Impact on Aquatic Macrophyte Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental variables on distribution and composition of aquatic macrophyte community in a tropical river was assessed for one year (March 2009 to February 2010). Hypothesis tested was that the spatial variation in environmental variables on the river's longitudinal gradient affects macrophyte species ...

  4. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  5. Integrating environmental monitoring with cumulative effects management and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronmiller, Joshua G; Noble, Bram F

    2018-05-01

    Cumulative effects (CE) monitoring is foundational to emerging regional and watershed CE management frameworks, yet monitoring is often poorly integrated with CE management and decision-making processes. The challenges are largely institutional and organizational, more so than scientific or technical. Calls for improved integration of monitoring with CE management and decision making are not new, but there has been limited research on how best to integrate environmental monitoring programs to ensure credible CE science and to deliver results that respond to the more immediate questions and needs of regulatory decision makers. This paper examines options for the integration of environmental monitoring with CE frameworks. Based on semistructured interviews with practitioners, regulators, and other experts in the Lower Athabasca, Alberta, Canada, 3 approaches to monitoring system design are presented. First, a distributed monitoring system, reflecting the current approach in the Lower Athabasca, where monitoring is delegated to different external programs and organizations; second, a 1-window system in which monitoring is undertaken by a single, in-house agency for the purpose of informing management and regulatory decision making; third, an independent system driven primarily by CE science and understanding causal relationships, with knowledge adopted for decision support where relevant to specific management questions. The strengths and limitations of each approach are presented. A hybrid approach may be optimal-an independent, nongovernment, 1-window model for CE science, monitoring, and information delivery-capitalizing on the strengths of distributed, 1-window, and independent monitoring systems while mitigating their weaknesses. If governments are committed to solving CE problems, they must invest in the long-term science needed to do so; at the same time, if science-based monitoring programs are to be sustainable over the long term, they must be responsive to

  6. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTIC ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Databases designed for statistical analyses have characteristics that distinguish them from databases intended for general use. EMAP uses a probabilistic sampling design to collect data to produce statistical assessments of environmental conditions. In addition to supporting the ...

  7. Data management and statistical analysis for environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendelberger, J.R.; McVittie, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    Data management and statistical analysis for environmental assessment are important issues on the interface of computer science and statistics. Data collection for environmental decision making can generate large quantities of various types of data. A database/GIS system developed is described which provides efficient data storage as well as visualization tools which may be integrated into the data analysis process. FIMAD is a living database and GIS system. The system has changed and developed over time to meet the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Restoration Program. The system provides a repository for data which may be accessed by different individuals for different purposes. The database structure is driven by the large amount and varied types of data required for environmental assessment. The integration of the database with the GIS system provides the foundation for powerful visualization and analysis capabilities

  8. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  9. Integrated environmental zoning - An innovative Dutch approach to measuring and managing environmental spillovers in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; de Roo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch development of Integrated Environmental Zoning is an advanced effort to account cumulatively for several environmental spillovers from manufacturing, and to manage their impacts on surrounding residential areas. This national policy initiative involves mapping the spatial patterns of

  10. Collaborative environmental assessment in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in environmental assessment theory and practice indicate a growing concern with collaboration and learning. Although there are few examples of the institutional, organizational, and socio-political forms and processes required to foster this collaboration and learning, the establishment of an environmental planning, management, and assessment regime in Canada's Northwest Territories offers useful insights. Consequently, this paper identifies and examines the institutional, organizational, and socio-political conditions that have encouraged more collaborative forms of environmental assessment practice in the Northwest Territories. Key issues highlighted include: (1) the development of decentralized regulatory organizations more responsive to changing circumstances; (2) strategies for more effective communication and participation of community interests; (3) efforts to build a collaborative vision of economic and social development through region-specific land use plans; (4) the integration of knowledge frameworks; and (5) a concern with the capacity required to encourage effective intervention in the assessment process

  11. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  12. Radiological assessments, environmental monitoring, and study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.R.; Elle, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of the behavior of transuranic elements in the environment form the basic data for applied programs in radiological assessment, environmental monitoring, derivation of radiation-protection standards, and environmental impact statements. This chapter introduces some of the major information requirements of these applications of transuranic research data. Characteristics of the source terms from nuclear activities usually are needed for an analysis of environmental pathways or deployment of monitoring systems. Major inhalation and ingestion pathways are considered in assessments of hazards from transuranics and are discussed from the viewpoint of research needed

  13. Environmental assessment, proposed generating station for Darlington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This document indicates the intention of Ontario Hydro to seek approval from the Provincial Government for its plan to construct and operate a 3400 MWe nuclear generating station at the Darlington site, west of Bowmanville. This preliminary proposal also contains the environmental assessment. The environmental section of this proposal describes and assesses the existing environment and the environmental influences which would occur due to the construction and operation of a nuclear generating station, consisting of four 850 MW units, at the Darlington site. This proposed station is similar to the Bruce GS A station presently under construction. (author)

  14. Assessing and Enhancing Environmental Sustainability: A Conceptual Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John C; Hester, Erich T; Carey, Cayelan C

    2016-07-05

    While sustainability is an essential concept to ensure the future of humanity and the integrity of the resources and ecosystems on which we depend, identifying a comprehensive yet realistic way to assess and enhance sustainability may be one of the most difficult challenges of our time. We review the primary environmental sustainability assessment approaches, categorizing them as either being design-based or those that employ computational frameworks and/or indicators. We also briefly review approaches used for assessing economic and social sustainability because sustainability necessitates integrating environmental, economic, and social elements. We identify the collective limitations of the existing assessment approaches, showing that there is not a consistent definition of sustainability, that the approaches are generally not comprehensive and are subject to unintended consequences, that there is little to no connection between bottom-up and top-down approaches, and that the field of sustainability is largely fragmented, with a range of academic disciplines and professional organizations pursuing similar goals, but without much formal coordination. We conclude by emphasizing the need for a comprehensive definition of sustainability (that integrates environmental, economic, and social aspects) with a unified system-of-systems approach that is causal, modular, tiered, and scalable, as well as new educational and organizational structures to improve systems-level interdisciplinary integration.

  15. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  16. Indonesia: An Environmental Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Planet. New York: The Free Press, 1995. Baker, M. Sharon. “McCaw Raises $1.1 Billion To Wire Asia And Latin America .” Business Journal Serving San...Other illnesses that have been aggravated or caused by the smoke include conjunctivitis, asthma , bronchitis, eczema, and skin and eye ailments. 5...assessment and mitigation project 200,000 UNICEF Provision of 21,650 face masks 20,000 Procurement of ARI drugs for children in Sumatra and Kalimantan

  17. Environmental impact assessment: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wathern, Peter

    1988-01-01

    ... projects. Enshrined in legislation in the USA, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Japan and, latterly, in the European Community, EIA is an integral part of environmental management. The 'science' and 'art' of EIA are inextricably linked, but the distinction between them is useful and is reflected in the organization of the book. An introductory chapter p...

  18. Institutional Assessment of Environmentally Oriented Subsoil Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gennadyevna Polyanskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article solves two relevant problems related to the implementation of the institutional assessment of environmentally oriented subsoil use: 1 the definition of the ‘environmental security’ and 2 the determination of the development level of institutional bases of environmentally oriented subsoil use including the institutional capacity of subsoil use and institutional capacity of environmental security. The article shows an analysis of the existing definitions of “environmental security” and offers the own one. Despite the significant national and foreign experience in the institutional capacity assessment of various processes, there are still some difficulties in defining and measuring the institutional capacity. We eliminate these difficulties by employing 1 original factors, previously identified, and the content of the “institutional capacity” term; 2 quality characteristics for the institutional capacity assessment of the process regulated at the macroeconomic level, and 3 a consistent methodological tool for the institutional assessment of environmentally oriented subsoil use. The study is based on the hypothesis of the necessity of legal and discreet state intervention in the process of subsoil use. Therefore, we identify the evaluation indicator of state regulation in the environmentally oriented subsoil use as the institutional capacity level calculated by using the fuzzy-set theory. As a result, the institutional capacity levels of the environmentally oriented subsoil use have been defined for both the transport corridor «Arctic-Central Asia» and for the countries composing it. The obtained values of the assessment of institutional capacity levels of the environmentally oriented subsoil use can serve as a basis for identifying the vector of its increase

  19. Environmental impact assessment of rail infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This project resulted in three products: a comprehensive "Sustainable Rail Checklist," a rail planning GIS database, and a web GIS tool that integrates sustainability metrics and facilitates a rapid assessment before a formal NEPA process is implemen...

  20. Socio-environmental integration of hydropower facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, Atle; Forseth, Torbjoern; Ruud, Audun; Bakken, Tor Haakon

    2017-01-01

    Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy (CEDREN) is a research centre focusing on hydropower production and environmental impacts of hydropower. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for renewable energy production that address environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. Environmental design means that planning, building and operation have to include technical, economic, environmental and socio-political aspects throughout the whole life-span of the project. Methods and tools to ensure environmental design are developed in CEDREN and applied to case studies in Norway and internationally. These methods and tools focus on finding physical and biological bottlenecks for affected species and ecosystems by mapping, modelling and analysis of both physical conditions and ecological status. CEDREN proposes different measures, tools and methods to improve the environmental conditions as well as how to maintain or increase the power production. In addition, a strong focus must be made on political governance to ensure more representative participation of relevant stakeholders in the process of finding the best technical, economic and political solutions for power production, the environment and the society. Key research findings used to develop relationships between physical factors like flow, flow fluctuations, water temperature, water velocity, water depth and water-covered area and biological response will be shown. Examples of improved methods for better planning procedures with stakeholder engagement will be proposed. Examples of methods and tools for environmental design of hydropower will be given for several regulated rivers in Norway and abroad. (authors)

  1. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling. Estimates of Emission and Measurement of Impacts. Final Report of the Spanish Subproject EU/Life Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardans, R.; Gimeno, B.S.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; Martin, F.; Palacios, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Donaire, I.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effective emission reduction strategies based on critical thresholds. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/ FIN/336). The sub project has focused on three tasks: Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain, Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystems and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alterative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs

  2. Environmental Warning System Based on the DPSIR Model: A Practical and Concise Method for Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Though we are in urgent need of environmental warnings to slow environmental deterioration, currently, there is no internationally concise method for environmental warnings. In addition, the existing approaches do not combine the three aspects of ecology, resources, and environment. At the same time, the three elements of the environment (air, water, and soil are separated in most environmental warning systems. Thus, the method this paper gives is an innovative attempt and aims to make environmental assessment more practical. This paper establishes the index system of an environmental early warning based on the Driving–Pressure–State–Influence–Response (DPSIR model. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to determine the weights. Next, single and integrated index methods further assess the environmental warning state, in which the weighted summation method is used to summarize the data and results. The case of Tianjin is used to confirm the applicability of this method. In conclusion, the method in this paper is more well-behaved and, therefore, more suitable to assist cities in their environmental assessment.

  3. Recovery in environmental risk assessment at EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee

  4. Using Art to Assess Environmental Education Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Ami A.; Carroll, John P.; Green, Gary T.; Larson, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of developmentally appropriate tools for assessing the environmental attitudes and awareness of young learners has proven to be challenging. Art-based assessments that encourage creativity and accommodate different modes of expression may be a particularly useful complement to conventional tools (e.g. surveys), but their efficacy and…

  5. Integrated health and environmental risk assessment and risk management in large industrial areas. Case study Zagreb (CSZ). Final report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    This report is the result of the Phase 1 of the research within the Case Study Zagreb co-financed by the IAEA according to the project YUG/9/029. The basic long term aim of the project is the reduction in hazards to human health and to the environment in the area of Zagreb. This project is about risk assessment and risk management to achieve the environment protection goals.

  6. Integrated health and environmental risk assessment and risk management in large industrial areas. Case study Zagreb (CSZ). Final report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the result of the Phase 1 of the research within the Case Study Zagreb co-financed by the IAEA according to the project YUG/9/029. The basic long term aim of the project is the reduction in hazards to human health and to the environment in the area of Zagreb. This project is about risk assessment and risk management to achieve the environment protection goals

  7. Environmental flow assessments for transformed estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Heyue; Yang, Zhifeng; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose an approach to environmental flow assessment that considers spatial pattern variations in potential habitats affected by river discharges and tidal currents in estuaries. The approach comprises four steps: identifying and simulating the distributions of critical environmental factors for habitats of typical species in an estuary; mapping of suitable habitats based on spatial distributions of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) and adopting the habitat aggregation index to understand fragmentation of potential suitable habitats; defining variations in water requirements for a certain species using trade-off analysis for different protection objectives; and recommending environmental flows in the estuary considering the compatibility and conflict of freshwater requirements for different species. This approach was tested using a case study in the Yellow River Estuary. Recommended environmental flows were determined by incorporating the requirements of four types of species into the assessments. Greater variability in freshwater inflows could be incorporated into the recommended environmental flows considering the adaptation of potential suitable habitats with variations in the flow regime. Environmental flow allocations should be conducted in conjunction with land use conflict management in estuaries. Based on the results presented here, the proposed approach offers flexible assessment of environmental flow for aquatic ecosystems that may be subject to future change.

  8. Environmental impact assessment - a selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography of literature relevant to the environmental impact assessment process is essentially a list of material dealing with the environmental impact assessment process held by Griffith University Library. The list is however well supplemented with citations of material not held in the Griffith University Library. Some economic and social impact assessment citations have been included in the bibliography, as the the environmental impact assessment concept has been interpreted very broadly. The citations are arranged according to broad subject areas, such as methodology, critical reviews, social impacts etc. Citations in each of these subject areas, which are listed in the table of contents, are identified by prefixes which are given in parentheses before the subjects headings. Within each subject area the citations are arragend in alphabetic author sequence

  9. Environmental Assessment of R&D Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Byriel, Inger Pihl

    2013-01-01

    cause severe negative environmental impacts. This paper presents an innovative environmental assessment practice on R&D programmes in Denmark. It reports on the challenges and experiences of assessing the Danish R&D programme ForskEL, which promotes R&D projects within the electricity sector......Despite their important role in shaping the technologies of the future, public research and development (R&D) programmes are rarely based on systematic assessments of the environmental effects. R&D programmes thus allocate a huge amount of financial resources to projects, which potentially may....... The programme is characterised by uncertainty about impacts and incomparable project types and technologies. A methodology for dealing with these challenges is presented, and experiences from a testing of the methodology on the 2012 programme are reflected upon. Finally the assessment is discussed in terms...

  10. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  11. Environmental Justice Assessment for Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Application of Executive Order 12898 to risk assessment of highway or rail transport of hazardous materials has proven difficult; the location and conditions affecting the propagation of a plume of hazardous material released in a potential accident are unknown, in general. Therefore, analyses have only been possible in geographically broad or approximate manner. The advent of geographic information systems and development of software enhancements at Sandia National Laboratories have made kilometer-by-kilometer analysis of populations tallied by U.S. Census Blocks along entire routes practicable. Tabulations of total, or racially/ethnically distinct, populations close to a route, its alternatives, or the broader surrounding area, can then be compared and differences evaluated statistically. This paper presents methods of comparing populations and their racial/ethnic compositions using simple tabulations, histograms and Chi Squared tests for statistical significance of differences found. Two examples of these methods are presented: comparison of two routes and comparison of a route with its surroundings

  12. Life-cycle environmental and economic impacts of energy-crop fuel-chains: an integrated assessment of potential GHG avoidance in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines life-cycle analyses and economic analyses for Miscanthus and willow heat and electricity fuel-chains in Ireland. Displaced agricultural land-uses and conventional fuels were considered in fuel-chain permutations. Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 7.7 to 35.2 t CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 . Most fuel-chain permutations exhibited positive discounted financial returns, despite losses for particular entities at a farm-gate processed-biomass price of Euro 100 t -1 dry-matter. Attributing a value of Euro 10 t -1 CO 2 eq. to avoided GHG emissions, but subtracting financial returns associated with displaced fuel supplies, resulted in discounted annual national economic benefits (DANEBs) ranging from -457 to 1887 Euro ha -1 a -1 . Extrapolating a plausible combination of fuel-chains up to a national indicative scenario resulted in GHG emission avoidance of 3.56 Mt CO 2 eq. a -1 (5.2% of national emissions), a DANEB of 167 M Euro , and required 4.6% of national agricultural land area. As cost-effective national GHG avoidance options, Miscanthus and willow fuel-chains are robust to variation in yields and CO 2 price, and appear to represent an efficient land-use option (e.g. compared with liquid biofuel production). Policies promoting utilisation of these energy-crops could avoid unnecessary, and environmentally questionable, future purchase of carbon credits, as currently required for national Kyoto compliance

  13. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  14. integration of environmental safeguards into ethiopian investment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    2009 do not use similar language with proceeding proclamations. This article argues ... development as its objective should take into account environmental protection. ...... information required under this Proclamation shall be punished with.

  15. HANFORD Pu-238 DRUM INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Hanford is presently retrieving contact-handled, transuranic (CH-TRU) waste drums from the site's Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) for processing and disposition. A subgroup of these drums (12 total), referred to as Pu-238 drums, has some unique characteristics that may impact the current drum handling and processing activities. These characteristics include content, shielding, thermal, pressurization and criticality issues. An effort to evaluate these characteristics, for the purpose of developing a specific plan for safe retrieval of the Pu-238 drums, is underway. In addition to the above evaluation, the following integrity assessment of the inner container material and/or confinement properties, with primary emphasis on the Source Capsule (primary confinement barrier) and Shipping Container has been performed. Assessment included review of the inner container materials and the potential impact the service history may have had on material and/or confinement properties. Several environmental degradation mechanisms were considered with the objective of answering the following question: Is it likely the container material and/or confinement properties have been significantly altered as a result of service history?

  16. Strategic environmental assessment in post-modern times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the findings of policy and decision making theory in the environmental assessment community has recently led to an intensifying debate on the theoretical foundations and the appropriate practical use of strategic environmental assessment (SEA). In this context, most of the recent suggestions on how to improve practice have been influenced--consciously or sub-consciously--by the post-modernist paradigm, focusing particularly on a better integration of SEA into 'real' decision making and procedural flexibility. There have also been suggestions that traditional project environmental impact assessment (EIA)-based SEA approaches are generally inadequate. Reacting to the latter criticism, this paper aims at defending 'traditional' systematically structured and normative approaches to SEA. While it is acknowledged that a purely professional and technological paradigm to SEA is something of the past, it is proposed that leaving the design of 'flexible' SEA to the will of proponents and stakeholders might ultimately render it incapable of protecting the environment

  17. Predictions of models for environmental radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Sueli da Silva; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact assessment, models are used for estimating source term, environmental dispersion and transfer of radionuclides, exposure pathway, radiation dose and the risk for human beings Although it is recognized that the specific information of local data are important to improve the quality of the dose assessment results, in fact obtaining it can be very difficult and expensive. Sources of uncertainties are numerous, among which we can cite: the subjectivity of modelers, exposure scenarios and pathways, used codes and general parameters. The various models available utilize different mathematical approaches with different complexities that can result in different predictions. Thus, for the same inputs different models can produce very different outputs. This paper presents briefly the main advances in the field of environmental radiological assessment that aim to improve the reliability of the models used in the assessment of environmental radiological impact. The intercomparison exercise of model supplied incompatible results for 137 Cs and 60 Co, enhancing the need for developing reference methodologies for environmental radiological assessment that allow to confront dose estimations in a common comparison base. The results of the intercomparison exercise are present briefly. (author)

  18. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    n/a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed

  19. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  1. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...... of such a framework is demonstrated by means of a risk assessment of flooding from extreme precipitation for the city of Odense, Denmark. A sensitivity analysis shows how the presence of particularly important assets, such as cultural and historical heritage, may be addressed in assessing such risks. The output...

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingjing; Gao, Qingjun; Wang, Nan; Yang, Xigen; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Lu

    2018-04-01

    The development of social science and technology economy, the international community more and more attention to environmental and development issues. So the main goal pursued by people is not only to meet the needs of social and natural resources, while at the same time being able to protect the needs of future generations. This is the path of sustainable development. Therefore, this paper is a detailed study of strategic environmental assessment and sustainable development.

  3. Assessing the Environmental Risks of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    to a wide range of technical limitations. For instance, serious knowledge gaps remain within e.g. the detection of NM in the environment, developing adequate testing equipment and protocols, and toxicity endpoints (Grieger et al., 2009). In the past few years, many scientists and organizations have...... considered. Furthermore, we recommend the use of biomonitoring in some environmental ‘hot spots’ to serve as early warning detectors while the field of NM environmental risk assessment matures, as recommended in our previous work. Ultimately, this analysis may aid the advancement of environmental risk...

  4. Clarifying the Imperative of Integration Research for Sustainable Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Dovers

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses why integration is important in doing research for developing policy and practice of sustainable environmental management. The imperative of integration includes environmental, social, economic, and other disciplinary considerations, as well as stakeholder interests. However, what is meant by integration is not always clear. While the imperative is being increasingly enunciated, the challenges it presents are difficult and indicate a long term pursuit. This paper clarifies the different dimensions of integration, as an important preliminary step toward advancing mutual understanding and the development of approaches. The paper identifies the driving forces for integration, discusses when integration is required, categorises forms of integration, and proposes principles to inform research programs and projects.

  5. Environmental assessment of nanomaterial use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølholt, Jesper; Gottschalk, Fadri; Brinch, Anna

    This is the concluding report of the project "Nanomaterials – occurrence and effects in the Danish environment" (abbreviated NanoDEN), which part the Danish Government's initiative "Better Control of Nanomaterials" (“Bedre styr på nanomaterialer”) which is administered by the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency. The projects in NanoDEN have aimed to investigate and generate new environmentally relevant knowledge on of nanomaterials on the Danish market and to assess the possible associated risks to the environment. The results from the sub-projects are summarized in the current report...... and it is assessed whether and how nanomaterials may pose a risk for the environment in Denmark. The assessment is based on investigations of nine selected nanomaterials, which are expected to be environmentally relevant based on knowledge of consumption quantities or how they are used. These data contribute...

  6. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  7. Philosophy of integrity assessment of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of engineering components in power plants and process industries has attracted global attention from the viewpoint of safety and economy for their optimum utilization. This paper describes some aspects of philosophy of component integrity such as life assessment technology, materials used and the factors limiting the serviceability of the components operating at high temperatures and pressures. Numerous investigations have been carried out all over the world to study changes in microstructure and material property due to prolonged service of the components to decide their further serviceability. This paper includes case studies on integrity assessment of service-exposed components carried out in our laboratory as well

  8. Integrated Manufacturing Strategy: A Prerequisite for Environmental Excellence

    OpenAIRE

    W. Rocky Newman; Mark D. Hanna; William E.Youngdahl

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based upon a framework which links the effective integration of manufacturing strategy into overall corporate strategy (Wheelwright and Hayes 1985) and corporate attainment of environmental excellence (Winsemius and Guntram 1992). By exploring the practical implications of this framework, the paper suggests that improvement of environmental performance may depend on adequate integration of manufacturing strategy into overall corporate strategy. Hence, situations may commonly exi...

  9. Effective integration of environmental leadership and environmental management systems within Cameco's Mining Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, K.; Borchardt, S., E-mail: kevin_nagy@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    To support the implementation of its integrated Safety, Health, Environment & Quality (SHEQ) Policy, Cameco has undertaken an environmental leadership initiative with the goal of moving beyond regulatory compliance and significantly reducing environmental impacts in five key areas: air emissions, treated water quality and quantity, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation. To ensure environmental leadership becomes routine business practice, it was necessary to integrate the initiative into Cameco's programs and management systems at the corporate and operational levels. Operations-based environmental leadership strategies and action plans have since been developed, as well as a corporate reporting system to monitor Cameco's environmental performance. (author)

  10. Effective integration of environmental leadership and environmental management systems within Cameco's Mining Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Borchardt, S.

    2010-01-01

    To support the implementation of its integrated Safety, Health, Environment & Quality (SHEQ) Policy, Cameco has undertaken an environmental leadership initiative with the goal of moving beyond regulatory compliance and significantly reducing environmental impacts in five key areas: air emissions, treated water quality and quantity, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation. To ensure environmental leadership becomes routine business practice, it was necessary to integrate the initiative into Cameco's programs and management systems at the corporate and operational levels. Operations-based environmental leadership strategies and action plans have since been developed, as well as a corporate reporting system to monitor Cameco's environmental performance. (author)

  11. Environmental assessment, Pinellas Plant site, Petersburg, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment is to describe the operations at the Pinellas Plant, discuss the locale in which the plant is situated and assess the actual and possible impacts of plant operation on the surrounding environment. The facility and the local environment are described; impacts on the economy, local community and the environment discussed, and alternatives presented. A comparison of the environmental impact of operating the Pinellas Plant versus the benefits gained by its operation suggests that the plant should continue its function of supplying nuclear weapons components for the US Department of Energy

  12. Economic framework for integrating environmental stewardship into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of agricultural production technologies (based on natural resource management principles) exist that offer opportunities for achieving the two seemingly divergent goals because they have the characteristics to produce joint multiple outputs, i.e, they produce food and provide environmental services. However ...

  13. General support for integrated assessment research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2001-03-01

    The climate change problem spans an extraordinarily large number of disciplines from earth sciences to social and political sciences. The interaction of processes described by these different fields is why climate change is such a complex issue. Keeping track of these interactions and bringing coherence to the assumptions underlying each disciplinary insight on the climate problem is a massive undertaking. Integrated assessment is an interdisciplinary approach designed to provide systematic evaluations of technically complex problems such as the analysis of environmental change challenges facing humanity. Ph.D. theses stemming from this application are summarized. Then some aspects of Integrated Climate Assessment Models are described.

  14. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  15. Integrating rather than juxtaposing environmental policy and the internal market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Koutrakos, Panos; Snell, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the research handbook on the internal market describes and analyses the case law on environmental measures that impact the internal market and notably the free movement of goods. It argues that an integration may be better for both environmental protection and market

  16. GIS based procedure of cumulative environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna Reddy, M; Blah, Baiantimon

    2009-07-01

    Scale and spatial limits of impact assessment study in a GIS platform are two very important factors that could have a bearing on the genuineness and quality of impact assessment. While effect of scale has been documented and well understood, no significant study has been carried out on spatial considerations in an impact assessment study employing GIS technique. A novel technique of impact assessment demonstrable through GIS approach termed hereby as 'spatial data integrated GIS impact assessment method (SGIAM)' is narrated in this paper. The technique makes a fundamental presumption that the importance of environmental impacts is dependent, among other things, on spatial distribution of the effects of the proposed action and of the affected receptors in a study area. For each environmental component considered (e.g., air quality), impact indices are calculated through aggregation of impact indicators which are measures of the severity of the impact. The presence and spread of environmental descriptors are suitably quantified through modeling techniques and depicted. The environmental impact index is calculated from data exported from ArcINFO, thus giving significant importance to spatial data in the impact assessment exercise.

  17. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  18. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  19. Environmental impact assessment around TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Duk; Lee, Young Bok; Cheong, Kyu Hoi; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Kug Chan; You, Byung Sun; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Sang Bok; Han Moon Hee

    1985-01-01

    Population distribution, atmospheric change, X/Q, characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem around Seoul site were surveyed. Environmental radiation and radioactivities such as grossα, grossβ, Cs-137, Sr-90 and H-3 of various environmental samples were analyzed. The values of environmental radiation dose tended to increase gradually in the light of the recent five years' results of environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear power plants from 1980 to 1984, however, the changes were not significant. In addition, continuous assessment of environmental radiation monitoring on the roofs of main building and life science building at KAERI showed that the environmental radiation dose tended to increase a little during the night time. Judging from the above results, it is concluded that environmental contamination level by radioactive materials could be ignored in the case of radioisotope production or experiment using radioisotopes except the release of gaseous radioactive materials such as Ar-41 of short half life by the operation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  20. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  1. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohocki, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  2. The road to Environmental Policy Integration is paved with obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrhauge, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Transport is one of the most polluting sectors and needs to adopt environmental protection, yet the constant struggle between the environment and the economy is often won by economic priorities. This struggle makes environmental policy integration difficult, especially in the legislative process....... The article analyses the co-decision process which led to the adoption of the 2011 Eurovignette Directive, and examines how intra-organizational conflicts in the European Parliament and the Council shaped inter-organizational negotiations and thus the level of environmental policy integration in the adopted...

  3. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.; Kudritsky, Y.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  4. Implementation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    New leaching tests are available in the U.S. for developing more accurate source terms for use in fate and transport models. For beneficial use or disposal, the use of the leaching environmental assessment framework (LEAF) will provide leaching results that reflect field condit...

  5. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  6. Courtland Target Assembly Facility Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Draft Environmental Assessment 2-17 tributyl phosphate (TBP)6, diatomaceous earth, talcum powder, cornmeal , water, steel, and plastic. 2.2.2... cornmeal , water, steel, and plastic that would not qualify as hazardous materials. TBP is non-explosive, non-flammable, and stable under normal

  7. Environmental Assessment - Gotten across to industrial designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a simplified method for environmental assessment for designers, the Oil Point Method (OPM). The paper explains characteristics of the method, such as the reduced problem with missing data, and describes how the method is used with its three steps, “FOCUS on the problem”, “EV...

  8. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  9. General Plan Environmental Assessment, Hurlburt Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    sebiferum) and cogon grass (Imperata Resource/Issue Areas Hurlburt Field General Plan Environmental Assessment 4-9 cylindrica) are most...habitat on the western portion of the installation. The restoration of a native long-leaf pine/wire grass community on Hurlburt is associated with a

  10. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  11. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information

  12. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  13. A new paradigm for Environmental Assessment (EA) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young-Il; Glasson, John

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Korea has played an important role in decision-making processes particularly for environmentally sensitive projects. However, the EIA system alone has sometimes not been effective enough to ensure the successful resolution of environmental concerns. In order to compensate for the limitations of the EIA system, a new assessment system called Prior Environmental Review System (PERS), which is relevant to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in some aspects, was introduced in 1993. PERS aims to balance development and preservation by identifying possible environmental impacts of some administrative plans mainly related to development projects in the early stages of planning. However, PERS still appeared to have some weak points such as a limited range of subjects to be assessed, and weakness of tiering (or vertical integration) from PERS to EIA. Therefore, the necessity for reform of the Korean Environmental Assessment (EA) system, including PERS, was raised. In response, the Korean government sought to establish its policy direction for implementing SEA by enhancing the objectivity and expertise of PERS. The policy was approved by the National Assembly in May 2005, and went into effect in June 2006. The introduction of SEA, by enhancing PERS, provides a framework for a system of EA from the strategic level, including PPPs, to the project level. Yet, despite such improvements, some managerial and technical problems associated with subsequent EA implementation remain. This paper critically reviews the evolution of the EA system in Korea and suggests essential improvements for the current EA system based on experiences of implementation of both EIA and SEA since June 2006, in the context of international good practice.

  14. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlson, Mårten; Mörtberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  15. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  16. Integrating Environmental Management of Asthma into Pediatric Health Care: What Worked and What Still Needs Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Newman, Nicholas; McCurdy, Leyla E; Chang, Jane S; Salas, Mauro A; Eskridge, Bernard; De Ybarrondo, Lisa; Sandel, Megan; Mazur, Lynnette; Karr, Catherine J

    2016-12-01

    The National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF) launched an initiative in 2005 to integrate environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This study, a follow-up to a 2013 study, evaluated the program's impact and assessed training results by 5 new faculty champions. We surveyed attendees at training sessions to measure knowledge and the likelihood of asking about and managing environmental triggers of asthma. To conduct the program evaluation, a workshop was held with the faculty champions and NEEF staff in which we identified major program benefits, as well as challenges and suggestions for the future. Trainee baseline knowledge of environmental triggers was low, but they reported robust improvement in environmental triggers knowledge and intention to recommend environmental management. The program has a broad, national scope, reaching more than 12 000 physicians, health care providers, and students, and some faculty champions successfully integrated materials into health record. Program barriers and future endeavors were identified.

  17. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  18. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  19. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be...

  20. Integrating Environmental and Information Systems Management: An Enterprise Architecture Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noran, Ovidiu

    Environmental responsibility is fast becoming an important aspect of strategic management as the reality of climate change settles in and relevant regulations are expected to tighten significantly in the near future. Many businesses react to this challenge by implementing environmental reporting and management systems. However, the environmental initiative is often not properly integrated in the overall business strategy and its information system (IS) and as a result the management does not have timely access to (appropriately aggregated) environmental information. This chapter argues for the benefit of integrating the environmental management (EM) project into the ongoing enterprise architecture (EA) initiative present in all successful companies. This is done by demonstrating how a reference architecture framework and a meta-methodology using EA artefacts can be used to co-design the EM system, the organisation and its IS in order to achieve a much needed synergy.

  1. Towards integrating environmental performance in divisional performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an integration of environmental performance measurement (EPM into conventional divisional financial performance measures as a catalyst to enhance managers’ drive toward cleaner production and sustainable development. The approach is conceptual and normative; and using a hypothetical firm, it suggests a model to integrate environmental performance measure as an ancillary to conventional divisional financial performance measures. Vroom’s motivation theory and other literature evidence indicate that corporate goals are achievable in an environment where managers’ efforts are recognised and thus rewarded. Consequently the paper suggests that environmentally motivated managers are important to propel corporate sustainability strategy toward desired corporate environmental governance and sustainable economic development. Thus this suggested approach modestly adds to existing environmental management accounting (EMA theory and literature. It is hoped that this paper may provide an agenda for further research toward a practical application of the suggested method in a firm.

  2. Democracy and Environmental Integration in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria

    This dissertation presents an evaluation of the democratic qualities of decision-making processes for large transport infrastructure projects in two Scandinavian countries: Denmark and Sweden. The study uncovers criteria from aggregative and deliberative theories of democracy to create a qualitat......This dissertation presents an evaluation of the democratic qualities of decision-making processes for large transport infrastructure projects in two Scandinavian countries: Denmark and Sweden. The study uncovers criteria from aggregative and deliberative theories of democracy to create...... exemplify points of democratic strength and fragility in the decision processes. A robust system of participatory procedures exists, in both countries, as part of the planning tradition or as part of the legally mandatory environmental assessment procedures. This robust system shows fragility for government...... discourses to the state. While the role of civil society in deliberation is crucial, the study accepts that not all that goes on in civil society is conducive either to more democracy or greater environmental integration. The relevant discussion is then how to deal with differences that may have...

  3. Modern integrated environmental monitoring and processing systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.

    2000-01-01

    The continuous activity to survey and monitor releases and the current radiation levels in the vicinity of a nuclear object is essential for person and environment protection. Considering the vast amount of information and data needed to keep an updated overview of a situation both during the daily surveillance work and during accident situations, the need for an efficient monitoring and processing system is evident. The rapid development, both in computer technology and in telecommunications, the evolution of fast and accurate computer codes enabling the on-line calculations improve the quality of decision-making in complex situations and assure a high efficiency. The monitoring and processing systems are used both for environmental protection and for controlling nuclear power plant emergency and post-accident situations. Such a system can offer information to the radiation management systems in order to assess the consequences of nuclear accidents and to establish a basis for right decisions in civil defense. The integrated environmental monitoring systems have as main task to record, collect, process and transmit the radiation levels and weather data, incorporating a number of stationary or mobile radiation monitoring equipment, weather parameter measuring station, an information processing center and the communication network, all running under a real-time operating system.They provide the automatic data collection on-line and off-line, remote diagnostic, advanced presentation techniques, including a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to respond to an emergency by geographical representation of the hazard zones on the map. The systems are based on local intelligent measuring and transmission units, simultaneous processing and data presentation using a real-time operating system for personal computers and geographical information system (GIS). All information can be managed directly from the map by multilevel data retrieving and

  4. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: ► The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. ► The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. ► A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. ► Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  5. Overview of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Droppo, J.G.; Hoopes, B.L.; Aiken, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a physics-based risk computation code that integrates source-term, transport, and exposure models. Developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for screening and ranking of environmental problems, MEPAS is designed for site-specific assessments using readily available information to estimate potential health impacts. Risk values are computed for chemical and radioactive carcinogens; while hazard quotients, based on reference doses, are computed for noncarcinogens. This system has wide applicability to a range of environmental problems using air, groundwater, surface-water, overland, and exposure models. Whenever available and appropriate, EPA guidance and models were used to facilitate compatibility and acceptance. Although based on relatively standard transport and exposure computation approaches, the unique feature of MEPAS is that these approaches are integrated into a single system. The use of a single system provides a consistent basis for evaluating health impacts for a large number of problems and sites. Implemented on a desktop computer, a user-friendly shell allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models. The MEPAS guidance documents include sources of information. MEPAS can be used for both screening and assessment applications for the remedial investigation/risk assessment/feasibility study and environment restoration processes

  6. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  7. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  8. Integrating Ecohealth Assessment in the Americas | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, very few impact assessment laws are adequately implemented in Latin ... Integrated eco-health assessment law in the Americas : a hemispheric research ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  10. An IT perspective on integrated environmental modelling: The SIAT case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, P.J.F.M.; Knapen, M.J.R.; Winter, de W.P.; Wien, J.J.F.; Roller, te J.A.; Sieber, S.; Jansen, J.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers have a growing interest in integrated assessments of policies. The Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM) community is reacting to this interest by extending the application of model development from pure scientific analysis towards application in decision making or policy context by

  11. Integration of Environmental Compliance at the Savannah River Site - 13024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, David [United States Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (United States); Griffith, Michael [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large federal installation hosting diverse missions and multiple organizations with competing regulatory needs. Accordingly, there was a need to integrate environmental compliance strategies to ensure the consistent flow of information between Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR), the regulatory agencies and other interested parties. In order to meet this objective, DOE and major SRS contractors and tenants have committed to a strategy of collaboratively working together to ensure that a consistent, integrated, and fully coordinated approach to environmental compliance and regulator relationships is maintained. DOE-SR and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, the SRS management and operations contractor, have established an environmental compliance integration process that provides for the consistent flow down of requirements to projects, facilities, SRS contractors, and subcontractors as well as the upward flow of information to assist in the early identification and resolution of environmental regulatory issues and enhancement of compliance opportunities. In addition, this process strongly fosters teamwork to collaboratively resolve complex regulatory challenges, promote pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities to advance site missions in a manner that balances near-term actions with the long-term site vision, while being protective of human health and the environment. Communication tools are being utilized, some with enhancements, to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. SRS internal regulatory integration is accomplished through a variety of informational exchange forums (e.g., Challenges, Opportunities and Resolution (COR) Team, DOE's Joint Site Regulatory Integration Team, and the Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC)). SRS communications and problem-solving with the regulatory agencies have been enhanced through formation

  12. Integration of Environmental Compliance at the Savannah River Site - 13024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, David; Griffith, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large federal installation hosting diverse missions and multiple organizations with competing regulatory needs. Accordingly, there was a need to integrate environmental compliance strategies to ensure the consistent flow of information between Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR), the regulatory agencies and other interested parties. In order to meet this objective, DOE and major SRS contractors and tenants have committed to a strategy of collaboratively working together to ensure that a consistent, integrated, and fully coordinated approach to environmental compliance and regulator relationships is maintained. DOE-SR and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, the SRS management and operations contractor, have established an environmental compliance integration process that provides for the consistent flow down of requirements to projects, facilities, SRS contractors, and subcontractors as well as the upward flow of information to assist in the early identification and resolution of environmental regulatory issues and enhancement of compliance opportunities. In addition, this process strongly fosters teamwork to collaboratively resolve complex regulatory challenges, promote pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities to advance site missions in a manner that balances near-term actions with the long-term site vision, while being protective of human health and the environment. Communication tools are being utilized, some with enhancements, to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. SRS internal regulatory integration is accomplished through a variety of informational exchange forums (e.g., Challenges, Opportunities and Resolution (COR) Team, DOE's Joint Site Regulatory Integration Team, and the Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC)). SRS communications and problem-solving with the regulatory agencies have been enhanced through formation of an

  13. Fuels and Materials Examination Facility: Environmental assessment, Hanford site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) and the High Performance Fuel Laboratory (HPFL) were originally proposed to be constructed as separate facilities in the 400 Area of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The environmental effects of these two facilities were described and evaluated in the FMEF Environmental Assessment and the HPFL Final Environmental Impact Statement, ERDA-1550. For economic reasons, the two facilities will no longer be built as separate facilities. The FMEF facility plans have been modified to incorporate some of the features of the proposed HPFL facility while retaining essentially all of the capabilities of the original FMEF proposal. The purpose of this document is to update the FMEF Environmental Assessment to appropriately reflect addition of certain HPFL features into the FMEF facility and to assess the environmental affects of the facility which resulted from inclusion of HPFL features into the FMEF facility

  14. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti

    2016-01-01

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  15. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.dhar@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-15

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  16. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  17. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  18. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  19. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  20. Klickitat Cogeneration Project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA's contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA's proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact)

  1. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  2. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives

  3. An Assessment of Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Masdiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in evaluating the planning project is a debatable issue among academics and practitioners, since EIA has been claimed to be unable to eliminate the environmental issues. Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the problems of EIA; the process of EIA should be clearly identified instead to maximise the effective use of EIA. It is important to note that the effective use of EIA, particularly on process-related issues could significantly minimise bad environmental effects. In summary, this study aims to explore and identify the effectiveness of EIA in the planning process and barriers to evaluate the environmental performance in Malaysia. The findings of this study could be a baseline for organisation to minimize emission, avoid the risk of prosecution and fines arising from potential environment breaches and cost reduction within the organisation.

  4. Towards a systematic framework for the analysis of environmental policy Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Driessen, Peter; Uittenbroek, Caroline

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) refers to the incorporation of environmental concerns in non-environmental policy sectors. EPI aims to avoid conflicts between environmental and other policy objectives and to enhance environmental policy by directly targeting the driving forces of

  5. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, Rebecca L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Bero, Lisa; Bruce, Nigel; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Ghersi, Davina; Guyatt, Gordon; Hooijmans, Carlijn; Langendam, Miranda; Mandrioli, Daniele; Mustafa, Reem A.; Rehfuess, Eva A.; Rooney, Andrew A.; Shea, Beverley; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sutton, Patrice; Wolfe, Mary S.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Verbeek, Jos H.; Holloway, Alison C.; Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2016-01-01

    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions and recommendations transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this

  6. An Environmental Decision Support System for Spatial Assessment and Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporates environmental assessment tools for effective problem-solving. The software integrates modules for GIS, visualization, geospatial analysis, statistical analysis, human health and ecolog...

  7. Strategic Environmental Assessment: a case study of interconnected 500 kV Italy-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, S.; Ceccariglia, M.; Rivabene, N.; Motawi, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the new interconnected power transmission line Italy-France is applied the Strategic Environmental Assessment procedure for the purpose of integration planning electric and railway lines of the new base tunnel Lyon Turin Ferroviaire Frejus [it

  8. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  9. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  10. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi (US)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs. (MHB)

  11. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs

  12. Is environmental impact assessment regulation a 'burden' to private firms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annandale, David; Taplin, Ross

    2003-01-01

    The impact of environmental regulation on macroeconomic performance has been studied in some depth over the last 15 years. Similarly, impact on profit performance, investment intention and location decisions of firms has also been studied, although in less depth. There has been less academic interest, however, in the impact that environmental regulation has on the strategic objectives of companies. This article reports on a research project that focused on the impact that environmental approvals regulation (predominantly environmental impact assessment, EIA) has on proposed new development in the international mining sector. Based on a large and externally valid survey of senior mining company executives in Australia and Canada in the late 1990s, the research indicated that a significant majority of firms consider the environmental approvals process to be an important determinant of investment strategy. An initial reaction to these figures might suggest that the majority of respondents believe the environmental approvals process to be a negative influence. However, further questioning indicated that only a small proportion of companies in both countries thought of the environmental approvals process as an impediment to development. Instead, it is clear that most firms see EIA as a catalyst for integrating environmental design into the early planning of a project, thereby alleviating the need to spend money on overcoming environmental problems once a poorly designed project has been commissioned. The somewhat surprising conclusion that companies see environmental approvals regulation as important, but as an encouragement to development rather than as an impediment, goes against much previous industry and academic comment and, at least in relation to the mining sector, refutes the idea that EIA is ''burdensome''

  13. 36 CFR 220.7 - Environmental assessment and decision notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental assessment and decision notice. 220.7 Section 220.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE § 220.7 Environmental assessment and decision notice. (a) Environmental assessment...

  14. Environmental assessment for Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET): Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is for the proposed installation and operation of an integrated breeder fuel reprocessing test system in the shielded cells of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford and the associated modifications to the FMEF to accommodate BRET. These modifications would begin in FY-1986 subject to Congressional authorization. Hot operations would be scheduled to start in the early 1990's. The system, called the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET), is being designed to provide a test capability for developing the demonstrating fuel reprocessing, remote maintenance, and safeguards technologies for breeder reactor fuels. This EA describes (1) the action being proposed, (2) the existing environment which would be affected, (3) the potential environmental impacts from normal operations and severe accidents from the proposed action, (4) potential conflicts with federal, state, regional, and/or local plans for the area, and (5) environmental implications of alternatives considered to the proposed action. 41 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  16. Critical factors in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creasey, R.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has shown that it is of proven benefit to the overall planning and environmental management of resource development projects, but certain elements within the application and practice of EIA remain problematic for proponents and regulatory decision makers alike. The use of the word 'critical' in the title of this paper suggests that if the components identified are not considered or implemented properly through the process of EIA, the product will be of less value to both the proponent and decision maker. In the context of EIA, the regulatory, financial, legal and social benefits that accrue make the need for good EIA practice even more imperative. A discussion is included that highlights a number of issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of EIA, a tool necessary to attaining provincial and federal regulatory approvals. To a large extent, the discussion reflects items of contemporary public concern, and those emerging issues of the scientific and regulatory community. At the same time, it needs to be realized that not all the identified items are necessarily new to the practice of impact assessment, but are nonetheless important to professional environmental impact assessment and decision making. Insight is also provided into the direction of decision making of the Energy and Utilities Board as it will affect the regulatory review and administration of resource development projects in the province of Alberta. 16 refs

  17. Integration of Environmental Education and Environmental Law Enforcement for Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovornkijprasert, Sravoot; Rawang, Wee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish an integrated model of environmental education (EE) and environmental law enforcement (ELE) to improve the efficiency of functional competency for police officers in Bangkok Metropolitan Police Division 9 (MBP Div. 9). The research design was mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches…

  18. Comfort monitoring? Environmental assessment follow-up under community-industry negotiated environmental agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Birk, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Negotiated environmental agreements are becoming common practice in the mining industry. In principle, negotiated environmental agreements are said to respond to many of the shortcomings of environmental impact assessment by providing for improved follow-up of project impacts through, among other things, data provision, engaging stakeholders in the monitoring and management of project impacts, and building capacity at the local level to deal with project-induced environmental change. In practice, however, little is known about the efficacy of follow-up under negotiated environmental agreements between proponents and communities and the demonstrated value added to project impact management. This paper examines follow-up practice under negotiated environmental agreements with a view to understanding whether and how community-based monitoring under privatized agreements actually contributes to improved follow-up and impact management. Based on lessons emerging from recent experiences with environmental agreements in Canada's uranium industry, we show that follow-up under negotiated agreements may be described as 'comfort monitoring'. While such monitoring does improve community-industry relations and enhance corporate image, it does little to support effects-based management. If follow-up under negotiated agreements is to be credible over the long term, there is a need to ensure that monitoring results are useful for, and integrated with, regulatory-based monitoring and project impact management practices.

  19. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  20. 75 FR 78994 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment, Request for Comments on Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Prepare an Environmental Assessment, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public...: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Assessment, request for comments on Environmental Issues... and/or special expertise with respect to environmental issues to formally cooperate with GSA in the...

  1. Assessment of Environmental Sustainability in Health Care Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen Carnero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare organizations should set a standard in corporate social responsibility and encourage environmental sustainability, since protection of the environment implies the development of preventive measures in healthcare. Environmental concern has traditionally focused on manufacturing plants. However, a Health Care Organization (HCO is the only type of company which generates all existing classes of waste, and 20% is dangerous, being infectious, toxic or radioactive in nature. Despite the extensive literature analysing environmental matters, there is no objective model for assessing the environmental sustainability of HCOs in such a way that the results may be compared over time for an organization, and between different organizations, to give a comparison or benchmarking tool for HCOs. This paper presents a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis model integrating a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and utility theory, to evaluate environmental sustainability in HCOs. The model uses criteria assessed as a function of the number of annual treatments undertaken. The model has been tested in two HCOs of very different sizes.

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeck J. Scott‐Fordsmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA for nanomaterials (NMs is outlined in this paper. Contrary to other recent papers on the subject, the main data requirements, models and advancement within each of the four risk assessment domains are described, i.e., in the: (i materials, (ii release, fate and exposure, (iii hazard and (iv risk characterisation domains. The material, which is obviously the foundation for any risk assessment, should be described according to the legislatively required characterisation data. Characterisation data will also be used at various levels within the ERA, e.g., exposure modelling. The release, fate and exposure data and models cover the input for environmental distribution models in order to identify the potential (PES and relevant exposure scenarios (RES and, subsequently, the possible release routes, both with regard to which compartment(s NMs are distributed in line with the factors determining the fate within environmental compartment. The initial outcome in the risk characterisation will be a generic Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC, but a refined PEC can be obtained by applying specific exposure models for relevant media. The hazard information covers a variety of representative, relevant and reliable organisms and/or functions, relevant for the RES and enabling a hazard characterisation. The initial outcome will be hazard characterisation in test systems allowing estimating a Predicted No-Effect concentration (PNEC, either based on uncertainty factors or on a NM adapted version of the Species Sensitivity Distributions approach. The risk characterisation will either be based on a deterministic risk ratio approach (i.e., PEC/PNEC or an overlay of probability distributions, i.e., exposure and hazard distributions, using the nano relevant models.

  3. Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Semenzin, Elena; Nowack, Bernd; Hunt, Neil; Hristozov, Danail; Marcomini, Antonio; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Landsiedel, Robert; Tran, Lang; Oomen, Agnes G; Bos, Peter M J; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2017-10-19

    An Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for nanomaterials (NMs) is outlined in this paper. Contrary to other recent papers on the subject, the main data requirements, models and advancement within each of the four risk assessment domains are described, i.e., in the: (i) materials, (ii) release, fate and exposure, (iii) hazard and (iv) risk characterisation domains. The material, which is obviously the foundation for any risk assessment, should be described according to the legislatively required characterisation data. Characterisation data will also be used at various levels within the ERA, e.g., exposure modelling. The release, fate and exposure data and models cover the input for environmental distribution models in order to identify the potential (PES) and relevant exposure scenarios (RES) and, subsequently, the possible release routes, both with regard to which compartment(s) NMs are distributed in line with the factors determining the fate within environmental compartment. The initial outcome in the risk characterisation will be a generic Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC), but a refined PEC can be obtained by applying specific exposure models for relevant media. The hazard information covers a variety of representative, relevant and reliable organisms and/or functions, relevant for the RES and enabling a hazard characterisation. The initial outcome will be hazard characterisation in test systems allowing estimating a Predicted No-Effect concentration (PNEC), either based on uncertainty factors or on a NM adapted version of the Species Sensitivity Distributions approach. The risk characterisation will either be based on a deterministic risk ratio approach (i.e., PEC/PNEC) or an overlay of probability distributions, i.e., exposure and hazard distributions, using the nano relevant models.

  4. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L. E.; Litchfield, J. W.; Currie, J. W.; McDonald, C. L.; Adams, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems.

  6. The screening and scoping of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koornneef, Joris; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are procedural tools which have as goal to assess and evaluate possible environmental effects of, respectively, a proposed project or policy plan. The goal of this article is to explore possible bottlenecks in applying both the EIA and SEA procedures on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) activities in the Netherlands, as experience is currently minimal or lacking. In this study we focus mainly on the institutional and procedural aspects of the screening and scoping phases of both procedures. This is achieved by reviewing EIA and SEA procedures for analogue projects for the three distinctive process steps of a CCS project, namely the power plant with capture, the transport and finally the underground storage of the CO 2 . Additionally, EIA and SEA or similar procedures on CCS in other countries are reviewed and the legal framework for the Dutch EIA and SEA is studied. This article shows a concise overview of the EIA and SEA procedure in the Netherlands and the relation between both procedures. Based on our findings we have constructed a conceptual taxonomy for the scope of both procedures for CCS in the Netherlands. This taxonomy conceptualizes the possible integration of assessing the environmental impacts for tiered levels of decision making. This integration might be needed for first CCS projects as decisions on the strategic (spatial planning) level are currently absent for CCS in the Netherlands. Perpendicular to such integration is the integration of linked activities in the CCS chain and their alternatives, into one procedure. We argue that it would be beneficial to combine the separate EIA procedures for CCS activities into one procedure or at least provide close linkage between them. This issue should be carefully considered by regulators, competent authorities and project initiators in an early stage to avoid delaying legal procedures in the future. For the same reason

  7. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  8. Integrative Governance of Environmental Water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin: Evolving Challenges and Emerging Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Mattson, Zachary; Lynch, Amanda H

    2017-07-01

    Integration, a widely promoted response to the multi-scale complexities of social-environmental sustainability, is diversely and sometimes poorly conceptualized. In this paper we explore integrative governance, which we define as an iterative and contextual process for negotiating and advancing the common interest. We ground this definition in a discussion of institutional factors conditioning integrative governance of environmental water in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. The Murray-Darling Basin is an iconic system of social-ecological complexity, evocative of large-scale conservation challenges in other developed arid river basins. Our critical assessment of integrative governance practices in that context emerges through analysis of interviews with policy participants and documents pertaining to environmental water management in the tri-state area of southwestern New South Wales, northwestern Victoria, and the South Australian Riverland. We identify four linked challenges: (i) decision support for developing socially robust environmental water management goals, (ii) resource constraints on adaptive practice, (iii) inter-state differences in participatory decision-making and devolution of authority, and (iv) representative inclusion in decision-making. Our appraisal demonstrates these as pivotal challenges for integrative governance in the common interest. We conclude by offering a perspective on the potential for supporting integrative governance through the bridging capacity of Australia's Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.

  9. Integrating energy and environmental management in wood furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordić, Dušan; Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review.

  10. Integrating Energy and Environmental Management in Wood Furniture Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review. PMID:24587734

  11. Environmental assessment in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel; Carnero, María Carmen

    2017-12-22

    The aim of this research is to design a multi-criteria model for environmental assessment of health care organizations. This is a model which guarantees the objectivity of the results obtained, is easy to apply, and incorporates a series of criteria, and their corresponding descriptors, relevant to the internal environmental auditing processes of the hospital. Furthermore, judgments were given by three experts from the areas of health, the environment, and multi-criteria decision techniques. From the values assigned, geometric means were calculated, giving weightings for the criteria of the model. This innovative model is intended for application within a continuous improvement process. A practical case from a Spanish hospital is included at the end. Information contained in the sustainability report provided the data needed to apply the model. The example contains all the criteria previously defined in the model. The results obtained show that the best-satisfied criteria are those related to energy consumption, generation of hazardous waste, legal matters, environmental sensitivity of staff, patients and others, and the environmental management of suppliers. On the other hand, those areas returning poor results are control of atmospheric emissions, increase in consumption of renewable energies, and the logistics of waste produced. It is recommended that steps be taken to correct these deficiencies, thus leading to an acceptable increase in the sustainability of the hospital.

  12. Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Some perspectives for environmental risk assessment of urban stormwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of new technologies for disposing stormwater locally, e.g. via infiltration into the ground, implies that the 'traditional' list of key-substances is not exhaustive and consequently, consultants and authorities have difficulties deciding whether to approve new technologies for stormw...... and groundwater, in an integral and transparent manner. This paper reviews some concepts used within risk assessment of chemical substances and seeks to plot a course for further developments related to risk assessments of stormwater contaminants....... for stormwater disposal. The risk for contamination of surface waters also needs to be assessed, even though this contamination is silently accepted by society. A proper risk assessment needs to consider contamination of all environmental compartments within the urban environment, i.e. surface water, soil...

  14. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI) to measure environmental quality in warmwater streams of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lyons

    1992-01-01

    Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.

  15. Using models in Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Melaku Canu, Donata; Libralato, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Numerical Models can greatly contribute to integrated ecological assessment of coastal and marine systems. Indeed, models can: i) assist in the identification of efficient sampling strategy; ii) provide space interpolation and time extrapolation of experiemtanl data which are based on the knowedge on processes dynamics and causal realtionships which is coded within the model, iii) provide estimates of hardly measurable indicators. Furthermore model can provide indication on potential effects of implementation of alternative management policies. Finally, by providing a synthetic representation of an ideal system, based on its essential dynamic, model return a picture of ideal behaviour of a system in the absence of external perturbation, alteration, noise, which might help in the identification of reference behaivuor. As an important example, model based reanalyses of biogeochemical and ecological properties are an urgent need for the estimate of the environmental status and the assessment of efficacy of conservation and environmental policies, also with reference to the enforcement of the European MSFD. However, the use of numerical models, and particularly of ecological models, in modeling and in environmental management still is far from be the rule, possibly because of a lack in realizing the benefits which a full integration of modeling and montoring systems might provide, possibly because of a lack of trust in modeling results, or because many problems still exists in the development, validation and implementation of models. For istance, assessing the validity of model results is a complex process that requires the definition of appropriate indicators, metrics, methodologies and faces with the scarcity of real-time in-situ biogeochemical data. Furthermore, biogeochemical models typically consider dozens of variables which are heavily undersampled. Here we show how the integration of mathematical model and monitoring data can support integrated ecosystem

  16. Assessment of integrity of structures containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the investigations is to provide a method of assessing the safety and integrity of structures containing cracklike defects. Estimated load at which the cracked structure will fail is compared with the highest load likely to be applied in service

  17. Integrated assessment models of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review recent work in the integrated assessment modeling of global climate change. This field has grown rapidly since 1990. Integrated assessment models seek to combine knowledge from multiple disciplines in formal integrated representations; inform policy-making, structure knowledge, and prioritize key uncertainties; and advance knowledge of broad system linkages and feedbacks, particularly between socio-economic and bio-physical processes. They may combine simplified representations of the socio-economic determinants of greenhouse gas emissions, the atmosphere and oceans, impacts on human activities and ecosystems, and potential policies and responses. The authors summarize current projects, grouping them according to whether they emphasize the dynamics of emissions control and optimal policy-making, uncertainty, or spatial detail. They review the few significant insights that have been claimed from work to date and identify important challenges for integrated assessment modeling in its relationships to disciplinary knowledge and to broader assessment seeking to inform policy- and decision-making. 192 refs., 2 figs

  18. Environmental impact assessment: Retrospect and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen; Jones, Carys; Slinn, Paul; Wood, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The widespread experience of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as an anticipatory environmental management tool has generated a considerable debate over the extent to which it is achieving its purposes. This has been measured in terms of EIA 'effectiveness', especially as discussion has moved away from issues of procedural implementation, to the more substantive goals of EIA and its place within broader decision-making contexts. Empirical studies have revealed the relatively weak degree of influence on planning decisions that is being exerted by EIA, which is increasingly being attributed to its rationalist beginnings. This article seeks to direct this debate towards the founding political purposes of EIA which, it is argued, provide a neglected, yet strong, basis for EIA reform. A number of illustrative suggestions are made as a result of this redirection, to enable EIA to adopt a more determinative role in decision making and to contribute to more sustainable patterns of development planning

  19. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INTEGRATIVE SENSORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard A., Michael A. Lewis, Andreas Nocker and Joe E. Lepo. In press. Microbial Biofilms as Integrative Sensors of Environmental Quality. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 34 p. (ERL,GB 1198). Microbial biofilms are comple...

  20. Integrating environmental component models. Development of a software framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, O.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated models consist of interacting component models that represent various natural and social systems. They are important tools to improve our understanding of environmental systems, to evaluate cause–effect relationships of human–natural interactions, and to forecast the behaviour of

  1. Route assessment using comparative risk factors integrated through a GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, D.M.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The assessment of potential alternative routes for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel was simplified through the use of comparative risk factors evaluated using detailed route and environmental attributes. The route characteristics, integrated into risk measures, vary strongly with location and were developed from national, state, and local sources. The route data and evaluation were managed using a geographic information system (GIS). An assessment of four real North Florida routes was performed and an interstate highway route exhibited the lowest risk based on the application of the risk factors

  2. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  3. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  4. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Stephan; Koehler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2009-06-01

    A method for assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater consumption was developed. This method considers damages to three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem quality, and resources. The method can be used within most existing life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The relative importance of water consumption was analyzed by integrating the method into the Eco-indicator-99 LCIA method. The relative impact of water consumption in LCIA was analyzed with a case study on worldwide cotton production. The importance of regionalized characterization factors for water use was also examined in the case study. In arid regions, water consumption may dominate the aggregated life-cycle impacts of cotton-textile production. Therefore, the consideration of water consumption is crucial in life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies that include water-intensive products, such as agricultural goods. A regionalized assessment is necessary, since the impacts of water use vary greatly as a function of location. The presented method is useful for environmental decision-support in the production of water-intensive products as well as for environmentally responsible value-chain management.

  5. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  6. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: 1990 Integrated Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The document, the 'Integrated Assessment,' is a summary of the causes and effects of acidic deposition and a comparison of the costs and effectiveness of alternative emission control scenarios. In developing the 'Integrated Assessment,' it was NAPAP's goal to produce a structured compilation of policy-relevant technical information. The Integrated Assessment is based on findings and data from a series of twenty-seven State-of-Science/Technology Reports (SOS/T) on acidic deposition published by NAPAP in 1990. The scope of the documents includes: (1) emissions, atmospheric processes and deposition; (2) effects on surface waters, forests, agricultural crops, exposed materials, human health, and visibility; and (3) control technologies, future emissions, and effects valuation

  7. Emerging Technologies for Environmental Remediation: Integrating Data and Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E; Grieger, Khara D; Trump, Benjamin D; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Plourde, Kenton J; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-05

    Emerging technologies present significant challenges to researchers, decision-makers, industry professionals, and other stakeholder groups due to the lack of quantitative risk, benefit, and cost data associated with their use. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can support early decisions for emerging technologies when data is too sparse or uncertain for traditional risk assessment. It does this by integrating expert judgment with available quantitative and qualitative inputs across multiple criteria to provide relative technology scores. Here, an MCDA framework provides preliminary insights on the suitability of emerging technologies for environmental remediation by comparing nanotechnology and synthetic biology to conventional remediation methods. Subject matter experts provided judgments regarding the importance of criteria used in the evaluations and scored the technologies with respect to those criteria. The results indicate that synthetic biology may be preferred over nanotechnology and conventional methods for high expected benefits and low deployment costs but that conventional technology may be preferred over emerging technologies for reduced risks and development costs. In the absence of field data regarding the risks, benefits, and costs of emerging technologies, structuring evidence-based expert judgment through a weighted hierarchy of topical questions may be helpful to inform preliminary risk governance and guide emerging technology development and policy.

  8. On - Site Assessment Methods For Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrinec, B.; Babic, D.; Bituh, T.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the rapid determination of radioactivity in cases of release into the environment as well as in cases of nuclear/radiological accidents is described. These measurements would enable a direct risk assessment for humans and biota, without any sampling and at a considerably larger number of locations than in previous studies. Thus obtained, the substantially expanded dataset is expected to shed more light on the properties of environmental radioactivity both in the region studied and in other similar areas. Field measurements will be performed and samples of soil and biota will be collected in order to compare field results with laboratory measurements. Once the method has been validated, previously unexplored locations will be included in the study. Our measurements at numerous locations will also provide control values for comparison in cases of any unplanned or accidental radiological event. An assessment of the possible effects of radionuclide concentrations on the human food chain and biota will be performed within the appropriate models used worldwide exactly for this purpose. In this way, the project should contribute to regional, European, and global efforts towards understanding the radiological impact on ecosystems. Field measurements will also address certain issues in the environmental metrology of radioactive substances, e.g., simultaneous determination of activity concentrations and related dose rates. This will serve as a tool for rapid risk assessment in emergency situations. (author).

  9. Quantum chemistry in environmental pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Juan J; López-Goti, Carmen; Alcamí, Manuel; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Alonso-Prados, José L; Sandín-España, Pilar

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community and regulatory bodies worldwide, currently promote the development of non-experimental tests that produce reliable data for pesticide risk assessment. The use of standard quantum chemistry methods could allow the development of tools to perform a first screening of compounds to be considered for the experimental studies, improving the risk assessment. This fact results in a better distribution of resources and in better planning, allowing a more exhaustive study of the pesticides and their metabolic products. The current paper explores the potential of quantum chemistry in modelling toxicity and environmental behaviour of pesticides and their by-products by using electronic descriptors obtained computationally. Quantum chemistry has potential to estimate the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, including certain chemical reaction mechanisms and their degradation pathways, allowing modelling of the environmental behaviour of both pesticides and their by-products. In this sense, theoretical methods can contribute to performing a more focused risk assessment of pesticides used in the market, and may lead to higher quality and safer agricultural products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniak, Gerard F.; Olchin, Gabriel; Goodall, Jonathan; Voinov, Alexey; Hill, Mary; Glynn, Pierre; Whelan, Gene; Geller, Gary; Quinn, Nigel; Blind, Michiel; Peckham, Scott; Reaney, Sim; Gaber, Noha; Kennedy, Philip R.; Hughes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to explain, explore, and predict the behavior of environmental systems in response to human and natural sources of stress. During the past several years a number of workshops were held that brought IEM practitioners together to share experiences and discuss future needs and directions. In this paper we organize and present the results of these discussions. IEM is presented as a landscape containing four interdependent elements: applications, science, technology, and community. The elements are described from the perspective of their role in the landscape, current practices, and challenges that must be addressed. Workshop participants envision a global scale IEM community that leverages modern technologies to streamline the movement of science-based knowledge from its sources in research, through its organization into databases and models, to its integration and application for problem solving purposes. Achieving this vision will require that the global community of IEM stakeholders transcend social, and organizational boundaries and pursue greater levels of collaboration. Among the highest priorities for community action are the development of standards for publishing IEM data and models in forms suitable for automated discovery, access, and integration; education of the next generation of environmental stakeholders, with a focus on transdisciplinary research, development, and

  11. Advancing Integrated Systems Modelling Framework for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Halog

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for integrated methodological framework for sustainability assessment has been widely discussed and is urgent due to increasingly complex environmental system problems. These problems have impacts on ecosystems and human well-being which represent a threat to economic performance of countries and corporations. Integrated assessment crosses issues; spans spatial and temporal scales; looks forward and backward; and incorporates multi-stakeholder inputs. This study aims to develop an integrated methodology by capitalizing the complementary strengths of different methods used by industrial ecologists and biophysical economists. The computational methodology proposed here is systems perspective, integrative, and holistic approach for sustainability assessment which attempts to link basic science and technology to policy formulation. The framework adopts life cycle thinking methods—LCA, LCC, and SLCA; stakeholders analysis supported by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA; and dynamic system modelling. Following Pareto principle, the critical sustainability criteria, indicators and metrics (i.e., hotspots can be identified and further modelled using system dynamics or agent based modelling and improved by data envelopment analysis (DEA and sustainability network theory (SNT. The framework is being applied to development of biofuel supply chain networks. The framework can provide new ways of integrating knowledge across the divides between social and natural sciences as well as between critical and problem-solving research.

  12. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  13. Social determinants and lifestyles: integrating environmental and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H; White, P C L

    2016-12-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have been associated with an epidemiological transition, from communicable to non-communicable disease, and a geological transition that is moving the planet beyond the stable Holocene epoch in which human societies have prospered. The lifestyles of high-income countries are major drivers of these twin processes. Our objective is to highlight the common causes of chronic disease and environmental change and, thereby, contribute to shared perspectives across public health and the environment. Integrative reviews focused on social determinants and lifestyles as two 'bridging' concepts between the fields of public health and environmental sustainability. We drew on established frameworks to consider the position of the natural environment within social determinants of health (SDH) frameworks and the position of social determinants within environmental frameworks. We drew on evidence on lifestyle factors central to both public health and environmental change (mobility- and diet-related factors). We investigated how public health's focus on individual behaviour can be enriched by environmental perspectives that give attention to household consumption practices. While SDH frameworks can incorporate the biophysical environment, their causal structure positions it as a determinant and one largely separate from the social factors that shape it. Environmental frameworks are more likely to represent the environment and its ecosystems as socially determined. A few frameworks also include human health as an outcome, providing the basis for a combined public health/environmental sustainability framework. Environmental analyses of household impacts broaden public health's concern with individual risk behaviours, pointing to the more damaging lifestyles of high-income households. The conditions for health are being undermined by rapid environmental change. There is scope for frameworks reaching across public health and environmental

  14. Quantitative assessment of integrated phrenic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-06-01

    Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting integrated phrenic nerve activity in many rat groups by the same experienced investigator; comparisons were made during baseline and maximal chemoreceptor stimulation in 14 wild-type Harlan and 14 Taconic Sprague Dawley groups, and in 3 pre-symptomatic and 11 end-stage SOD1(G93A) Taconic rat groups (an ALS model). Meta-analysis results indicate: (1) consistent measurements of integrated phrenic activity in each sub-strain of wild-type rats; (2) with bilateral nerve recordings, left-to-right integrated phrenic activity ratios are ∼1.0; and (3) consistently reduced activity in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats. Thus, with appropriate precautions, integrated phrenic nerve activity enables robust, quantitative comparisons among nerves or experimental groups, including differences caused by neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  16. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy...

  17. Environmental benefits of parking-integrated photovoltaics: A 222kWp experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    integration (in this case parking integration) have been quantified using a standard methodology for the calculation of several environmental parameters. Finally, the environmental benefits of renewable energy generation because of the savings of producing the same amount of electricity by the Spanish grid...... in the system, the energy payback time, and the energy return factor of the facility have been obtained and are 6.31TJ equivalent primary energy, 2.06 and 12.16years, respectively. The average performance ratio is 0.8 with a slight monthly variation. Additionally, the environmental benefits of the architectural......The life cycle assessment of a grid-connected, parking integrated, 222kWp cadmium telluride photovoltaic system has been performed. The system was built at the University of Murcia and has been monitored for 2.5years (sampling data every 5min). The detailed material inventory, the energy embedded...

  18. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century

  19. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report

  20. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  1. Structural integrity assessment of piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of piping components is very essential for safe and reliable operation of power plants. Over the last several decades, considerable work has been done throughout the world to develop a methodology for integrity assessment of pipes and elbows, appropriate for the material involved. However, there is scope of further development/improvement of issues, particularly for pipe bends, that are important for accurate integrity assessment of piping. Considering this aspect, a comprehensive Component Integrity Test Program was initiated in 1998 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. In this program, both theoretical and experimental investigations were undertaken to address various issues related to the integrity assessment of pipes and elbows. Under the experimental investigations, fracture mechanics tests have been conducted on pipes and elbows of 200-400 mm nominal bore (NB) diameter with various crack configurations and sizes under different loading conditions. Tests on small tensile and three point bend specimens, machined from the tested pipes, have also been done to evaluate the actual stress-strain and fracture resistance properties of pipe/elbow material. The load-deflection curve and crack initiation loads predicted by non-linear finite element analysis matched well with the experimental results. The theoretical collapse moments of throughwall circumferentially cracked elbows, predicted by the recently developed equations, are found to be closer to the test data compared to the other existing equations. The role of stress triaxialities ahead of crack tip is also shown in the transferability of J-Resistance curve from specimen to component. The cyclic loading and system compliance effect on the load carrying capacity of piping components are investigated and new recommendations are made. (author)

  2. IkusaSA. Integrated Assessment for Sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , have intended and unintended consequences across a range of important issues. The IkusaSA model system comprises: ? A South African national IAM nested within one or more ?state-of-the-art? global IAMs that predict trade, climate change and human... the country and internationally. The IkusaSA mission is to establish Integrated Assessment Modeling (IAM) in South Africa. The goal is to put in place the tools for an integrated planning approach and provide effective information sharing mechanisms...

  3. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews the forthcoming book Models and Parameters for Environmental Radiological Assessments, which presents a unified compilation of models and parameters for assessing the impact on man of radioactive discharges, both routine and accidental, into the environment. Models presented in this book include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Summaries are presented for each of the transport and dosimetry areas previously for each of the transport and dosimetry areas previously mentioned, and details are available in the literature cited. A chapter of example problems illustrates many of the methodologies presented throughout the text. Models and parameters presented are based on the results of extensive literature reviews and evaluations performed primarily by the staff of the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  4. Children’s Environmental Health Faculty Champions Initiative: A Successful Model for Integrating Environmental Health into Pediatric Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Slavin, Katie; Grubb, Kimberly; Roberts, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pediatric medical and nursing education lack the environmental health content needed to properly prepare health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental exposure–related diseases. The need for improvements in health care professionals’ environmental health knowledge has been expressed by leading institutions. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of programs that incorporate pediatric environmental health (PEH) into curricula and practice. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of the National Environmental Education Foundation’s (NEEF) Children’s Environmental Health Faculty Champions Initiative, which is designed to build environmental health capacity among pediatric health care professionals. Methods Twenty-eight pediatric health care professionals participated in a train-the-trainer workshop, in which they were educated to train other health care professionals in PEH and integrate identified PEH competencies into medical and nursing practice and curricula. We evaluated the program using a workshop evaluation tool, action plan, pre- and posttests, baseline and progress assessments, and telephone interviews. Results During the 12 months following the workshop, the faculty champions’ average pretest score of 52% was significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) to 65.5% on the first posttest and to 71.5% on the second posttest, showing an increase and retention of environmental health knowledge. Faculty champions trained 1,559 health care professionals in PEH, exceeding the goal of 280 health care professionals trained. Ninety percent of faculty champions reported that PEH had been integrated into the curricula at their institution. Conclusion The initiative was highly effective in achieving its goal of building environmental health capacity among health care professionals. The faculty champions model is a successful method and can be replicated in other arenas. PMID:19478972

  5. Environmetal report 2016. Impulses for an integrative environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The ecological challenges in the EU and Germany are so large that they can no longer simply be addressed using the remedial and even the technically-oriented, preventive environmental protection measures of the past. In relation to climate protection and many other fields, impacts on natural ecosystems must be substantially reduced in order to ensure that key ecosystem services remain functional. Yet, environmental policies continue to encounter stiff opposition, which is targeted at supposedly unnecessary regulatory burdens and restrictions. Opponents of environmental protection claim that environmental policies jeopardize the competitiveness of the German industrial and agricultural sectors by imposing unduly high costs. Or they bring up social issues, such as the current housing crisis or energy poverty, as arguments against an effective environmental policy. Such arguments call for nuanced assessments - and in some cases should be clearly rejected. Defusing such conflicts calls for approaches that promote compromise and that appeal to the general public. In the Environmental Report 2016, the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) sets itself the task of addressing this challenge, by focusing on six key topics. What these topics all have in common is that they exhibit tensions between environmental and economic or social policy goals. The Environmental Report aims to stimulate ideas about environmental oriented reforms and approaches to managing these issues which cut across policy fields.

  6. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  7. Preliminary environmental assessment for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the Satellite Power System (SPS) on the environment is presented. Information that has appeared in documents referenced herein is integrated and assimilated. The state-of-knowledge as perceived from recently completed DOE-sponsored studies is disclosed, and prospective research and study programs that can advance the state-of-knowledge and provide an expanded data base for use in an assessment planned for 1980 are defined. Alternatives for research that may be implemented in order to achieve this advancement are also discussed in order that a plan can be selected which will be consistent with the fiscal and time constraints on the SPS Environmental Assessment Program. Health and ecological effects of microwave radiation, nonmicrowave effects on health and the environment (terrestrial operations and space operations), effects on the atmosphere, and effects on communications systems are examined in detail. (WHK)

  8. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kågström, Mari, E-mail: mari.kagstrom@slu.se [Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Richardson, Tim, E-mail: tim.richardson@nmbu.no [Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial Planning, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Frederik A Dahls vei 15, KA-bygningen, Ås (Norway)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges.

  9. Space for action: How practitioners influence environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kågström, Mari; Richardson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of ‘space for action’ offers an important new lens on EA practice. • Focuses on the relation between practitioner's understanding and their actions • Environmental assessment practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. • Practitioners may underestimate their potential to make a difference. • Contributes to understanding change in the environmental assessment field. This article contributes to understanding of how change occurs in the field of environmental assessment (EA). It argues that the integration of new issues in EA, such as human health, is significantly influenced by how practitioners' understandings shape their actions, and by what happens when those, possibly different, interpretations of appropriate action are acted out. The concept of space for action is developed as a means of investigating this relation between understanding and action. Frame theory is also used, to develop a sharper focus on how ‘potential spaces for action’ are created, what these imply for (individuals') preferred choices and actions in certain situations, and what happens in practice when these are acted out and ‘actual spaces for action’ are created. This novel approach is then applied in a Swedish case study of transport planning. The analysis reveals the important work done by practitioners, revealing just how EA practice is decisively shaped by practitioners. Analysis of practice using the lens of spaces for action offers an important new perspective in understanding how the field adapts to new challenges

  10. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  11. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  12. Strategic environmental assessment methodologies--applications within the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Goeran; Nilsson, Maans; Johansson, Jessica; Persson, Aasa; Moberg, Aasa; Carlsson, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical tools can be used in the assessment. Several analytical tools are presented and their relation to SEA is discussed including methods for future studies, Life Cycle Assessment, Risk Assessment, Economic Valuation and Multi-Attribute Approaches. A framework for the integration of some analytical tools in the SEA process is suggested. It is noted that the available analytical tools primarily cover some types of environmental impacts related to emissions of pollutants. Tools covering impacts on ecosystems and landscapes are more limited. The relation between application and choice of analytical tools is discussed. It is suggested that SEAs used to support a choice between different alternatives require more quantitative methods, whereas SEAs used to identify critical aspects and suggest mitigation strategies can suffice with more qualitative methods. The possible and desired degree of site-specificity in the assessment can also influence the choice of methods. It is also suggested that values and world views can be of importance for judging whether different types of tools and results are meaningful and useful. Since values and world views differ between different stakeholders, consultation and understanding are important to ensure credibility and relevance

  13. Assessment of Environmental Intention of Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of environmental education (EE) is that citizens develop a responsible environmental behavior. Environmental awareness constitutes an important factor for the shaping of a responsible environmental behavior. The mass media can strengthen the degree of environmental awareness of the public, through the dissemination of…

  14. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.; Kristofferson, K.; Cole, L.

    1999-01-01

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  16. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment for... Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and our draft environmental assessment for the proposed...-2817 before coming. The petition, draft environmental assessment, and plant pest risk assessment are...

  17. Towards the environmental sustainability assessment for the viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Recchia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades in Italy the wine sector focused on the environmental sustainability of the production processes, including the agricultural, the agro-industrial and the packaging phases. Recent surveys highlighted that the wine consumers are interested in the environmental certifications, even if they are not familiar with them. Several environmental pressures can be evaluated in the viticulture phase, but an elevated number of the analysed impacts require the collection of a large set of input data and significant efforts during the elaboration phase. Therefore, the aim of the present work was the identification of the inventory data and impacts, which mainly describe the environmental pressures associated with the viticulture phase. Particularly, the results of the life cycle assessment (LCA were integrated with those of a model and a simplified approach for evaluating the risks due to the pesticides use. The LCA identified three phases, which are responsible of 70-80% of the CO2eq (CO2 equivalent, the cumulated energy utilisation, the acidification potential (expressed in SO2 equivalent and the eutrophication (expressed in PO4 equivalent, i.e. the harvesting, the crop protection and the ligature. The phase of the pesticides use was analysed also through the pesticides risk indicator (PERI model and a simplified approach elaborated by the Regional Agency for the Environment Protection in Tuscany, Italy. Results concerning the environmental risk showed that the PERI model, the Arpat approach and the LCA were coherent for the pesticide mix highlighting that the associated environmental risk is more than doubled from 2004 to 2010. Finally, some operative indications were elaborated in order to reduce the impacts and improve the local and global environmental sustainability of the viticulture phase.

  18. Developing methodology and tools for integrated assessment of the risks of global environmental change: Analyzing uncertainty, risk assessment, risk perception, expert judgment, and a case study on sea level rise. Report of collaborative research, July 1991--June 1993: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, J.; Shlyakhter, A.; Wilson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Members of Congress, federal administrators, state regulators, city planners, corporate strategists and private citizens face decisions that may or may not warrant considering the potential impacts of climate change. The extent to which the global warming issue will weigh in these many decisions will be determined by (a) expert scientific judgement about global warming and its potential impacts, (b) public perception of the global warming problem, (c) uncertainties, and (d) other legal and political factors controlling the entry of a large-scale environmental issue into many avenues of decision making. The complexity and uncertainty surrounding the problem of climate change present new challenges to our ability to formulate rational decisions. The authors provide a methodical approach to characterizing the risks of global warming in a way that will be useful to decision makers

  19. Assessing Environmental Sustainability of Remediation Technologies in a Life Cycle Perspective is Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site reme...... about the environmental sustainability of remediation technologies.......Integrating sustainability into remediation projects has attracted attention from remediation practitioners, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming a popular tool to address the environmental dimension. The total number of studies has reached 31 since the first framework for LCA of site...

  20. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  1. Strategic environmental assessment quality assurance: evaluating and improving the consistency of judgments in assessment panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram F.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment panels and expert judgment are playing increasing roles in the practice of strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Thus, the quality of an SEA decision rests considerably on the quality of the judgments of the assessment panel. However, there exists very little guidance in the SEA literature for practitioners concerning the treatment and integration of expert judgment into SEA decision-making processes. Subsequently, the performance of SEAs based on expert judgment is often less than satisfactory, and quality improvements are required in the SEA process. Based on the lessons learned from strategic- and project-level impact assessment practices, this paper outlines a number of principles concerning the use of assessment panels in SEA decision-making, and attempts to provide some guidance for SEA practitioners in this regard. Particular attention is given to the notion and value of consistency in assessment panel judgments

  2. A multiscale method for assessing vegetation baseline of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in protected areas of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibal Pauchard; Eduardo Ugarte; Jaime Millan

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth of recreation and tourism or ecotourism activities is affecting ecological processes in protected areas of Chile. In order to protect protected areas integrity, all projects inside their boundaries must pass through the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The purpose of this research was to design a multiscale method to assess vegetation for...

  3. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  4. Integrating Flow, Form, and Function for Improved Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin Lane, Belize Arela

    applied in the Sacramento Basin of California, USA, a large, heavily altered Mediterranean-montane basin. A spatially-explicit hydrologic classification of California distinguished eight natural hydrologic regimes representing distinct flow sources, hydrologic characteristics, and rainfall-runoff controls. A hydro-geomorphic sub-classification of the Sacramento Basin based on stratified random field surveys of 161 stream reaches distinguished nine channel types consisting of both previously identified and new channel types. Results indicate that TVAs provide a quantitative basis for interpreting non-uniform as well as uniform geomorphic processes to better distinguish linked channel forms and functions of ecological significance. Finally, evaluation of six ecosystem functions across alternative flow-form scenarios in the Yuba River watershed highlights critical tradeoffs in ecosystem performance and emphasizes the significance of spatiotemporal diversity of flow and form for maintaining ecosystem integrity. The methodology developed in this dissertation is broadly applicable and extensible to other river systems and ecosystem functions, where findings can be used to characterize complex controls on river ecosystems, assess impacts of proposed flow and form alterations, and inform river restoration strategies. Overall, this research improves scientific understanding of the linkages between hydrology, geomorphology, and river ecosystems to more efficiently allocate scare water resources for human and environmental objectives across natural and built landscapes.

  5. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  6. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats.

  8. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  9. 3000 Area Phase 1 environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranade, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to sell the 3000 Area to prospective buyers. Environmental Services was requested by the WHC Economic Transition group to assess potential environmental liabilities in the area. Historical review of the area indicated that the site was the location of ''Camp Hanford'' in 1951 and has been used for a variety of purposes since then. The activities in the area have changed over the years. A number of Buildings from the area have been demolished and at least 15 underground storage tanks (USTs) have been removed. Part of the 3000 Area was identified as Operable Unit 1100-EM-3 in the Tri-Party Agreement and was cleaned up by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The cleanup included removal of contaminated soil and USTS. WHC and ICF KH had also performed sampling and analysis at some locations in the 3000 Area prior to USACE's work on the Operable Unit 1100-EM-3. They removed a number of USTs and performed remediation

  10. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA

  11. Analysis of the most widely used Building Environmental Assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhenhong; Wennersten, R.; Assefa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems

  12. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)

  13. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs

  14. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  15. Integrating TOM into environmental projects, Angela B. Quinlan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Responsible and cost-effective waste management and environmental restoration are best achieved when the principles and procedures of Total Quality Management are made an integral part of the process. By describing three case histories, we explore and explain techniques for using TQM in environmental projects. Key aspects considered include: quality measurement systems; establishing and maintaining standard operating procedures; management and technical peer review; the use of Quality Improvement Teams; Roadmapping (a new procedure that the US Department of Energy is incorporating into environmental restoration programs); and the role of audit teams in document production. The three case histories covered include: The Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project on which Roadmapping and Quality Improvement Teams have led to significant changes in procedures; the EPA ARCS program on which adoption of project management Standard Operating Procedures enhanced cost and schedule control; the Jacobs Engineering TQM program that emphasizes performance measurement and management and project technical peer review

  16. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the simulation of regional ocean, wave and atmosphere components of the Earth System have been considered separately, with some information on other components provided by means of boundary or forcing conditions. More recently, the potential value of a more integrated approach, as required for global climate and Earth System prediction, for regional short-term applications has begun to gain increasing research effort. In the UK, this activity is motivated by an understanding that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system, including a new eddy-permitting resolution ocean component, and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions in this relatively high resolution system. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  17. OECD Evaluation Report On Environmental Assessment Of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This book reports enforcement of environmental policy and policy product and direction of improvement, management of water resource, air, waste substance and preservation of nature, integration of environment and economic policy, integration considering environment in economic policy and international cooperation. It tells US detailed inspection of the report, which includes pollution control and preservation of nature, economical development and environment, environmental performance, traffic and environment, and international environmental cooperation, on global environment.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  19. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  20. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities