WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated energy assessment

  1. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  2. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  3. Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.

  4. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  5. Integrated Land-Water-Energy assessment using the Foreseer Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Julian; Konadu, Dennis; Mourao, Zenaida; Lupton, Rick; Richards, Keith; Fenner, Richard; Skelton, Sandy; McMahon, Richard

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and resource modelling and visualisation approach, ForeseerTM, which characterises the interdependencies and evaluates the land and water requirement for energy system pathways. The Foreseer Tool maps linked energy, water and land resource futures by outputting a set of Sankey diagrams for energy, water and land, showing the flow from basic resource (e.g. coal, surface water, and forested land) through transformations (e.g. fuel refining and desalination) to final services (e.g. sustenance, hygiene and transportation). By 'mapping' resources in this way, policy-makers can more easily understand the competing uses through the identification of the services it delivers (e.g. food production, landscaping, energy), the potential opportunities for improving the management of the resource and the connections with other resources which are often overlooked in a traditional sector-based management strategy. This paper will present a case study of the UK Carbon Plan, and highlights the need for integrated resource planning and policy development.

  6. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  7. Local Alternative for Energy Supply : Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due

  8. Methods for the integral assessment of energy-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Suter, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper presents a number of methods for a comprehensive assessment of energy systems, discusses their merits and limitations, and provides some result examples. The areas addressed include environmental impacts, risks and economic aspects. Three step Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) has been used to analyse environmental impacts. Transparent and consistent inventories were developed for electricity generation (nine fuel cycles) and for heating systems. The results, which include gaseous and liquid emissions as well as non-energetic resources such as land depreciation, cover average, currently operating systems in the UCPTE network and in Switzerland. Examples of comparisons of heating systems and electricity generation systems, with respect to their contributions to such impact classes as greenhouse effect, acidification and photosmog, are provided. Major gaps exist with respect to the assessment of the severe accidents potential within the different energy systems. When analysing the objective risks due to severe accidents two approaches are employed, i.e. direct use of past experience and applications of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Progress with respect to extended knowledge about accidents that occurred in the past and in the context of uses of PSA for external costs calculations is reported. Limitations of historical data and modelling issues are discussed along with the role of risk aversion and current attempts to account for it. (author) 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Distributed Energy Resources and Dynamic Microgrid: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Duo Rick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to improve understanding in terms of the benefit of DERs to both utility and to electricity end-users when integrated in power distribution system. To achieve this goal, a series of two studies was conducted to assess the value of DERs when integrated with new power paradigms. First, the arbitrage value of DERs was examined in markets with time-variant electricity pricing rates (e.g., time of use, real time pricing) under a smart grid distribution paradigm. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage over a five-year period. The optimization process involves two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with different assumptions on technology performance, electricity market and PHEV owner types. The simulation results indicate that expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services without more favorable policy and PHEV battery technologies. Subsidy or change in electricity tariff or both are needed. Second, it examined the concept of dynamic microgrid as a measure to improve distribution resilience, and estimates the prices of this emerging service. An economic load dispatch (ELD) model is developed to estimate the market-clearing price in a hypothetical community with single bid auction electricity market. The results show that the electricity market clearing price on the dynamic microgrid is predominantly decided by power output and cost of electricity of each type of DGs. At circumstances where CHP is the only source, the electricity market clearing price in the island is even cheaper than the on-grid electricity price at normal times. Integration of PHEVs in the dynamic microgrid will increase electricity market clearing prices. It demonstrates that dynamic microgrid is an economically viable alternative to enhance grid resilience.

  10. Renewable energy integration in smart grids-multicriteria assessment using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    JANJIC, ALEKSANDAR; SAVIC, SUZANA; VELIMIROVIC, LAZAR; NIKOLIC, VESNA

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the traditional way of efficiency assessment of renewable energy sources integration, the smart grid concept is introducing new goals and objectives regarding increased use of renewable electricity sources, grid security, energy conservation, energy efficiency, and deregulated energy market. Possible benefits brought by renewable sources integration are evaluated by the degree of the approach to the ideal smart grid. In this paper, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process methodology for the...

  11. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon

    2014-01-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO 2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement. - Highlights: • We assessed long-term impacts of building codes and climate policy using GCAM. • Building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22%. • The impacts of codes on building energy use vary by climate region and sub-sector

  12. Development of integrated systems dynamics models for the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear energy is increasingly perceived as an attractive mature energy generation technology that can deliver an answer to the worldwide increasing energy demand while respecting environmental concerns as well as contributing to a reduced dependence on fossil fuel. Advancing nuclear energy deployment demands an assessment of nuclear energy with respect to all sustainability dimensions allowing full stakeholder involvement in deciding on the role of nuclear energy as part of a sustainable energy generation mix in the future. Integrated system dynamics models of nuclear energy systems are interesting tools for such assessment studies allowing performing material flow accounting, environmental impact, economic competitiveness and socio-political analysis and this for time-evolving nuclear energy systems. No single tool today is capable of covering all the dimensions for such integrated assessment while various developments are ongoing in different places around the world to make such tools available in the nearby future. Argonne National Laboratory has embarked on such tool development since the year 2000 and has developed various tools among which the DANESS-code shall be described in some more detail in this paper. (author)

  13. Assessment of building integrated energy supply and energy saving schemes on a national level in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.; Morthorst, P.E.; Birkl, C.

    2011-06-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The results of these analyses were integrated in five scenarios to examine the consequences at national level of implementing insulation together with solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps in single-family houses. The simulations focused on the building period between 1961 and 1972 characterised by high building activity and low energy performance. The five scenarios - a baseline scenario, a maximum savings scenario, a maximum production scenario, and a combination scenario - showed that regardless of scenario, a consequent use of individual heat pumps leads to the greatest energy savings and CO{sub 2} reductions. (ln)

  14. Proposing a Master's Programme on Participatory Integrated Assessment of Energy Systems to Promote Energy Access and Energy Efficiency in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiravu, Cheddi; Diaz-Maurin, François; Giampietro, Mario; Brent, Alan C.; Bukkens, Sandra G.F.; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Gasennelwe-Jeffrey, Mandu A.; Gope, Gideon; Kovacic, Zora; Magole, Lapologang; Musango, Josephine Kaviti; Ruiz-Rivas Hernando, Ulpiano; Smit, Suzanne; Vázquez Barquero, Antonio; Yunta Mezquita, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a new master's programme for promoting energy access and energy efficiency in Southern Africa. Design/methodology/approach: A transdisciplinary approach called "participatory integrated assessment of energy systems" (PARTICIPIA) was used for the development of the curriculum. This approach is based on…

  15. Integrated IDA–ANN–DEA for assessment and optimization of energy consumption in industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olanrewaju, O.A.; Jimoh, A.A.; Kholopane, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward an integrated approach, based on logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) – an index decomposition analysis (IDA) method, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a data envelopment analysis (DEA) for the analysis of total energy efficiency and optimization in an industrial sector. The energy efficiency assessment and the optimization of the proposed model use LMDI to decompose energy consumption into activity, structural and intensity indicators, which serve as inputs to the ANN. The ANN model is verified and validated by performing a linear regression comparison between the specifically measured energy consumption and the corresponding predicted energy consumption. The proposed approach utilizes the measure-specific, super-efficient DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical measured energy consumption and its optimization reductions. The proposed method is validated by its application to determine the efficiency computation and an analysis of historical data as well as the prediction and optimization capability of the Canadian industrial sector. -- Highlights: ► An integrated IDA–ANN–DEA model for energy management is proposed. ► The model relies on aggregate energy and GDP data. ► The model explains how energy can be managed in the Canadian Industrial sector.

  16. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Hers, Sebastiaan; Van der Zwaan, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO 2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  17. An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Amalnick, M.S.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Asadzadeh, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT) for total energy efficiency assessment and optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors. Total energy efficiency assessment and optimization of the proposed approach considers structural indicators in addition conventional consumption and manufacturing sector output indicators. The validity of the DEA model is verified and validated by PCA and NT through Spearman correlation experiment. Moreover, the proposed approach uses the measure-specific super-efficiency DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical energy carriers. Four energy intensive manufacturing sectors are discussed in this paper: iron and steel, pulp and paper, petroleum refining and cement manufacturing sectors. To show superiority and applicability, the proposed approach has been applied to refinery sub-sectors of some OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This study has several unique features which are: (1) a total approach which considers structural indicators in addition to conventional energy efficiency indicators; (2) a verification and validation mechanism for DEA by PCA and NT and (3) utilization of DEA for total energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization of energy intensive manufacturing sectors

  18. Integrated assessment of exergy, energy and carbon dioxide emissions in an iron and steel industrial network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Junnian; Wang, Ruiqi; Pu, Guangying; Qi, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy, energy and CO_2 emissions assessment of iron and steel industrial network. • Effects of industry symbiosis measures on exergy, energy and CO_2 emissions. • Exploring the environmental impact from exergy losses. • The overall performance indexes are proposed for iron and steel industrial network. • Sinter strand and the wet quenching process have the lowest exergy efficiency. - Abstract: Intensive energy consumption and high pollution emissions in the iron and steel industry have caused problems to the energy system, in the economy, and in the environment. Iron and steel industrial network as an example of energy conservation and emissions reduction, require better analysis and assessment. The present study comprehensively assesses an iron and steel industrial network and its environmental performance with respect to exergy, energy and CO_2 emissions. The results show that the sinter strand needs to be greatly improved and the wet quenching process needs to be completely redesigned. The overall exergy efficiency and energy efficiency can be improved by adopting industrial symbiosis (IS) measures. We found that adjusting the energy structure to use renewable energy and recycling solid waste can greatly reduce CO_2 emissions. Moreover, the maximum exergy losses occurred in the blast furnace with the maximum CO_2 emissions. The iron making plant exerted a strong effect on the environment based on the equivalent CO_2 emission potentials. Many performance indicators of the entire industrial network were also examined in this work. It can be seen that integrated evaluation of energy and CO_2 emissions with exergy is necessary to help to mitigate adverse environmental impacts and more effectively fulfill the goals for energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  19. Energy assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Energy industry initiatives during the 1970s and during the 1990s are compared. During the 1970s, the objective was to reduce energy consumption and to reduce dependency on foreign fuel. Today, the emphasis is on reducing energy costs and to improve net operating income. The challenges posed by the drive to reduce energy costs are discussed. As a tool in the drive to reduce energy cost, the energy assessment process was described. The process entails a detailed analysis of energy consumption, an investigation of energy rates and an assessment of site conditions and equipment, with a view towards an optimum combination that will lead to energy cost reductions

  20. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wanderer@dlr.de; Herle, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.herle@rwth-aachen.de

    2015-04-15

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology.

  1. Creating a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for energy related integrated environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, Thomas; Herle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    By their spatially very distributed nature, profitability and impacts of renewable energy resources are highly correlated with the geographic locations of power plant deployments. A web-based Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) based on a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach has been implemented for identifying preferable locations for solar power plants based on user preferences. The designated areas found serve for the input scenario development for a subsequent integrated Environmental Impact Assessment. The capabilities of the SDSS service get showcased for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants in the region of Andalusia, Spain. The resulting spatial patterns of possible power plant sites are an important input to the procedural chain of assessing impacts of renewable energies in an integrated effort. The applied methodology and the implemented SDSS are applicable for other renewable technologies as well. - Highlights: • The proposed tool facilitates well-founded CSP plant siting decisions. • Spatial MCDA methods are implemented in a WebGIS environment. • GIS-based SDSS can contribute to a modern integrated impact assessment workflow. • The conducted case study proves the suitability of the methodology

  2. An integrated assessment for wind energy in Lake Michigan coastal counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Erik; VanderMolen, Jon; Gajewski, Betty; Isely, Paul; Fan, Yue; Koches, John; Damm, Sara; Ferguson, Aaron; Schoolmaster, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The benefits and challenges of onshore and offshore wind energy development were assessed for a 4-county area of coastal Michigan. Economic, social, environmental, and spatial dimensions were considered. The coastal counties have suitable wind resources for energy development, which could contribute toward Michigan's 10% renewable energy standard. Wind energy is cost-effective with contract prices less than the benchmark energy price of a new coal-fired power plant. Constructing a 100 MW wind farm could have a $54.7 million economic impact. A patchwork of township-level zoning ordinances regulates wind energy siting. Voluntary collaborations among adjacent townships standardizing the ordinances could reduce regulatory complexity. A Delphi Inquiry on offshore wind energy in Lake Michigan elicited considerable agreement on its challenges, but little agreement on the benefits to coastal communities. Offshore turbines could be acceptable to the participants if they reduced pollution, benefited coastal communities, involved substantial public participation, and had minimal impact on property values and tourism. The US Coast Guard will take a risk-based approach to evaluating individual offshore developments and has no plans to issue blanket restrictions around the wind farms. Models showed that using wind energy to reach the remainder of the 10% renewable energy standard could reduce SO2 , NOx , and CO2 pollution by 4% to 7%. Turbines are highly likely to impact the area's navigational and defense radar systems but planning and technological upgrades can reduce the impact. The integrated assessment shows that responsible wind energy development can enhance the quality of life by reducing air pollution and associated health problems and enhancing economic development. Policies could reduce the negative impacts to local communities while preserving the benefits to the broader region. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Methods for assessing the sustainability of integrated municipal waste management and energy supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luoranen, M.

    2009-07-01

    The general striving to bring down the number of municipal landfills and to increase the reuse and recycling of waste-derived materials across the EU supports the debates concerning the feasibility and rationality of waste management systems. Substantial decrease in the volume and mass of landfill-disposed waste flows can be achieved by directing suitable waste fractions to energy recovery. Global fossil energy supplies are becoming more and more valuable and expensive energy sources for the mankind, and efforts to save fossil fuels have been made. Waste-derived fuels offer one potential partial solution to two different problems. First, waste that cannot be feasibly re-used or recycled is utilized in the energy conversion process according to EU's Waste Hierarchy. Second, fossil fuels can be saved for other purposes than energy, mainly as transport fuels. This thesis presents the principles of assessing the most sustainable system solution for an integrated municipal waste management and energy system. The assessment process includes: Formation of a SISMan (Simple Integrated System Management) model of an integrated system including mass, energy and financial flows, and formation of a MEFLO (Mass, Energy, Financial, Legislational, Other decisionsupport data) decision matrix according to the selected decision criteria, including essential and optional decision criteria. The methods are described and theoretical examples of the utilization of the methods are presented in the thesis. The assessment process involves the selection of different system alternatives (process alternatives for treatment of different waste fractions) and comparison between the alternatives. The first of the two novelty values of the utilization of the presented methods is the perspective selected for the formation of the SISMan model. Normally waste management and energy systems are operated separately according to the targets and principles set for each system. In the thesis the waste

  4. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  5. Integrated environmental assessment of future energy scenarios based on economic equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, E.; Rugani, B.; Rege, S.; Benetto, E.; Drouet, L.; Zachary, D.; Haas, T.

    2014-01-01

    The future evolution of energy supply technologies strongly depends on (and affects) the economic and environmental systems, due to the high dependency of this sector on the availability and cost of fossil fuels, especially on the small regional scale. This paper aims at presenting the modeling system and preliminary results of a research project conducted on the scale of Luxembourg to assess the environmental impact of future energy scenarios for the country, integrating outputs from partial and computable general equilibrium models within hybrid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) frameworks. The general equilibrium model for Luxembourg, LUXGEM, is used to evaluate the economic impacts of policy decisions and other economic shocks over the time horizon 2006-2030. A techno-economic (partial equilibrium) model for Luxembourg, ETEM, is used instead to compute operation levels of various technologies to meet the demand for energy services at the least cost along the same timeline. The future energy demand and supply are made consistent by coupling ETEM with LUXGEM so as to have the same macro-economic variables and energy shares driving both models. The coupling results are then implemented within a set of Environmentally-Extended Input-Output (EE-IO) models in historical time series to test the feasibility of the integrated framework and then to assess the environmental impacts of the country. Accordingly, a dis-aggregated energy sector was built with the different ETEM technologies in the EE-IO to allow hybridization with Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and enrich the process detail. The results show that the environmental impact slightly decreased overall from 2006 to 2009. Most of the impacts come from some imported commodities (natural gas, used to produce electricity, and metalliferous ores and metal scrap). The main energy production technology is the combined-cycle gas turbine plant 'Twinerg', representing almost 80% of the domestic electricity production in Luxembourg

  6. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources

  7. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  8. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  9. The treatment of climate science in Integrated Assessment Modelling: integration of climate step function response in an energy system integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are used as crucial inputs to policy-making on climate change. These models simulate aspect of the economy and climate system to deliver future projections and to explore the impact of mitigation and adaptation policies. The IAMs' climate representation is extremely important as it can have great influence on future political action. The step-function-response is a simple climate model recently developed by the UK Met Office and is an alternate method of estimating the climate response to an emission trajectory directly from global climate model step simulations. Good et al., (2013) have formulated a method of reconstructing general circulation models (GCMs) climate response to emission trajectories through an idealized experiment. This method is called the "step-response approach" after and is based on an idealized abrupt CO2 step experiment results. TIAM-UCL is a technology-rich model that belongs to the family of, partial-equilibrium, bottom-up models, developed at University College London to represent a wide spectrum of energy systems in 16 regions of the globe (Anandarajah et al. 2011). The model uses optimisation functions to obtain cost-efficient solutions, in meeting an exogenously defined set of energy-service demands, given certain technological and environmental constraints. Furthermore, it employs linear programming techniques making the step function representation of the climate change response adapted to the model mathematical formulation. For the first time, we have introduced the "step-response approach" method developed at the UK Met Office in an IAM, the TIAM-UCL energy system, and we investigate the main consequences of this modification on the results of the model in term of climate and energy system responses. The main advantage of this approach (apart from the low computational cost it entails) is that its results are directly traceable to the GCM involved and closely connected to well-known methods of

  10. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  11. Comparison of integrated assessment models: Carbon price impacts on U.S. energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Leibowicz, Benjamin D.; Turner, Delavane D.; Weyant, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are increasingly used to evaluate carbon policy impacts on energy structure, but different models can yield considerably different results. This paper seeks to frame model results for policymakers and other consumers of model outputs. In this analysis we compare three models: GCAM, MERGE, and EPPA. We apply diagnostic carbon price scenarios, such as ramps and shocks, to identify key differences in model behavior that drive inter-model variability in projected policy impacts on the U.S. energy system. We report model results using several economic parameterizations and find that variation in carbon emissions across models results primarily from differences in carbon intensity of energy supply. These differences arise because models include different low-carbon energy technology options and vary widely in how flexible the electricity supply sector is at adapting to a change in policy. The timing of emissions abatement is also strongly influenced by whether the model is a simulation or an inter-temporal optimization scheme and the amount of foresight exhibited in the model. Our analysis demonstrates the usefulness of novel IAM diagnostic indicators and clarifies model features that are highly relevant for consumers of model results. - Highlights: • We compare several IAMs and highlight differences between models types. • Structural difference between models leads to significantly different energy mix. • Primary driver of inter-model variability is changes in carbon intensity. • Intensity driven by technology options, constraints on adoption, and substitutability. • Policymakers need to understand model framework, inputs, and assumptions

  12. Energy Saving Assessment of Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Modules Integrated into NZEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cornaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic semi-transparent materials (STPV integrated into glazing systems can offer good potential for energy saving to buildings, influencing heating loads, cooling loads, and lighting, as well as electricity production. Moreover, with the new stringent regulations issued by various European countries, following the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD, 2010/31/EC, the building envelope, including the glazing elements, needs to have high thermal performance to guarantee Nearly Zero Energy Building (NZEB behavior. This work presents an assessment of energy saving potential of 4 different types of STPV with respect to conventional double pane glass. Dye sensitized solar modules (DSM and thin film modules were considered in the study. Simulations based on an IEA reference office building (STD and on reference buildings prescribed by the new Italian building energy performance regulation (NZEB were carried out. All the glazing peculiarities could be simulated using only one simulation tool, namely IDA ICE 4.7.1. Dye sensitized solar modules resulted as the best performing devices for all orientations and climate zones. The work also evidenced how the requirements of NZEB seem to be too stringent for insulation properties, especially for the climate zone of Rome.

  13. Understanding future emissions from low-carbon power systems by integration of life-cycle assessment and integrated energy modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehl, Michaja; Arvesen, Anders; Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2017-12-01

    Both fossil-fuel and non-fossil-fuel power technologies induce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, mainly due to their embodied energy requirements for construction and operation, and upstream CH4 emissions. Here, we integrate prospective life-cycle assessment with global integrated energy-economy-land-use-climate modelling to explore life-cycle emissions of future low-carbon power supply systems and implications for technology choice. Future per-unit life-cycle emissions differ substantially across technologies. For a climate protection scenario, we project life-cycle emissions from fossil fuel carbon capture and sequestration plants of 78-110 gCO2eq kWh-1, compared with 3.5-12 gCO2eq kWh-1 for nuclear, wind and solar power for 2050. Life-cycle emissions from hydropower and bioenergy are substantial (˜100 gCO2eq kWh-1), but highly uncertain. We find that cumulative emissions attributable to upscaling low-carbon power other than hydropower are small compared with direct sectoral fossil fuel emissions and the total carbon budget. Fully considering life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions has only modest effects on the scale and structure of power production in cost-optimal mitigation scenarios.

  14. From sectorial studies towards decision support through integral assessment of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.

    1999-01-01

    The public, opinion leaders and decision-makers ask for clear answers on issues concerning the energy sector and electricity generation in particular. Is it feasible to phase out nuclear power in countries extensively relying on nuclear electricity supply and simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions? What are the environmental and economic implications of enhanced uses of cogeneration systems, renewable sources and heat pumps? How do the various energy carriers compare with respect to accident risks? How would internalisation of external costs affect the relative competitiveness of the various means of electricity production? What can we expect from the prospective technological advancements during the next two or three decades? Which systems or energy mixes come closest to the ideal of being cheap, environmentally clean, reliable and at the same time exhibit low accident risks? The Swiss GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' provides answers to many issues in the Swiss and international energy arena. A systematic, multi-disciplinary, bottom-up methodology for the assessment of energy systems, has been established and implemented. It covers environmental analysis, risk assessment and economic studies, which are supported by the extensive databases developed in this work. Apart from technical and economic aspects an integrated approach needs to consider also social preferences. The applications of multi-criteria analysis within GaBE demonstrate the use of a framework that allows decision-makers to simultaneously address the often conflicting socio-economic and ecological criteria. Case studies are being conducted in order to evaluate the performance of energy systems with respect to sustainability. Based on these experiences EnergyGame, a tool primarily intended for communication but having a substantial analytical power, has been developed. It offers any interested user to evaluate the various electricity supply options by combining the

  15. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  16. Long term building energy demand for India: Disaggregating end use energy services in an integrated assessment modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing population, income, and urbanization, meeting the energy service demands for the building sector will be a huge challenge for Indian energy policy. Although there is broad consensus that the Indian building sector will grow and evolve over the coming century, there is little understanding of the potential nature of this evolution over the longer term. The present study uses a technologically detailed, service based building energy model nested in the long term, global, integrated assessment framework, GCAM, to produce scenarios of the evolution of the Indian buildings sector up through the end of the century. The results support the idea that as India evolves toward developed country per-capita income levels, its building sector will largely evolve to resemble those of the currently developed countries (heavy reliance on electricity both for increasing cooling loads and a range of emerging appliance and other plug loads), albeit with unique characteristics based on its climate conditions (cooling dominating heating and even more so with climate change), on fuel preferences that may linger from the present (for example, a preference for gas for cooking), and vestiges of its development path (including remnants of rural poor that use substantial quantities of traditional biomass). - Highlights: ► Building sector final energy demand in India will grow to over five times by century end. ► Space cooling and appliance services will grow substantially in the future. ► Energy service demands will be met predominantly by electricity and gas. ► Urban centers will face huge demand for floor space and building energy services. ► Carbon tax policy will have little effect on reducing building energy demands

  17. Ethical and social aspects of integral risk assessment in reference to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.

    1991-01-01

    As a rule, the risks connected with the use of nuclear energy are assessed as isolated factors. Sterotypically the economic benefits and residual risks are weighed against one another and assessed differently. Within the framework of an integral understanding of the problem, the significance of nuclear energy should be considered to be of prime priority when it comes to the serious problems which humanity is confronted with, i.e.: - ecological stability, - climatic stability, - keeping peace, - prevention of large-scale epidemics, - conservation of our resources for the generations to come, - making existence fit for human beings. The author comes to the conclusion that the risks which would result from dispensing with nuclear energy world-wide are a millionfold greater than are the risks which would result from extending the use of nuclear energy world-wide, not only as regards the loss of human lives, but also as regards the amount of land which might become uninhabitable long-term. The author advocates employing ethical arguments which are based on ethical goals and are rational, economical and promise to show the best way of fulfilling mutual ehtical goals satisfactorily in an objective way. The author sees problems as regards the distortion of truth and its misuse by cynics, opportunists, etc. Social aspects must be subjected to ethical scrutiny as well. On the whole it is important to overcome deficits in the communication between technically and scientifically oriented people and those who view it as their task to reflect upon the meaning behind the issue at hand (clergymen, journalists, politicians, etc.). (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Integrating ecosystem services in the assessment of urban energy trajectories – A study of the Stockholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mörtberg, Ulla; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Kordas, Olga; Deal, Brian; Balfors, Berit; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Urban development trajectories are changing towards compact, energy-efficient cities and renewable energy sources, and this will strongly affect ecosystem services (ES) that cities are dependent on but tend to disregard. Such ES can be provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, around which competition over land resources will increase with energy system shifts. Much of this can be foreseen to take place within urbanising regions that are simultaneously the living environment of a major part of the human population today. In order to inform critical urban policy decisions, tools for integrated assessment of urban energy and transport options and ecosystem services need to be developed. For this purpose, a case study of the Stockholm region was conducted, analysing three scenarios for the future urbanisation of the region, integrating a transport energy perspective and an ES perspective. The results showed that a dense but polycentric development pattern gives more opportunities for sustainable urban development, while the dense monocentric scenario has apparent drawbacks from an ES perspective. The methodology is compatible with a model integration platform for urban policy support and will thus enable integrated policy assessment of complex urban systems, with the goal of increasing their sustainability. - Highlights: • A diffuse urban pattern leads to low access to jobs and high energy consumption. • A dense monocentric urban pattern implies high energy efficiency and low access to ES. • A dense polycentric urban pattern allows for a combination of urban functions. • ES needs to be integrated into sustainability assessments of urban policy options.

  19. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option

  20. Evaluation of additional biogeochemical impacts on mitigation pathways in an energy sytem integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, O.

    2017-12-01

    Within the last IPCC AR5 a large and systematic sensitivity study around available technologies and timing of policies applied in IAMs to achieve the 2°C target has been conducted. However the simple climate representations included in IAMs are generally tuned to the results of ensemble means. This may result in hiding within the ensemble mean results possible challenging mitigation pathways for the economy or the technology future scenarios. This work provides new insights on the sensitivity of the socio-economic response to different climate factors under a 2°C climate change target in order to help guide future efforts to reduce uncertainty in the climate mitigation decisions. The main objective is to understand and bring new insights on how future global warming will affect the natural biochemical feedbacks on the climate system and what could be the consequences of these feedbacks on the anthropogenic emission pathways with a specific focus on the energy-economy system. It specifically focuses on three issues of the climate representation affecting the energy system transformation and GHG emissions pathways: 1- Impacts of the climate sensitivity (or TCR); 2- Impacts of warming on the radiative forcing (cloudiness,...); 3- Impacts of warming on the carbon cycle (carbon cycle feedback). We use the integrated assessment model TIAM-UCL to examine the mitigation pathways compatible with the 2C target depending on assumptions regarding the 3 issues of the climate representation introduced above. The following key conclusions drawn from this study are that mitigation to 2°C is still possible under strong climate sensitivity (TCR), strong carbon cycle amplification or positive radiative forcing feedback. However, this level of climate mitigation will require a significant transformation in the way we produce and consume energy. Carbon capture and sequestration on electricity generation, industry and biomass is part of the technology pool needed to achieve this

  1. Assessing the Energy and Emissions Implications of Alternative Population Scenarios Using a State-Level Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D. H.; Ou, Y.; Smith, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    We use GCAM-USA to examine the sensitivity of energy demands and resulting pollutant emissions and health impacts to differing population projections. The population projections are based on future fertility, mortality, migration and education assumptions consistent with the five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) (Jones and O'Neill, 2016). By using a state-level integrated assessment model, we capture the energy and emissions implications of population changes. Additionally, we overlay heating degree days and cooling degree days calculated from climate change projections to assess the individual and combined impacts of population shifts and climate change. A unique aspect of this work is the explicit representation of important regulatory drivers, such as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule and vehicle efficiency standards. Preliminary results indicate there are significant differences across population scenarios in both U.S. national and state-level emissions. In this presentation, we will examine the influence of underlying factors such as climate, population, and technology changes on emissions and environmental impacts at 2050.

  2. Adaptation to climate-induced regional water constraints in the Spanish energy sector: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zarrar; Linares, Pedro; García-González, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector depends on water in all phases of its life-cycle, including raw material extraction, power plant cooling, irrigation of biofuel crops and directly in hydropower generation. In the coming decades, several regions of the world are expected to experience a decrease in water resource availability, in part due to climate change. The dependence of the energy sector on water resources calls for an active effort to adapt to the possible scenarios. This paper presents a novel model that addresses the direct impacts of regional and temporal water shortages on energy operation and investment decisions. The paper investigates the costs and benefits of adapting the energy sector to climate-induced water scarcity. The results show that the increase in costs for an energy plan that considers future water stress is relatively small as compared to one which ignores it. A plan which ignores water constraints, however, may lead to significant economic damages when actually exposed to water shortages. The results also highlight the value of the availability of water for the energy sector, which is significantly higher than existing prices. The paper concludes that the potential benefits to be gained by integrating energy and water models can be considerable. - Highlights: • Spatial and temporal water constraints are added to an energy planning model. • Integrated water-energy planning can lead to significant savings in future water-stressed scenarios. • Actual value of water for the energy sector may be much higher than existing prices.

  3. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  4. Building-integrated rooftop greenhouses: An energy and environmental assessment in the mediterranean context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadal, Ana; Llorach-Massana, Pere; Cuerva, Eva; López-Capel, Elisa; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Josa, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • iRTG incorporates urban agriculture into and improves energy efficiency in buildings. • iRTG concept recycles low-grade, waste thermal energy for growing vegetables. • iRTG is an adaptable concept to promotes food security through urban agriculture. • Indoor building climate affects iRTG more than outdoor climatic conditions. • iRTG achieved annual CO_2 and cost savings of 113.8 kg CO_2 (eq)/m"2/yr and 19.63 €/m"2/yr. - Abstract: A sustainable and secure food supply within a low-carbon and resilient infrastructure is encapsulated in several of The United Nations’ 17 sustainable development goals. The integration of urban agriculture in buildings can offer improved efficiencies; in recognition of this, the first south European example of a fully integrated rooftop greenhouse (iRTG) was designed and incorporated into the ICTA-ICP building by the Autonomous University of Barcelona. This design seeks to interchange heat, CO_2 and rainwater between the building and its rooftop greenhouse. Average air temperatures for 2015 in the iRTG were 16.5 °C (winter) and 25.79 °C (summer), making the iRTG an ideal growing environment. Using detailed thermophysical fabric properties, 2015 site-specific weather data, exact control strategies and dynamic soil temperatures, the iRTG was modelled in EnergyPlus to assess the performance of an equivalent ‘freestanding’ greenhouse. The validated result shows that the thermal interchange between the iRTG and the ICTA-ICP building has considerable moderating effects on the iRTG’s indoor climate; since average hourly temperatures in an equivalent freestanding greenhouse would have been 4.1 °C colder in winter and 4.4 °C warmer in summer under the 2015 climatic conditions. The simulation results demonstrate that the iRTG case study recycled 43.78 MWh of thermal energy (or 341.93 kWh/m"2/yr) from the main building in 2015. Assuming 100% energy conversion efficiency, compared to freestanding greenhouses

  5. Integrated economic assessment of energy and forestry mitigation options using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There have been a number of economic assessment of GHG mitigation studies carried out in Indonesia. Several alternative mitigation options for energy and non-energy sectors have been described and the economic assessment of the options has been done for each sectors. However, most of the economic assessment particularly for non-energy sector, was not to find a least cost option but the lowest cost options. A program called MARKAL developed by a consortium of energy specialists from more than a dozen countries in the early 1980s, is a program that can be used for optimization, so that the least cost options could be selected. Indonesia has used this program intensively for energy system analysis. Attempt to use this program for other sector has not been developed as this program was designed for energy sector. Therefore, using MARKAL for other sector, all activities of the other sectors should be treated as energy activities. This study is aimed to use MARKAL for analysing both energy and forestry sector together. This paper described briefly the methodology of using MARKAL for both energy and forestry sectors. As the activities in energy sector have unique characteristics, thus only forest activities are described in more detail. (au)

  6. Integrated Assessment of Energy Policies: A Decomposition of Top-Down and Bottom-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Univ. of Oldenburg (Germany)); Rutherford, Thomas F. (ETH Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2008-01-15

    The formulation of market equilibrium problems as mixed complementarity problems (MCP) permits integration of bottom-up programming models of the energy system into top-down general equilibrium models of the overall economy. Yet, in practise the MCP approach loses analytical tractability of income effects, when the energy system includes upper and lowrbounds on many decision variables . We therefore advocate the use of complementarity methods to solve only the top-down economic equilibrium model and employ quadratic programming to solve the underlying bottom-up energy supply model. A simple iterative procedure reconciles the equilibrium prices and quantities between both models.

  7. Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility Videos Energy Systems Integration Facility Integration Facility NREL + SolarCity: Maximizing Solar Power on Electrical Grids Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration Robot-Powered Reliability Testing at NREL's ESIF Microgrid

  8. Energy Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Integration Laboratory Energy Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy Systems Integration Laboratory is advancing engineering knowledge and market deployment of hydrogen technologies. Applications include microgrids, energy storage for renewables integration, and home- and station

  9. Assessment of hydrogen storage systems as a means of integrating electricity from renewable energies; Bewertung von Wasserstoffspeichersystemen zur Integration von Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, Julia; Genoese, Fabio; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Hydrogen storage is a possible option for an improved integration of renewable energies into the electricity supply system. Similarly to other technical storage options it is faced with the challenge of having to be economically viable. Compared with other storage media hydrogen has the virtue of being versatile. This has a significant impact on assessments of its profitability.

  10. Energy and environmental assessment of integrated biogas trigeneration and photovoltaic plant as more sustainable industrial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Stanek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas cooling, heating and power and photovoltaic systems were studied. • Biogas and solar energy for production of energy carriers were used. • Primary energy savings for trigeneration and photovoltaic plants were examined. • Reduction of CO_2 emission were estimated. - Abstract: The biogas fired tri-generation system for cooling, heating and electricity generation (BCCHP + PV) supported by a photovoltaic system (PV) is discussed and analyzed from energetic and ecological effectiveness point of view. Analyzed system is based on the internal combustion engine and the adsorption machine. For the evaluation of primary energy savings in the BCCHP aided by PV system, the indicators of the total primary energy savings (TPES) and relative primary energy savings ΔPES were defined. Also an analysis is carried out of the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. In the ecological potential evaluation, the environmental impact as an indicator of the total greenhouse gasses reduction (TGHGR) is taken into account. The presented detailed algorithm for the evaluation of the multigeneration system in the global balance boundary can be applied for the analysis of energy effects (consumption of primary energy) as well as ecological effect (emission of greenhouse gasses) for real data (e.g. hour by hour through the year of operation) taking into account random availability of renewable energy. It allows to take into account a very important factor characterized for renewable energy systems (RES) which is the variability or random availability (e.g. in the case of photovoltaic – PV) of primary energy. Particularly in the presented work the effects of the analysis and the application of the discusses algorithms have been demonstrated for the hour-by-hour availability of solar radiation and for the daily changing availability of chemical energy of biogas. Additionally, the energy and ecological evaluation algorithms have been integrated with the methods offered

  11. Energy Systems Integration Facility News | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems Integration Facility News Energy Systems Integration Facility Energy Dataset A massive amount of wind data was recently made accessible online, greatly expanding the Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has completed technology validation testing for Go

  12. Assessment on the energy flow and carbon emissions of integrated steelmaking plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huachun He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China’s iron and steel industry has developed rapidly over the past two decades. The annual crude steel production is nearly half of the global production, and approximately 90% of the steel is produced via BF–BOF route that is energy-intensive. Based on the practice of integrated steelmaking plants, a material flow analysis model that includes three layers, i.e., material, ferrum, and energy, was constructed on process levels to analyze the energy consumption and carbon emissions according to the principle of mass conservation and the First Law of Thermodynamics. The result shows that the primary energy intensity and carbon emissions are 20.3 GJ/t and 0.46 tC/t crude steel, respectively, including coke and ancillary material’s preparation. These values are above the world’s average level of the BF–BOF route and could be regarded as a high-performance benchmark of steelmaking efficiency. However, the total energy consumption and carbon emission from steelmaking industry were approximately 13095 PJ and 300 MtC, respectively, on the best practice estimation in 2011, and are still large numbers for achieving the goal of reducing global warming. The potential carbon reduction will be limited if no significant changes are undertaken in the steel industry.

  13. Thermodynamic performance assessment of a novel environmentally-benign solar energy based integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Yunus Emre; Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a novel solar energy based system for multigenaration applications. • Evaluation of the exergy efficiency and destruction rate in each system component. • Investigation of the varying operating conditions on the system performance. • Evaluation of complete parametric studies and performance analysis of the system. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel solar energy based multigeneration system for producing electricity, hydrogen, hot water, heating and cooling is presented and analyzed thermodynamically for potential applications. The energy and exergy analyses are conducted for entire system and its sub-systems, which are a parabolic trough collector system, a double-stage organic Rankine cycle, a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cycle and a quadruple effect absorption cooling system. The parametric studies are performed in order to indicate the impacts of some key indicators on the integrated system performance. These analyses are simulated by using the Engineering Equation Solver software. The results show that the increase in ambient temperature increases the exergetic coefficient performance of the Quadruple Effect Absorption Cooling System. In addition, the increase in solar intensity, temperature of absorber pipes inner surface and concentration of ammonia in working fluid mixture has the positive effect on produced electricity from the expanders and turbine, and hydrogen from the PEM electrolyzer. According to exergy analyses, the largest exergy destruction rates are obtained in the parabolic trough collector, PEM fuel cell and turbine. Therefore, any improvements in these components would lead to a better efficiency of the integrated system.

  14. What Is Energy Systems Integration? | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL What Is Energy Systems Integration? What Is Energy Systems Integration? Energy systems integration (ESI) is an approach to solving big energy challenges that explores ways for energy systems to Research Community NREL is a founding member of the International Institute for Energy Systems Integration

  15. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  16. Integrated well-to-wheel assessment on biofuels, analysing energy, emission and welfare economic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slentoe, E.; Moeller, F.; Frederiksen, P.; Jepsen, M.R.

    2011-07-15

    Various biofuel evaluation methods exist, with different analytical framework setup and different scopes. The scope of this study is to develop an integrated method to evaluate the consequences of producing biofuels. The consequences should include energy consumption, emission and welfare economic changes within the well-to-wheel (WTW) flow chain focusing on the production of biomass, and the subsequent conversion into bio fuel and combustion in vehicles. This method (Moeller and Slentoe, 2010) is applied to a Danish case, implementing policy targets for biofuel use in the transport sector and also developing an alternative scenario of higher biofuel shares. This paper presents the results of three interlinked parallel running analyses, of energy consumption, emissions and welfare economics (Slentoe, Moeller and Winther, 2010), and discusses the feasibility of those analyses, which are based on the same consequential analysis method, comparing a scenario situation to a reference situation. As will be shown, the results are not univocal; example given, what is an energy gain is not necessarily a welfare economic gain. The study is conducted as part of the Danish REBECa project. Within this, two main scenarios, HS1 and HS2, for biofuel mixture in fossil diesel fuel and gasoline are established. The biofuel rape diesel (RME) stems from rape seeds and bioethanol stems from either wheat grains (1st generation) or straw (2nd generation) - all cultivated in Denmark. The share of 2nd generation bioethanol exceeds 1st generation bioethanol towards 2030. Both scenarios initiate at a 5.75% mixture in 2010 and reach 10% and 25% in 2030 for HS1 and HS2, such that the low mixture scenario reflects the Danish Act on sustainable biofuels (June 2009), implementing the EU renewable energy directive (2009/29/EC), using biofuels as energy carrier. The two scenarios are computed in two variants each, reflecting oil prices at 65$ and 100$ per barrel. (Author)

  17. Does energy integrate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, Anil; Amaya, Libardo

    2003-01-01

    Amidst the international movement to privatize and deregulate electricity and gas sectors of economies, the question of the integration of those sectors has been somewhat underestimated. In fact, the integration of energy markets across boundaries is occurring. We examine this process in three regions: Europe, Central America, and South America. We analyze the forces driving integration in each area, and estimate the prospects for progress. We take a close look at Nordpool, which is now the most integrated market in the world, to see if it can serve as a model for other regions. We close with a set of conditions that we suggest are necessary for a successful international integration of energy markets

  18. Does energy integrate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, A.; Amaya, L.

    2003-01-01

    Amidst the international movement to privatize and deregulate electricity and gas sectors of economics, the question of the integration of those sectors has been somewhat underestimated. In fact, the integration of energy markets across boundaries is occurring. We examine this process in three regions: Europe, Central America, and South America. We analyze the forces driving integration in each area, and estimate the prospects for progress. We take a close look at Nordpool, which is now the most integrated market in the world, to see if it can serve as a model for other regions. We close with a set of conditions that we suggest are necessary for a successful international integration of energy markets. (author)

  19. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  20. Integrating experimental and numerical methods for a scenario-based quantitative assessment of subsurface energy storage options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuth, Alina; Dahmke, Andreas; Hagrey, Said Attia al; Berta, Márton; Dörr, Cordula; Koproch, Nicolas; Köber, Ralf; Köhn, Daniel; Nolde, Michael; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Popp, Steffi; Schwanebeck, Malte; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the transition to renewable energy sources ("Energiewende"), the German government defined the target of producing 60 % of the final energy consumption from renewable energy sources by the year 2050. However, renewable energies are subject to natural fluctuations. Energy storage can help to buffer the resulting time shifts between production and demand. Subsurface geological structures provide large potential capacities for energy stored in the form of heat or gas on daily to seasonal time scales. In order to explore this potential sustainably, the possible induced effects of energy storage operations have to be quantified for both specified normal operation and events of failure. The ANGUS+ project therefore integrates experimental laboratory studies with numerical approaches to assess subsurface energy storage scenarios and monitoring methods. Subsurface storage options for gas, i.e. hydrogen, synthetic methane and compressed air in salt caverns or porous structures, as well as subsurface heat storage are investigated with respect to site prerequisites, storage dimensions, induced effects, monitoring methods and integration into spatial planning schemes. The conceptual interdisciplinary approach of the ANGUS+ project towards the integration of subsurface energy storage into a sustainable subsurface planning scheme is presented here, and this approach is then demonstrated using the examples of two selected energy storage options: Firstly, the option of seasonal heat storage in a shallow aquifer is presented. Coupled thermal and hydraulic processes induced by periodic heat injection and extraction were simulated in the open-source numerical modelling package OpenGeoSys. Situations of specified normal operation as well as cases of failure in operational storage with leaking heat transfer fluid are considered. Bench-scale experiments provided parameterisations of temperature dependent changes in shallow groundwater hydrogeochemistry. As a

  1. Rethinking Pumped Storage Hydropower in the European Alps: A Call for New Integrated Assessment Tools to Support the Energy Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Björnsen Gurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps are well positioned to contribute significantly to the energy transition. In addition to sites with above-average potential for wind and solar power, the “water towers” of Europe provide flexible, low-carbon power generation as well as energy storage. In the future, hydropower systems are expected to become more than mere electricity generators, serving a key role as flexible complements to intermittent power generators and as providers of large-scale seasonal and daily energy storage. Energy transition on national and European scales can be facilitated by expanding the capacity of pumped storage hydropower (PSHP plants. Yet the extension of hydropower production, in particular PSHP, remains controversial, primarily due to environmental concerns. Focusing on 2 Alpine countries, Austria and Switzerland, this paper provides a system view of hydropower production and energy storage in the Alps. It discusses advantages and drawbacks of various assessment tools and identifies gaps and needs for the integrated assessment of PSHP plants. It concludes that instruments that evaluate the impacts and sustainability of PSHP projects need to be developed, elaborated, and applied in a participatory manner, in order to promote public dialogue, increase social acceptance, and, ideally, encourage energy consumers to become advocates of a sustainable energy future.

  2. Analysis of technological alternatives and energy to the Metroplus system under an integrated assessment, Energy, Environment, Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate, Juan M; Builes, Luis A; Rave, Claudia C; Smith, Ricardo A; Cadena, Angela I

    2007-01-01

    Using a multi-period optimization model based on lineal programming, which integrates energy, economy and environment dimensions (MARKAL - Standard version), some economic and environmental impacts due to five different technological choices for the omnibus fleet of the Rapid Bus Transit (Metroplus System) which will operate at the metropolitan area of the Aburra Valley (Medellin - Colombia) were estimated. The technological choices compared are: (1) a fleet powered by compressed natural gas, (2) powered by diesel, (3) powered by Euro diesel III imported from the Mexican Gulf, (4) powered by a mixed fleet 50% compressed natural gas and 50% diesel, and (5) a fleet powered by hybrid diesel vehicles. Results out stand the economic and environmental benefits associated to the use of an omnibus fleet powered by compressed natural gas

  3. The Methodology for Integral Assessment of the Impact of Renewable Energy on the Environment under Non-Stationary Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakov Iaroslav V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce anthropogenic load, eliminate threats to environmental safety and provide ecologically oriented development are one of the main global challenges of our time. At the same time, the replacement of traditional energy sources with alternatives ones requires a quantitative assessment of direct and indirect environmental impacts. The article analyzes the dynamics and structure of pollution in Ukraine in terms of its sources and forms as well as their impact on the carbon productivity of the GDP. It is proposed to assess the impact of alternative energy on the environment under non-stationary economy using an integral indicator that takes into account a number of factors, in particular the change in the share of RES in the total primary energy supply, share of renewable energy production, the index of greenhouse gases by the energy sector, change in the quality of atmospheric air in the urban populated area, amount of investment in reducing CO2 emissions, carbon intensity of energy production, share of thermal generation capacity that meets the ecological requirements of the EU.

  4. An Integrated Approach To Offshore Wind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes 3D Wind Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R. J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Pryor, S. C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-09-18

    This grant supported fundamental research into the characterization of flow parameters of relevance to the wind energy industry focused on offshore and the coastal zone. A major focus of the project was application of the latest generation of remote sensing instrumentation and also integration of measurements and numerical modeling to optimize characterization of time-evolving atmospheric flow parameters in 3-D. Our research developed a new data-constrained Wind Atlas for the Great Lakes, and developed new insights into flow parameters in heterogeneous environments. Four experiments were conducted during the project: At a large operating onshore wind farm in May 2012; At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Wind Technology Center (NREL NWTC) during February 2013; At the shoreline of Lake Erie in May 2013; and At the Wind Energy Institute of Canada on Prince Edward Island in May 2015. The experiment we conducted in the coastal zone of Lake Erie indicated very complex flow fields and the frequent presence of upward momentum fluxes and resulting distortion of the wind speed profile at turbine relevant heights due to swells in the Great Lakes. Additionally, our data (and modeling) indicate the frequent presence of low level jets at 600 m height over the Lake and occasions when the wind speed profile across the rotor plane may be impacted by this phenomenon. Experimental data and modeling of the fourth experiment on Prince Edward Island showed that at 10-14 m escarpment adjacent to long-overseas fetch the zone of wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and slightly downwind of) the escarpment is ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. Additionally, our measurements were used to improve methods to compute the uncertainty in lidar-derived flow properties and to optimize lidar-scanning strategies. For example, on the basis of the experimental data we collected plus those from one of our research partners we advanced a new methodology to

  5. Life-cycle assessment of energy consumption and environmental impact of an integrated food waste-based biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Chen, Xin; Yu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 47.76% of the energy consumption is from the primary treatment process. • The dominant environmental impact comes from GWP100 emission (96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t). • Increasing recycling rate of product can effectively reduce consumption and impact. - Abstract: Recycling food waste to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can both provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process affects the environment due to greenhouse gas emissions. By lifecycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the energy consumption (EC) and environmental impact (EI) of an integrated food waste-based biogas system and its subsystems. Data were collected from an actual plant in China that adopted a combination of wet-heat treatment and wet AD process at thermophilic condition. The EC of the system for processing 1 ton of waste was 663.89 MJ, among which 47.76% was from the primary treatment process (including pretreatment and AD). The GWP 100 (100-year global warming potential) emission of the system reached 96.97 kgCO 2 -eq/t, and the AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), HTP inf (human toxicity potential) and FAETP inf (fresh water ecotoxicity) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the primary treatment and the secondary pollution control. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 40% increase of the feed fat content resulted in 38% increase in the net energy value output and 48% decrease in EP effect. The increase in oil content and biogas production rate could significantly reduce the EC and EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process and increasing the recycling rate of products will result in the reduction of EC and EI of the biogas system. In addition, a quantitative assessment model of EC and EI in integrated food waste-based biogas technology is established

  6. Dynamic integrated assessment of bioenergy technologies for energy production utilizing agricultural residues: An input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic input–output model is developed with bioenergy technologies complemented. • Availability of agricultural residues for bioenergy technologies is evaluated. • Trends in electricity and biofuel production are simulated dynamically. • Net profit and GHG mitigation contribution of bioenergy technologies are assessed. • Combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous. - Abstract: In order to facilitate regional agricultural residue utilization for energy production through bioenergy technologies, a dynamic input–output model is developed to estimate and assess the energy, economic and environmental performances of industrialization of five bioenergy technologies within a 15-year time horizon. Electricity and solid, gaseous and liquid biofuels are energy products of bioenergy technologies. Bioenergy technologies are complemented into regional input–output framework and combined with socioeconomic activities aided by their bottom-up economic and energy parameters. The simulation results for the target area indicate that the agricultural residues available for bioenergy technologies could amount to 55.16 million t, facilitating to 8.38 million t coal-equivalent bioenergy production by 2025. A 3.1% net reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the “business as usual” case could be achieved owing to substitution of fossil energy with electricity and biofuels produced by bioenergy technologies. From energy production, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation three aspects integratedly, direct-combustion power generation and briquette fuel are more advantageous in the target area. The quantified energy, economic and environmental performances of bioenergy technologies are expected to give recommendations for their industrial development.

  7. Connecting reason to power : Assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policymaking system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Three questions are in focus. First, how can policy integration be understood analytically and what is its actual status in sector policy?

  8. Integrated assessment of global climate change with learning-by-doing and energy-related research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Fuerstenberger, Georg; Stephan, Gunter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a small-scale version of an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) of global climate change, which is based on a global, regionally differentiated computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with endogenous technological change. This model can be viewed as a basic framework for analyzing a broad range of economic issues related to climate change, in particular since technological change is represented in two ways: on the one hand, there is learning-by-doing (LbD) in non-fossil energy supply technologies, and on the other hand there is research and development (R and D)-driven energy-saving technical progress in production. Computational experiments are added for illustrating the role of technological innovation in a world both with and without cooperation in the solution of the global climate problem

  9. Standardization and integration of ecological and human risk assessments at Department of Energy national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Berry, D.

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, the directors of twelve national laboratories operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a steering group to address DOE's concerns about the effectiveness of any regulations driving the cost of environmental restoration and waste management. The goal of this presentation is to inform and to seek collaboration on the challenge of standardizing ecological and human health risk assessment approaches and development of an approach to address the differences between environmental remediation and restoration activities at DOE's waste management sites across the country. Recent changes in risk related regulations and budget cuts have prompted significant changes in DOE's approach to conducting and standardizing risk-based approaches for waste management. The steering group was established in 1990 to organize a broad, long-term educational outreach and research program focused on better science and public understanding of the risks associated with hazardous agents (chemical, biological, radiological, and physical) in the environment and the workplace. This presentation discusses the group's goal to (1) act as one resource for providing the technical basis for health and environmental standards; (2) catalyze a national effort to improve public understanding of risk and the importance of cost benefit analysis in evaluating mitigation of risk; (3) catalyze improvements in understanding of health and environmental effects of hazardous agents; and (4) analyze with regulatory agencies, industry, and the public the potential for evolution of risk-based consensus standard into federal and state environmental and occupational/public health regulations. Major accomplishments will be presented along with the group's agenda for standardizing risk, environmental, and occupational/public health standards

  10. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
    This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability

  11. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkoulidis, G.; Papageorgiou, A.; Karagiannidis, A.; Kalogirou, S.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased

  12. Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

    2008-05-01

    basement gravity (green) highlight domains with common geophysical characteristics and, by inference, lithology. The observed patterns suggest that much of the basin is underlain by Devonian to Jurassic oceanic rocks that probably have little or no potential for hydrocarbon generation. The coastal plain surficial deposits in the northern part of ANWR conceal another frontier basin with hydrocarbon potential. Proprietary aeromagnetic and gravity data were used, along with seismic reflection profiles, to construct a structural and stratigraphic model of this highly deformed sedimentary basin for use in an energy resource assessment. Matched-filtering techniques were used to separate short-wavelength magnetic and gravity anomalies attributed to sources near the top of the sedimentary section from longer-wavelength anomalies attributed to deeper basin and basement sources. Models along the seismic reflection lines indicate that the primary sources of the short-wavelength anomalies are folded and faulted sedimentary beds truncated at the Pleistocene erosion surface. In map view, the aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies produced by the sedimentary units were used to identify possible structural trapping features and geometries, but they also indicated that these features may be significantly disrupted by faulting.

  13. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  14. Integrated assessment briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  15. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Energy Systems Integration Facility as part of NREL's work with SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies. Photo by Amy Glickson, NREL Welcome to Energy Systems Integration News, NREL's monthly date on the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and worldwide. Have an item

  16. Pumped hydroelectric storage utilization assessment: Forerunner of renewable energy integration or Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    KOUGIAS IOANNIS; SZABO SANDOR

    2017-01-01

    Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is the main utility-scale storage technology. Although PHS systems generally constitute a fraction of generation, they receive increasing attention due to their potential balancing role towards higher penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES). In the European context it is widely believed that PHS are key elements of the ongoing energy transition. The present analysis examines if this assumption is valid and PHS utilization grows parallel to RES...

  17. Proposal and assessment of a novel integrated CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bosheng; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel CCHP system with biogas steam reforming using solar energy is raised. •Chemical and physical energy of biogas is efficiently used in a cascaded way. •The energy quality of concentrating solar heat is promoted in the system. •A parametric analysis is adopted to optimize the thermodynamic performance. •A typical-day study is conducted to explore the general operation features. -- Abstract: The conventional way to utilize biogas either is energy-intensive due to biogas upgrading or causes huge waste of energy grade and environmental pollution by direct burning. This paper proposes a biogas and solar energy-assisted combined cooling, heating and power (BSCCHP) system that upgrades the caloric value of biogas before combustion by introducing a thermochemical conversion process that is driven by solar heat. Adopting commercially established technologies including steam reforming and parabolic dish concentrators, the system exhibits an enhanced system exergy efficiency, and the technology considerably reduces the direct CO 2 footprint and saves depletable fossil fuel. With a solar thermal share of 22.2%, the proposed system not only has a high net solar-to-product thermal and exergy efficiency of 46.80% and 26.49%, respectively, but also results in a commensurate 18.27% reduction of the direct CO 2 footprint compared with the reference individual systems. The effect of critical parameters in the biogas steam reforming process on the system performance was studied. A proper selection of the steam/carbon ratio leads to the optimal direct CO 2 footprint and system exergy efficiency. Pursuing a very high conversion of biogas by improving the reforming temperature is not a wise choice from a system perspective. Finally, a typical-day dynamic simulation was conducted to preliminarily explore the general operation features. This study may provide a new way to efficiently use the renewable energy in the distributed energy system.

  18. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  19. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O&M) savings.

  20. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O M) savings.

  1. AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF HYDROGEN ECONOMY ON TRANSPORTATION, ENERGY USE, AND AIR EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential energy, economic and environmental implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2-FCV) penetration into the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. The approach, which uses the U.S. EPA MARKet ALlocation technology database and model, allow...

  2. Human health impacts for renewable energy scenarios from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Mireille; Gschwind, Benoit; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry; Cofala, Janusz; Fuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports impact results from running the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA) related to human health for different scenarios in Europe. The scenarios were prepared within the EnerGEO project. The idea of this European project is to determine how low carbon scenarios, and in particular scenarios with a high share of renewable energy, affect concentrations of air pollutants and as a consequence affect human health. PM 2.5 concentrations were estimated with the IIASA Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model on a time horizon up to the year 2050 for different scenarios. We analyse here the estimation of the Loss of Life Expectancy due to PM 2.5 concentrations for the Baseline scenario taken as a reference and the Maximum renewable power scenario. (orig.)

  3. An integrated assessment of energy conversion processes by means of thermodynamic, economic and environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, S.; Brown, M.T.; Luchi, F.; Mirandola, A.; Stoppato, A.; Ulgiati, S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive method of analysis based on energetic, exergetic, emergetic and economic evaluations is proposed in the paper and the application presented. The method is applied to selected energy conversion processes (hydroelectric and thermoelectric ones and bioethanol production). Results are presented and compared while general considerations about the effectiveness of the different approaches are suggested. Emissions to the environment are also evaluated. Suitable performance indicators developed within the proposed methodological framework are defined and discussed accordingly. The method proposed here is addressed to policy makers, operators and designers working in the field of energy supply and conversion. In the authors' opinion, by jointly applying and comparing all of the methods suggested in the paper, valuable information about plant performance and possible areas of improvement are obtained. This can be helpful in the decision-making process

  4. Integrated assessment of the health and economic benefits of long-term renewable energy development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context/Purpose: Power generation from renewable energy (RE) could substitute huge amount of fossil energy in the power sector and have substantial co-benefits of air quality and human health improvement. In 2016, China National Renewable Energy Center (CNREC) released China Renewable Energy Outlook, CREO2016 and CREO2017, towards 2030 and 2050, respectively, in which two scenarios are proposed, namely, a conservative "Stated Policy" scenario and a more ambitious "High RE" scenario. This study, together with CNREC, aims to quantify the health and economic benefits of developing renewable energy at the provincial level in China up to 2030 and 2050. Methods: For this purpose, we developed an integrated approach that combines a power dispatch model at CNREC, an air pollutant emission projection model using energy consumption data from the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model, an air quality model (GEOS-Chem at Harvard), an own-developed health model, and a macro economic model (Computable General Equilibrium model). Results: All together, we attempt to quantify how developing RE could reduce the concentration of PM2.5 and ozone in 30 provinces of China, how the human health could be improved in terms of mortality, morbidity and work hour loss, and what is the economic value of the health improvement in terms of increased GDP and the value of statistical life lost. The results show that developing RE as stated in the CREO2016 could prevent chronic mortality of 286 thousand people in China in 2030 alone, the value of saved statistical life is worthy 1200 billion Yuan, equivalent to 1.2% of GDP. In addition, averagely, due to reduced mortality and improved morbidity each person could work additionally by 1.16 hours per year, this could contribute to an increase of GDP by 0.1% in 2030. The assessment up to 2050 is still underway. Interpretation: The results imply that when the external benefit of renewable energy is taken into account, RE could be

  5. Towards integration of methodologies for assessing and promoting the societal embedding of energy innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbong, G.; Mourik, R.; Raven, R.P.J.M.

    2006-10-01

    The necessity for system innovation is well acknowledged, but inducing system change proves to be very difficult. Three approaches have been developed for analysing and supporting radical innovations: Socrobust, Create Acceptance and Strategic Niche Management. This paper gives an overview of these complementary approaches and their theoretical background. The paper also identifies several potential contributions for social scientists to contribute to energy research and the implementation of more sustainable alternatives.

  6. Assessing the Plurality of Actors and Policy Interactions: Agent-Based Modelling of Renewable Energy Market Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Deissenroth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing deployment of renewable energy sources (RES calls for an enhanced integration of RES into energy markets, accompanied by a new set of regulations. In Germany, for instance, the feed-in tariff legislation for renewables has been successively replaced by first optional and then obligatory marketing of RES on competitive wholesale markets. This paper introduces an agent-based model that allows studying the impact of changing energy policy instruments on the economic performance of RES operators and marketers. The model structure, its components, and linkages are presented in detail; an additional case study demonstrates the capability of our sociotechnical model. We find that changes in the political framework cannot be mapped directly to RES operators as behaviour of intermediary market actors has to be considered as well. Characteristics and strategies of intermediaries are thus an important factor for successful RES marketing and further deployment. It is shown that the model is able to assess the emergence and stability of market niches.

  7. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  8. Energy Systems Integration News - October 2016 | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL October 2016 Energy Systems Integration News A monthly recap of the latest energy systems integration (ESI) developments at NREL and around the world. Subscribe Archives October Integration Facility's main control room. OMNETRIC Group Demonstrates a Distributed Control Hierarchy for

  9. Integrated Assessment Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J. A.; Weyant, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Integrated assessment models of climate change (IAMs) are widely used to provide insights into the dynamics of the coupled human and socio-economic system, including emission mitigation analysis and the generation of future emission scenarios. Similar to the climate modeling community, the integrated assessment community has a two decade history of model inter-comparison, which has served as one of the primary venues for model evaluation and confirmation. While analysis of historical trends in the socio-economic system has long played a key role in diagnostics of future scenarios from IAMs, formal hindcast experiments are just now being contemplated as evaluation exercises. Some initial thoughts on setting up such IAM evaluation experiments are discussed. Socio-economic systems do not follow strict physical laws, which means that evaluation needs to take place in a context, unlike that of physical system models, in which there are few fixed, unchanging relationships. Of course strict validation of even earth system models is not possible (Oreskes etal 2004), a fact borne out by the inability of models to constrain the climate sensitivity. Energy-system models have also been grappling with some of the same questions over the last quarter century. For example, one of "the many questions in the energy field that are waiting for answers in the next 20 years" identified by Hans Landsberg in 1985 was "Will the price of oil resume its upward movement?" Of course we are still asking this question today. While, arguably, even fewer constraints apply to socio-economic systems, numerous historical trends and patterns have been identified, although often only in broad terms, that are used to guide the development of model components, parameter ranges, and scenario assumptions. IAM evaluation exercises are expected to provide useful information for interpreting model results and improving model behavior. A key step is the recognition of model boundaries, that is, what is inside

  10. Assessing the Energy and Emissions Implications of Alternative Population Scenarios Using a State-Level Integrated Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We use GCAM-USA to examine the sensitivity of energy demands and resulting pollutant emissions and health impacts to differing population projections. The population projections are based on future fertility, mortality, migration and education assumptions consistent with the five...

  11. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  12. Performance Assessment of Disposal of Selected U.S. Department of Energy Spent Fuel in High Integrity Cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier, JR

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the effects on long-term dose from disposing of selected U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) in high integrity cans (HICs). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating contractor (CRWMS M and O) prepared the calculation as part of Performance Assessment (PA) activities for the DOE Yucca Mountain Project. DSNF encompasses approximately 2,500 MTHM (metric tons heavy metal) consisting of over 200 fuel types that have been categorized into 11 groups, referred to as Groups 1 to 11, to facilitate their performance assessment (DOE 1999a, Sec. 5). DSNF and high level waste (HLW) have been allocated 7,000 MTHM or 10% of the 70,000 MTHM of nuclear waste scheduled for disposal at Yucca Mountain (DOE 1999a, Sec. 8.1). Of the 7,000 MTHM, 2,333 will be DSNF, or 93% of all 2,500 MTHM of DSNF, and 4,667 MTHM equivalent will be HLW (DOE 1999a, Sec. 8.1). The DOE spent fuels selected for HIC disposal are those that are poorly characterized, fragmented, or damaged, and the HIC concept is intended to provide additional protection by delaying the radionuclide release to ensure that environmental and/or regulatory standards are met

  13. Energy consumption assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K S

    1975-01-01

    The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)

  14. Energy use and carbon footprints differ dramatically for diverse wastewater-derived carbonaceous substrates: An integrated exploration of biokinetics and life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbo; Wang, Xu; Butler, David; Liu, Junxin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-03-21

    Energy neutrality and reduction of carbon emissions are significant challenges to the enhanced sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Harvesting energy from wastewater carbonaceous substrates can offset energy demands and enable net power generation; yet, there is limited research about how carbonaceous substrates influence energy and carbon implications of WWTPs with integrated energy recovery at systems-level. Consequently, this research uses biokinetics modelling and life cycle assessment philology to explore this notion, by tracing and assessing the quantitative flows of energy embodied or captured, and by exploring the carbon footprint throughout an energy-intensive activated sludge process with integrated energy recovery facilities. The results indicate that energy use and carbon footprint per cubic meter of wastewater treated, varies markedly with the carbon substrate. Compared with systems driven with proteins, carbohydrates or other short-chain fatty acids, systems fed with acetic acid realized energy neutrality with maximal net gain of power from methane combustion (0.198 kWh) and incineration of residual biosolids (0.153 kWh); and also achieved a negative carbon footprint (72.6 g CO 2 ). The findings from this work help us to better understand and develop new technical schemes for improving the energy efficiency of WWTPs by repurposing the stream of carbon substrates across systems.

  15. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  16. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    , utilities can operate more efficiently and profitably. That can increase the use of renewable energy sources challenge to utility companies, grid operators, and other stakeholders involved in wind energy integration recording is available from the July 16 webinar "Smart Grid Research at NREL's Energy Systems

  17. FRAPCON-3: Integral assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Berna, G.A.; Berna, G.A.

    1997-12-01

    An integral assessment has been performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the predictive capabilities of FRAPCON-3, a steady-state fuel behavior code designed to analyze fuel behavior from beginning-of-life to burnup levels of 65 GWd/MTU. FRAPCON-3 code calculations are shown to compare satisfactorily to a pre-selected set of experimental data with steady-state operating conditions. 30 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Techno-economic assessment for the integration into a multi-product plant based on cascade utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Maya, Carlos; Pastor Martínez, Edgar; Romero, Carlos E.; Ambriz Díaz, Víctor M.; Pacheco-Ibarra, J. Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cascade utilization of low- and mid-temperature geothermal energy is presented. • The system consists of three thermal levels producing power, ice and useful heat. • A techno-economic analysis is performed evaluating energy and economic benefits. • A simple optimization algorithm was developed to optimize system benefits. • Inconvenience of low thermal efficiency and high capital cost of ORC were overcome. - Abstract: The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology that has reached maturity in cogeneration or waste heat applications. However, due to low thermal efficiency and high capital cost of ORC machines, geothermal-based ORC applications represent only a small percent sharing of the geothermal power capacity worldwide. Several countries have reported a great potential of low- and mid-temperature geothermal energy, representing an opportunity to explore a more efficient ORC integration into non-conventional applications of geothermal energy. One alternative, resembling the polygeneration concept, is known as cascade utilization of geothermal energy, where different energy outputs or products can be obtained at the same time, while improving thermal and economic performance. In this paper, a techno-economic analysis for the selection of small capacity ORC machines and absorption chillers (for ice production), to be integrated into a polygeneration plant that makes use of geothermal energy in a cascade arrangement, is presented. A simple cascade system that consists of three sequential thermal levels, producing simultaneously power, ice and useful heat is proposed, considering typical temperatures of geothermal zones in Mexico. A simple optimization algorithm, based on energy and economic models, including binary variables and manufacturer’s data, was developed to evaluate and determine optimal ORC and absorption chiller units. Results show, firstly, that inconvenience of low thermal efficiency and high capital cost of ORC machines can

  19. Integration of artificial intelligence methods and life cycle assessment to predict energy output and environmental impacts of paddy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Chau, Kwok-Wing

    2018-08-01

    Prediction of agricultural energy output and environmental impacts play important role in energy management and conservation of environment as it can help us to evaluate agricultural energy efficiency, conduct crops production system commissioning, and detect and diagnose faults of crop production system. Agricultural energy output and environmental impacts can be readily predicted by artificial intelligence (AI), owing to the ease of use and adaptability to seek optimal solutions in a rapid manner as well as the use of historical data to predict future agricultural energy use pattern under constraints. This paper conducts energy output and environmental impact prediction of paddy production in Guilan province, Iran based on two AI methods, artificial neural networks (ANNs), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The amounts of energy input and output are 51,585.61MJkg -1 and 66,112.94MJkg -1 , respectively, in paddy production. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental impacts of paddy production. Results show that, in paddy production, in-farm emission is a hotspot in global warming, acidification and eutrophication impact categories. ANN model with 12-6-8-1 structure is selected as the best one for predicting energy output. The correlation coefficient (R) varies from 0.524 to 0.999 in training for energy input and environmental impacts in ANN models. ANFIS model is developed based on a hybrid learning algorithm, with R for predicting output energy being 0.860 and, for environmental impacts, varying from 0.944 to 0.997. Results indicate that the multi-level ANFIS is a useful tool to managers for large-scale planning in forecasting energy output and environmental indices of agricultural production systems owing to its higher speed of computation processes compared to ANN model, despite ANN's higher accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs

  1. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation

  2. Integrated Energy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Dvořáková, Pavla; Wyckmans, Annemie

    2014-01-01

    the development, it is essential that educational institutions foster professionals with such knowledge, skills and competences. An initiative toward this direction is the EUproject of IDES-EDU: “Master and Post-Graduate education and training in multi-disciplinary teams”. The paper describes the necessity...... of more integrated and cross-disciplinary approaches to building design through state-of-the-art of the building sector and educational initiatives in the participating countries in the project, and through theory of design processes. The paper also communicates the results of newly developed cross...

  3. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  4. A Research Plan for Assessing the Power and Energy Capability of a River Network Under an Integrated Wind/Hydro-Electric Dispatchable Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, John Czeslaw

    The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.

  5. The Methodology for Integral Assessment of the Impact of Renewable Energy on the Environment under Non-Stationary Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Petrakov Iaroslav V.; Hnedina Kateryna V.

    2017-01-01

    The need to reduce anthropogenic load, eliminate threats to environmental safety and provide ecologically oriented development are one of the main global challenges of our time. At the same time, the replacement of traditional energy sources with alternatives ones requires a quantitative assessment of direct and indirect environmental impacts. The article analyzes the dynamics and structure of pollution in Ukraine in terms of its sources and forms as well as their impact on the carbon product...

  6. Analysis of integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Takaharu; Kaya, Yoichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Taketo; Yasukawa, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    World attention is now attracted to the concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy System (NHIES). In NHIES, all fossil fuels are fist converted into CO and H 2 . Potential environmental contaminants such as sulfur are removed during this process. CO turbines are mainly used to generate electric power. Combustion is performed in pure oxygen produced through air separation, making it possible to completely prevent the formation of thermal NOx. Thus, NHIES would release very little amount of such substances that would contribute to acid rain. In this system, the intermediate energy sources of CO, H 2 and O 2 are integrated horizontally. They are combined appropriately to produce a specific form of final energy source. The integration of intermediate energy sources can provide a wide variety of final energy sources, allowing any type of fossil fuel to serve as an alternative to other types of fossil fuel. Another feature of NHIES is the positive use of nuclear fuel to reduce the formation of CO 2 . Studies are under way in Japan to develop a new concept of integrated energy system. These studies are especially aimed at decreased overall efficiency and introduction of new liquid fuels that are high in conversion efficiency. Considerations are made on the final form of energy source, robust control, acid fallout, and CO 2 reduction. (Nogami, K.)

  7. A time dependent zonally averaged energy balance model to be incorporated into IMAGE (Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect). Collaborative Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, M.; Olendrzynski, K.; Elzen, M. den

    1991-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is placing increasing emphasis on the use of time-dependent impact models that are linked with energy-emission accounting frameworks and models that predict in a time-dependent fashion important variables such as atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, surface temperature and precipitation. Integrating these tools (greenhouse gas emission strategies, atmospheric processes, ecological impacts) into what is called an integrated assessment model will assist policymakers in the IPCC and elsewhere to assess the impacts of a wide variety of emission strategies. The Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE; developed at RIVM) represents such an integrated assessment model which already calculates historical and future effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global surface temperature, sea level rise and other ecological and socioeconomic impacts. However, to be linked to environmental impact models such as the Global Vegetation Model and the Timber Assessment Model, both of which are under development at RIVM and IIASA, IMAGE needs to be regionalized in terms of temperature and precipitation output. These key parameters will then enable the above environmental impact models to be run in a time-dependent mode. In this paper we lay the scientific and numerical basis for a two-dimensional Energy Balance Model (EBM) to be integrated into the climate module of IMAGE which will ultimately provide scenarios of surface temperature and precipitation, resolved with respect to latitude and height. This paper will deal specifically with temperature; following papers will deal with precipitation. So far, the relatively simple EBM set up in this paper resolves mean annual surface temperatures on a regional scale defined by 10 deg latitude bands. In addition, we can concentrate on the implementation of the EBM into IMAGE, i.e., on the steering mechanism itself. Both reasons justify the time and effort put into

  8. Energy, exergy and economic assessments of a novel integrated biomass based multigeneration energy system with hydrogen production and LNG regasification cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, M.H.; Mosaffa, A.H.; Farshi, L. Garousi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel integrated biomass based multigeneration energy system is presented and investigated for power, cooling and hydrogen production. The proposed system consists of a combination of biomass integrated gasifier-gas turbine cycle, a Rankine cycle, a cascade organic Rankine cycle, an absorption refrigeration system and a PEM to produce hydrogen. This system uses cold energy of LNG as a thermal sink. Comprehensive thermodynamic and economic analyses as well as an optimization are performed. The effects of operating parameters on thermodynamic performance and total cost rate are investigated for overall system and subsystems. The results show that the fuel mass flow rate is the dominant factor affecting the variation of energy efficiency and total cost rate. An increase in fuel mass flow rate from 4 kg s"−"1 to 10 kg s"−"1 leads to a decrease of 8.5% and an increase of 122.8% overall energy efficiency and total cost rate, respectively. Also, the largest increase in exergy efficiency occurs when gas turbine inlet temperature increases. The results of optimization showed that the highest net power output, mass flow rate of natural gas delivered to city and the flue gas temperature discharged to the environment are obtained for the exergy efficiency optimal design. - Highlights: • A novel multigeneration system is investigated and optimized thermodynamically and economically. • This system is proposed for power, cooling and hydrogen production. • Proposed system uses LNG cold energy thermal sink that can generate power after vaporization. • The effects of operating parameters on energy and exergy efficiencies and total cost rate are investigated. • An optimization is applied based on the energy, exergy and economic viewpoints.

  9. Integration with Energy Harvesting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Williams

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and implementation of a wireless sensor communication system with a low power consumption that allows it to be integrated with the energy harvesting technology. The system design and implementation focus on reducing the power consumption at three levels: hardware, software and data transmission. The reduction in power consumption, at hardware level in particular, is mainly achieved through the introduction of an energy-aware interface (EAI that ensures a smart inter-correlated management of the energy flow. The resulted system satisfies the requirements of a wireless sensor structure that possesses the energy autonomous capability.

  10. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct a brief review of different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by the problem statement, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating no-regrets options.

  11. Assessing the future of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Energy Council has designed 2 tools named Jazz and Symphonie that allow the assessment of the potential impacts of energy choices on the future in terms of climate warming, investments, energy mix,... The Jazz roadmap aims at energy equity which means individual access to energy at a reasonable cost while the Symphonie roadmap focuses on environmental issues through appropriate practice and coordinated international policies. Both tools are integrated it means that they describe a whole world by most of its aspects: population, GDP per capita, number of cars by inhabitant, economic growth... A basic application of both tools shows that in 2050 the nuclear power will have increased (compared to today's level) but the share of nuclear power in the energy mix will have decreased for Jazz and increased for Symphonie. (A.C.)

  12. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  13. High-resolution integration of water, energy, and climate models to assess electricity grid vulnerabilities to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Macknick, J.; Tidwell, V. C.; Zagona, E. A.; Magee, T. M.; Bennett, K.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector depends on large amounts of water for hydropower generation and cooling thermoelectric power plants. Variability in water quantity and temperature due to climate change could reduce the performance and reliability of individual power plants and of the electric grid as a system. While studies have modeled water usage in power systems planning, few have linked grid operations with physical water constraints or with climate-induced changes in water resources to capture the role of the energy-water nexus in power systems flexibility and adequacy. In addition, many hydrologic and hydropower models have a limited representation of power sector water demands and grid interaction opportunities of demand response and ancillary services. A multi-model framework was developed to integrate and harmonize electricity, water, and climate models, allowing for high-resolution simulation of the spatial, temporal, and physical dynamics of these interacting systems. The San Juan River basin in the Southwestern U.S., which contains thermoelectric power plants, hydropower facilities, and multiple non-energy water demands, was chosen as a case study. Downscaled data from three global climate models and predicted regional water demand changes were implemented in the simulations. The Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model was used to project inflows, ambient air temperature, and humidity in the San Juan River Basin. Resulting river operations, water deliveries, water shortage sharing agreements, new water demands, and hydroelectricity generation at the basin-scale were estimated with RiverWare. The impacts of water availability and temperature on electric grid dispatch, curtailment, cooling water usage, and electricity generation cost were modeled in PLEXOS. Lack of water availability resulting from climate, new water demands, and shortage sharing agreements will require thermoelectric generators to drastically decrease power production, as much as 50

  14. Calculating Impacts of Energy Standards on Energy Demand in U.S. Buildings under Uncertainty with an Integrated Assessment Model: Technical Background Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Ying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McJeon, Haewon C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moss, Richard H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Marty J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Jennie S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yuyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-06

    This report presents data and assumptions employed in an application of PNNL’s Global Change Assessment Model with a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability. The model is used to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The report provides a summary of how residential and commercial buildings are modeled, together with assumptions made for the distributions of state–level population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per worker, efficiency and cost of residential and commercial energy equipment by end use, and efficiency and cost of residential and commercial building shells. The cost and performance of equipment and of building shells are reported separately for current building and equipment efficiency standards and for more aggressive standards. The report also details assumptions concerning future improvements brought about by projected trends in technology.

  15. Integrating environmental and socioeconomic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, K.M.; Cluett, C.; Page, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969, considerable scientific and regulatory attention has been given to the preparation of environmental impact assessments. Part of this attention has been directed to definition of the proper scope of an environmental assessment and to debate about how the ''human environment'' should be addressed. This debate continues, and is reflected in the ongoing evolution of the definition of and relationship between the ''environmental'' and ''socioeconomic'' components of an integrated environmental impact assessment. This paper discusses the need for close integration between the environmental and socioeconomic assessment efforts and examines some of the benefits and difficulties of achieving this integration

  16. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  17. Technical Assessment: Integrated Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and resources we routinely demand are predicated on the delivery of high-bandwidth services. At the same time, new computing paradigms such as cloud ...state of the art IPCs onshore. Recommendation 11: Continue to implement policies designed to ensure production integrity of IPC technology. This...operators include both content providers such as Netflix, and Amazon , and neutral providers such as Digital Realty, Equinix, and Rackspace. Cloud operators

  18. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  19. State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Program Integrity Assessment (SPIA) is the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first national data collection on state Medicaid program...

  20. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardanz, R; Gimeno, B S; Bermejo, V; Elvira, S; Martin, F; Palacios, M; Rodriguez, E; Donaire, I [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effect emission reduction strategies based on critical threshold. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/FIN/336). The subproject has focused on three tasks. Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain. Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystem and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alternative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs.

  1. Sustainable resource use in the global water-food-energy nexus : Advances in process-based integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, D.L.

    2018-01-01

    Most of humanity's basic needs are related to the commodities water, food and energy. Driven by economic development and population growth, the use of water, food and energy has continued to increase rapidly during the past 40 years. However, the increasing extraction of natural resources has

  2. Global Energy Assessment. Toward a Sustainable Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, T B; Nakicenovic, N; Patwardhan, A; Gomez-Echeverri, L [eds.

    2012-11-01

    The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) brings together over 300 international researchers to provide an independent, scientifically based, integrated and policy-relevant analysis of current and emerging energy issues and options. It has been peer-reviewed anonymously by an additional 200 international experts. The GEA assesses the major global challenges for sustainable development and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing energy services; future energy systems that address the major challenges; and the policies and other measures that are needed to realize transformational change toward sustainable energy futures. The GEA goes beyond existing studies on energy issues by presenting a comprehensive and integrated analysis of energy challenges, opportunities and strategies, for developing, industrialized and emerging economies. This volume is an invaluable resource for energy specialists and technologists in all sectors (academia, industry and government) as well as policymakers, development economists and practitioners in international organizations and national governments.

  3. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  4. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  5. Continuous-Integration Laser Energy Lidar Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This circuit design implements an integrator intended to allow digitization of the energy output of a pulsed laser, or the energy of a received pulse of laser light. It integrates the output of a detector upon which the laser light is incident. The integration is performed constantly, either by means of an active integrator, or by passive components.

  6. The energy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramain, Patrice

    2015-10-01

    The energy assessment is obtained by determining the quantities of energy produced, transformed and consumed during a year for a country or a set of countries. The author presents this specific accounting and, while providing the associated tables, first indicates that, according to different international bodies (OECD and IAE, EUROSTAT, or UNO), different energetic products are taken into account to elaborate this assessment, as well for operations related to energy supply, energetic product transformation, and final consumption. He also evokes some key indicators which can be used to draw a more precise or specific energetic portray of a country. Then, he addresses the issue of a common measurement unit: a monetary unit is impossible to use due to price variations, physical units (tons of carbon equivalent, tons of oil equivalent, BtU) are not adequate when talking about hydraulic electricity or geothermal heat. Thus, the author evokes the possible use of exergy or of calorific power, this last one with different methods (energetic content, partial substitution)

  7. Integrated assessment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the German power sector and comparison with the deployment of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebahn, Peter; Daniel, Vallentin; Samuel, Höller

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study an integrated approach is chosen for the assessment of CCS in Germany. ► Five different assessment dimensions are covered. ► A Conservative storage capacity assessment for Germany is done. ► There might be no need to focus on CCS in the power plant sector in Germany. ► We see a potential field of CCS for industrial processes and biomass applications. -- Abstract: If the current energy policy priorities are retained, there may be no need to focus additionally on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the power plant sector of Germany. This applies even in the case of ambitious climate protection targets, according to the results of the presented integrated assessment study. These cover a variety of aspects: Firstly, the technology is not expected to become available on a large scale in Germany before 2025. Secondly, if renewable energies and combined heat and power are expanded further and energy productivity is enhanced, there is likely to be only a limited demand for CCS power plants, as a scenario analysis of CCS deployment in Germany shows. Thirdly, cost analysis using the learning curve approach shows that the electricity generation costs of renewable electricity approach those of CCS power plants. This leads to the consequence that, from 2020, several renewable technologies may well be in a position to offer electricity at a cheaper rate than CCS power plants. In addition, a review of new life cycle assessments for CO 2 separation in the power plant sector indicates that the greenhouse gas emissions from 1 kW h of electricity generated by first-generation CCS power plants could only be reduced by 68% to 87% (95% in individual cases). Finally, a cautious, conservative estimate of the effective German CO 2 storage capacity of approximately 5 billion tonnes of CO 2 is calculated, including a fluctuation range yielding values between 4 and 15 billion tonnes of CO 2 . Therefore, the total CO 2 emissions caused by large point

  8. Hydrogen energy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

  9. Integration of liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2004-03-01

    The markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating are inter-linked both with respect to the energy flows and with respect to ownership of supply sources and infrastructure. The extent and the possible consequences of these linkages are examined in this report. The options for public interventions in these markets are analysed to compare instruments with respect to their ability to provide the necessary incentives for an efficient functioning of the liberalised markets. Aspects of retail markets with households facing multi-product distribution companies and aspects of the production of combined heat and power based on natural gas has been covered. This project identifies some important aspects related to final consumers and the interaction of markets with different types of regulation and scope for liberalisation. From a Danish perspective the district heat market and the dependence on market conditions for natural gas is a specific concern. Consumer concerns also relate to the creation of multi-product energy distribution companies that are privately owned and possibly controlled by foreign interests. Such companies might use bundled sales of energy products to extent their dominant position in one market e.g. a regulated heat market to a market with considerable competition (electricity). Bundled sales would not necessarily result in a loss for the consumer due to economies of scope in supplying energy products. However, the regulatory authorities responsible for district heat prices will have a more complicated job in surveying the bundled price setting. Integration of activities within natural gas distribution and CHP production has been analysed with respect to incentives and welfare implications. Results of the project point to critical market conditions and identify areas of concern for regulatory policies. The analysis shows that there is a large welfare loss associated with having monopolies in both natural gas supplies and the CHP production

  10. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO_2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO_2-reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO_2-reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO_2-reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  11. Integrated assessment of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers are working on all the separate parts of the climate problem. The objective of integrated assessment is to put the results from this work together in order to look carefully at the big picture so as to: (1) keep a proper sense of perspective about the problem, since climate change will occur in the presence of many other natural and human changes; (2) develop the understanding necessary to support informed decision making by many different key public and private actors around the world; and (3) assure that the type and mix of climate-related research that is undertaken will be as useful as possible to decisions makers in both the near and long term. This paper outlines a set of design guidelines for formulating integrated assessment programs and projects and then outlines some of the current problems and opportunities. Selected points are illustrated by drawing on results from the integrated assessment research now in progress at Carnegie Mellon University

  12. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC): gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  13. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  14. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies

  15. Guidelines for integrated risk assessment and management in large industrial areas. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) within the framework of the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated area wide approaches to risk management. An Inter-Agency Programme, which brings together expertise in health the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management, was established. The Inter-Agency Programme on the assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems aims at promoting and facilitating the implementation of integrated risk assessment and management for large industrial areas. This initiative includes the compilation of procedures and methods for environmental and public health risk assessment, the transfer of knowledge and experience amongst countries in the application of these procedures and the implementation of an integrated approach to risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. The UN organizations sponsoring this programme have been involved for several years in activities aimed at assessment and management of environmental and health risks, prevention of major accidents and emergency preparedness. These Guidelines have been developed on the basis of experience from these activities to assist in the planning and conduct of regional risk management projects. They provide a reference framework for the undertaking of integrated health and environmental risk assessment for large industrial areas and for the formulation of appropriate risk management strategies. Refs, figs, tabs.

  16. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  17. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  18. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Rebecca L. [Sapphire Energy, Inc., Columbus, NM (United States). Columbus Algal Biomass Farm; Tyler, Mike [Sapphire Energy, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  19. Integral energy policy; Politica energetica integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Programa Universitario de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The guidelines of energy policy are normative directions that govern the energy sector and its relations with different objects, these guidelines must be in agreement with the national objectives so that they collaborate to its accomplishment. Camara Nacional de la Industria y Trasnformacion (CANACINTRA) and the University Program of Energy made a diagnosis and long term prospective of the Energy Sector. With the design of five possible growth scenarios to year 2030 the total demand of energy required for the 2030 was calculated with the purpose of determining the mixture of the primary energy sources to satisfy the projected demand. With such data a decalogue of recommendations was formulated that appeal for better policies of organization and action, promotions and forecasts to obtain an optimal national performance, competitive at international level. [Spanish] Los lineamientos de politica energetica son orientaciones normativas que rigen el sector energetico y sus relaciones con distintos objetos, estos lineamientos deben estar a tono con los objetivos nacionales de modo que colaboren a su realizacion. Camara Nacional de la Industria de Transformacion (CANACINTRA) y el Programa Universitario de Energia realizaron un diagnostico y prospectiva a largo plazo del sector energia. Con el diseno de cinco posibles escenarios de crecimiento al 2030 se calculo la demanda total de energia requerida para el 2030 con el fin de determinar la mezcla de energeticos primarios para satisfacer la demanda proyectada. Con tales datos se conformo un decalogo de recomendaciones que apelan a mejores politicas de organizacion y accion, fomentos y previsiones para lograr un optimo desempeno energetico nacional, competitivo a nivel internacional.

  20. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  1. Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines challenges involved in the integration of renewable energy into existing electricity grids. It provides models of power systems to show how the integration will effect conventional grids and various solutions to minimize the impacts.

  2. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    grids. In terms of paper sessions, NREL ESI researcher Santosh Veda chaired a session on energy Kroposki chaired a session on advanced renewable energy power systems. While Veda, Muljadi, and Kroposki

  3. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    organization and independent system operator settle energy transactions in its real-time markets at the same time interval it dispatches energy, and settle operating reserves transactions in its real-time markets the electric grid. These control systems will enable real-time coordination between distributed energy

  4. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  5. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL January 2018 Blockchain concept demonstrated Blockchain to Enable Energy Market in BlockCypher Partnership NREL is partnering with BlockCypher, a blockchain Web services provider, to demonstrate how blockchain technology can support distributed energy markets. For some, the language and

  6. Towards an Integrated Energy Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jessica; Zuidema, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we show that an area-based approach to fostering the ‘energy transition’ has potential to help spatial planners and policy makers understand how innovative sustainable energy initiatives may contribute to the energy transition. On the basis of a desk study of research reports on

  7. Office of Integrated Assessment and Policy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The mission of the Office of Integrated Assessments and Policy Analysis (OIAPA) is to examine current and future policies related to the development and use of energy technologies. The principal ongoing research activity to date has focused on the impacts of several energy sources, including coal, oil shale, solar, and geothermal, from the standpoint of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. An additional project has recently been initiated on an evaluation of impacts associated with the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act. The impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act on energy supply constitute the principal research focus of OIAPA for the near term. From these studies a research approach will be developed to identify certain common elements in the regulatory evaluation cycle as a means of evaluating subsequent environmental, health, and socioeconomic impact. It is planned that an integrated assessment team examine studies completed or underway on the following aspects of major regulations: health, risk assessment, testing protocols, environment control cost/benefits, institutional structures, and facility siting. This examination would assess the methodologies used, determine the general applicability of such studies, and present in a logical form information that appears to have broad general application. A suggested action plan for the State of Tennessee on radioactive and hazardous waste management is outlined

  8. Integrated-plant-safety assessment Systematic Evaluation program. Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, Northeast Nuclear Energy Company, Docket No. 50-245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, operated by Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (located in Waterford, Connecticut). Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license

  9. Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level Combat Effects Modeling: Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Endy M. Daehner, John Matsumura, Thomas J. Herbert , Jeremy R. Kurz, Keith Walters Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level... George Guthridge, and Megan Corso for their clear guid- ance and assistance throughout the study. We also received valuable information and insights from...helped with processing modeling and simulation outputs. Laura Novacic and Donna Mead provided invaluable administrative assistance and help with

  10. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  11. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    distributed energy resourcessolar panels, wind turbines, microgrids, and battery storagethat use smart ) panels respond to changes in solar conditions. In addition to the design and construction of the new

  12. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Garrett, B.; MacMillan, S.; Rice, B.; Komomua, C.; O' Malley, M.; Zimmerle, D.

    2012-07-01

    Energy systems integration (ESI) enables the effective analysis, design, and control of these interactions and interdependencies along technical, economic, regulatory, and social dimensions. By focusing on the optimization of energy from all systems, across all pathways, and at all scales, we can better understand and make use of the co-benefits that result to increase reliability and performance, reduce cost, and minimize environmental impacts. This white paper discusses systems integration and the research in new control architectures that are optimized at smaller scales but can be aggregated to optimize energy systems at any scale and would allow replicable energy solutions across boundaries of existing and new energy pathways.

  13. An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Patel, P. L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power plants account for approximately half of the total water use in the United States. With growing electricity demands in the future and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states in the U.S., grasping the trade-off between energy and water requires an integrated modeling approach that can capture the interactions among energy, water availability, climate, technology, and economic factors at various scales. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, with 14 geopolitical regions that are further dissaggregated into up to 18 agro-ecological zones, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. More specifically, GCAM was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and demands, and the associated water withdrawals and consumptions under a set of six scenarios with extensive levels of details on generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and water use intensities. The state-level estimates were compared against available inventories where good agreement was achieved on national and regional levels. We then explored the electric-sector water use up to 2095, focusing on implications from: 1) socioeconomics and growing demands, 2) the adoption of climate mitigation policy (e.g., RCP4.5 W/m2 vs. a reference scenario), 3) the transition of cooling systems, 4) constraints on electricity trading across states (full trading vs. limited trading), and 5) the adoption of water saving technologies. Overall, the fast retirement of once-through cooling, together with the gradual transition from fossil fuels dominant to a mixture of different fuels, accelerate the decline of water withdrawals and correspondingly compensate consumptive water use. Results reveal that U.S. electricity generation expands significantly as population grows

  14. Energy Systems Integration News | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    determine how well a solar photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage can provide backup power to . These analyses will result in a design guide for climate-specific sizing of the system. NREL's Erfan , feasibility, and operational analyses for photovoltaic and concentrating solar power generation projects

  15. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technological, and socioeconomic futures in a regional integrated-assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Page Kyle, G.; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of building stock, commercial equipment, and household appliances can have a major positive impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Sub-national regions such as the U.S. states wish to increase energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions, or adapt to climate change. Evaluating sub-national policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the large uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change itself may undercut such policies. However, assessing all of the uncertainties of large-scale energy and climate models by performing thousands of model runs can be a significant modeling effort with its accompanying computational burden. By applying fractional–factorial methods to the GCAM-USA 50-state integrated-assessment model in the context of a particular policy question, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy can greatly reduce computational burden in the presence of uncertainty and reveal the important drivers for decisions and more detailed uncertainty analysis. - Highlights: • We evaluate building energy codes and standards for climate mitigation. • We use an integrated assessment model and fractional factorial methods. • Decision criteria are energy use, CO2 emitted, and building service cost. • We demonstrate sensitivity analysis for three states. • We identify key variables to propagate with Monte Carlo or surrogate models

  16. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  17. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  18. Energy integration into core businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styan, G. [Tolko Industries Ltd., Castlegar, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    An outline of Tolko Industries was presented with reference to their recent focus on biomass energy conversion. Tolko Industries has doubled its size twice over the last 10 year period, and now owns co-generation facilities and electrical generation contracts, along with significant capital investments. Current energy assets of the company are focused on process steam/heat energy with 3 small co-generation facilities. It was suggested that projects displacing natural gas have had the highest potential energy payback in Tolko facilities. A residuals summary for hog fuel, chips, and sawdust and shavings was presented. The company's core business focus is on sawmills, OSB, veneer, plywood and kraft paper. The company also has access to a large volume of biomass. Details of the Tolko's Nexterra Biomass Gasification Project were presented, along with details of the working scale pilot and phased in proposal plans. It was noted that Nexterra now produces enough biomass on site to be self-sufficient throughout its entire operational process. Tolko's expanded use of biomass technology to address emission abatement has resulted in funding from Enercan. Details of greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets were provided. It was concluded that efficient energy use and cost of supply creates a competitive advantage in the manufacturing industry. The Kyoto Protocol has provided advantages for biomass fuel development. tabs., figs.

  19. Integrated Assessment for an Integrated Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockrish, Rob

    1989-01-01

    In a sixth grade science classroom for able students, major grades are broken down into four categories: lab reports, projects, creative writing, and written tests. These four components of assessment structure how the curriculum content is presented. (JDD)

  20. Energy integration in south cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.A.K.

    1990-01-01

    The economic development of a geo-political region is directly related to the energy resources available to its productive system. The analysis carried out in this paper focus a region limited by Paraguay, Uruguay, the Argentina north and the Brazilian south, the core of the so called South Cone. The region has a diversified energy matrix that assures strong connections between the countries. The main resources available are hydroelectric but the approach gives a strong emphasis in coal and natural gas. The outlined model of a self sustained development of the region can be used as the foundation of the independent economic development of South America. (author)

  1. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry; Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody M.; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Denholm, Paul; Hummon, Marissa; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Starke, Michael; Alkadi, Nasr; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jaci; Kirby, Brendan; O' Malley, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  2. An integrated energy policy for Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tai-Yoo; Kim, Seung-Rae

    1993-01-01

    Economic theory defines a market failure when competitive markets cannot reach an equilibrium maximizing social welfare. One of its most typical examples has proved to be the energy market. Exhaustible energy resources provide the limits to economic growth, at least in the short term. Thus an energy policy for energy importing countries like Korea has been focused on minimizing the negative influences of external energy price shocks to the domestic economy. This study suggests one of the possible directions for an integrated energy policy which seeks to present a flow of policy rules which lead government policy to attain equilibrium, maximizing the national economic benefits by offsetting the market failure

  3. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  4. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  5. Grid integration of wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Heier, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    This timely update provides detailed treatment of the integration of wind power into electrical power systems, including brand new material on offshore wind power farms and technologies This third English edition is based on new material from the fourth and fifth German editions (Windkraftanlagen: Systemauslegung, Netzintegration und Regelung, 5. Auflage, published by Teubner B.G. Gmbh, July 2009). It answers the question of how, with the proper control and direction, wind turbines can be made to operate more similarly to conventional power plants. The revised third edition addresses the engin

  6. European integration, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmento, L.

    1993-01-01

    Today the creation of the internal market in EC is even reaching the field of energy although there are many difficulties caused by differences between the Member States. The Scandinavian Countries are advancing considerably further in liberating the energy market than the EC-outlines in evidence today. Environmental protection has gained more significance in EC recently. The most important regulations and directives are included in the EEA agreement. The directives are included in the EEA agreement. The implementation of the norms would not demand an increase in the level of environmental protection we have in Finland but it seems to be the target of enforcement to issue more strict limits than those in EC-directives. This kind of development can severely weaken Finland's ability to compete: especially as compliance with the directives is still a significant problem in EC

  7. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  8. Integration of the North American energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  9. Energy drift in reversible time integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M

    2004-01-01

    Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)

  10. Integrating renewables into energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    An analysis of renewable energy schemes was undertaken via case studies in China, India, Indonesia, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe, that provided an insight into the application of best practice for overcoming market, technical and financial barriers to the establishment of the sustainable markets required for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies. The project showed clearly the need to select and target interventions according to the context. Lessons were extracted against a number of themes, as well as against the various technologies analysed and simple guides to the principles of best practice were derived under the following headings:- experience of gaining access to (micro) finance; the technical and non-technical issues raised when small, typically independent, generators seek access to central electricity grid systems; how to best undertake awareness raising and dissemination activities; promoting, building and operating biogas systems; promoting, building and operating solar (photovoltaic) home systems; promoting, building and operating grid connected wind power; promoting, building and operating solar hot water systems; promoting agricultural cogeneration using crop residues. (author)

  11. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  12. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  13. France's energy assessment for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussud, Xavier; Guggemos, Fabien; Riedinger, Nicolas; Cavaud, Denis; Delamare, Karine; Ecoiffier, Mathieu; Gong, Zheng; Hagege, Claire; Lepoittevin, Daniel; Lauverjat, Jean; Misak, Evelyne; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Mombel, David; Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This accounting document has been elaborated in compliance with standards defined by the European Union, the International Agency of Energy, and the United Nations. It gives a global overview of the supply and usage chain for each energy source (coal, oil, gas, electricity, thermal renewable energies and wastes). It also gives data related to energy efficiency, supply dependence on other countries, and carbon dioxide emissions. A first part presents the economic and climatic context for 2015: slow world economic growth and an oil market always in surplus, GDP growth at a higher rate, the third hottest year since 1900 with rainfall deficit and sunshine higher than normal. The second part analyses the weight of energy in the French economy: evolutions of energy and oil markets, decrease of energy bill, stronger decrease of oil product prices, higher energy expenses and lower fuel expenses for households. The third part analyses France's energy supply: slight increase of primary production, further decrease of coal imports, recovery of crude oil imports but decrease of refined product trade deficit, moderate increase of natural gas imports, moderate increase of some renewable productions (biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal, heat pumps), slight increase of electricity production with increased use of natural gas. The fourth part analyses quantities and forms of consumed energy: globally, for coal, oil, gas, biomass, wastes, thermal solar, geothermal and heat pumps, and electricity. The fifth part analyses usages and sectors of energy consumption: global final energy, and case of housing and office building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery. The sixth part proposes an assessment for overseas territories, globally and for the different energy sources. The seventh part discusses other energy-related issues: evolution of energy intensity, of CO_2 emissions due to energy combustion, co-generated heat and heat networks. Numerous data and methodological

  14. Conference on grid integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Pierre; Goeke, Berthold; Mignon, Herve; Brakelmann, Heinrich; Huebner, Gundula; Tanja Schmedes; Remy Garaude Verdier; Pierre-Guy Therond; Werner Diwald

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on grid integration of renewable energies. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred of participants exchanged views on the similarities and differences between the French and German approaches of renewable energies integration to grids. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Power grid development - Policy and challenges (Pierre Fontaine); 2 - Grid Development: German Strategy (Berthold Goeke); 3 - Power grids development: situational analysis (Herve Mignon); 4 - Traditional Power Lines, Partial Underground Cabling and HVDC lines: Costs, Benefits and Acceptance (Heinrich Brakelmann); 5 - Transmission Lines - Local Acceptance (Gundula Huebner); 6 - eTelligence- energy meets Intelligence: experience feedback from the grid operator EWe on smart grids and the integration of renewable energies (Tanja Schmedes); 7 - Nice Grid, The French Smart Grid Project within Grid4eU (Remy Garaude Verdier); 8 - Economical Analysis Of energy Storage For Renewable energy Farms - experience of EDF en on the basis of 3 call for tender issued by the French Government in 01/2010, 11/2010, and 09/2011: what conditions for a real deployment (Pierre-Guy Therond); 9 - Hydrogen as a renewable energies storage mean (Werner Diwald)

  15. Fostering renewable energy integration in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galichon, Ines; Dennery, Pierre; Julien, Emmanuel; Wiedmer, Damien; Brochier, Jean Baptiste; Martin, Etienne; Touokong, Benoit; Paunescu, Michael; Philibert, Cedric; ); Gerbaud, Manon; Streiff, Frederic; Petrick, Kristian; Bucquet, Coraline; Jager, David de; )

    2017-03-01

    Renewable energy (RE) integration in the industry is already widespread worldwide. Beyond GHG emissions reduction, it brings direct operational, economical and non-financial benefits to industrial players in a changing energy environment. ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on the integration of RE in the industry conducted in partnership with Kerdos Energy for the International Energy Agency Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) who operates under the legal framework of the International Energy Agency. This study aims to provide inspiration and state-of-the-art applications of RE in the industry (identification of more than 200 projects worldwide), present best practices and key developments of such projects for industrial players (21 detailed case studies); and formulate policy recommendations for policy makers and provide lessons learned for industrial actors to make RE integration a widespread practice in the industry globally. Different integration schemes are possible, from simple and investment-light projects to more complex integration projects which can lead to core production processes adaptation. RE integration in industrial assets brings direct benefits to industrial players to better operate their assets, such as energy costs reduction and energy prices hedging, and improved energy supply reliability. Nevertheless, various barriers still hinder full RE development in the industry. However, industrial players and policy makers have a wide array of options to overcome them. Eight issues have been identified that can tilt an industrial actor towards or away from deploying RE production assets in its facilities. Thus, third party energy production schemes represent a significant opportunity for industrial players who lack the equity capital / cash needed to develop RE projects. Similarly, new shorter-term contractual schemes that fit better with industrial players' and third party energy producers' constraints are being developed

  16. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  17. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  18. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Integrated Risk Framework for Gigawatt-scale Deployments of Renewable Energy: The U.S. Wind Energy Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, B. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Assessing the potential environmental and human effects of deploying renewable wind energy requires a new way of evaluating potential environmental and human impacts. This paper explores an integrated risk framework for renewable wind energy siting decisionmaking.

  20. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  1. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    results are often text-based demonstrations. WINS includes a powerful visualization tool and user interface capability for transmission analyses, planning, and assessment, which will be of great interest to power market participants, power system planners and operators, and state and federal regulatory entities; and (3) WINS can handle extended transmission models for wind integration studies. WINS models include limitations on transmission flow as well as bus voltage for analyzing power system states. The existing decision tools often consider transmission flow constraints (dc power flow) alone which could result in the over-utilization of existing resources when analyzing wind integration. WINS can be used to assist power market participants including transmission companies, independent system operators, power system operators in vertically integrated utilities, wind energy developers, and regulatory agencies to analyze economics, security, and reliability of various options for wind integration including transmission upgrades and the planning of new transmission facilities. WINS can also be used by industry for the offline training of reliability and operation personnel when analyzing wind integration uncertainties, identifying critical spots in power system operation, analyzing power system vulnerabilities, and providing credible decisions for examining operation and planning options for wind integration. Researches in this project on wind integration included (1) Development of WINS; (2) Transmission Congestion Analysis in the Eastern Interconnection; (3) Analysis of 2030 Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration in the Eastern Interconnection; (4) Large-scale Analysis of 2018 Wind Energy Integration in the Eastern U.S. Interconnection. The research resulted in 33 papers, 9 presentations, 9 PhD degrees, 4 MS degrees, and 7 awards. The education activities in this project on wind energy included (1) Wind Energy Training Facility Development; (2) Wind Energy Course

  2. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  3. Energy management and grid stability aspects of wind energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, B.; Krau, S.; Gagnon, R.

    2002-01-01

    Wind energy management on power grids was discussed with reference to a wind integration study in Vermont and new projects at Hydro-Quebec's electricity research institute (IREQ (Recherche en Electricite du Quebec)). Modeling concepts for wind integration were presented for hydro/wind systems and for thermal/wind systems. A large scale wind power integration study for the Quebec/Labrador area has shown that large wind power capacity can be integrated in the existing power system without special investment. The Canadian Wind Energy Association's goal of integrating 10,000 MW of wind in Canadian grids appears realistic from a technical point of view. The Vermont thermal system type project involves the integration of wind and biomass. The project objective is to evaluate the impacts, by 2010, of high penetration levels of renewable energy on the Vermont grid. The study showed that wind power can represent a large portion of Vermont's total generation because transmission capacities to get to other regions are large, plus Vermont has ties with other power systems. The Hydro-Quebec load and Vermont wind are well correlated, meaning that Hydro-Quebec's peak is driven by winter electric space heating demand, and Vermont's best wind resource period is also in the winter. Model results show an economic benefit of adding wind power in the Vermont Power system when it is managed with Quebec's generation assets. The impact that this would have on the transmission system was also discussed. 1 tab., 13 figs

  4. Financial overview of integrated community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croke, K. G.; Hurter, A. P.; Lerner, E.; Breen, W.; Baum, J.

    1977-01-01

    This report is designed to analyze the commercialization potential of various concepts of community-scale energy systems that have been termed Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). A case analysis of alternative ICES concepts applied to a major metropolitan development complex is documented. The intent of this study is twofold: (1) to develop a framework for comparing ICES technologies to conventional energy supply systems and (2) to identify potential problems in the commercialization of new systems approaches to energy conservation. In brief, the ICES Program of the ERDA Office of Energy Conservation is intended to identify the opportunities for energy conservation in the community context through analysis, development, and/or demonstration of: location and design of buildings, building complexes, and infrastructure links; engineering and systems design of existing, emerging, and advanced energy production and delivery technologies and systems; regulatory designs for public planning, administration, and regulation of energy-conserving community development and energy services; and financial planning for energy-conserving community development and energy supply systems.

  5. Integrating global energy and climate governance: The changing role of the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubaum, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long-recognized interlinkages between global energy consumption and climate change, there has historically been only limited policy interaction, let alone integration, between the two fields. This compartmentalization is mirrored in scholarship, where much research has focused on the fragmentation of, respectively, global energy and global climate governance, but only little has been said about how these fields might be integrated. Our analysis of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) changing activities in recent years shows that governance integration – both within global energy governance and between global energy and climate governance – is now happening. The IEA has broadened its portfolio to embrace the full spectrum of energy issues, including renewable energy and climate change; it has built and is expanding key partnerships with both the UN climate convention and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); and it has become an authoritative advocate for the inter-related goals of a low-carbon transition and climate change mitigation. We show that these developments are not the result of a top-down plan, but have rather emerged through the Agency’s various efforts to pursue its energy-centric mandate in a fast-changing global policy environment. - Highlights: • Assesses integration between global energy and global climate governance. • Analyzes organizational change in the IEA and its impact on governance integration. • Discusses recent activities and advocacy by the IEA in relation to climate change.

  6. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Cogent Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    NREL is collaborating with Cogent Energy Systems (Cogent) to introduce small-scale waste-to-energy technology in microgrids.The focus of the project is to test and demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and usefulness of integrating electricity generated using a simulated syngas composition matching the syngas stream to be produced by a HelioStorm-based WTE gasifier to power a microgrid as a means of addressing and complementing the intermittency of other sources of electricity.

  7. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  8. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Boemer, Jens; Fraisse, Jean-Luc; Mignon, Herve; Gonot, Jean-Pierre; Rohrig, Kurt; Lange, Matthias; Bagusche, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Schiel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  9. Assessment of triton potential energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Payne, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  11. Integration of renewable energies into the power supply system; Integration erneuerbarer Energien in das Stromversorgungssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubarth, Juergen [e3 consult, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    In contrast to the record breaking speed with which the German government presented its new energy concept in response to the Fukushima reactor disaster, the practical task of transforming our energy supply system will take decades. One of the greatest challenges involved in the energy turnaround will be that of integrating renewable energies into the power supply system. A holistic analysis and assessment of all aspects involved in this is therefore of utmost importance. Under the focal topic of its new publication ''Energie fuer Deutschland 2011'', Weltenergierat Deutschland e.V. presents a detailed summary of this challenge, thus providing a basis for further discussion. It shows that efficient integration of renewable energies must necessarily involve a combination of systems engineering and organisational measures.

  12. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  13. Energy Systems Integration Newsletter - December 2016 | Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    system makes renewable energy integration easier. ESIF Research Shows That Connected Residential Devices and business intelligence. Baggu also noted the opportunity to harness next-generation graphical -through, ramp rate control, soft-start reconnection, and voltage-watt control. NREL then conducted power

  14. Evaluating municipal energy efficiency in biorefinery integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haikonen, Turo; Tuomaala, Mari; Holmberg, Henrik; Ahtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass-based energy production was introduced to an urban city area of Helsinki, Finland. The study compared two cases in integration with a municipality: (1) biomass fuelled small-scale CHP (combined heat and power)-plant and (2) a biorefinery. The comparison was made according to primary energy consumption, primary energy factors, CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions and the price of produced biowax. It was also studied how results are influenced by different assumptions. The results showed that the primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions were higher in the biorefinery case in absolute amounts as more products i.e. biowax was produced. The results indicated the primary energy factors were almost the same for both cases. Additionally, the primary energy use was very low for district heat and electricity produced in the biorefinery, when the primary energy use of the biorefinery was allocated only to the biowax. The sensitivity analysis of biowax pricing showed that a biorefinery is a competitive alternative for a CHP-plant if the prices of biomass and market electricity are low and the price of CO 2 allowance is high. In terms of overall energy efficiency comparison, the comparison cannot be properly completed, because of the different end-products of the plants. - Highlights: • Primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in a municipality are studied. • Energy production in a biorefinery is compared to a conventional CHP-plant. • In the biorefinery CO 2 emission per produced energy unit (CO 2 /MWh) is the lowest. • The CHP-case benefits from low primary energy consumption and electricity demand. • More than one energy efficiency figure needs to be considered in analyses

  15. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  16. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  17. The application of life cycle assessment to integrated solid waste management. Pt. 2: Perspectives on energy and material recovery from paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, T.; Finnveden, G.

    2000-07-01

    The environmental aspects of different waste management options for paper materials are the subject of an ongoing debate. A large number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to study the topic. The comparison between recycling and incineration with energy recovery is often in focus. Different studies have arrived at different conclusions due to differences in the methods applied and assumptions made in the life cycle inventory analysis (LCI). Key factors for the LCI results include what energy is replaced by incinerated waste paper, what material is replaced by recycled fibres, how the pulpwood savings are used, what external energy carrier is used for the recycling process, and what environmental burdens are associated with a change in the electricity demand. These factors can be investigated for different decision contexts and from different ethical, time and geographical perspectives. Different choices are appropriate for different decisions and perspectives. Hence, to obtain an adequate conclusion, the comparison needs to be specified in terms of what perspectives are relevant. (Author)

  18. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    . To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related...

  19. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. Subsystems would be integrated ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus and would be comprised of two or more energy conversion subsystems that have traditionally been separate or isolated. Energy flows would be dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet grid demand via a single, highly responsive connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity while capital-intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Candidate region-specific hybrid energy systems selected for further study and figures of merit that will be used to assess system performance will be presented.

  20. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...... of such a framework is demonstrated by means of a risk assessment of flooding from extreme precipitation for the city of Odense, Denmark. A sensitivity analysis shows how the presence of particularly important assets, such as cultural and historical heritage, may be addressed in assessing such risks. The output...

  1. Optimisation of integrated energy and materials systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, D.J.; Okken, P.A.

    1994-06-01

    To define cost-effective long term CO2 reduction strategies an integrated energy and materials system model for the Netherlands for the period 2000-2040 is developed. The model is based upon the energy system model MARKAL, which configures an optimal mix of technologies to satisfy the specified energy and product/materials service demands. This study concentrates on CO 2 emission reduction in the materials system. For this purpose, the energy system model is enlarged with a materials system model including all steps 'from cradle to grave'. The materials system model includes 29 materials, 20 product groups and 30 waste materials. The system is divided into seven types of technologies; 250 technologies are modeled. The results show that the integrated optimisation of the energy system and the materials system can significantly reduce the emission reduction costs, especially at higher reduction percentages. The reduction is achieved through shifts in materials production and waste handling and through materials substitution in products. Shifts in materials production and waste management seem cost-effective, while the cost-effectiveness of shifts in product composition is sensitive due to the cost structure of products. For the building sector, transportation applications and packaging, CO 2 policies show a significant impact on prices, and shifts in product composition could occur. For other products, the reduction through materials substitution seems less promising. The impact on materials consumption seems most significant for cement (reduced), timber and aluminium (both increased). For steel and plastics, the net effect is balanced, but shifts between applications do occur. The MARKAL-approach is feasible to study integrated energy and materials systems. The progress compared to other environmental system analysis instruments is much more insight in the interaction of technologies on a national scale and in time

  2. Increasing efficiency through integrated energy data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how improved management of energy data can bring about the increase in efficiency that is necessary for an electricity enterprise operating in a liberalised electricity market. The relevant technical and business processes involved for a typical power distribution utility are described. The present situation is reviewed and the various physical, data-logistics and commercial 'domains' involved are examined. Possible solutions for energy data logistics and integrated data management are discussed from the points of view of the operating utility, the power supplier and those responsible for balancing out supply and demand

  3. Renewable energy and integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated resource planning, or IRP, is a new means of comparing resource choices for electric and gas utilities. Since its inception in 1986, at least 15 states have implemented IRP, and more are considering adopting IRP or have limited IRP processes in place. Some of the characteristics of IRP, such as increased public participation and an expanded analysis of the costs and benefits of energy resources, can contribute to addressing some of the technical and market barriers that hinder the increased deployment of renewable energy technologies. This paper looks at the status of some of these issues

  4. System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben

    units, including the ICT solutions that can facilitate the integration. Specifically, the international standard "IEC 61850-7-420 Communications systems for Distributed Energy Resources" is considered as a possible brick in the solution. This standard has undergone continuous development....... It is therefore investigated in this project how ancillary services can be provided by alternatives to central power stations, and to what extent these can be integrated in the system by means of market-based methods. Particular emphasis is put on automatic solutions, which is particularly relevant for small......, and this project has actively contributed to its further development and improvements. Different types of integration methods are investigated in the project. Some are based on local measurement and control, e.g. by measuring the grid frequency, whereas others are based on direct remote control or market...

  5. Philosophy of integrity assessment of engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of engineering components in power plants and process industries has attracted global attention from the viewpoint of safety and economy for their optimum utilization. This paper describes some aspects of philosophy of component integrity such as life assessment technology, materials used and the factors limiting the serviceability of the components operating at high temperatures and pressures. Numerous investigations have been carried out all over the world to study changes in microstructure and material property due to prolonged service of the components to decide their further serviceability. This paper includes case studies on integrity assessment of service-exposed components carried out in our laboratory as well

  6. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  7. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distribution Feeder Voltage Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Smarter Grid Solutions Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  8. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Grid-Edge Control Hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the OMNETRIC Group Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  9. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  10. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  11. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  12. Data and Tools | Integrated Energy Solutions | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    cash flow model for assessing projects, designing cost-based incentives, and evaluating the impact of and incentives, renewable energy resources, fuel costs, and more for a particular city and state or zip code System Advisor Model (SAM). Performance and financial model designed to help estimate costs

  13. The energy innovation network : fuelling an integrated energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Global primary energy demand is expected to increase by 1.7 per cent annually from 2000 to 2030, reaching an annual level of 15.3 billion tonnes of oil equivalent. Fossil fuels are expected to supply over 90 per cent of global incremental energy demand through 2030, while gas consumption is estimated to double between 2000 and 2030 due to its cost competitiveness, high availability and environmental advantages. Oil will remain the largest fuel source with demand increasing by 1.6 per cent annually. In order to tap the vast Canadian resource potential, innovative new technologies are needed to unlock the remaining conventional oil and gas reserves. It was argued that no single source of energy will be sufficient to meet world or Canadian demand. Therefore, there is also a need for a collaborative initiative to facilitate a long-term effort to implement an integrated energy innovation strategy. The Energy Innovation Network (EnergyINet) was created help industry, governments, and the research community address the challenges of ensuring an abundant supply of environmentally responsible energy. Given the right technologies, bitumen, coal, and coalbed methane have hundreds of years of production remaining. Production of those reserves depends on finding effective solutions to production costs, cost and availability of feedstocks needed to produce higher valued products, market limitations, and land, water, air, and greenhouse gas issues. The main challenge is to finance the development of such technologies into reliable, large-scale commercial applications. It was concluded that Canada's ability to maintain competitive energy supplies from conventional and non-conventional energy systems will be severely limited as the need to protect the environment, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and conserve water moves higher on the public agenda. 13 refs.

  14. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  15. On market integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  16. On market integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  17. Integrating Ecohealth Assessment in the Americas | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, very few impact assessment laws are adequately implemented in Latin ... Integrated eco-health assessment law in the Americas : a hemispheric research ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  18. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  19. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  20. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  1. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  2. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  3. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  4. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolfsberg, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  5. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  6. Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass energy is emerging as a real option for satisfying power needs in developing countries. Experience has shown improvements in GDP are directly linked to increased consumption of energy. Biomass energy can also be environmentally and developmentally beneficial where it will be both grown and used. Biomass production can offset deforestation, reduce soil erosion, increase rural employment, and stimulate development. Moreover, when biomass is grown renewably there is no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries are discussed. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, supportive of rural development, and environmentally beneficial, adapted to local conditions; takes advantage of by- and co-products and uses conversion technologies that have been optimized for biomass. A preliminary evaluation of a biomass to electricity project relying on plantation grown feedstocks in Southwest China indicates that biomass could be grown and converted to electricity at costs lower than alternatives and yield an internal rate of return of about 15%. The IRR based on a social and environmental benefits are substantial and investment in the facility is well-justified. However, assessing biomass energy systems is exceedingly complex. Considerations are grouped into biomass production, biomass logistics and transport, and biomass conversion. Implementation requires considerations of energy and economics, institutional and social issues, and environmental issues. The conclusion that such a project would be viable in rural China is shadowed by many site-specific circumstances and highlights the need for systematic and integrated appraisal

  7. France energy assessment for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and data tables, this report first describes the economic and energy context (world recession, French macro-economic context, climate data, energy costs), analyses the present evolution of the primary energy total demand (it decreased by 5 per cent). It analyses the energy supply for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, renewable energies and wastes. It discusses the issue of energy transformation and transportation. It analyses the decrease of energy consumption for all non renewable energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity) and the significant increase of renewable energy consumption. It comments the decrease of final energy consumption in all economic sectors (industry, housing and office building, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines that advances in final energy economy have been hampered by the economic crisis. It comments the rather decrease of CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption. Within this context, the energy bill presented a 33 per cent decrease, but remains quite heavy for the French economy

  8. Integrating Nuclear Energy to Oilfield Operations - Two Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Eric P.; Nelson, Lee O.; McKellar, Michael G.; Gandrik, Anastasia M.; Patterson, Mike W.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel resources that require large energy inputs for extraction, such as the Canadian oil sands and the Green River oil shale resource in the western USA, could benefit from the use of nuclear power instead of power generated by natural gas combustion. This paper discusses the technical and economic aspects of integrating nuclear energy with oil sands operations and the development of oil shale resources. A high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) that produces heat in the form of high pressure steam (no electricity production) was selected as the nuclear power source for both fossil fuel resources. Both cases were based on 50,000 bbl/day output. The oil sands case was a steam-assisted, gravity-drainage (SAGD) operation located in the Canadian oil sands belt. The oil shale development was an in-situ oil shale retorting operation located in western Colorado, USA. The technical feasibility of the integrating nuclear power was assessed. The economic feasibility of each case was evaluated using a discounted cash flow, rate of return analysis. Integrating an HTGR to both the SAGD oil sands operation and the oil shale development was found to be technically feasible for both cases. In the oil sands case, integrating an HTGR eliminated natural gas combustion and associated CO2 emissions, although there were still some emissions associated with imported electrical power. In the in situ oil shale case, integrating an HTGR reduced CO2 emissions by 88% and increased natural gas production by 100%. Economic viabilities of both nuclear integrated cases were poorer than the non-nuclear-integrated cases when CO2 emissions were not taxed. However, taxing the CO2 emissions had a significant effect on the economics of the non-nuclear base cases, bringing them in line with the economics of the nuclear-integrated cases. As we move toward limiting CO2 emissions, integrating non-CO2-emitting energy sources to the development of energy-intense fossil fuel resources is becoming

  9. Nonlocal kinetic energy functionals by functional integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Wenhui; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Since the seminal studies of Thomas and Fermi, researchers in the Density-Functional Theory (DFT) community are searching for accurate electron density functionals. Arguably, the toughest functional to approximate is the noninteracting kinetic energy, Ts[ρ], the subject of this work. The typical paradigm is to first approximate the energy functional and then take its functional derivative, δ/Ts[ρ ] δ ρ (r ) , yielding a potential that can be used in orbital-free DFT or subsystem DFT simulations. Here, this paradigm is challenged by constructing the potential from the second-functional derivative via functional integration. A new nonlocal functional for Ts[ρ] is prescribed [which we dub Mi-Genova-Pavanello (MGP)] having a density independent kernel. MGP is constructed to satisfy three exact conditions: (1) a nonzero "Kinetic electron" arising from a nonzero exchange hole; (2) the second functional derivative must reduce to the inverse Lindhard function in the limit of homogenous densities; (3) the potential is derived from functional integration of the second functional derivative. Pilot calculations show that MGP is capable of reproducing accurate equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, total energy, and electron densities for metallic (body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic) and semiconducting (crystal diamond) phases of silicon as well as of III-V semiconductors. The MGP functional is found to be numerically stable typically reaching self-consistency within 12 iterations of a truncated Newton minimization algorithm. MGP's computational cost and memory requirements are low and comparable to the Wang-Teter nonlocal functional or any generalized gradient approximation functional.

  10. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  11. Integrating uncertainty into public energy research and development decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Laura Díaz; Baker, Erin; Bosetti, Valentina

    2017-05-01

    Public energy research and development (R&D) is recognized as a key policy tool for transforming the world's energy system in a cost-effective way. However, managing the uncertainty surrounding technological change is a critical challenge for designing robust and cost-effective energy policies. The design of such policies is particularly important if countries are going to both meet the ambitious greenhouse-gas emissions reductions goals set by the Paris Agreement and achieve the required harmonization with the broader set of objectives dictated by the Sustainable Development Goals. The complexity of informing energy technology policy requires, and is producing, a growing collaboration between different academic disciplines and practitioners. Three analytical components have emerged to support the integration of technological uncertainty into energy policy: expert elicitations, integrated assessment models, and decision frameworks. Here we review efforts to incorporate all three approaches to facilitate public energy R&D decision-making under uncertainty. We highlight emerging insights that are robust across elicitations, models, and frameworks, relating to the allocation of public R&D investments, and identify gaps and challenges that remain.

  12. Wind energy and integration into the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, B.

    2009-01-01

    The development of wind power plants raises multiple challenges in terms of planning, exploitation and control of power systems. One characteristic of this energy source is its variability with time and its difficulty to be planned. This book takes stock of the theoretical and practical aspects of the question. It gives us a state-of-the-art of the existing solutions to integrate this energy source to the national grid beside other sources of different origin (nuclear, thermal..). In order to allow the reader to understand the stakes and the solutions, some basic notions of electrotechnics and wind technologies are presented first. Then it deals with the wind power impact on power system operation when the wind energy penetration reaches 10% of the whole power. The production/consumption balancing is analyzed and the problem of wind power unpredictability is approached. Beside the problems of voltage regulation of a wind farm and supply maintenance during voltage drop, the book allows to apprehend the operation of electricity markets and in particular those related to wind power (meteorology forecasts and anticipation of production). (J.S.)

  13. Vehicle-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicle-to-Grid Integration Vehicle-to-Grid Integration NREL's research stands at the forefront of vehicle charging station Our work focuses on building the infrastructure and integration needed for benefit each other. Electric Vehicles NREL's research on electric vehicle (EV) grid integration examines

  14. Grid Integration Webinars | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Webinars Grid Integration Webinars Watch presentations from NREL analysts on various topics related to grid integration. Wind Curtailment and the Value of Transmission under a 2050 renewable curtailment under these high wind scenarios. Text Version Grid Integration Webinar: Exploring

  15. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  16. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  17. Integrity assessment report of tanks TK-101 and TK-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-08-25

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc., (WMH), the operations contractor; Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH), the Hanford Site Manager; and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-S Waste Handling Facility. This report will be included in the Part B Permit for the 2226 Laboratory and is a portion of the integrity assessment of the overall 222-5 Laboratory radioactive liquid waste disposal system. This IAR is prepared in accordance with WAC 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations; Section 640(2), ''Assessment of Existing Tank Systems Integrity .''

  18. Integrity assessment report of tanks TK-101 and TK-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) for Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc., (WMH), the operations contractor; Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH), the Hanford Site Manager; and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the system owner. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-S Waste Handling Facility. This report will be included in the Part B Permit for the 2226 Laboratory and is a portion of the integrity assessment of the overall 222-5 Laboratory radioactive liquid waste disposal system. This IAR is prepared in accordance with WAC 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations; Section 640(2), ''Assessment of Existing Tank Systems Integrity .''

  19. Towards integrated solutions for water, energy, and land using an integrated nexus modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Humanity has already reached or even exceeded the Earth's carrying capacity. Growing needs for food, energy and water will only exacerbate existing challenges over the next decades. Consequently, the acceptance of "business as usual" is eroding and we are being challenged to adopt new, more integrated, and more inclusive development pathways that avoid dangerous interference with the local environment and global planetary boundaries. This challenge is embodied in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which endeavor to set a global agenda for moving towards more sustainable development strategies. To improve and sustain human welfare, it is critical that access to modern, reliable, and affordable water, energy, and food is expanded and maintained. The Integrated Solutions for Water, Energy, and Land (IS-WEL) project has been launched by IIASA, together with the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). This project focuses on the water-energy-land nexus in the context of other major global challenges such as urbanization, environmental degradation, and equitable and sustainable futures. It develops a consistent framework for looking at the water-energy-land nexus and identify strategies for achieving the needed transformational outcomes through an advanced assessment framework. A multi-scalar approach are being developed that aims to combine global and regional integrated assessment tools with local stakeholder knowledge in order to identify robust solutions to energy, water, food, and ecosystem security in selected regions of the world. These are regions facing multiple energy, water and land use challenges and rapid demographic and economic changes, and are hardest hit by increasing climate variability and change. This project combines the global integrated assessment model (MESSAGE) with the global land (GLOBIOM) and water (Community Water Model) model respectively, and the integrated

  20. State of the art and an integrated proposal to assess the energy gap in the implementation of cogeneration in industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero A, Ana C; Botero B, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the state of the art of decision making methodologies and theories that are in the literature and address topics related to the implementation of cogeneration systems. These topics are energy efficiency, new technologies adoption. These are analyzed in how they try to explain a complex phenomenon such as the energy gap (low implementation of technically and economically feasible energy efficiency projects), and classifying them in four methodological approaches. Based on the analysis of these approaches, a conceptual proposal is proposed, setting the decision maker as the central object of study, and the real (not the ideal) decision making process as a mechanism that facilitates the identification and understanding of the phenomenon from the bounded rationality principles.

  1. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Base Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Kandt, A.; Lisell, L.; Booth, S.; Walker, A.; Roberts, J.; Falcey, J.

    2011-11-01

    DOD's U.S. Pacific Command has partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess opportunities for increasing energy security through renewable energy and energy efficiency in Hawaii installations. NREL selected Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay to receive technical support for net zero energy assessment and planning funded through the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI). NREL performed a comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of MCBH Kaneohe Bay to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations.

  2. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Fort Carson: Assessment and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.; Markel, T.; Simpson, M.; Leahey, J.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Lisell, L.; Burman, K.; Singer, M.

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Army's Fort Carson installation was selected to serve as a prototype for net zero energy assessment and planning. NREL performed the comprehensive assessment to appraise the potential of Fort Carson to achieve net zero energy status through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and electric vehicle integration. This report summarizes the results of the assessment and provides energy recommendations. This study is part of a larger cross-laboratory effort that also includes an assessment of renewable opportunities at seven other DoD Front Range installations, a microgrid design for Fort Carson critical loads and an assessment of regulatory and market-based barriers to a regional secure smart grid.

  3. Assessment of integrity of structures containing cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the investigations is to provide a method of assessing the safety and integrity of structures containing cracklike defects. Estimated load at which the cracked structure will fail is compared with the highest load likely to be applied in service

  4. Integrated assessment models of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.; Fisher-Vanden, K.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review recent work in the integrated assessment modeling of global climate change. This field has grown rapidly since 1990. Integrated assessment models seek to combine knowledge from multiple disciplines in formal integrated representations; inform policy-making, structure knowledge, and prioritize key uncertainties; and advance knowledge of broad system linkages and feedbacks, particularly between socio-economic and bio-physical processes. They may combine simplified representations of the socio-economic determinants of greenhouse gas emissions, the atmosphere and oceans, impacts on human activities and ecosystems, and potential policies and responses. The authors summarize current projects, grouping them according to whether they emphasize the dynamics of emissions control and optimal policy-making, uncertainty, or spatial detail. They review the few significant insights that have been claimed from work to date and identify important challenges for integrated assessment modeling in its relationships to disciplinary knowledge and to broader assessment seeking to inform policy- and decision-making. 192 refs., 2 figs

  5. Integrated assessment of variable density-viscosity groundwater flow for a high temperature mono-well aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeghici, Răzvan Mihai; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P.; Hartog, Niels; Sommer, Wijb

    2015-01-01

    The use of groundwater systems for heat storage increasingly gains interest among water managers, policy makers and researchers as a way to increase the efficiency of energy production and to allow the re-use of waste heat. Typically, mono-well storage systems are thought to require the use of

  6. Integrated food–energy systems for climate-smart agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanski Anne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food production needs to increase by 70%, mostly through yield increases, to feed the world in 2050. Increases in productivity achieved in the past are attributed in part to the significant use of fossil fuels. Energy use in agriculture is therefore also expected to rise in the future, further contributing to greenhouse emissions. At the same time, more than two-fifths of the world’s population still depends on unsustainably harvested wood energy for cooking and heating. Both types of energy use have detrimental impacts on the climate and natural resources. Continuing on this path is not an option as it will put additional pressure on the already stressed natural resource base and local livelihoods, while climate change is further reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems and smallholder farmers. Ecosystem approaches that combine both food and energy production, such as agroforestry or integrated crop–livestock–biogas systems, could substantially mitigate these risks while providing both food and energy to rural and urban populations. Information and understanding on how to change course through the implementation of the practices outlined in this paper are urgently needed. Yet the scientific basis of such integrated systems, which is essential to inform decision-makers and to secure policy support, is still relatively scarce. The author therefore argues that new assessment methodologies based on a systems-oriented analysis are needed for analyzing these complex, multidisciplinary and large-scale phenomena.

  7. Technology innovation in an integrated energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, E.

    2006-01-01

    A discussion on technology innovation in an integrated energy economy was presented. The mission, mandate and strategy of the Alberta Research Institute was first presented, followed by a discussion on oil supply needs based on historic demand. The presentation then addressed what might happen as oil demand and supply peak. A comparison of conventional versus unconventional resources was included along with a chart illustrating Alberta's contribution to total global reserves. Other topics addressed in the presentation in chart format included: natural gas requirements and natural gas use in oil sands; marketable gas production and the number of producing gas wells; Alberta's natural gas situation; and net United States imports of natural gas. Options for reducing natural gas consumption in oil sand production processes were also identified. These included steam assisted gravity drainage; solvent processes, electrical heating, combustion, nuclear, geothermal, and gasification processes. Advantages and disadvantages of replacing natural gas through gasification were presented. Last, the presentation provided an unconventional gas technology roadmap and discussed an innovative energy technology program. It was concluded that there are no clear cut options for replacing the huge amount of natural gas needed in the expanding oil sands sector. tabs., figs

  8. Energy optimization of integrated process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig Nielsen, J

    1996-10-01

    A general approach for viewing the process synthesis as an evolutionary process is proposed. Each step is taken according to the present level of information and knowledge. This is formulated in a Process Synthesis Cycle. Initially the synthesis is conducted at a high abstraction level maximizing use of heuristics (prior experience, rules of thumbs etc). When further knowledge and information are available, heuristics will gradually be replaced by exact problem formulations. The principles in the Process Synthesis Cycle, is used to develop a general procedure for energy synthesis, based on available tools. The procedure is based on efficient use of process simulators with integrated Pinch capabilities (energy targeting). The proposed general procedure is tailored to three specific problems (Humid Air Turbine power plant synthesis, Nitric Acid process synthesis and Sulphuric Acid synthesis). Using the procedure reduces the problem dimension considerable and thus allows for faster evaluation of more alternatives. At more detailed level a new framework for the Heat Exchanger Network synthesis problem is proposed. The new framework is object oriented based on a general functional description of all elements potentially present in the heat exchanger network (streams, exchangers, pumps, furnaces etc.). (LN) 116 refs.

  9. Technology innovation in an integrated energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A discussion on technology innovation in an integrated energy economy was presented. The mission, mandate and strategy of the Alberta Research Institute was first presented, followed by a discussion on oil supply needs based on historic demand. The presentation then addressed what might happen as oil demand and supply peak. A comparison of conventional versus unconventional resources was included along with a chart illustrating Alberta's contribution to total global reserves. Other topics addressed in the presentation in chart format included: natural gas requirements and natural gas use in oil sands; marketable gas production and the number of producing gas wells; Alberta's natural gas situation; and net United States imports of natural gas. Options for reducing natural gas consumption in oil sand production processes were also identified. These included steam assisted gravity drainage; solvent processes, electrical heating, combustion, nuclear, geothermal, and gasification processes. Advantages and disadvantages of replacing natural gas through gasification were presented. Last, the presentation provided an unconventional gas technology roadmap and discussed an innovative energy technology program. It was concluded that there are no clear cut options for replacing the huge amount of natural gas needed in the expanding oil sands sector. tabs., figs.

  10. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  11. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program: 1990 Integrated Assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The document, the 'Integrated Assessment,' is a summary of the causes and effects of acidic deposition and a comparison of the costs and effectiveness of alternative emission control scenarios. In developing the 'Integrated Assessment,' it was NAPAP's goal to produce a structured compilation of policy-relevant technical information. The Integrated Assessment is based on findings and data from a series of twenty-seven State-of-Science/Technology Reports (SOS/T) on acidic deposition published by NAPAP in 1990. The scope of the documents includes: (1) emissions, atmospheric processes and deposition; (2) effects on surface waters, forests, agricultural crops, exposed materials, human health, and visibility; and (3) control technologies, future emissions, and effects valuation

  12. Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration NREL works with industry partners to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable renewable electric grid integration work includes research and development (R&D) on advanced inverters

  13. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  14. Technologies for building integrated energy supply; Teknologier for bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, I.

    2011-07-15

    The current report is part of the deliverables from the project ''Building Integrated Energy Supply'' supported by the Danish Energy Authority R and D program. It describes a range of technologies for individual supply of heat and/or electricity to dwellings with respect to their stage of development and possible application in the near future. Energy supply of buildings is becoming more and more complex, partly as a result of increasing demands for comfort, efficiency and reduced emissions, partly as a result of rising oil prices and improved competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The days where ordinary boilers were the dominant source of individual supply of dwellings are becoming past these years. The challenge of the new range of technologies lies to a high extent in the fluctuating nature of their energy conversion and their interaction with the supply grids for heat and electricity. There is thus an increasing demand to understand the nature of the different supply technologies, besides a regular update of their economical key figures. The technologies briefly described in this study are: Solar heating, passive solar energy, biofuel boilers, heat pumps, micro CHP, solar photovoltaic and energy storage systems. The selected technologies are all assessed to play an important role in future's mix of supply technologies in Denmark, especially heat pumps and solar. (Author)

  15. Quantitative assessment of integrated phrenic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-06-01

    Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting integrated phrenic nerve activity in many rat groups by the same experienced investigator; comparisons were made during baseline and maximal chemoreceptor stimulation in 14 wild-type Harlan and 14 Taconic Sprague Dawley groups, and in 3 pre-symptomatic and 11 end-stage SOD1(G93A) Taconic rat groups (an ALS model). Meta-analysis results indicate: (1) consistent measurements of integrated phrenic activity in each sub-strain of wild-type rats; (2) with bilateral nerve recordings, left-to-right integrated phrenic activity ratios are ∼1.0; and (3) consistently reduced activity in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats. Thus, with appropriate precautions, integrated phrenic nerve activity enables robust, quantitative comparisons among nerves or experimental groups, including differences caused by neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating agronomic factors into energy efficiency assessment of agro-bioenergy production : a case study of ethanol and biogas production from maize feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arodudu, Oludunsin Tunrayo; Helming, Katharina; Voinov, Alexey; Wiggering, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Previous life cycle assessments for agro-bioenergy production rarely considered some agronomic factors with local and regional impacts. While many studies have found the environmental and socio-economic impacts of producing bioenergy on arable land not good enough to be considered sustainable,

  17. France's energy assessment for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This report first gives a description of the world economic context in 2007 (GDP evolutions of several countries), and of the French macro-economic context in 2007 (GDP, goods production, demographic, household consumption, and trade evolutions). It comments the evolution of international oil product prices and of other energy prices (gas, coal) during the same year, and since 1980, and evokes other factors influencing the French energy bill (money market, climate). It briefly comments the evolution of the total primary energy consumption from 1973 to 2007. It describes the evolution of the national energy production, globally and for each energy source (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, renewable energies and wastes), indicating the energy independence rate for each of them, as well as the import origins. Energy consumption is then analysed in the same way, i.e., globally and for each energy source, and also by economic sectors (non-energetic uses, industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, electricity production). Some comments are made on the opening of the electricity market in France. The evolutions of the energy intensity and of carbon emissions related to energy consumption are finally discussed

  18. France energy assessment for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the economic and energetic context for 2010: revival of activity and trade at the world level but moderate in the euro zone and in France, an exceptionally cold year, a new increase of energy prices. It briefly comments the moderate demand resumption. It comments the evolutions of productions, trade and consumptions of different energies (coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and renewable energies). It comments the resumption of energy final consumption in the main sectors (industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture and fishery, transports). It outlines a slight improvement of energy efficiency, the slight decrease of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy consumption, and a 20% increase of the French energy bill

  19. Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L. E.; Litchfield, J. W.; Currie, J. W.; McDonald, C. L.; Adams, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems.

  20. Structural integrity assessment of piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of piping components is very essential for safe and reliable operation of power plants. Over the last several decades, considerable work has been done throughout the world to develop a methodology for integrity assessment of pipes and elbows, appropriate for the material involved. However, there is scope of further development/improvement of issues, particularly for pipe bends, that are important for accurate integrity assessment of piping. Considering this aspect, a comprehensive Component Integrity Test Program was initiated in 1998 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. In this program, both theoretical and experimental investigations were undertaken to address various issues related to the integrity assessment of pipes and elbows. Under the experimental investigations, fracture mechanics tests have been conducted on pipes and elbows of 200-400 mm nominal bore (NB) diameter with various crack configurations and sizes under different loading conditions. Tests on small tensile and three point bend specimens, machined from the tested pipes, have also been done to evaluate the actual stress-strain and fracture resistance properties of pipe/elbow material. The load-deflection curve and crack initiation loads predicted by non-linear finite element analysis matched well with the experimental results. The theoretical collapse moments of throughwall circumferentially cracked elbows, predicted by the recently developed equations, are found to be closer to the test data compared to the other existing equations. The role of stress triaxialities ahead of crack tip is also shown in the transferability of J-Resistance curve from specimen to component. The cyclic loading and system compliance effect on the load carrying capacity of piping components are investigated and new recommendations are made. (author)

  1. IkusaSA. Integrated Assessment for Sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , have intended and unintended consequences across a range of important issues. The IkusaSA model system comprises: ? A South African national IAM nested within one or more ?state-of-the-art? global IAMs that predict trade, climate change and human... the country and internationally. The IkusaSA mission is to establish Integrated Assessment Modeling (IAM) in South Africa. The goal is to put in place the tools for an integrated planning approach and provide effective information sharing mechanisms...

  2. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  3. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  4. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  5. Human capital, innovation, and climate policy: An integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; De Cian, Enrica; Tavoni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the interplay between human capital and innovation in the presence of climate and educational policies. Using recent empirical estimates, human capital and general purpose R&D are introduced in an integrated assessment model that has been extensively applied to study the climate change mitigation. Our results suggest that climate policy stimulates general purpose as well as clean energy R&D but reduces the incentive to invest in human capital formation. Human capital incre...

  6. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, Northeast Nuclear Energy Company, Docket No. 50-245. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This report documents the review of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, operated by Northeast Nuclear Energy Company (located in Waterford, Connecticut). Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license. This report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the Draft Report, issued in November 1982

  7. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  8. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  9. Life-cycle environmental and economic impacts of energy-crop fuel-chains: an integrated assessment of potential GHG avoidance in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines life-cycle analyses and economic analyses for Miscanthus and willow heat and electricity fuel-chains in Ireland. Displaced agricultural land-uses and conventional fuels were considered in fuel-chain permutations. Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 7.7 to 35.2 t CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 . Most fuel-chain permutations exhibited positive discounted financial returns, despite losses for particular entities at a farm-gate processed-biomass price of Euro 100 t -1 dry-matter. Attributing a value of Euro 10 t -1 CO 2 eq. to avoided GHG emissions, but subtracting financial returns associated with displaced fuel supplies, resulted in discounted annual national economic benefits (DANEBs) ranging from -457 to 1887 Euro ha -1 a -1 . Extrapolating a plausible combination of fuel-chains up to a national indicative scenario resulted in GHG emission avoidance of 3.56 Mt CO 2 eq. a -1 (5.2% of national emissions), a DANEB of 167 M Euro , and required 4.6% of national agricultural land area. As cost-effective national GHG avoidance options, Miscanthus and willow fuel-chains are robust to variation in yields and CO 2 price, and appear to represent an efficient land-use option (e.g. compared with liquid biofuel production). Policies promoting utilisation of these energy-crops could avoid unnecessary, and environmentally questionable, future purchase of carbon credits, as currently required for national Kyoto compliance

  10. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments.

  11. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments. (U.K.)

  12. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  13. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  14. Efficiency improvement for vehicle powertrains using energy integration techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    The main design criteria for the modern sustainable development of vehicle powertrains are the high energy efficiency of the conversion system, the competitive cost and the lowest possible environmental impacts. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the energy services for mobility and comfort are integrated. The energy integration of the mobility and the comfort service is a...

  15. Integrated energy planning for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    Improving access to energy is a multi-faceted challenge that has far-reaching implications and long-lasting obligations. Energy is essential to all human activities and, indeed, critical to social and economic development. Lack of energy is a contributing factor to states of perpetual poverty for individuals, communities, nations and regions. In contrast, access to energy opens many new opportunities; and meeting the United Nations Millennium Development Goals cannot be accomplished without access to affordable energy services

  16. Integrated energy planning for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    Improving access to energy is a multi-faceted challenge that has far-reaching implications and long-lasting obligations. Energy is essential to all human activities and, indeed, critical to social and economic development. Lack of energy is a contributing factor to states of perpetual poverty for individuals, communities, nations and regions. In contrast, access to energy opens many new opportunities; and meeting the United Nations Millennium Development Goals cannot be accomplished without access to affordable energy services

  17. Direct integration multiple collision integral transport analysis method for high energy fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new analysis method specially suited for the inherent difficulties of fusion neutronics was developed to provide detailed studies of the fusion neutron transport physics. These studies should provide a better understanding of the limitations and accuracies of typical fusion neutronics calculations. The new analysis method is based on the direct integration of the integral form of the neutron transport equation and employs a continuous energy formulation with the exact treatment of the energy angle kinematics of the scattering process. In addition, the overall solution is analyzed in terms of uncollided, once-collided, and multi-collided solution components based on a multiple collision treatment. Furthermore, the numerical evaluations of integrals use quadrature schemes that are based on the actual dependencies exhibited in the integrands. The new DITRAN computer code was developed on the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer to implement this direct integration multiple-collision fusion neutronics analysis. Three representative fusion reactor models were devised and the solutions to these problems were studied to provide suitable choices for the numerical quadrature orders as well as the discretized solution grid and to understand the limitations of the new analysis method. As further verification and as a first step in assessing the accuracy of existing fusion-neutronics calculations, solutions obtained using the new analysis method were compared to typical multigroup discrete ordinates calculations

  18. Integrated topology optimisation of multi-energy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazairac, L.A.J.; Salenbien, R.; Vanhoudt, D.; Desmedt, J.; Vries, de B.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-carrier hybrid energy distribution net- works provide flexibility in case of network malfunctions, energy shortages and price fluctuations through energy conversion and storage. Therefore hybrid networks can cope with large-scale integration of distributed and intermittent renewable energy

  19. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsberg, Charles [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Collins, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear – Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to estimate FOM for

  20. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a ''hybrid system'' that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear - Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to

  1. Assessing Extinction Risk: Integrating Genetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dunham

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Risks of population extinction have been estimated using a variety of methods incorporating information from different spatial and temporal scales. We briefly consider how several broad classes of extinction risk assessments, including population viability analysis, incidence functions, and ranking methods integrate information on different temporal and spatial scales. In many circumstances, data from surveys of neutral genetic variability within, and among, populations can provide information useful for assessing extinction risk. Patterns of genetic variability resulting from past and present ecological and demographic events, can indicate risks of extinction that are otherwise difficult to infer from ecological and demographic analyses alone. We provide examples of how patterns of neutral genetic variability, both within, and among populations, can be used to corroborate and complement extinction risk assessments.

  2. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... Energy (DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification... potential environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA) Integrated...

  3. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable...... in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...

  4. Integrity Assessment of GOH Heater Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Oh, J. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    An assessment of structural integrity of ASTM A312-TP347 GOH heater tube was performed. The surface notches which had been produced during tube manufacturing process were analyzed microscopically. Chemical analysis, hardness tests, tensile tests, and J-Integral fracture resistance tests were carried out to compare the mechanical properties with those of the material specification and also with the other material of the same type. The test results showed the mechanical properties of the GOH tube material are within the specification range. An elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis based on the DPFAD method reveals the tube an appropriate safety margin for the normal operation. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  5. Excess electricity diagrams and the integration of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a methodology of showing the rate of integration off specific renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system.......The article presents a methodology of showing the rate of integration off specific renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system....

  6. Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Chimczak, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence has been investigated. In the investigations reported here, monomolecular centers were taken into account. It was found that the integrated light is equal to the product of generation rate and time of duration of excitation pulse for both direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence.

  7. Thermal Distribution System | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal Distribution System Thermal Distribution System The Energy Systems Integration Facility's . Photo of the roof of the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The thermal distribution bus allows low as 10% of its full load level). The 60-ton chiller cools water with continuous thermal control

  8. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  9. 77 FR 41481 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... point to the importance of the Proposed Rule in removing market barriers to VER integration. NextEra... Commission's initiative to remove market and operational barriers to VERs integration and eliminate undue... Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol...

  10. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  11. Energy and environment: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1993-01-01

    Two problems connected to the concept of 'risk' were analyzed: nuclear power production and global climate changes. In fact, nuclear power, despite of the risk management of the plants, does not produce gaseous emissions and can be used to reduce environmental risks. Even if a cost benefit analysis of nuclear power is very difficult, to perform it is author's opinion that, very probably, industrial countries will continue to use this form of energy

  12. Optimal planning of integrated multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beuzekom, I.; Gibescu, M.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical approach for the optimal planning of integrated energy systems is proposed. In order to address the challenges of future, RES-dominated energy systems, the model deliberates between the expansion of traditional energy infrastructures, the integration...... and sustainability goals for 2030 and 2045. Optimal green- and brownfield designs for a district's future integrated energy system are compared using a one-step, as well as a two-step planning approach. As expected, the greenfield designs are more cost efficient, as their results are not constrained by the existing...

  13. Advanced structural integrity assessment procedures. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for discussion on recent results in research and utility practice in the field of methodology for the structural integrity assessment of components including relevant non-codified procedures. The scope of the meeting included deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The papers covered the following topics: Leak-before-break concepts; non-destructive examination (NDE) and surveillance results; statistical evaluation of non-destructive examination data; pressurized thermal shock evaluation; fatigue effects (including vibration); and verification qualification. The meeting was attended by 32 specialists from 8 countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  15. Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, P.; Vorobyev, Y.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Queral, C.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Rebollo, M. J.; Mena, L.; Gomez-Magin, J.

    2014-02-01

    IDPSA (Integrated Deterministic-Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is a family of methods which use tightly coupled probabilistic and deterministic approaches to address respective sources of uncertainties, enabling Risk informed decision making in a consistent manner. The starting point of the IDPSA framework is that safety justification must be based on the coupling of deterministic (consequences) and probabilistic (frequency) considerations to address the mutual interactions between stochastic disturbances (e.g. failures of the equipment, human actions, stochastic physical phenomena) and deterministic response of the plant (i.e. transients). This paper gives a general overview of some IDPSA methods as well as some possible applications to PWR safety analyses. (Author)

  16. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao

    1987-11-01

    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  17. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home's asset performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Home rating systems can help motivate homeowners in several ways. Ratings can clearly communicate a home's achievable energy efficiency potential, provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, and show homeowners how they rate compared to their neighbors, thus creating an incentive to conform to a social standard. An important consideration is how rating tools for the retrofit market will integrate with existing home energy service programs. For residential programs that target energy savings only, home visits should be focused on key efficiency measures for that home. In order to gain wide adoption, a rating tool must be easily integrated into the field process, demonstrate consistency and reasonable accuracy to earn the trust of home energy technicians, and have a low monetary cost and time hurdle for homeowners. Along with the Home Energy Score, this project also evaluated the energy modeling performance of SIMPLE and REM/Rate.

  18. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-07-02

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.

  19. 1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ''dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.'' This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD

  20. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  1. Energy Decision Science and Informatics | Integrated Energy Solutions |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Decision Science and Informatics Energy Decision Science and Informatics NREL utilizes and advances state-of-the-art decision science and informatics to help partners make well-informed energy decisions backed by credible, objective data analysis and insights to maximize the impact of energy

  2. Integrated energy optimization with smart home energy management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare-Bediako, B.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Kling, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of energy use is a vital concept in providing solutions to many of the energy challenges in our world today. Large chemical, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and electrical systems require energy efficiency as one of the important aspects of operating systems. At the micro-scale, the

  3. Integration of deep geothermal energy and woody biomass conversion pathways in urban systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moret, Stefano; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Gerber, Léda; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Urban systems account for about two-thirds of global primary energy consumption and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, with a projected increasing trend. Deep geothermal energy and woody biomass can be used for the production of heat, electricity and biofuels, thus constituting a renewable alternative to fossil fuels for all end-uses in cities: heating, cooling, electricity and mobility. This paper presents a methodology to assess the potential for integrating deep geothermal energy and...

  4. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  5. The Integrated Assessment of Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent findings on the complex field of land degradation (LD with focus on the Mediterranean Basin and Italy, in particular. The LD definition and assessment methods are examined in the light of the most important natural and human driving forces of the phenomenon, such as land use and climate changes.Various methodological issues are dealt with from multidisciplinary perspective with the aim of providing the ground for the development of integrated approaches: monitoring needs, assessment of costs, development of mitigation strategies, etc. Factors affecting land vulnerability to degradation are classified into bio-physical and socio-economic drivers with some examples of applications in Italy. The role of determinants such as agricultural development, population growth, and urban sprawl is recognised as important but still ambiguous and thus needs further studies. Based on these findings, policy responses aimed at mitigating LD and thus reducing desertification risk are discussed and methodological proposal are presented.

  6. Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction....... The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes....

  7. Energy management system for an integrated steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perti, A.K.; Sankarasubramian, K.; Shivramakrishnan, J. (Bhilai Steel Plant, Bhilai (India))

    1992-09-01

    The cost of energy contributes 35 to 40% to the cost of steel production. Thus a lot of importance is being given to energy conservation in steel production. The paper outlines energy conservation measures at the Bhilai Steel Plant, India. Measures include: modifications to furnaces; partial briquetting of coal charge; and setting up an energy centre to integrate measurement and computer systems with despatches, engineers and managers of energy. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast......Efficient operation of energy systems with substantial amount of renewable energy production is becoming increasingly important. Renewables are dependent on the weather conditions and are therefore by nature volatile and uncontrollable, opposed to traditional energy production based on combustion....... The "smart grid" is a broad term for the technology for addressing the challenge of operating the grid with a large share of renewables. The "smart" part is formed by technologies, which models the properties of the systems and efficiently adapt the load to the volatile energy production, by using...

  9. Integration of energy markets with neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.; Vermeulen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch wholesale markets for energy are still hindered by the various bottlenecks, which lead to higher costs for energy consumers than in well operating markets. A more efficient utilization of the import infrastructure could result in savings for energy consumers up to several tens of millions of euros. The managers of the transport infrastructure must take on a more active approach to eliminate these market obstacles. [mk] [nl

  10. Integrated Energy Design in Master Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn

    This PhD thesis considers urban structure and buildings in an energy correlation and use the knowledge to design energy- and comfort-optimized cities and buildings. The parameters are: the structure of nature, the city and the landscape, both in terms of geometry and interrelationships and in terms...... in character as daylight is taken into account. Furthermore the results suggest that there are limits to urban densification (200-300%) as an energy optimization strategy. The solar energy and daylight potential should be considered, and indeed protected, as a common resource in urban design. The most...

  11. Integrated sustainable development and energy resource planning

    OpenAIRE

    Virgiliu NICULA

    2011-01-01

    Integrated sustainable development of a country cannot be conceived and begun without considering in an intricate tandem environmental protection and economic development. No one can exist without a natural material support of the life he or she enjoys. All economic development plans must include environmental and human civilization’s protection implicitly. Integrated resource planning must be done in an absolutely judicious manner, so we can all leave as a legacy for future generations both ...

  12. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-01-01

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R and D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  13. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun

    2009-01-01

    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  14. Italian energy economics in an integrated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Whereas the comparison of 1973-1990 statistical data representing national dependency on foreign energy supplies reflects the overall successful effort by the major Common Market countries to reduce their dependencies, it also evidences that Italy has in fact increased its dependency on foreign energy supplies by 1% to a worrisome 83% European high. Further analysis of the Italian energy situation reveals that, although in recent years energy strategies have been implemented to diversify the mix of energy sources and suppliers, the only diversification Italy has made is the substitution of a portion of its petroleum imports, used predominantly to meet rapidly rising power demand, with natural gas imports. Thus, the degree of vulnerability of this nation's energy supply base has not been altered significantly. It is now hoped that greater cooperation between Italy and its more energy self-sufficient European neighbours, as called for in the new European free trade marketing strategies, as well as, attempts to create and enforce new European environmental standards, will help and induce Italy to lessen its energy supply vulnerability

  15. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Panasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    In collaboration with Panasonic Enterprise Solutions Company, Xcel Energy, land developer L.C. Fulenwider, and the City and County of Denver, NREL is developing a zero-energy transit-oriented campus at the Denver International Airport's Pena Station.

  16. Integration of new distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Bakken, Bjoern H.; Hetland, Jens

    2001-01-01

    In years with average runoff, Norway will be a net importer of electric power. The use of electric energy is not declining and so the gap between supply and demand is increasing. A large-scale increase of the production of new hydroelectric power is unlikely for political reasons. Gas power by today's technology is controversial and basing the national energy supply on import is undesirable. It is possible to concentrate on decentralized electricity production in small units. On the supply side, increased taxation can be used to reduce consumption; but this may hit unfairly. Direct regulation to limit consumption is undesirable in a free market. One solution on the consumer side may be a more flexible energy use by way of new technology, incorporating thermal energy. Research and development in a united energy sector is needed to realize the potential of small combined heating and power units connected to the existing system. Some efforts have already been made

  17. SIMULTANEOUS INTEGRATION OF WATER AND ENERGY: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process Integration (PI is a tool that for over forty years has demonstrated its strength to provide optimal solutions to complex problems. The interaction of exchange systems of energy and water networks is a typical case of such problems. The gradual increase in the consumption of water and energy has determined the development of methodologies that take into account the simultaneous integration of these resources. This paper aims to present a literature review related to the simultaneous integration of water and energy. First, general items related to this research field are presented, emphasizing the approaches to simultaneous integration (Pinch Analysis and Mathematical Programming. Some recent cases of studies, demonstrating the strength of these tools mainly focus to sugar industry, are also presented. Finally some of the challenges to be faced by the simultaneous integration of water and energy for the diversification of the Cuban sugar industry are presented.

  18. Comparing energy storage options for renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The paper investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity storage......Increasing penetrations of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilizing storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This paper takes its point of departure in an all...

  19. Energy Technology and Market Risk Reduction | Integrated Energy Solutions |

    Science.gov (United States)

    renewable energy projects, including: Debt financing and structures that use cash flows generated by your ; project costs; and evolving regulatory, permitting, and retail markets through activities such as

  20. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  1. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  2. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  3. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  4. Integration of solar energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Mennola, T.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.; Rasinkoski, A.; Spiers, D.; Eenilae, P. [Neste Advanced Power Systems (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    New photovoltaic building elements were developed and the uses of various solar technologies in buildings were optimised with computational design tools. The novel amorphous silicon photovoltaic elements allow for economic integration of photovoltaics in large facades. The cost of grid-connected systems may be reduced by approximately 20 % through the advanced design approaches developed. (orig.)

  5. Microgrids | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Diesel generators: because diesel generators are traditional microgrid components, three different generator sets with various control options are available for microgrid integration efforts. DC power supplies: the ESIF's full suite of DC simulation capability includes a 1.5-MW photovoltaic (PV) simulator

  6. Determining the climate impact of the German government's Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) and proposing a plan to continuously monitor its climate impact. Work package 1. Qualitative assessment of the instruments in an Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP); Ermittlung der Klimaschutzwirkung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung IEKP und Vorschlag fuer ein Konzept zur kontinuierlichen Ueberpruefung der Klimaschutzwirkung des IEKP. Arbeitspaket 1. Qualitative Einschaetzung der Instrumente im Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramm (IEKP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2012-02-15

    In August 2007, the key elements for an integrated energy and climate program (IECP) were adopted within the Meseberg resolutions. The implementation of the Meseberg resolutions were performed in three packages primarily including amending laws as well as support measures. The authors of the contribution under consideration compare the climate protection instruments realized by IECP with the presentations in the IECP. This comparison is based on an analysis of documents and research projects in the periphery of the IECP and on a survey of target groups and other relevant actors on the effectiveness of the IECP mechanisms. The result of this comparison is summarized in form of 27 measures.

  7. Integrated assessment, water resources, and science-policy communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, E.G.R.; Akhtar, M.K.; McBean, G.A.; Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional climate change modeling neglects the role of feedbacks between different components of society-biosphere-climate system. Yet, such interconnections are critical. This paper describes an alternative, Integrated Assessment (IA) model that focuses on feedbacks not only within individual elements of the society-biosphere-climate system, but also on their interconnections. The model replicates the relevant dynamics of nine components of the society-biosphere- climate system at the sectoral, or single-component, level: climate, carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, water demand, water quality, population, land use, energy and economy. The paper discusses the role of the model in science-policy dialogue. (author)

  8. Development of an integrated energy concept: Assessment of the potential for the reduction of emissions of climate effective trace gases in the field of rational energy use in the old Laender. Appendix Vol. 1. Sector households. Sector small consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhoff, C.; Luther, T.

    1993-11-01

    The calculated scenarios have shown that especially in the sector households large potentials for the reduction of CO 2 -emissions could be realised, provided that the necessary marginal conditions are created. In this respect the approach of an energy service reveals that energy conservation is possible without giving up comfort. The conversation potentials are characterised by an economic cost effectiveness. Their realisation must be the aim of an energy policy that conserves the resources and minimises the risk. In this respect the attention must not only be drawn to those energy conservation potentials, which can be achieved by an improvement of the technical efficiency, as it has been demonstrated in the scenario efficiency. According to the scenario ecological structure policy the conservation potentials related to the use must be the main focus of the investigation instead, because they can be very often realised ''free of charge''. At the same time they can be the beginning of a change of consciousness of the people towards a behaviour, that better conserves the resources. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Integrity assessment of a storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Osorio Correa; Santos, Jose Henrique Gomes dos; Carvalho, Alexis Fernandes [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the last internal inspection of a 5000 bbl freshwater storage tank located in a shipping terminal, widespread pitting corrosion was detected on the shell courses. In some of these pits, its depth was such that the remaining thickness was bellow the minimum thickness required according to the design code. Nevertheless, this approach is overly conservative since it does not consider the pits size, depth and spacing. Thanks to advances in stress analysis, new tools are available for the evaluation of damaged equipment widely employed in the oil industry such as pressure vessels, piping and storage tanks. In the present work, the authors present the integrity assessment performed on this tank using the Fitness for Service approach using the methods and procedures contained in the document API RP 579 (Fitness-for-service). (author)

  10. Integrating ethical and technical considerations in the energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study being carried out by the author on analyzing and integrating ethical and technical considerations in formulating an energy policy for the United States, with special emphasis on nuclear issues, is reviewed. Beginning with an overview of the historical development of the American nuclear program and the emergence of an organized politcal opposition to that program, seven outstanding issues are identified: institutional adequacy, radiation, reactor safety, waste disposal, economics and reliability, international consequences, and alternative energy sources, and an attempt is made to identify the range of dispute in relation to each. A framework is proposed for analyzing these issues by introducing guidelines for defining a social justice problem. Suggestions are made about how to get morally serious about such issues, and this framework is applied to four issues: radiation, reactor safety, waste disposal, and institutional adequacy. Ultimately it is a political choice whether or not to include nuclear power in a nations's energy policy. It is important, however, that such choices be made using the best technical and ethical assessments of the consequences. (LL)

  11. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  12. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  13. Measuring Knowledge Integration Learning of Energy Topics: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.; Sato, Elissa; Svihla, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers call for inquiry learning in science, science assessments rarely capture the impact of inquiry instruction. This paper reports on the development and validation of assessments designed to measure middle-school students' progress in gaining integrated understanding of energy while studying an inquiry-oriented curriculum. The…

  14. Energy conservation in Newmark based time integration algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Energy balance equations are established for the Newmark time integration algorithm, and for the derived algorithms with algorithmic damping introduced via averaging, the so-called a-methods. The energy balance equations form a sequence applicable to: Newmark integration of the undamped equations...... of motion, an extended form including structural damping, and finally the generalized form including structural as well as algorithmic damping. In all three cases the expression for energy, appearing in the balance equation, is the mechanical energy plus some additional terms generated by the discretization...

  15. Fission energy: The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yoon I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory as a such next- generation reactor concept. The IFR concept has a number of specific technical advantages that collectively address the potential difficulties facing the expansion of nuclear power deployment. In particular, the IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next-generation reactor as discussed below. This document discusses these requirements

  16. Fission energy: The integral fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoon I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory as a such next- generation reactor concept. The IFR concept has a number of specific technical advantages that collectively address the potential difficulties facing the expansion of nuclear power deployment. In particular, the IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next-generation reactor as discussed below. This document discusses these requirements.

  17. Self-powered integrated systems-on-chip (energy chip)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, H.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hasan, M.; Talukdar, A.; Oommen, J.; Mink, J.

    2010-01-01

    and batch production (low cost). b. Integration of advanced nano-materials to meet the performance/cost benefit trend. Nano-materials may offer new functionalities that were previously underutilized in the macro/micro dimension. c. Energy efficiency

  18. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  19. Environmental health risk assessment: Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Somers, E.; Winthrop, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Most industrialized nations have come to rely on a variety of systems for energy production, both of a conventional and non-conventional nature. In the paper, the spectrum of energy systems currently in use in Canada is outlined along with their potential health risks. Several examples of environmental health studies involving both outdoor and indoor air pollution related to energy production in Canada are reported. The limitations of current technologies for assessing health risks are discussed and possible approaches to managing energy related health risks are indicated. (author)

  20. Energy integration: Regional economic integration lever and possible insertion factor in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokolo, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1920s, just after the War, an idea began taking root in the Old Continent, to build what could be described as the United States of Europe. Thirty years later, in 1951, a new source of energy, coal, paved the way for the economic integration of Europe. It culminated into monetary integration in January 2002. Economic integration makes sense in the context of the relatively small size of some national economies and markets, and the judicious utilization of rare resources and their unequal distribution. In this document, the author elaborated on the principles at play in economic integration and argued that the integration of the national energy markets could be the lever for economic integration through the gradual elimination of the various obstacles to trade. The author first presented a brief historical overview of economic integration from the perspective of global economic relationships, covering the period between the two world wars to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The concept and the forms of economic integration were reviewed. Energy integration as a lever of regional economic integration and as a factor in global economic insertion were discussed. Energy integration is a tool for the improvement of the human condition. 15 refs

  1. Storage Integration in Energy Systems: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2016-06-01

    Energy storage is partly an 'old story' and a new one. Energy storage is an essential stabilizing factor in existing electrical systems. Looking forward, energy storage is being considered as a key element of the transformation of energy systems, given the higher shares of renewable generation integrating the systems and demand-side management offered to end-customers. Today, the cost of electricity produced from battery storage is approaching parity with electricity bought from the grid. For this trend to gain strength and energy storage to be part of new business models, energy policies and regulatory frameworks need to be adapted. (author)

  2. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Integracion Regional de energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J; Dominguez Bravo, J [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs.

  3. HANFORD Pu-238 DRUM INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Hanford is presently retrieving contact-handled, transuranic (CH-TRU) waste drums from the site's Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) for processing and disposition. A subgroup of these drums (12 total), referred to as Pu-238 drums, has some unique characteristics that may impact the current drum handling and processing activities. These characteristics include content, shielding, thermal, pressurization and criticality issues. An effort to evaluate these characteristics, for the purpose of developing a specific plan for safe retrieval of the Pu-238 drums, is underway. In addition to the above evaluation, the following integrity assessment of the inner container material and/or confinement properties, with primary emphasis on the Source Capsule (primary confinement barrier) and Shipping Container has been performed. Assessment included review of the inner container materials and the potential impact the service history may have had on material and/or confinement properties. Several environmental degradation mechanisms were considered with the objective of answering the following question: Is it likely the container material and/or confinement properties have been significantly altered as a result of service history?

  4. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  5. Gains from an integrated market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozumder, Pallab; Marathe, Achla

    2004-01-01

    Decoupling the environmental attributes of renewable energy (RE) generation from the physical unit of energy is an innovative mechanism for marketing green or renewable power. The introduction of 'Tradable Renewable Energy Credits' (TRECs) allows the green power attributes of energy to be sold or traded separately from the physical unit of energy. Since the green power certificate system removes potential locational and physical bottlenecks, both suppliers and consumers gain flexibility in the marketplace. The TREC is also an efficient tool to meet 'Renewable Portfolio Standard' (RPS) required by different states in the US. This paper discusses the RPS requirements for different states and examines the implications of an integrated TREC market. It offers a competitive setting to the consumers to pay for renewable energy and a cost effective tool to support renewable energy generation [Grace and Wiser, 2002]. This paper also highlights some practical difficulties that should be addressed in order to establish an efficient integrated TREC market

  6. Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Energy Integrated Distillation Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong Wen; Hansen, C.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of manufacturing systems can be significantly increased through diligent application of control based on mathematical models thereby enabling more tight integration of decision making with systems operation. In the present paper analysis of optimal operation of an energy integrated...

  7. Effect of Integral Non-Linearity on Energy Calibration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integral non-linearity (INL) of four spectroscopy systems, two integrated (A1 and A2) and two classical (B1 and B2) systems was determined using pulses from a random pulse generator. The effect of INL on the system's energy calibration was also determined. The effect is minimal in the classical system at high ...

  8. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  9. Optimization under uncertainty of a biomass-integrated renewable energy microgrid with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yingying; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Kornbluth, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Deterministic constrained optimization and stochastic optimization approaches were used to evaluate uncertainties in biomass-integrated microgrids supplying both electricity and heat. An economic linear programming model with a sliding time window was developed to assess design and scheduling...... of biomass combined heat and power (BCHP) based microgrid systems. Other available technologies considered within the microgrid were small-scale wind turbines, photovoltaic modules (PV), producer gas storage, battery storage, thermal energy storage and heat-only boilers. As an illustrative example, a case...... study was examined for a conceptual utility grid-connected microgrid application in Davis, California. The results show that for the assumptions used, a BCHP/PV with battery storage combination is the most cost effective design based on the assumed energy load profile, local climate data, utility tariff...

  10. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  11. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  12. Specification of Energy Assessment Methodologies to Satisfy ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Harish

    Energy management has become more crucial for industrial sector as a way to lower their cost of production and in reducing their carbon footprint. Environmental regulations also force the industrial sector to increase the efficiency of their energy usage. Hence industrial sector started relying on energy management consultancies for improvements in energy efficiency. With the development of ISO 50001 standard, the entire energy management took a new dimension involving top level management and getting their commitment on energy efficiency. One of the key requirements of ISO 50001 is to demonstrate continual improvement in their (industry) energy efficiency. The major aim of this work is to develop an energy assessment methodology and reporting format to tailor the needs of ISO 50001. The developed methodology integrates the energy reduction aspect of an energy assessment with the requirements of sections 4.4.3 (Energy Review) to 4.4.6 (Objectives, Targets and Action Plans) in ISO 50001 and thus helping the facilities in easy implementation of ISO 50001.

  13. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E 3 ) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term (approximately2,100) context. The E 3 model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E 3 area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E 3 model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E 3 model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E 3 study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E 3 model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project

  14. Integrated assessment of bioelectricity technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, Sina; Brammer, John; Rogers, John

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from biomass is a sustainable energy technology which can contribute to substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, but with greater potential for environmental, economic and social impacts than most other renewable energy technologies. It is important therefore in assessing bioenergy systems to take account of not only technical, but also environmental, economic and social parameters on a common basis. This work addresses the challenge of analysing, quantifying and comparing these factors for bioenergy power generation systems. A life-cycle approach is used to analyse the technical, environmental, economic and social impacts of entire bioelectricity systems, with a number of life-cycle indicators as outputs to facilitate cross-comparison. The results show that similar greenhouse gas savings are achieved with the wide variety of technologies and scales studied, but land-use efficiency of greenhouse gas savings and specific airborne emissions varied substantially. Also, while specific investment costs and electricity costs vary substantially from one system to another the number of jobs created per unit of electricity delivered remains roughly constant. Recorded views of stakeholders illustrate that diverging priorities exist for different stakeholder groups and this will influence appropriate choice of bioenergy systems for different applications

  15. Integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Jimeno A.; Schlueter, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to describe spatiotemporal building energy demand patterns was developed. • The model integrates existing methods in urban and energy planning domains. • The model is useful to analyze energy efficiency strategies in neighborhoods. • Applicability in educational, urban and energy planning practices was found. - Abstract: We introduce an integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts. The model addresses the need for a comprehensive method to identify present and potential states of building energy consumption in the context of urban transformation. The focus lies on determining the spatiotemporal variability of energy services in both standing and future buildings in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. This detailed characterization facilitates the assessment of potential energy efficiency measures at the neighborhood and city district scales. In a novel approach we integrated existing methods in urban and energy planning domains such as spatial analysis, dynamic building energy modeling and energy mapping to provide a comprehensive, multi-scale and multi-dimensional model of analysis. The model is part of a geographic information system (GIS), which serves as a platform for the allocation and future dissemination of spatiotemporal data. The model is validated against measured data and a peer model for a city district in Switzerland. In this context, we present practical applications in the analysis of energy efficiency measures in buildings and urban zoning. We furthermore discuss potential applications in educational, urban and energy planning practices

  16. The regional energy integration: the latin-american experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ways of the regional economic integrations are not identical and generate different repercussions on the markets and the energy industries evolution. The example of the Latin America proposes many various experiences to evaluate the stakes and the limits of each regional integrations. These limits lead to solution researches including indisputable convergencies. The first part of this document presents the genesis of these regional economic integrations experiences in Latina America, to study in the second part the energy consequences of the liberal ALENA and of the more political MERCOSUR. (A.L.B.)

  17. Task force for integral test of High Energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    According to completion of the JENDL-High Energy file for neutron nuclear cross sections up to 50 MeV, a task force for integral test of high energy nuclear data was organized to discuss a guide line for integral test activities. A status of existing differential and integral experiments and how to perform such a test were discussed in the task force. Here the purpose and outline of the task force is explained with some future problems raised in discussion among the task member. (author)

  18. Integrating and Promoting Wind – Tide Energy for Renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continual decline in supply of conventional energy in Nigeria due to the depletion of the national reserve as the demand continued to increase has resulted to energy crisis with epileptic power supply, rising cost of production and food prices and threat to poverty reduction as its effects. Integrating and promoting ...

  19. Energy expressions in density-functional theory using line integrals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.; Baerends, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we will address the question of how to obtain energies from functionals when only the functional derivative is given. It is shown that one can obtain explicit expressions for the exchange-correlation energy from approximate exchange-correlation potentials using line integrals along

  20. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  1. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  2. Energy efficiency and proliferation assessment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The objective of INFCE is to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycles from the point of view of their ability to satisfy the worldwide nuclear energy needs, while minimizing the proliferation risks. Accordingly, the different working groups have to take into consideration as well the energy-efficiency and the proliferation-resistance of these nuclear fuel cycles. The present working paper is aimed at suggesting the main assessment factors which should be taken into consideration

  3. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  4. Storage, a stake for renewable energies integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabette, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Development of renewable energy sources is challenging the power system operation. Balancing consumption and generation at different times, from real time up to 10 years, with an increasing part of intermittent and fatal sources should indicate a clear route to storage development Up to now on opposite situation occurs. New storage project in Europe has been stopped because of missing business model, and there is no long term economical signal showing it could change in the near future. The capability to predict with a good accuracy, and share through the European transmission system the renewable production places storage in direct competition with other sources of flexibility. However, use case of storage is not limited to energy balancing. Ancillary services, connexion cost optimization, quality of supply are among other possible services offered by storage installation. For all of those, understanding technical requirements and economical issues is an initial condition to open a favourable game area for storage. Exploring new multi-service models through demonstrators, redesigning the electricity market in Europe are key initiatives to approach a new era for storage development. It doesn't prevent innovation to improve performance and reduce cost, an essential condition to give a chance for storage solution compared to other flexibility sources. (author)

  5. Social assessment of energy projects. How?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Larsen, A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of the project: Social assessment of Energy Projects. The aim of the project is to improve the basis of working out social assessments of energy projects in practice. The report raises the question: How should social assessments of energy projects be made? A social assessment is using a national perspective, i.e. it accounts the effects of the project for individuals and institutions in Denmark. The assessment is based on economics which means that effects generated by the project are valuated in DKK - as far as possible. The aim of the social assessment is to support a more effective use of the resources in Denmark. A social assessment should include an analysis of the distributional effects. The analysis can be made as an account including a social cash flow analysis. The distribution analysis will illustrate the gains and losses for the different groups of individuals affected carrying out the project. In that way the analysis will show who potentially will support the project and who will be against the project. (EG) EFP-92. 37 refs

  6. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  7. Surface free energy for systems with integrable boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehmann, Frank; Bortz, Michael; Frahm, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The surface free energy is the difference between the free energies for a system with open boundary conditions and the same system with periodic boundary conditions. We use the quantum transfer matrix formalism to express the surface free energy in the thermodynamic limit of systems with integrable boundary conditions as a matrix element of certain projection operators. Specializing to the XXZ spin-1/2 chain we introduce a novel 'finite temperature boundary operator' which characterizes the thermodynamical properties of surfaces related to integrable boundary conditions

  8. A review of computer tools for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    to integrating renewable energy, but instead the ‘ideal’ energy tool is highly dependent on the specific objectives that must be fulfilled. The typical applications for the 37 tools reviewed (from analysing single-building systems to national energy-systems), combined with numerous other factors......This paper includes a review of the different computer tools that can be used to analyse the integration of renewable energy. Initially 68 tools were considered, but 37 were included in the final analysis which was carried out in collaboration with the tool developers or recommended points...... of contact. The results in this paper provide the information necessary to identify a suitable energy tool for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy-systems under different objectives. It is evident from this paper that there is no energy tool that addresses all issues related...

  9. Integrated Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, W.; Reith, F.; Keller, D.; Oschlies, A.; Quaas, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    To maintain the chance of keeping the average global temperature increase below 2°C and to limit long-term climate change, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (carbon dioxide removal, CDR) is becoming increasingly necessary. We analyze optimal and cost-effective climate policies in the dynamic integrated assessment model (IAM) of climate and the economy (DICE2016R) and investigate (1) the utilization of (ocean) CDR under different climate objectives, (2) the sensitivity of policies with respect to carbon cycle feedbacks, and (3) how well carbon cycle feedbacks are captured in the carbon cycle models used in state-of-the-art IAMs. Overall, the carbon cycle model in DICE2016R shows clear improvements compared to its predecessor, DICE2013R, capturing much better long-term dynamics and also oceanic carbon outgassing due to excess oceanic storage of carbon from CDR. However, this comes at the cost of a (too) tight short-term remaining emission budget, limiting the model suitability to analyze low-emission scenarios accurately. With DICE2016R, the compliance with the 2°C goal is no longer feasible without negative emissions via CDR. Overall, the optimal amount of CDR has to take into account (1) the emission substitution effect and (2) compensation for carbon cycle feedbacks.

  10. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Theerthan, A.; Giri, A.; Karbojian, A.; Willschuetz, H.G.; Kymaelaeinen, O.; Vandroux, S.; Bonnet, J.M.; Seiler, J.M.; Ikkonen, K.; Sairanen, R.; Bhandari, S.; Buerger, M.; Buck, M.; Widmann, W.; Dienstbier, J.; Techy, Z.; Kostka, P.; Taubner, R.; Theofanous, T.; Dinh, T.N

    2003-04-01

    The cost-shared project ARVI (assessment of reactor vessel integrity) involves a total of nine organisations from Europe and USA. The objective of the ARVI Project is to resolve the safety issues that remain unresolved for the melt vessel interaction phase of the in-vessel progression of a severe accident. The work consists of experiments and analysis development. Four tests were performed in the EC-FOREVER Programme, in which failure was achieved in-vessels employing the French pressure vessel steel. The tests were analysed with the commercial code ANSYS-Multiphysics, and the codes SYSTUS+ and PASULA, and quite good agreement was achieved for the failure location. Natural convection experiments in stratified pools have been performed in the SIMECO and the COPO facilities, which showed that much greater heat is transferred downwards for immiscible layers or before layers mix. A model for gap cooling and a set of simplified models for the system codes have been developed. MVITA code calculations have been performed for the Czech and Hungarian VVERs, towards evaluation of the in-vessel melt retention accident management scheme. Tests have been performed at the ULPU facility with organised flow for vessel external cooling. Considerable enhancement of the critical heat flux (CHF) was obtained. The ARVI Project has reached the halfway stage. This paper presents the results obtained thus far from the project.

  11. Regional energy assessment - Technical Guidebook nr. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This publication indicates and describes how a regional energy assessment is to be performed. Some general aspects and features are first addressed: conversion coefficients, climate correction. Then, its describes how final consumptions of the different consuming sectors are to be addressed: industry with its nomenclature of activities, transport, housing, office building, agriculture. Final consumptions of the different energy products are then addressed: solid mineral fuels (in industry and other sectors), oil products (different types of fuels), natural gas, heat, electricity. Regional statistical sources are indicated for electric power, natural gas, oil, renewable energies, industry, and sectors as a whole

  12. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  13. Economic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Georges, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out......-in tariff and a 5 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out...... by varying the building envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lightning and appliances profiles, the roof tilt, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption rate, shifted energy...

  14. Assessment on health and energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Yvon, M.

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled some issues related to the prevention of environmental health risks and mentioned in the preparation of the debate on energy transition in France, this document gathers actual objective elements for an assessment of health impact of the different energy sources. It discusses the impacts on health (mortality, sicknesses and diseases) of fossil fuels (coal and its wastes, gas), of renewable energies, of nuclear energy. For this last one, the document outlines the lack of documentation for various topics, discusses some results published on the dose impact of nuclear operation, and comment the issue of waste storage. It also recalls the main accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) and some of the known and assessed impacts. The third part proposes comparisons between the different energy sources in terms of deadly accidents, of pollution and greenhouse effect (current and late mortality), of released radioactivity (release sources and collective dose). In conclusion, the authors outline that the impact on health of environmental risks must be one of the essential issues for the definition of energy policy, and discuss the resulting implications. Various data are provided in appendix: energy in France and in the world, origins of radioactivity

  15. Tree Simulation Techniques for Integrated Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez Asensio, E.; Izquierdo Rocha, J.M.; Sanchez Perez, M.; Hortal Reymundo, J.; Perez Mulas, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the development of a PSA a central role is played by the construction of the event trees that, stemming from each initiating event considered, will finally lead to the calculation of the core damage frequency (CDF). This construction is extensively done by means of expert judgement, performing simulation of the sequences only when some doubt arises (typically for small break LOCAs) using integrated codes. Transient analysis done within the framework of the PSA has important simplifications that affect the transient simulation, specially in relation with the control and protection systems, and may not identify complicated sequences. Specialised simulation tools such as RELAP5 have been used only at very specific points of the PSAs due to time and model complexity constraints. On the other hand, a large amount of work and expertise has been laid in the development of simulation tools, independently of the PSA effort. Tools simplified in the phenomena they consider, but complete in the treatment of automatic and manual control and protection systems are now available for automatic generation and testing of the sequences appearing in the Event Trees. Additionally, an increasing effort and interest has been spent in the development of efficient means for the representation of the Emergency Operating Procedures, which, incorporated into the simulating tool would make a more realistic picture of the real plant performance. At present; both types of analyses - transient and probabilistic - can converge to be able to dynamically generate an Event Tree while taking into account the actual performance of the control and protection systems of the plant and the operator actions. Such a tool would allow for an assessment of the Event Trees, and, if fed with probabilistic data, can provide results of the same nature. Key aspects of this approach that imply new theoretical as well as practical developments in addition to those traditionally covered by classical simulation

  16. Facilitating energy transition through energy commons : An application of socio-ecological systems framework for integrated community energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, Cristina; Ortega, Mariana; Bunsen, Till; Koirala, B.P.; Ghorbani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are an emerging local energy system focusing on the collective use of distributed energy resources (DER). These socio-technical systems (STSs) have a high potential to advance the transition towards socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly energy

  17. Facilitating energy transition through energy commons : An application of socio-ecological systems framework for integrated community energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, Cristina; Ortega, Mariana; Bunsen, Till; Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ghorbani, Amineh

    2018-01-01

    Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are an emerging local energy system focusing on the collective use of distributed energy resources (DER). These socio-technical systems (STSs) have a high potential to advance the transition towards socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly energy

  18. Practical application of Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a practical microcomputer-based, hierarchical modelling framework for Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP), and policy analysis. The rationale for the concept and the development of the methodology are traced, following the energy crises of the 1970s. Details of the INEP process, which includes analysis at three hierarchical levels (the energy-microeconomic, energy sector and energy subsector) are given. A description of the various models, the scenarios and assumptions used in the analysis, as well as the linkages and interactions, is provided. The Sri Lanka energy situation is summarized, and the principal energy issues and options derived from the modelling are used to synthesize a national energy strategy. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 11 tabs

  19. Integration of the North American energy market; Integration du marche Nord-Americain de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapointe, A

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  20. Integrated assessment models of climate change. An incomplete overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Integrated assessment is a trendy phrase that has recently entered the vocabulary of folks in Washington, DC and elsewhere. The novelty of the term in policy analysis and policy making circles belies the longevity of this approach in the sciences and past attempts at their application to policy issues. This paper is an attempt at providing an overview of integrated assessment with a special focus on policy motivated integrated assessments of climate change. The first section provides an introduction to integrated assessments in general, followed by a discussion of the bounds to the climate change issue. The next section is devoted to a taxonomy of the policy motivated models. Then the integrated assessment effort at Carnegie Mellon is described briefly. A perspective on the challenges ahead in successful representation of natural and social dynamics in integrated assessments of global climate change is presented in the final section. (Author)

  1. Higher renewable energy integration into the existing energy system of Finland – Is there any maximum limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Syri, Sanna; Rinne, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Finland is to increase the share of RES (renewable energy sources) up to 38% in final energy consumption by 2020. While benefiting from local biomass resources Finnish energy system is deemed to achieve this goal, increasing the share of other intermittent renewables is under development, namely wind power and solar energy. Yet the maximum flexibility of the existing energy system in integration of renewable energy is not investigated, which is an important step before undertaking new renewable energy obligations. This study aims at filling this gap by hourly analysis and comprehensive modeling of the energy system including electricity, heat, and transportation, by employing EnergyPLAN tool. Focusing on technical and economic implications, we assess the maximum potential of different RESs separately (including bioenergy, hydropower, wind power, solar heating and PV, and heat pumps), as well as an optimal mix of different technologies. Furthermore, we propose a new index for assessing the maximum flexibility of energy systems in absorbing variable renewable energy. The results demonstrate that wind energy can be harvested at maximum levels of 18–19% of annual power demand (approx. 16 TWh/a), without major enhancements in the flexibility of energy infrastructure. With today's energy demand, the maximum feasible renewable energy for Finland is around 44–50% by an optimal mix of different technologies, which promises 35% reduction in carbon emissions from 2012's level. Moreover, Finnish energy system is flexible to augment the share of renewables in gross electricity consumption up to 69–72%, at maximum. Higher shares of RES calls for lower energy consumption (energy efficiency) and more flexibility in balancing energy supply and consumption (e.g. by energy storage). - Highlights: • By hourly analysis, we model the whole energy system of Finland. • With existing energy infrastructure, RES (renewable energy sources) in primary energy cannot go beyond 50%.

  2. DEEPENING SERVICES MARKET INTEGRATION - A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest asset of the European Union is undoubtedly its internal market. However, the internal market is not completed: it suffers from a giant hole with respect to many services. The present contribution addresses the status of services in the internal market and, in particular, the horizontal liberalisation (or, the lack of it of services outside the two large sectors which greatly deepened market integration (6 modes of transport and 3 financial services markets. Because a horizontal perspective on services in the EU is still little understood, it is briefly summarized what services really are and how their regulatory logic in the internal market can help to classify them. The (strong economic case for deepening services market integration is built on recent empirical economic analysis as well as simulation. This is followed by a discussion, with flowchart, of the Bolkestein draft directive, against the backdrop of the frustrating lack of, or at best, selective progress on services for decades. A survey of economic impact studies of the draft directive is provided, too, underpinning its importance even when the infamous origin principle is taken out. Some light is subsequently shed on the tumultuous politicisation of the services debate. Emphasis is laid on the socio-economic context (which, it is submitted, sharpened the discussion at times into polarisation and a series of other factors such as the diversity of the national regulatory frameworks of services and the labour employed, the complexity of the draft directive, the potentially radical nature of the origin principle (especially for those not aware of the case law of the ECJ, the dominant role of the EP and the opportunism of leading national politicians. Finally, directive 2006/123 –meanwhile in force – is explained and briefly assessed. Apart from the conspicuous manifestation of 'Angst' in drafting the directive, the (de merits are set out. The conclusion is that a badly

  3. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  4. Comparative Studies of Traditional (Non-Energy Integration and Energy Integration of Catalytic Reforming Unit using Pinch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy Integration of Catalytic Reforming Unit (CRU of Kaduna Refinery and petrochemicals Company Kaduna Nigeria was carried out using Pinch Technology. The pinch analysis was carried out using Maple. Optimum minimum approach temperature of 20 °C was used to determine the energy target. The pinch point temperature was found to be 278 °C. The utilities targets for the minimum approach temperature were found to be 72711839.47 kJ/hr and 87105834.43 kJ/hr for hot and cold utilities respectively. Pinch analysis as an energy integration technique was found to save more energy and utilities cost than the traditional energy technique. Key words: Pinch point, CRU, Energy Target, Maple

  5. Comparative Assessment of Energy Supply Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Vladu, I. F.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity facing today's energy planners and decision-makers, particularly in electricity sector, has increased. They must take into account many elements in selecting technologies and strategies that will impact near term energy development and applications in their countries. While costs remain a key factor, tradeoffs between the demands of environmental protection and economic development will have to be made. This fact, together with the needs of many countries to define their energy and electricity programmes in a sustainable manner, has resulted in a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity generation options, particularly from an environmental and human health viewpoint. Although global emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, e.g. SO 2 , NO x and particulate, must be reduced, the reality today is that these emissions are increasing and are expected to continue increasing. In examining the air pollutants, as well as water effluents and solid waste generated by electricity production, it is necessary to assess the full energy chain from fuel extraction to waste disposal, including the production of construction and auxiliary materials. The paper describes this concept and illustrates its implementation for assessing and comparing electricity generation costs, emissions, wastes and other environmental burdens from different energy sources. (author)

  6. Integrated solar capacitors for energy conversion and storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiyuan Liu; Yuqiang Liu; Haiyang Zou; Tao Song; Baoquan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most popular clean energy sources and is a promising alternative to fulfill the increasing energy demands of modern society.Solar cells have long been under intensive research attention for harvesting energy from sunlight with a high power-conversion efficiency and low cost.However,the power outputs of photovoltaic devices suffer from fluctuations due to the intermittent instinct of the solar radiation.Integrating solar cells and energystorage devices as self-powering systems may solve this problem through the simultaneous storage of the electricity and manipulation of the energy output.This review summarizes the research progress in the integration of new-generation solar cells with supercapacitors,with emphasis on the structures,materials,performance,and new design features.The current challenges and future prospects are discussed with the aim of expanding research and development in this field.

  7. Continental integration and energy demand in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation highlighted some of the major issues regarding energy demand in the United States and continental integration. The energy markets in Canada and the United States are economically integrated with large cross-border investment. Therefore, the energy infrastructure can be significantly affected by inconsistencies between the two countries in policy, regulatory processes and fiscal regimes. The author discussed the inelasticity in the natural gas demand in the United States in the near-term, and how natural gas consumption, particularly for power generation, is greater than North America's supply capacity. New supplies such as liquefied natural gas and arctic gas are needed to meet growing demands. The role of renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency was also discussed. It was emphasized that imbalances in supply and demand inevitably lead to price volatility and that high prices are a major obstacle to economic growth. tabs., figs

  8. Integrated energy system for a high performance building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaczko, Kristen

    Integrated energy systems have the potential to reduce of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Canada. These systems incorporate components to meet the building heating, cooling and domestic hot water load into a single system in order to reduce energy losses. An integrated energy system, consisting of a variable speed heat pump, cold and hot thermal storage tanks, a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector array and a battery bank, was designed for the Queen's Solar Design Team's (QSDT) test house. The system uses a radiant floor to provide space- heating and sensible cooling and a dedicated outdoor air system provides ventilation and dehumidifies the incoming fresh air. The test house, the Queen's Solar Education Centre (QSEC), and the integrated energy system were both modelled in TRNSYS. Additionally, a new TRNSYS Type was developed to model the PV/T collectors, enabling the modeling of the collection of energy from the ambient air. A parametric study was carried out in TRNSYS to investigate the effect of various parameters on the overall energy performance of the system. These parameters included the PV/T array size and the slope of the collectors, the heat pump source and load-side inlet temperature setpoints, the compressor speed control and the size of the thermal storage tanks and the battery bank. The controls of the heat pump were found to have a large impact on the performance of the integrated energy system. For example, a low evaporator setpoint improved the overall free energy ratio (FER) of the system but the heat pump performance was lowered. Reducing the heat loss of the PV/T panels was not found to have a large effect on the system performance however, as the heat pump is able to lower the inlet collector fluid temperature, thus reducing thermal losses. From the results of the sensitivity study, a recommended system model was created and this system had a predicted FER of 77.9% in Kingston, Ontario, neglecting the energy consumption of

  9. Building-integrated renewable energy policy analysis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春妮; 郝斌

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic development of renewable energy all over the world,and for purpose of adjusting energy structure,the Ministry of Construction of China plans to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings. In order to ensure the validity of policy-making,this work firstly exerts a method to do cost-benefit analysis for three kinds of technologies such as building-integrated solar hot water (BISHW) system,building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technology and ground water heat pump (GWHP). Through selecting a representative city of every climate region,the analysis comes into different results for different climate regions in China and respectively different suggestion for policy-making. On the analysis basis,the Ministry of Construction (MOC) and the Ministry of Finance of China (MOF) united to start-up Building-integrated Renewable Energy Demonstration Projects (BIREDP) in 2006. In the demonstration projects,renewable energy takes place of traditional energy to supply the domestic hot water,electricity,air-conditioning and heating. Through carrying out the demonstration projects,renewable energy related market has been expanded. More and more relative companies and local governments take the opportunity to promote the large scale application of renewable energy in buildings.

  10. European conferences. Integration of renewable energies in buildings; Conferences europeennes. Integration des energies renouvelables dans le batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Letz, T. [Asder, 73 - Saint Alban Leysse (France); Tuille, F. [Observ' er, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document comprises 2 parts. First part is a detailed program of the exhibition with a press dossier which presents the different topics discussed during conferences and round tables, the market of renewable energies, and a list of agencies and companies involved in renewable energies development and products. The second part is the abstracts of the lectures presented during the European conferences on the integration of renewable energies in buildings (solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems, wood fuel and biomass). (J.S.)

  11. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Joao; Martins, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  12. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  13. Decomposing passenger transport futures : Comparing results of global integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; McCollum, D. L.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Daly, H.; Fujimori, S.; Kitous, A.; Kyle, P.; Ó Broin, E.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Sano, F.

    The transport sector is growing fast in terms of energy use and accompanying greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used widely to analyze energy system transitions over a decadal time frame to help inform and evaluating international climate policy. As part of this, IAMs

  14. Assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: sehgal@ne.kth.se; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Giri, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Kymaelaeinen, O. [FortumEngNP (Finland); Bonnet, J.M. [CEA (France); Ikkonen, K. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety (NPS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas Vaeg 33A, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Sairanen, R. [VTT (Finland); Bhandari, S. [FRAMATOME (France); Buerger, M. [USTUTT (Germany); Dienstbier, J. [NRI Rez (Czech Republic); Techy, Z. [VEIKI (Hungary); Theofanous, T. [UCSB (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The assessment of reactor vessel integrity (ARVI) project involved a total of nine organizations from Europe and USA. The work consisted of experiments and analysis development. The modeling activities in the area of structural analyses were focused on the support of EC-FOREVER experiments as well as on the exploitation of the data obtained from those experiments for modeling of creep deformation and the validation of the industry structural codes. Work was also performed for extension of melt natural convection analyses to consideration of stratification, and mixing (in the CFD codes). Other modeling activities were for (1) gap cooling CHF and (2) developing simple models for system code. Finally, the methodology and data was applied for the design of IVMR severe accident management scheme for VVER-440/213 plants. The work was broken up into five packages. They were divided into tasks, which were performed by different partners. The major experimental project continued was EC-FOREVER in which data was obtained on in-vessel melt pool coolability. In previous EC-FOREVER experiments data was obtained on melt pool natural convection and lower head creep failure and rupture. Those results obtained were related to the following issues: (1) multiaxial creep laws for different vessel steels (2) effects of penetrations, and (3) mode and location of lower head failure. The two EC-FOREVER tests reported here are related to (a) the effectiveness of gap cooling and (b) water ingression for in vessel melt coolability. Two other experimental projects were also conducted. One was the COPO experiments, which was concerned with the effects of stratification and metal layer on the thermal loads on the lower head wall during melt pool convection. The second experimental project was conducted at ULPU facility, which provided data and correlations of CHF due to the external cooling of the lower head.

  15. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  16. Recent Progress on Integrated Energy Conversion and Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ye, Delai; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the design and construction of integrated energy conversion and storage systems (IECSSs) that can simultaneously capture and store various forms of energies from nature. A large number of IECSSs have been developed with different combination of energy conversion technologies such as solar cells, mechanical generators and thermoelectric generators and energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This review summarizes the recent advancements to date of IECSSs based on different energy sources including solar, mechanical, thermal as well as multiple types of energies, with a special focus on the system configuration and working mechanism. With the rapid development of new energy conversion and storage technologies, innovative high performance IECSSs are of high expectation to be realised for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  17. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  18. Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.

    1989-01-01

    Issues of coordinated energy planning are emphasized, with particular reference to interrelationships among the policies adopted in various energy sub-sectors such as electric power (including hydro, nuclear, geothermal, oil and coal sources), petroleum, natural gas, coal, non-conventional (solar, bio-gas, mini-hydro) and traditional fuels (woodfuel, bagasse or vegetable residue). The scope and objectives of integrated national energy planning, the policy tools available, and constraints particular to the developing countries are discussed next. Section 3.0 outlines how energy planning is carried out, while the problems of implementing the resulting policy conclusions are examined in section 4.0. 5 refs, 4 figs

  19. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy; Glatt, Ms. Sandy [DOE Industrial Technologies Program; Orthwein, Mr. Bill [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-09-01

    In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy savings assessment. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's technology delivery component. Over the years, ITP Technology Delivery has worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified energy experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. The Save Energy Now assessments conducted in calendar year 2006 focused on natural gas savings and targeted many of the nation's largest manufacturing plants - those that consume at least 1 TBtu of energy annually. The 2006 Save Energy Now assessments focused primarily on assessments of steam and process heating systems, which account for an estimated 74% of all natural gas use by U.S. manufacturing plants. Because of the success of the Save Energy Now assessments conducted in 2006 and 2007, the program was expanded and enhanced in two major ways in 2008: (1) a new goal was set to perform at least 260 assessments; and (2) the assessment focus was expanded to include pumping, compressed air, and fan systems in addition to steam and process heating. DOE ITP also has developed software tools to assess energy efficiency improvement opportunities in pumping, compressed air, and fan systems. The Save Energy Now assessments integrate a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's opportunity assessment software tools. This approach has the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to

  20. Integrating renewable energy into general practice : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-01

    This feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of integrating solar thermal residential domestic hot water systems and community ground source heating and air conditioning within low-income housing projects in Toronto. The study examined the organizational changes needed to incorporate renewable energy systems for small-scale district and individual homes. The study was conducted on behalf of Habitat for Humanity (HFHT). Results of the study showed that the most significant benefits of integrating renewable energy systems will be the elimination of fossil fuel usage; reductions in home operating costs for partner families; and the potential for leveraging increased sponsorship funds. A geoexchange heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system was recommended for the new HFHT headquarters as well as for future housing projects. It was concluded that HFHT should prepare for increased integration of renewable energy technologies as capital costs decrease and greater financial incentives become available. 15 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Energy Level Composite Curves-a new graphical methodology for the integration of energy intensive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Abbas, Own Syed; Gundersen, Truls

    2006-01-01

    Pinch Analysis, Exergy Analysis and Optimization have all been used independently or in combination for the energy integration of process plants. In order to address the issue of energy integration, taking into account composition and pressure effects, the concept of energy level as proposed by [X. Feng, X.X. Zhu, Combining pinch and exergy analysis for process modifications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 17 (1997) 249] has been modified and expanded in this work. We have developed a strategy for energy integration that uses process simulation tools to define the interaction between the various subsystems in the plant and a graphical technique to help the engineer interpret the results of the simulation with physical insights that point towards exploring possible integration schemes to increase energy efficiency. The proposed graphical representation of energy levels of processes is very similar to the Composite Curves of Pinch Analysis-the interpretation of the Energy Level Composite Curves reduces to the Pinch Analysis case when dealing with heat transfer. Other similarities and differences are detailed in this work. Energy integration of a methanol plant is taken as a case study to test the efficacy of this methodology. Potential integration schemes are identified that would have been difficult to visualize without the help of the new graphical representation

  2. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-03

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  3. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  4. FOREN 2004. Sustainable Energy Development and European Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu Iulian

    2004-01-01

    The 7th Regional Energy Forum- FOREN 2004 with the main topic 'Sustainable Energy Development and European Integration' took place in Neptun-Olimp, on 13th to 17th June 2004. The event was organized by WEC Romanian National Committee, under the auspices of the World Energy Council (WEC). The event was accompanied by several related manifestation as: An up to date Technical Programme designed to explore key issues concerning the ability of the Romanian energy industry to integrate in the European Union; An Exhibition providing first hand access to service and equipment providers; A Partnership Programme, to present the achievements and developments of power companies in round tables, film projections, technical visits and advertising; Social events giving to participants the opportunity to establish direct connections with the Romanian colleagues. The Forum was open to members of the World Energy Council, energy industry leaders, government ministers and officials, heads of international organizations like: UNECE, EC, IEA, Eurelectric, IGU, EUROgas, USAID, academics, media, individual and corporate members interested in sustainable energy development. For further details concerning the agenda and registration. Forum 2004 was structured on five sections each containing a key issue a panel session, communication session and poster presentation on the following items: 1. Energy legislation and institutional framework; 2. The technological dimension of sustainable energy; 3. The ecological dimension of sustainable development; 4. The social dimension of sustainable development; 5. The power equipment manufacturing industry

  5. REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, T.; Cutler, D.; Anderson, K.; Olis, D.; Elgqvist, E.; Callahan, M.; Walker, A.

    2014-08-01

    REopt is NREL's energy planning platform offering concurrent, multi-technology integration and optimization capabilities to help clients meet their cost savings and energy performance goals. The REopt platform provides techno-economic decision-support analysis throughout the energy planning process, from agency-level screening and macro planning to project development to energy asset operation. REopt employs an integrated approach to optimizing a site?s energy costs by considering electricity and thermal consumption, resource availability, complex tariff structures including time-of-use, demand and sell-back rates, incentives, net-metering, and interconnection limits. Formulated as a mixed integer linear program, REopt recommends an optimally-sized mix of conventional and renewable energy, and energy storage technologies; estimates the net present value associated with implementing those technologies; and provides the cost-optimal dispatch strategy for operating them at maximum economic efficiency. The REopt platform can be customized to address a variety of energy optimization scenarios including policy, microgrid, and operational energy applications. This paper presents the REopt techno-economic model along with two examples of recently completed analysis projects.

  6. Integrating climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making - Key challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  7. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  8. Spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration using stochastic modeling and optimization methods. It explores techniques for efficiently integrating renewable energy generation into bulk power grids. The operational challenges of wind, and its variability are carefully examined. A spatio-temporal analysis approach enables the authors to develop Markov-chain-based short-term forecasts of wind farm power generation. To deal with the wind ramp dynamics, a support vector machine enhanced Markov model is introduced. The stochastic optimization of economic di

  9. Smart power systems and renewable energy system integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a wider spectrum of researches, developments, and case specific studies in the area of smart power systems and integration of renewable energy systems. The book will be for the benefit of a wider audience including researchers, postgraduate students, practicing engineers, academics, and regulatory policy makers. It covers a wide range of topics from fundamentals, and modelling and simulation aspects of traditional and smart power systems to grid integration of renewables; Micro Grids; challenges in planning and operation of a smart power system; risks, security, and stability in smart operation of a power system; and applied research in energy storage. .

  10. Integrated community energy solutions : a roadmap for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Integrated community energy solutions (ICES) can significantly improve community energy performance and help to achieve Canada's energy efficiency and climate change objectives. The solutions integrate physical components from multiple sectors, including transportation; housing and buildings; industry; water; waste management; and other local community services. However, ICES require the support of communities, governments and investors who can help to reduce barriers to action and define a marketplace. This road map provided details of provincial, territorial, and federal government inputs to ensuring the adoption of ICES. The roles of municipalities, developers, energy utilities and other stakeholders were also discussed. Key roles, sectoral building blocks, and barriers affecting ICES implementation were discussed. A 3-phase transition approach was presented in which the overarching strategies of ICES implementation were described. A menu of ICES tools was also included. 17 figs.

  11. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  12. Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional...... energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case...

  13. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program) has been applying a farmer participatory IPM strategy at on-farm research sites in eastern Uganda since 1995. Following five years of project implementation an evaluation ...

  15. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  16. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  17. Energy-efficient neuron, synapse and STDP integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Albrecht, Jose M; Yung, Michael W; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2012-06-01

    Ultra-low energy biologically-inspired neuron and synapse integrated circuits are presented. The synapse includes a spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule circuit. These circuits have been designed, fabricated and tested using a 90 nm CMOS process. Experimental measurements demonstrate proper operation. The neuron and the synapse with STDP circuits have an energy consumption of around 0.4 pJ per spike and synaptic operation respectively.

  18. Flexible operation of thermal plants with integrated energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytsoumpa, Efthymia Ioanna; Bergins, Christian; Kakaras, Emmanouil

    2017-08-01

    The energy system in the EU requires today as well as towards 2030 to 2050 significant amounts of thermal power plants in combination with the continuously increasing share of Renewables Energy Sources (RES) to assure the grid stability and to secure electricity supply as well as to provide heat. The operation of the conventional fleet should be harmonised with the fluctuating renewable energy sources and their intermittent electricity production. Flexible thermal plants should be able to reach their lowest minimum load capabilities while keeping the efficiency drop moderate as well as to increase their ramp up and down rates. A novel approach for integrating energy storage as an evolutionary measure to overcome many of the challenges, which arise from increasing RES and balancing with thermal power is presented. Energy storage technologies such as Power to Fuel, Liquid Air Energy Storage and Batteries are investigated in conjunction with flexible power plants.

  19. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  20. Integrating energy and environmental management in wood furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordić, Dušan; Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review.

  1. Integrating Energy and Environmental Management in Wood Furniture Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review. PMID:24587734

  2. 78 FR 38318 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9827-4] Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY... availability of a final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075F). The... lead (Pb). DATES: The document will be available on or around June 26, 2013. ADDRESSES: The...

  3. Modeling energy-economy interactions using integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    Integrated models are defined as economic energy models that consist of several submodels, either coupled by an interface module, or embedded in one large model. These models can be used for energy policy analysis. Using integrated models yields the following benefits. They provide a framework in which energy-economy interactions can be better analyzed than in stand-alone models. Integrated models can represent both energy sector technological details, as well as the behaviour of the market and the role of prices. Furthermore, the combination of modeling methodologies in one model can compensate weaknesses of one approach with strengths of another. These advantages motivated this survey of the class of integrated models. The purpose of this literature survey therefore was to collect and to present information on integrated models. To carry out this task, several goals were identified. The first goal was to give an overview of what is reported on these models in general. The second one was to find and describe examples of such models. Other goals were to find out what kinds of models were used as component models, and to examine the linkage methodology. Solution methods and their convergence properties were also a subject of interest. The report has the following structure. In chapter 2, a 'conceptual framework' is given. In chapter 3 a number of integrated models is described. In a table, a complete overview is presented of all described models. Finally, in chapter 4, the report is summarized, and conclusions are drawn regarding the advantages and drawbacks of integrated models. 8 figs., 29 refs

  4. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  5. Integration of deep geothermal energy and woody biomass conversion pathways in urban systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, Stefano; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Gerber, Léda; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel optimization-based methodology to integrate renewable energy systems in cities. • Multiperiod model including storage, heat integration and Life Cycle Assessment. • Case study: systematic assessment of deep geothermal and wood conversion pathways. • Identification of novel wood-geothermal hybrid systems leading to higher efficiencies. • Extensive Supplementary Material to ensure full reproducibility of the work. - Abstract: Urban systems account for about two-thirds of global primary energy consumption and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, with a projected increasing trend. Deep geothermal energy and woody biomass can be used for the production of heat, electricity and biofuels, thus constituting a renewable alternative to fossil fuels for all end-uses in cities: heating, cooling, electricity and mobility. This paper presents a methodology to assess the potential for integrating deep geothermal energy and woody biomass in an urban energy system. The city is modeled in its entirety as a multiperiod optimization problem with the total annual cost as an objective, assessing as well the environmental impact with a Life Cycle Assessment approach. For geothermal energy, deep aquifers and Enhanced Geothermal Systems are considered for stand-alone production of heat and electricity, and for cogeneration. For biomass, besides direct combustion and cogeneration, conversion to biofuels by a set of alternative processes (pyrolysis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and synthetic natural gas production) is studied. With a scenario-based approach, all pathways are first individually evaluated. Secondly, all possible combinations between geothermal and biomass options are systematically compared, taking into account the possibility of hybrid systems. Results show that integrating these two resources generates configurations featuring both lower costs and environmental impacts. In particular, synergies are found in innovative hybrid systems using

  6. Strategy for integrated CERCLA/NEPA risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Blunt, D.A.; Fingleton, D.J.; Picel, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a policy whereby, for remedial actions, the procedural and documentational requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are integrated with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. However, the objectives of risk assessment under NEPA and CERCLA differ somewhat. Until its recent application at contaminated sites, NEPA analysis has typically been applied to impacts from taking actions at clean sites (e.g., for construction activities), and a somewhat loosely structured process has historically been used to estimate relative risks for NEPA analyses. Decisions such as cleanup levels were not made on the basis of the risk estimates, and they therefore tended to be conservative and were not discussed in detail. In contrast, risks estimated for Superfund (CERCLA) sites are used to focus the decision-making process for those sites and support national prioritization for cleanup, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a detailed framework for preparing baseline health risk assessments for these sites. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to intergrating the CERCLA and NEPA approaches into the risk assessments that have been prepared for a DOE remedial action project at the Weldon Spring site near St. Charles, Missouri. These issues are grouped into three basic categories: general assumptions for the impact evaluation, data management, and presentation of the methodology and results. This paper is not intended to represent DOE policy and guidance, nor does it represent the only approach that can be used for integrated risk assessments. It merely discusses the process that was used for the Weldon Spring project, articulating the issues that were encountered and how they were addressed

  7. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  8. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  9. Assessing the risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Somers, E.; Waight, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The current concern with diminishing supplies of non-renewable energy has brought into clearer focus the debate on the future of nuclear energy. Application of the risk assessment process to the biological effects of radiation is considered worthwhile so that the nature and order of the hazards entailed can be appreciated in the total context of the problem. The derivation of regulations and the process of cost-risk-benefit analysis are also discussed. In view of the widespread public concern and, on occasion, apprehension about the development of nuclear energy it has been thought useful to tabulate the elements of this concern so as to gain a fuller understanding of the manner in which the public perceives and weighs risks. (author)

  10. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  11. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  12. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  13. On risk assessment of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  14. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  15. Large scale grid integration of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents comprehensive coverage of the means to integrate renewable power, namely wind and solar power. It looks at new approaches to meet the challenges, such as increasing interconnection capacity among geographical areas, hybridisation of different distributed energy resources and building up demand response capabilities.

  16. Ship Integration of Energy Scavenging Technology for Sea Base Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Paraschivoiu, I. (2002). Wind Turbine Design with Emphasis on Darrieus Concept. Montreal, QC, Canada: Polytechnic International Press. 23 Pelamis...31 Wind Turbine Production Data..................................................................................... 31 Summary...integration. Lastly, wind turbines are a promising method of harvesting energy. Horizontal axis wind turbines are currently the most developed

  17. Solar Energy Delivering Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Holterman, H.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this investigation is the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high

  18. Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory The Energy System Integration Facility's Fuel Cell Development and Test Laboratory supports fuel cell research and development projects through in-situ fuel cell testing. Photo of a researcher running

  19. Energy preserving integration of bi-Hamiltonian partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karasozen, B.; Simsek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The energy preserving average vector field (AVF) integrator is applied to evolutionary partial differential equations (PDEs) in bi-Hamiltonian form with nonconstant Poisson structures. Numerical results for the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation and for the Ito type coupled KdV equation confirm the

  20. Dynamic state estimation for distribution networks with renewable energy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    The massive integration of variable and unpredictable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and new types of load consumptions increases the dynamic and uncertain nature of the electricity grid. Emerging interests have focused on improving the monitoring capabilities of network operators so that they can

  1. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, Dayse

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  2. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  3. An Integrated Assessment Framework of Offshore Wind Power Projects Applying Equator Principles and Social Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Che Tseng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews offshore wind power project finance and provides an integrated assessment that employs Equator Principles, life cycle assessment, risk assessment, materiality analysis, credit assessment, and ISAE 3000 assurance. We have not seen any comprehensive review papers or book chapters that covers the entire offshore wind power project finance process. We also conducted an SWancor Formosa Phase 1 case study to illustrate the application of integrated assessment to better assist policymakers, wind farm developers, practitioners, potential investors and observers, and stakeholders in their decisions. We believe that this paper can form part of the effort to reduce information asymmetry and the transaction costs of wind power project finance, as well as mobilize green finance investments from the financial sector to renewable energy projects to achieve a national renewable energy policy.

  4. DOE Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) Project is a multiphase undertaking seeking to demonstrate one or more operational HP-ICES by the end of 1983. The seven phases include System Development, Demonstration Design, Design Completion, HP-ICES Construction, Operation and Data Acquisition, HP-ICES Evaluation, and Upgraded Continuation. This project is sponsored by the Community Systems Branch, Office of Buildings and Community Systems, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applicaions, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of the Community Systems Program and is managed by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne Natinal Laboratory.

  5. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  6. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivujaervi, S.; Kantola, I.; Maekinen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  7. Hydrogen, fuel cells and renewable energy integration in islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D.; Foradini, F.; Hart, D.

    2002-01-01

    Remote areas such as islands rely on costly and highly polluting diesel and heavy fuel oil for their electricity supply. This paper explored the opportunities for exploiting economically and environmentally viable renewable energy sources, in particular hydrogen storage, on such islands. In particular, this study focused on addressing the challenge of matching energy supply with demand and with technical issues regarding weak grids that are hindered with high steady state voltage levels and voltage fluctuations. The main technical characteristics of integrated renewable energy and hydrogen systems were determined by modelling a case study for the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The paper referred to the challenges regarding the technical and economic viability of such systems and their contribution to the economic development of remote communities. It was noted that energy storage plays an important role in addressing supply and demand issues by offering a way to control voltage and using surplus electricity at times of low load. Electrical energy can be stored in the form of potential or chemical energy. New decentralized generation technologies have also played a role in improving the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources. The feasibility of using hydrogen for energy storage was examined with particular reference to fuel-cell based energy supply in isolated island communities. 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Life cycle assessment of roof integrated solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brummelen, M.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    1994-01-01

    The research protocol, applied in this report, is designed for use within the energy R and D-context: it provides a framework for finding bottlenecks and opportunities for (new) energy technologies in the context of (energy) resource scarcity and environmental issues. Finding and analyzing these bottlenecks and opportunities is a major objective of this study. A derived objective of this study is to gain experience in using the LCA-framework and the research protocol described earlier, and to evaluate the usefulness of these instruments in helping to find and analyze bottlenecks and opportunities in energy technologies. Photovoltaic solar cell systems (PV systems) are comprised of solar cell modules and a Balance-of-System (BOS): a support structure and power conditioning equipment. In this LCA amorphous silicon cells (a-Si) are considered. For the Netherlands roof-integrated, grid-connected systems are assumed to be the major application of PV in the future. Two cases will be studied. In case 1 a system of 30 m 2 of modules which are connected to the grid via a single inverter are studied. The modules are comprised of a-Si cells and have a conversion efficiency of 10%. Integration into the roof is done with aluminium profiles. In case 2 a system of 30 m 2 a-Si cell modules integrated in the roof with plastic 'tiles' is studied. The modules have an efficiency of 15% and connection to the grid is more or less centralized: 25 systems share an inverter which is connected to the grid. The goal and scope of the LCA and the functional unit are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 the process tree and descriptions of the distinguished processes are given and the inventory table is drawn up. In chapter 4 the impact assessment is dealt with, followed by a discussion of improvement options in chapter 5. Conclusions and recommendations are given in the chapters 6 and 7 only regarding the environmental aspects. 9 figs., 13 tabs., 4 appendices, 13 refs

  9. Integrated energy, air quality and greenhouse gas management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This report outlines the measures that the Resort Municipality of Whistler has taken to become a sustainable community. In 2000, the Municipality adopted the Natural Step, a tool developed by international scientists to integrate ecological principles into the practices of communities, organizations and individuals. In 2001, the Municipality adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. This report describes the efforts to manage energy, air quality, and greenhouse gases (GHG). More than 90 per cent of the common air contaminants that contribute to air quality problems in Whistler come from the combustion of fossil fuels. The community can reduce emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter by managing energy and GHG emissions. This report is divided into several sections dealing with corporate and community energy use. It presents a community profile for Whistler, its energy and emissions inventory from 2000, and an integrated energy plan. An energy and emissions forecast for 2000 to 2020 was also included along with an implementation strategy for a sustainable energy future for Whistler. refs., tabs., figs

  10. An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Glenn W.; Vermeire, Theo; Munns, Wayne R.; Sekizawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    The worldHealth Organization's (WHO's) International Program for Chemical Safety has developed a framework for performing risk assessments that integrate the assessment of risks to human health and risks to nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The WHO's framework recognizes that stakeholders and risk managers have their own processes that are parallel to the scientific process of risk assessment and may interact with the risk assessment at various points, depending on the context. Integration of health and ecology provides consistent expressions of assessment results, incorporates the interdependence of humans and the environment, uses sentinel organisms, and improves the efficiency and quality of assessments relative to independent human health and ecological risk assessments. The advantage of the framework to toxicologists lies in the opportunity to use understanding of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics to inform the integrated assessment of all exposed species

  11. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 287 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

  12. Conference on renewable energies integration to power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Bischoff, Torsten; Merkel, Marcus; Rohrig, Kurt; Glatigny, Alain; Quitmann, Eckard; Lehec, Guillaume; Teirlynck, Thierry; Stahl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on renewable energies integration to power grids. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 150 participants exchanged views on the perspectives and possible solutions of this integration in order to warrant the security of supplies and the grid stability in a context of increasing injection and decentralization of renewable power sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French distribution grids - Overview and perspectives (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Distribution Grids in Germany - Overview and Perspective (Torsten Bischoff); 3 - Integration of renewable energies into distribution grids - a case example from Germany (Marcus Merkel); 4 - Regeneratives Kombikraftwerk Deutschland: System Services with 100 % Renewable energies (Kurt Rohrig); 5 - Overview of the different grid instrumentation-control and automation tools (Alain Glatigny); 6 - Which Ancillary Services needs the Power System? The contribution from Wind Power Plants (Eckard Quitmann); 7 - The Flexibility Aggregator - the example of the GreenLys Project (Guillaume Lehec); 8 - Energy Pool - Providing flexibility to the electric system. Consumption cut-off solutions in France (Thierry Teirlynck); 9 - Demand Response experiences from Germany (Oliver Stahl)

  13. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  14. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  15. City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Sunter, Deborah A

    2016-05-20

    To prepare for an urban influx of 2.5 billion people by 2050, it is critical to create cities that are low-carbon, resilient, and livable. Cities not only contribute to global climate change by emitting the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but also are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and extreme weather. We explore options for establishing sustainable energy systems by reducing energy consumption, particularly in the buildings and transportation sectors, and providing robust, decentralized, and renewable energy sources. Through technical advancements in power density, city-integrated renewable energy will be better suited to satisfy the high-energy demands of growing urban areas. Several economic, technical, behavioral, and political challenges need to be overcome for innovation to improve urban sustainability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. BC Hydro best practices : energy efficiency and integrated planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, D.

    2004-01-01

    The key elements to success in energy efficiency include integrated energy planning, a review of conservation potential, pursuing a target, risk sharing between all parties, and long term planning when making investments in demand side management (DSM). The barriers to cost effective energy efficiency investment were also outlined along with the scope of the conservation potential review which included 95 per cent of electricity end use applications in all market sectors including residential, commercial, institutional and industrial. BC Hydro's Power Smart program focuses on energy efficiency and load displacement to meet 35 per cent of the utility's forecasted growth by 2012. The sources of savings within each of the market sectors were identified. Key recommendations regarding energy efficiency and conservation were also presented with reference to financial incentives offered by BC Hydro to consumers to encourage a switch to more efficient lighting systems. 10 figs

  17. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  18. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    applications. Furthermore, this solution can interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power flow, where both of them can receive or generate excess power to the third source integrated in each converter sub-module. This particularity enables the converter usage as a high voltage UPS system......This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... in the future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  19. Renewable energy integration into the Spanish power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvison Garcia, Miguel R.; Rivas Cuenca, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The increase in renewable energy sources in the Spanish peninsular system, along with the installation of other technologies represents a challenge due to the particularities of this type of technologies. Innovative solutions and new operation paradigms may be needed in order to cope with these challenges. Grid codes must incorporate new specifications for these technologies and demand management strategies must be incorporated in control centers in order to balance the system, maximize renewable production and maintain system security. In real time, the most significant improvements that ease integration of renewable resources are the introduction of observability and controllability, which is especially important in dealing with the problem of system balancing and the impact of renewable energy on matching generation and demand. In this regard the commissioning of a control center specifically for management of these technologies have been taken in the Spanish electrical system in order to integrate the maximum amount of renewable energy

  20. Energy options and the role of coal: an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Considers energy goals and options with particular regard to providing affordable energy to Canada. Gasification of coal and carbon to provide a reliable source of clean power and heat to the oil sand industry and for feedstocks for the production of fertilizer, methanol, petrochemicals, and ultra-clean fuels is examined. The layout for integrated gasification polygeneration with carbon feed and plans for Canada's first commercial gasification plant (the Nexen Long Lake Project) are shown in diagrams. Progress in coal gasification at a clean coal Luscar/Sherritt pilot plant is outlined. Clean coal technology is part of a strategy to provide integration across energy systems, generate value for all hydrocarbon resources, and minimize emissions. 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  2. A gateless charge integrator for Borexino energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagomarsino, V.; Testera, G.

    1999-01-01

    A gateless charge integrator designed for the energy measurement in the Borexino experiment is described and the results of various tests performed on prototypes are shown. The circuit integrates always its input taking advantage of the AC coupling to the photomultipliers that equalizes to zero the charge associated with each event signal. A double sampling of the integrator output allows to perform a charge measurement in principle without dead time, avoiding the use of gate signals and baseline restoration networks and permitting a precise detection of the fast correlated events (delayed coincidences due to the decay of a nuclide producing a daughter having a lifetime in the tens of ns time range). The precision of the charge measurement is discussed together with the performances of the front end Borexino board where the integrator is mounted

  3. Towards Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Storage Devices in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobin; Yu, Wei; Griffith, David; Golmie, Nada; Moulema, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) provides a generic infrastructure for different applications to integrate information communication techniques with physical components to achieve automatic data collection, transmission, exchange, and computation. The smart grid, as one of typical applications supported by IoT, denoted as a re-engineering and a modernization of the traditional power grid, aims to provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution to consumers. How to effectively integrate distributed (renewable) energy resources and storage devices to satisfy the energy service requirements of users, while minimizing the power generation and transmission cost, remains a highly pressing challenge in the smart grid. To address this challenge and assess the effectiveness of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices, in this paper we develop a theoretical framework to model and analyze three types of power grid systems: the power grid with only bulk energy generators, the power grid with distributed energy resources, and the power grid with both distributed energy resources and storage devices. Based on the metrics of the power cumulative cost and the service reliability to users, we formally model and analyze the impact of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices in the power grid. We also use the concept of network calculus, which has been traditionally used for carrying out traffic engineering in computer networks, to derive the bounds of both power supply and user demand to achieve a high service reliability to users. Through an extensive performance evaluation, our data shows that integrating distributed energy resources conjointly with energy storage devices can reduce generation costs, smooth the curve of bulk power generation over time, reduce bulk power generation and power distribution losses, and provide a sustainable service reliability to users in the power grid.

  4. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results.

  5. Sustainable BECCS pathways evaluated by an integrated assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.

    2017-12-01

    Negative emissions technologies, particularly Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), are key components of mitigation strategies in ambitious future socioeconomic scenarios analysed by integrated assessment models. Generally, scenarios aiming to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Also, in the context of Paris agreement which acknowledges "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century", RD&D for the negative emissions technologies in this decade has a crucial role for the possibility of early deployment of the technology. Because of the requirement of potentially extensive use of land and water for producing the bioenergy feedstock to get the anticipated level of gross negative emissions, researches on how to develop sustainable scenarios of BECCS is needed. Here, we present BECCS deployment scenarios that consider economically viable flow of bioenergy system including power generation and conversion process to liquid and gaseous fuels for transportation and heat with consideration of sustainable global biomass use. In the modelling process, detailed bioenergy representations, i.e. various feedstock and conversion technologies with and without CCS, are implemented in an integrated assessment (IA) model GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). Also, to overcome a general discrepancy about assumed future agricultural yield between 'top-down' IA models and 'bottom-up' estimates, which would crucially affect the land-use pattern, we applied yields change of food and energy crops consistent with process-based biophysical crop models in consideration of changing climate conditions. Using the framework, economically viable strategy for implementing sustainable bioenergy and BECCS flow are evaluated in the scenarios targeting to keep global average

  6. Assessing the Atmospheric Pollution of Energy Facilities for Supporting Energy Policy Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses Ruiz, E.; Alonso García, D.; Pérez Zayas, G.; Piñera Hernández, I.; Martinez Varona, M.; Molina Esquivel, E.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of different energy facilities on the environment and human health are a matter of interest and concern throughout the world. For example, fossil fuels are one of the energy sources of more undesirable effects on the environment, but this energy is still one of the most competitive at the market, especially for the developing countries. However, it is necessary to find out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost. With a view to solving the current deficit in energy production (mainly in electricity generation) in the light of major transformations in the energy sector, the Cuban Government is evaluating ways of incorporating new sources and technologies and the expansion of existing capabilities. In this context non-fossil energy sources will play an increasingly important role. The present work shows the results obtained in the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project CUB7007. The project integrated several tools and methodologies in the field of air quality modelling and its assessment, emissions measurement and nuclear techniques. The main objective was to assess atmospheric pollution from various energy facilities for supporting energy policy decisions by incorporating nuclear techniques (proton-induced X–ray emission, neutron activation and X–ray fluorescence) for estimating the elementary composition of particulate matter. As results were consolidated national laboratories in the application of nuclear and nonnuclear techniques to support environmental studies, especially for the analysis of emissions in chimneys and ambient air sampling. Moreover, all energy technologies considered in the national strategy of development were assessed. (author)

  7. Integrated modelling of ecosystem services and energy systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Matthew; Lovett, Andrew; Bateman, Ian; Day, Brett; Agnolucci, Paolo; Ziv, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The UK Government is formally committed to reducing carbon emissions and protecting and improving natural capital and the environment. However, actually delivering on these objectives requires an integrated approach to addressing two parallel challenges: de-carbonising future energy system pathways; and safeguarding natural capital to ensure the continued flow of ecosystem services. Although both emphasise benefiting from natural resources, efforts to connect natural capital and energy systems research have been limited, meaning opportunities to improve management of natural resources and meet society's energy needs could be missed. The ecosystem services paradigm provides a consistent conceptual framework that applies in multiple disciplines across the natural and economic sciences, and facilitates collaboration between them. At the forefront of the field, integrated ecosystem service - economy models have guided public- and private-sector decision making at all levels. Models vary in sophistication from simple spreadsheet tools to complex software packages integrating biophysical, GIS and economic models and draw upon many fields, including ecology, hydrology, geography, systems theory, economics and the social sciences. They also differ in their ability to value changes in natural capital and ecosystem services at various spatial and temporal scales. Despite these differences, current models share a common feature: their treatment of energy systems is superficial at best. In contrast, energy systems research has no widely adopted, unifying conceptual framework that organises thinking about key system components and interactions. Instead, the literature is organised around modelling approaches, including life cycle analyses, econometric investigations, linear programming and computable general equilibrium models. However, some consistencies do emerge. First, often contain a linear set of steps, from exploration to resource supply, fuel processing, conversion

  8. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  9. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  10. Complex assessment of urban housing energy sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Julia; Karakozova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a complex experimental-analytical research of residential development energy parameters - survey of construction sites and determination of calculated energy parameters (resistance to heat transfer) considering their technical condition. The authors suggest a methodology for assessing residential development energy parameters on the basis of construction project's structural analysis with the use of advanced intelligent collection systems, processing (self-organizing maps - SOM) and data visualization (geo-informational systems - GIS). SOM clustering permitted to divide the housing stock (on the example of Arkhangelsk city) into groups with similar technical-operational and energy parameters. It is also possible to measure energy parameters of construction project of each cluster by comparing them with reference (normative) measures and also with each other. The authors propose mechanisms for increasing the area's energy stability level by implementing a set of reproduction activities for residential development of various groups. The analysis showed that modern multilevel and high-rise construction buildings have the least heat losses. At present, however, ow-rise wood buildings is the dominant styles of buildings of Arkhangelsk city. Data visualisation on the created heat map showed that such housing stock covers the largest urban area. The development strategies for depressed areas is in a high-rise building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city. An urban regeneration programme for severely rundown urban housing estates is in a high-rise construction building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city.

  11. Technical and Economic Potential of Distributed Energy Storages for the Integration of Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Trier, Daniel; Hansen, Kenneth

    Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role decentral...... indicate that sector coupling along with an intelligent choice of distributed energy storage technologies can enable the integration of large shares of fluctuating renewable energy in an energy efficient and cost-effective way.......Very high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources can lead to new challenges in balancing energy supply and demand in future energy systems. This work, carried out as a part of Annex 28 of the IEA ECES programme, addresses this. The aim of the study is to identify which role...... decentralised energy storages (DES) should play in integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources. The technical and economic potential for DES solutions is quantified using energy system modelling, and it is identified which DES technologies have the largest total (technical and economic) potential. For this...

  12. Integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, E.G.; Jones, N.; Price, A.D.F.; Ruan, X.; Egbu, C.O; Zuofa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to determine if the integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets can determine consumer behaviour, and to establish if such activities can help satisfying the environmental elements of the clients corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in an attempt to create a competitive advantage. A literature review of existing material considered the history and drivers of sustainability, the types of energy efficient technologies and factors concerning CSR and consumer behaviour in relation to the supermarket industry. Interviews with 15 senior store managers were recorded and transcribed. The opinions of the senior store managers were then sought and analysed using qualitative research software NVivo software. Validity of the data was achieved at a later stage through workshops. The results of this paper suggested that there is a definite lack of awareness and knowledge amongst customers regarding energy efficient technologies. From the findings, it was further established that the key driver for retailers who integrate energy efficient technologies is fiscal incentives, although it was suggested some retailers use CSR strategies to report there are environmental achievements it was ultimately found that cost savings were the primary driver. - Highlights: • The effect of sustainability towards consumer behaviour was explored. • Majority of consumers are unaware of energy efficient technologies. • Energy efficient technologies do not determine or create shifts in paradigm in consumer actions. • Stores are driven to integrate energy efficient technologies more by government legislation. • Participants were clear in making the point that their image and reputation was based on trust

  13. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  14. European energy market liberalisation and integration. An assesment of the new EU energy package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2008-06-01

    The new energy package presented by the European Commission (EC) in September 2007 contains a number of diverse, and sometimes controversial, measures aimed at bringing current European energy markets closer to the ideal of one competitive and fully integrated market. We discuss the flaws and merits of the package and signal a number of concerns regarding the ultimate effectiveness of the new energy market Directive into which the proposed package will culminate

  15. Specialization-Specific Course Assessments Integrated for Program Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Qurban A. Memon; Adnan Harb; Shakeel Khoja

    2012-01-01

    The program assessment process combines assessments from individual courses to generate final program assessment to match accreditation benchmarks. In developing countries, industrial environment is not diversified to allow graduating engineers to seek jobs in all disciplines or specializations of an engineering program. Hence, it seems necessary to seek evolution of an engineering program assessment for specialized requirements of the industry. This paper describes how specialization-specifi...

  16. Integrated biomass energy systems and emissions of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, U.R.; Turnbull, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled ''Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration'', with the objective of investigating the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full fuel cycle for four of these case studies, which have been examined with regard to the emissions of carbon dioxide., CO 2 . Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO 2 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO 2 emissions from the DFSS. External energy is required for the production and transportation of the biomass feedstock, and this energy is mainly based on fossil fuels. By using this input energy, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are emitted. However, by utilizing biomass with fossil fuels as external input fuels, we would get about 10-15 times more electric energy per unit fossil fuel, compared with a 100% coal power system. By introducing a DFSS on former farmland the amount of energy spent for production of crops can be reduced, the amount of fertilizers can be decreased, the soil can be improved and a significant amount of energy will be produced compared with an ordinary farm crop. Compared with traditional coal-based electricity production, the CO 2 emissions are in the most cases reduced significantly by as much as 95%. The important conclusion is the great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the offset of coal by biomass. (author)

  17. Integrated biomass energy systems and emissions of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, U.R.; Turnbull, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled 'Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration', with the objective to investigate the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems, utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full cycle for four of these case studies, which have been examined with regard to the emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 . Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO 2 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO 2 -emissions from DFSS. External energy is required for the production and transportation of the biomass feedstock, and this energy is mainly based on fossil fuels. By using this input energy, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are emitted. But, by utilizing biomass with fossil fuels as external input fuels, we would get about 10-15 times more electric energy per unit fossil fuel, compared to a 100% coal power system. By introducing a DFSS on former farmland, the amount of energy spent for production of crops can be reduced, the amount of fertilizers can be decreased, the soil can be improved, and a significant amount of energy will be produced, compared to an ordinary farm crop. Compared to traditional coal based electricity production, the CO 2 -emissions are in most cases reduced significantly, as much as 95%. The important conclusion is the great potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the offset of coal by biomass. 23 refs,, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  19. Impacts of integration of production of black and green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huizhong; Tamas, Meszaros Matyas

    2010-01-01

    As the mandate for minimum renewable sources renders Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) an essential input for power generation, it may induce mergers between power companies of conventional and renewable sources. Such mergers enable the integrated firms to extend market power from the TGC market to the physical energy market. We find that the price of TGCs is indeed higher in the integrated market than the disintegrated market, indicating the presence of market power leveraging. However, despite higher TGC price, the total supply of electricity is greater under integration than disintegration, reflecting efficiency gains from vertical integration, which eliminates double marginalization. The thrust of this paper is that market changes induced by environmental policies will in turn affect environmental and economic regulations. For example, increased supply resulting from integration induced by the renewable source mandate may reduce the effectiveness of programs that promote energy saving behavior, but at the same time creates room for raising the minimum of renewable sources without unduly depressing production and consumption. (author)

  20. Evaluating multifunctional storage usage for the integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmann, Simon; Wasowicz, Bartholomaeus; Raths, Stephan; Pollok, Thomas; Schnettler, Armin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for High Voltage Technology

    2012-07-01

    Market and grid integration of the increasing share of renewable energy sources (RES) pose significant challenges to the electricity system in Germany. Energy storages are frequently discussed as one part of the solution. However, storage operators in a liberalized electricity market are profit maximizing actors, who are only interested in supporting the integration of RES, if it is economically attractive. A storage dispatch optimization model has been developed to comprehensively analyze the wide range of storage applications. Three storage operational modes are introduced and evaluated in this paper. The entirely market-focused multimarket operation is found to be the most profitable option for storage operators. Integration of RES is of minor importance in this operational mode. Using storage systems only for grid purposes in the grid supportive operational mode is found to be least profitable. A combined storage usage for market and grid applications in the multifunctional operation achieves similar benefits for the grid as in the grid supportive mode by better integrating RES, while also achieving profits from the markets. The current market and regulatory framework however, provides no incentives for storage operators to pursue this dispatch strategy, which is favorable for an improved RES integration.

  1. Comparative risk assessment in the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers four approaches to risk assessment in the energy industry. The first is a comparison of the primary fuel cycles - coal and nuclear - standardized to 1 GW(e) power-plant year; this gives the societal risk of the production of a standardized amount of electricity. An example from underground coal mining is given to show how these estimates for the fuel cycles were made. The second approach is a comparison of the societal and individual occupational risks for different energy cycles per GWy(e). The third approach is a comparison of the societal and individual occupational risks of four different types of photovoltaic cell manufacture; this is an example of an intratechnology comparison. The fourth approach is a risk accounting method of analysis which estimates occupational health impacts for fabrication, construction, operation, and maintenance of energy technologies, and which, through an input-output model of the national economy, includes system-wide impacts as well as direct impacts of building and operating energy facilities

  2. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Chen, Yi-Leng

    2011-01-01

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  3. Data report for the integrity assessment report HNF-4589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCSHANE, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Supporting data for the Integrity Assessment Report of Tanks TK-101 and TK-102. The purpose of this document is to compile supporting documentation for the Integrity Assessment Report (HNF 4589) for Tanks 101 and 102 in the 2194 Facility. This approach minimizes the size of the Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) (HNF-4589) and still provide a path to detailed information. This IAR addresses the evaluation of Tanks 101 and 102 and other existing components located in the 219-5 Waste Handling Facility

  4. Double-shell tank waste transfer facilities integrity assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the integrity assessment plan for the existing double-shell tank waste transfer facilities system in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of Hanford Site. This plan identifies and proposes the integrity assessment elements and techniques to be performed for each facility. The integrity assessments of existing tank systems that stores or treats dangerous waste is required to be performed to be in compliance with the Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303-640 requirements

  5. Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil with other energy sources and pave the way for new systems, which will benefit from what we call the 'virtues of oil'. They produce energy carriers for multi-fuel and multi-product strategies, where flexibility is a key target, allied to other co-benefits, especially those related to the increased use of renewable energy sources. The concept of alternative energy systems can bring a new light to the oil transition era discussion and might also influence energy policies for promoting renewables

  6. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation

  7. The Challenge of Assessing Professional Competence in Work Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of work integrated learning (WIL) is the development of professional competence, the ability of students to perform in the workplace. Alignment theory therefore suggests that the assessment of WIL should include an assessment of students' demonstration of professional competence in the workplace. The assessment of professional…

  8. Closed expressions for specific massive multiloop self-energy integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Boehm, M.; Buza, M.; Scharf, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the class of N loop massive scalar self-energy diagrams with N + 1 propagators is studied in an arbitrary number of dimensions. As it is known these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of polylogarithms. Here it is shown, however, that they can be described by generalized hypergeometric functions of several variables, namely Laricella functions. These results represent previous small and large momentum expansions in closed form. Numerical comparisons for the finite part in four dimensions with a two-dimensional integral representation show good agreement. (orig.)

  9. Control structure selection for energy integrated distillation column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.E.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    This paper treats a case study on control structure selection for an almost binary distillation column. The column is energy integrated with a heat pump in order to transfer heat from the condenser to the reboiler. This integrated plant configuration renders the possible control structures somewhat...... different from what is usual for binary distillation columns. Further the heat pump enables disturbances to propagate faster through the system. The plant has six possible actuators of which three must be used to stabilize the system. Hereby three actuators are left for product purity control. An MILP...

  10. Integrated marketing communications at solar energy equipment market

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Litovchenko; I.A. Shkurupskaya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the development of the concept of «integrated marketing communications», as well as its adaptation to a specific market of solar energy equipment. The theoretical development of foreign and domestic scholars in the field of IMC is considered. The aim of the article is to define the concept of «integrated marketing communications» and use them in the market of solar еnergy equipment in an information economy. The author's definition of the c...

  11. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  12. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.

    2006-01-01

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  13. Integrating the views and perceptions of UK energy professionals in future energy scenarios to inform policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Gareth; Spataru, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Institute (EI) developed its first Energy Barometer survey in 2015 which aims to understand professionals’ views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. Following the survey, 79% of UK energy professionals believe their sector is not effectively communicating with the public. This suggests there is an urgent need to better understand how to use surveys in a more methodological way. Developed in conjunction with the EI, this paper presents the Energy Barometer survey methodology and results to achieve a better understanding of UK energy professionals’ current perceptions and future priorities. The paper makes two contributions to enhance the UK's energy debate. First, it provides the first results in a longitudinal assessment of energy professionals’ views of energy policy issues and discusses the implications for future policymaking. Second, it identifies opportunities for Energy Barometer findings to feed into scenarios development. A comparison with other studies was undertaken. It has been shown that the views of professionals working across the sector are aligned with decentralised approaches to decarbonisation. In particular, professionals expect action from policymakers to coordinate, engage with and encourage investment in energy efficiency. - Highlights: • 543 UK energy professionals from across the energy sector were surveyed. • Aiming to better understand views and opinions of energy priorities, policies and technologies. • A comparison of the methodology and results with other studies was undertaken. • Considers contributions of results to energy system scenario development. • Identifies particular need for increased energy efficiency investment.

  14. Evaluating the applicability of integrated domestic energy consumption frameworks in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2006-01-01

    Domestic energy consumption (DEC) has been traditionally understood using disciplinary perspectives, focusing on specific components of the energy consumption system such as technologies or costs. However, early attempts to encourage energy conservation demonstrated that these frameworks often miss important contextual factors such as cultural values and behavioural interactions with technologies. This evidence, combined with the present need for energy policies that can address environmental, social, and economic concerns, suggests that a broader perspective is needed. Integrated frameworks of DEC were first proposed over 20 years ago but very little has been said about the ideas proposed in these papers, whether it be critiquing their form or assessing their impact on theory and practice. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the influence of integrated frameworks in academic literature and in UK energy policy. It is argued that a common language could stimulate renewed interest in the integrated perspective and thereby help policy makers meet these diverse goals. To this end, a flexible agent-based framework is proposed to stimulate debate and clarify the role of an integrated approach to domestic energy policy

  15. Strategic Environmental Assessment: Integrated environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism_2004.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 70155 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism_2004.pdf... and Tourism Other topics in the series of overview information documents on the concepts of, and approaches to, integrated environmental management are listed below. Further titles in this series are being prepared and will be made available periodically...

  16. The development of integrated safety assessment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keon Joong; Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Yang, Joon Eon; Lim, Tae Jin; Han, Jae Joo; Je, Moo Seong; An, Kwang Il; Kim, Shi Dal; Jeong, Jong Tae; Jeong, Kwang Seop; Jin, Yeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Kil Yoo; Cho, Yeong Kyoon; Jeong, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Cheol; Choi, Yeong; Park, Soo Yong; Seong, Tae Yong; Song, Yong Man; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Jang, Seon Joo; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Choi, Seon Yeong

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of developing the integrated PSA methodology and computer codes, Level-1 and Level-2 PSA methodology and tools were reviewed and improved. The Level-1 PSA computer code package KIRAP was improved and released by the name of KIRAP Release 2.0 Several Human reliability analysis and common cause failure analysis methods was reviewed and compared. For the development of Level-2 PSA computer code, several level-1 and Level-2 interface methods and containment event tree development methods were reviewed and compared. And the new technology such as artificial intelligence was reviewed if the technology can be applied to the development of PSA methodology.(Author)

  17. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  18. Integrated assessment and environmental policy making. In pursuit of usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Current integrated assessment projects primarily seek end to end integration through formal models at a national to global scale, and show three significant representational weaknesses: determinants of decadal-scale emissions trends; valuing impacts and adaptive response; and the formation and effects of policies. Meeting the needs of policy audiences may require other forms of integration; may require integration by formal modeling or by other means; and may require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. While rational global environmental policy making requires integrated assessment, current practice admits no single vision of how to do it, so understanding will be best advanced by a diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches. Further practice may yield some consensus on best practice, possibly including generic assessment skills generalizable across issues. (Author)

  19. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Integral energy concepts for housing estates; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M.N.; Kuehl, L. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Integral energy concepts for housing estates require an early cooperation between architects, planners, and specialist engineers on the basis of a holistic planning approach. This is how future-oriented, sustainable concepts evolve which do justice to the multifarious requirements on the integral energy system of a housing estate. The present paper elucidates different approaches to optimising the energy efficiency of buildings such as the implementation of low-energy house concepts, building site and architectural planning, and detailed planning of heat insulation concepts, ventilation and air tightness concepts, and adapted heating systems. The solarisation of development plans has an influence on the arrangement of buildings, which are now planned to give the greatest possible passive and active solar energy gains. The authors also describe solar-assisted district heating systems for housing estates. [Deutsch] Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen erfordern die fruehe Zusammenarbeit von Architekten, Planern und Fachingenieuren im Rahmen einer ganzheitlichen Planung. So entstehen zukunftsweisende und tragfaehige Konzepte, die den vielschichtigen Anforderungen des Gesamtenergiesystems ``Wohnsiedlung`` gerecht werden. Im Folgenden wird die energetische Optimierung von Gebaeuden wie die Umsetzung von Niedrigenergiehaus-Konzepten, Standort und Gebaeudeplanung sowie Detailplanung in Bezug auf das Waermedaemmkonzept, Lueftungs-/Dichtheitskonzept und auf angepasste Waermeversorgungssysteme erl autert. Die Solarisierung von Bebauungsplaenen beeinflusste Anordnung der Gebaeude hinsichtlich der Nutzung passivsolarer Gewinne sowie des Einsatzes von Systemen der aktiven Solarenergienutzung. Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermenetze fuer Wohnsiedlungen werden ebenfalls beschrieben.