WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrated cloud liquid

  1. Solar control on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita

    2014-12-01

    A long-term observation over three solar cycles indicates a perceptible influence of solar activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the solar control on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of solar activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.

  2. Industrial Cloud: Toward Inter-enterprise Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Tomasz Wiktor; Rong, Chunming; Thorsen, Kari Anne Haaland

    Industrial cloud is introduced as a new inter-enterprise integration concept in cloud computing. The characteristics of an industrial cloud are given by its definition and architecture and compared with other general cloud concepts. The concept is then demonstrated by a practical use case, based on Integrated Operations (IO) in the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS), showing how industrial digital information integration platform gives competitive advantage to the companies involved. Further research and development challenges are also discussed.

  3. Polarized View of Supercooled Liquid Water Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Wasilewski, Andrzej P.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven E.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, where liquid droplets exist at temperatures below 0 C present a well known aviation hazard through aircraft icing, in which SLW accretes on the airframe. SLW clouds are common over the Southern Ocean, and climate-induced changes in their occurrence is thought to constitute a strong cloud feedback on global climate. The two recent NASA field campaigns POlarimeter Definition EXperiment (PODEX, based in Palmdale, California, January-February 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, based in Houston, Texas in August- September 2013) provided a unique opportunity to observe SLW clouds from the high-altitude airborne platform of NASA's ER-2 aircraft. We present an analysis of measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during these experiments accompanied by correlative retrievals from other sensors. The RSP measures both polarized and total reflectance in 9 spectral channels with wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. It is a scanning sensor taking samples at 0.8deg intervals within 60deg from nadir in both forward and backward directions. This unique angular resolution allows for characterization of liquid water droplet size using the rainbow structure observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg. Simple parametric fitting algorithms applied to the polarized reflectance provide retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT),which allows retrieval of the droplet size distribution without assuming a size distribution shape. We present an overview of the RSP campaign datasets available from the NASA GISS website, as well as two detailed examples of the retrievals. In these case studies we focus on cloud fields with spatial features

  4. Toward A Collection of Cloud Integration Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Daniel; Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the most exciting IT trends nowadays. It poses several challenges on application integration with respect to, for example, security. In this work we collect and categorize several new integration patterns and pattern solutions with a focus on cloud integration requirements. Their evidence and examples are based on extensive literature and system reviews.

  5. A Cloud Based Data Integration Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang , Nan; Xu , Lai; Vrieze , Paul ,; Lim , Mian-Guan; Jarabo , Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Part 7: Cloud-Based Support; International audience; Virtual enterprise (VE) relies on resource sharing and collaboration across geographically dispersed and dynamically allied businesses in order to better respond to market opportunities. It is generally considered that effective data integration and management is crucial to realise the value of VE. This paper describes a cloud-based data integration framework that can be used for supporting VE to discover, explore and respond more emerging ...

  6. The effect of cloud liquid water on tropospheric temperature retrievals from microwave measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bernet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles with high temporal resolution during clear sky and cloudy conditions. In this study, we included cloud models in the inversion algorithm of the microwave radiometer TEMPERA (TEMPErature RAdiometer to determine the effect of cloud liquid water on the temperature retrievals. The cloud models were built based on measurements of cloud base altitude and integrated liquid water (ILW, all performed at the aerological station (MeteoSwiss in Payerne (Switzerland. Cloud base altitudes were detected using ceilometer measurements while the ILW was measured by a HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler radiometer. To assess the quality of the TEMPERA retrieval when clouds were considered, the resulting temperature profiles were compared to 2 years of radiosonde measurements. The TEMPERA instrument measures radiation at 12 channels in the frequency range from 51 to 57 GHz, corresponding to the left wing of the oxygen emission line complex. When the full spectral information with all the 12 frequency channels was used, we found a marked improvement in the temperature retrievals after including a cloud model. The chosen cloud model influenced the resulting temperature profile, especially for high clouds and clouds with a large amount of liquid water. Using all 12 channels, however, presented large deviations between different cases, suggesting that additional uncertainties exist in the lower, more transparent channels. Using less spectral information with the higher, more opaque channels only also improved the temperature profiles when clouds where included, but the influence of the chosen cloud model was less important. We conclude that tropospheric temperature profiles can be optimized by considering clouds in the microwave retrieval, and that the choice of the cloud model has a direct impact on the resulting temperature profile.

  7. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Hu; M. Vaughan; C. McClain; M. Behrenfeld; H. Maring; D. Anderson; S. Sun-Mack; D. Flittner; J. Huang; B. Wielicki; P. Minnis; C. Weimer; C. Trepte; R. Kuehn

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study presents an empirical relation that links layer integrated depolarization ratios, the extinction coefficients, and effective radii of water clouds, based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations. Combined with cloud effective radius retrieved from MODIS, cloud liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds are estimated from CALIPSO lidar depolarization measurements in this study. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water...

  8. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-03-01

    This study presents an empirical relation that links layer integrated depolarization ratios, the extinction coefficients, and effective radii of water clouds, based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations. Combined with cloud effective radius retrieved from MODIS, cloud liquid water content and effective number density of water clouds are estimated from CALIPSO lidar depolarization measurements in this study. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number density are presented.

  9. Aerosol indirect effects on the nighttime Arctic Ocean surface from thin, predominantly liquid clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol indirect effects have potentially large impacts on the Arctic Ocean surface energy budget, but model estimates of regional-scale aerosol indirect effects are highly uncertain and poorly validated by observations. Here we demonstrate a new way to quantitatively estimate aerosol indirect effects on a regional scale from remote sensing observations. In this study, we focus on nighttime, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds. The method is based on differences in cloud physical and microphysical characteristics in carefully selected clean, average, and aerosol-impacted conditions. The cloud subset of focus covers just ∼ 5 % of cloudy Arctic Ocean regions, warming the Arctic Ocean surface by ∼ 1–1.4 W m−2 regionally during polar night. However, within this cloud subset, aerosol and cloud conditions can be determined with high confidence using CALIPSO and CloudSat data and model output. This cloud subset is generally susceptible to aerosols, with a polar nighttime estimated maximum regionally integrated indirect cooling effect of ∼ −0.11 W m−2 at the Arctic sea ice surface (∼ 8 % of the clean background cloud effect, excluding cloud fraction changes. Aerosol presence is related to reduced precipitation, cloud thickness, and radar reflectivity, and in some cases, an increased likelihood of cloud presence in the liquid phase. These observations are inconsistent with a glaciation indirect effect and are consistent with either a deactivation effect or less-efficient secondary ice formation related to smaller liquid cloud droplets. However, this cloud subset shows large differences in surface and meteorological forcing in shallow and higher-altitude clouds and between sea ice and open-ocean regions. For example, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds are much more likely to overlay another cloud over the open ocean, which may reduce aerosol indirect effects on the surface. Also, shallow clouds over

  10. Financial integration and liquidity crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglionesi, Fabio; Feriozzi, F.; Lorenzoni, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of financial integration on the stability of the banking system. Financial integration allows banks in different regions to smooth local liquidity shocks by borrowing and lending on a common interbank market. We show under which conditions financial integration

  11. Liquid water content variation with altitude in clouds over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Cloud water content is one of the most fundamental measurements in cloud physics. Knowledge of the vertical variability of cloud microphysical characteristics is important for a variety of reasons. The profile of liquid water content (LWC) partially governs the radiative transfer for cloudy atmospheres, LWC profiles improves our understanding of processes acting to form and maintain cloud systems and may lead to improvements in the representation of clouds in numerical models. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote sensing techniques. The aim of this paper was to analyze the liquid water content (LWC) measurements in clouds, in time of the aircraft flights. The aircraft and its platform ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research is property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania. The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 m). The processed and analyzed measurements are acquired during 4 flights from Romania (Bucharest, 44°25'57″N 26°06'14″E) to Germany (Berlin 52°30'2″N 13°23'56″E) above the same region of Europe. The flight path was starting from Bucharest to the western part of Romania above Hungary, Austria at a cruse altitude between 6000-8500 m, and after 5 hours reaching Berlin. In total we acquired data during approximately 20 flight hours and we presented the vertical and horizontal LWC variations for different cloud types. The LWC values are similar for each type of cloud to values from literature. The vertical LWC profiles in the atmosphere measured during takeoff and landing of the aircraft have shown their

  12. Cloud blueprints for integrating and managing cloud federations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.; Heisel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary cloud technologies face insurmountable obstacles. They follow a pull-based, producer-centric trajectory to development where cloud consumers have to ‘squeeze and bolt’ applications onto cloud APIs. They also introduce a monolithic SaaS/PaaS/IaaS stack where a one-size-fits-all mentality

  13. Defining Inter-Cloud Architecture for Interoperability and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.J.; Laat, C. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to develop the Inter-Cloud Architecture that should address problems in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous Cloud based applications integration and interoperability, including integration and interoperability with legacy infrastructure services. Cloud

  14. An Integrated Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Product Using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, S.; Gibson, S.; Chen, Y.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of aerosols, clouds, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from Aqua CERES and MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat. All of these instruments are flying in formation as part of the Aqua Train, or A-Train. This paper will present the preliminary results of merging aerosol and cloud data from the CALIPSO active lidar, cloud data from CloudSat, integrated column aerosol and cloud data from the MODIS CERES analyses, and surface and top-of-atmosphere broadband radiation fluxes from CERES. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  15. Integrating Containers in the CERN Private Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Bertrand; Michelino, Davide; Velten, Mathieu; Rocha, Ricardo; Trigazis, Spyridon

    2017-10-01

    Containers remain a hot topic in computing, with new use cases and tools appearing every day. Basic functionality such as spawning containers seems to have settled, but topics like volume support or networking are still evolving. Solutions like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes or Mesos provide similar functionality but target different use cases, exposing distinct interfaces and APIs. The CERN private cloud is made of thousands of nodes and users, with many different use cases. A single solution for container deployment would not cover every one of them, and supporting multiple solutions involves repeating the same process multiple times for integration with authentication services, storage services or networking. In this paper we describe OpenStack Magnum as the solution to offer container management in the CERN cloud. We will cover its main functionality and some advanced use cases using Docker Swarm and Kubernetes, highlighting some relevant differences between the two. We will describe the most common use cases in HEP and how we integrated popular services like CVMFS or AFS in the most transparent way possible, along with some limitations found. Finally we will look into ongoing work on advanced scheduling for both Swarm and Kubernetes, support for running batch like workloads and integration of container networking technologies with the CERN infrastructure.

  16. Integrated cloud-aerosol-radiation product using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Gibson, Sharon; Yi, Yuhong; Trepte, Qing; Wielicki, Bruce; Kato, Seiji; Winker, Dave; Stephens, Graeme; Partain, Philip

    2007-10-01

    This paper documents the development of the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of clouds, aerosols, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. As part of this effort, cloud data from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar are merged with the integrated column cloud properties from the CERES-MODIS analyses. The active and passive datasets are compared to determine commonalities and differences in order to facilitate the development of a 3-dimensional cloud and aerosol dataset that will then be integrated into the CERES broadband radiance footprint. Preliminary results from the comparisons for April 2007 reveal that the CERES-MODIS global cloud amounts are, on average, 0.14 less and 0.15 greater than those from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  17. Don't Trust the Cloud, Verify: Integrity and Consistency for Cloud Object Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburger, Marcus; Cachin, Christian; Knežević, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Cloud services have turned remote computation into a commodity and enable convenient online collaboration. However, they require that clients fully trust the service provider in terms of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Towards reducing this dependency, this paper introduces a protocol for verification of integrity and consistency for cloud object storage (VICOS), which enables a group of mutually trusting clients to detect data-integrity and consistency violations for a cloud ob...

  18. National electronic medical records integration on cloud computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Hebah; El-Masri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Few Healthcare providers have an advanced level of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) adoption. Others have a low level and most have no EMR at all. Cloud computing technology is a new emerging technology that has been used in other industry and showed a great success. Despite the great features of Cloud computing, they haven't been utilized fairly yet in healthcare industry. This study presents an innovative Healthcare Cloud Computing system for Integrating Electronic Health Record (EHR). The proposed Cloud system applies the Cloud Computing technology on EHR system, to present a comprehensive EHR integrated environment.

  19. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-06-01

    This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liquid water content and the effective number concentration of water clouds. The method is applied to collocated CALIPSO and MODIS measurements obtained during July and October of 2006, and January 2007. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number concentration are presented.

  20. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) – instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keepin...

  1. Defining inter-cloud architecture for interoperability and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.; de Laat, C.; Zimmermann, W.; Lee, Y.W.; Demchenko, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-going research to develop the Inter-Cloud Architecture, which addresses the architectural problems in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous cloud based applications integration and interoperability, including integration and interoperability with legacy infrastructure

  2. Privacy-preserving public auditing for data integrity in cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik Saleem, M.; Murali, M.

    2018-04-01

    Cloud computing which has collected extent concentration from communities of research and with industry research development, a large pool of computing resources using virtualized sharing method like storage, processing power, applications and services. The users of cloud are vend with on demand resources as they want in the cloud computing. Outsourced file of the cloud user can easily tampered as it is stored at the third party service providers databases, so there is no integrity of cloud users data as it has no control on their data, therefore providing security assurance to the users data has become one of the primary concern for the cloud service providers. Cloud servers are not responsible for any data loss as it doesn’t provide the security assurance to the cloud user data. Remote data integrity checking (RDIC) licenses an information to data storage server, to determine that it is really storing an owners data truthfully. RDIC is composed of security model and ID-based RDIC where it is responsible for the security of every server and make sure the data privacy of cloud user against the third party verifier. Generally, by running a two-party Remote data integrity checking (RDIC) protocol the clients would themselves be able to check the information trustworthiness of their cloud. Within the two party scenario the verifying result is given either from the information holder or the cloud server may be considered as one-sided. Public verifiability feature of RDIC gives the privilege to all its users to verify whether the original data is modified or not. To ensure the transparency of the publicly verifiable RDIC protocols, Let’s figure out there exists a TPA who is having knowledge and efficiency to verify the work to provide the condition clearly by publicly verifiable RDIC protocols.

  3. Integration of cloud resources in the LHCb distributed computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Mario Úbeda; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel; Muñoz, Víctor Méndez

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) – instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keeping this on mind, pros and cons of a cloud based infrasctructure have been studied in contrast with the current setup. As a result, this work addresses four different use cases which represent a major improvement on several levels of our infrastructure. We describe the solution implemented by LHCb for the contextualisation of the VMs based on the idea of Cloud Site. We report on operational experience of using in production several institutional Cloud resources that are thus becoming integral part of the LHCb Distributed Computing resources. Furthermore, we describe as well the gradual migration of our Service Infrastructure towards a fully distributed architecture following the Service as a Service (SaaS) model.

  4. Integration of Cloud resources in the LHCb Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda García, Mario; Méndez Muñoz, Víctor; Stagni, Federico; Cabarrou, Baptiste; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Charpentier, Philippe; Closier, Joel

    2014-06-01

    This contribution describes how Cloud resources have been integrated in the LHCb Distributed Computing. LHCb is using its specific Dirac extension (LHCbDirac) as an interware for its Distributed Computing. So far, it was seamlessly integrating Grid resources and Computer clusters. The cloud extension of DIRAC (VMDIRAC) allows the integration of Cloud computing infrastructures. It is able to interact with multiple types of infrastructures in commercial and institutional clouds, supported by multiple interfaces (Amazon EC2, OpenNebula, OpenStack and CloudStack) - instantiates, monitors and manages Virtual Machines running on this aggregation of Cloud resources. Moreover, specifications for institutional Cloud resources proposed by Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), mainly by the High Energy Physics Unix Information Exchange (HEPiX) group, have been taken into account. Several initiatives and computing resource providers in the eScience environment have already deployed IaaS in production during 2013. Keeping this on mind, pros and cons of a cloud based infrasctructure have been studied in contrast with the current setup. As a result, this work addresses four different use cases which represent a major improvement on several levels of our infrastructure. We describe the solution implemented by LHCb for the contextualisation of the VMs based on the idea of Cloud Site. We report on operational experience of using in production several institutional Cloud resources that are thus becoming integral part of the LHCb Distributed Computing resources. Furthermore, we describe as well the gradual migration of our Service Infrastructure towards a fully distributed architecture following the Service as a Service (SaaS) model.

  5. Observed and simulated temperature dependence of the liquid water path of low clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Genio, A.D.; Wolf, A.B. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Data being acquired at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site can be used to examine the factors determining the temperature dependence of cloud optical thickness. We focus on cloud liquid water and physical thickness variations which can be derived from existing ARM measurements.

  6. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  7. Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J.K.; Aemisegger, F.; Scholl, M.; Wienhold, F.G.; Collett, J.L.; Lee, T.; van Pinxteren, D.; Mertes, S.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Werner, Roland A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first observations of stable water isotopologue ratios in cloud droplets of different sizes collected simultaneously. We address the question whether the isotope ratio of droplets in a liquid cloud varies as a function of droplet size. Samples were collected from a ground intercepted cloud (= fog) during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010) using a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC). An instrument test revealed that no artificial isotopic fractionation occurs during sample collection with the CASCC. Furthermore, we could experimentally confirm the hypothesis that the δ values of cloud droplets of the relevant droplet sizes (μm-range) were not significantly different and thus can be assumed to be in isotopic equilibrium immediately with the surrounding water vapor. However, during the dissolution period of the cloud, when the supersaturation inside the cloud decreased and the cloud began to clear, differences in isotope ratios of the different droplet sizes tended to be larger. This is likely to result from the cloud's heterogeneity, implying that larger and smaller cloud droplets have been collected at different moments in time, delivering isotope ratios from different collection times.

  8. Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first observations of stable water isotopologue ratios in cloud droplets of different sizes collected simultaneously. We address the question whether the isotope ratio of droplets in a liquid cloud varies as a function of droplet size. Samples were collected from a ground intercepted cloud (= fog during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010 using a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC. An instrument test revealed that no artificial isotopic fractionation occurs during sample collection with the CASCC. Furthermore, we could experimentally confirm the hypothesis that the δ values of cloud droplets of the relevant droplet sizes (μm-range were not significantly different and thus can be assumed to be in isotopic equilibrium immediately with the surrounding water vapor. However, during the dissolution period of the cloud, when the supersaturation inside the cloud decreased and the cloud began to clear, differences in isotope ratios of the different droplet sizes tended to be larger. This is likely to result from the cloud's heterogeneity, implying that larger and smaller cloud droplets have been collected at different moments in time, delivering isotope ratios from different collection times.

  9. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Hlavacs, Helmut; Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  10. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user's data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user's data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called "Data Provenance". Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking.

  11. Provenance based data integrity checking and verification in cloud environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Inam Ul; Jan, Bilal; Khan, Fakhri Alam; Ahmad, Awais

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a recent tendency in IT that moves computing and data away from desktop and hand-held devices into large scale processing hubs and data centers respectively. It has been proposed as an effective solution for data outsourcing and on demand computing to control the rising cost of IT setups and management in enterprises. However, with Cloud platforms user’s data is moved into remotely located storages such that users lose control over their data. This unique feature of the Cloud is facing many security and privacy challenges which need to be clearly understood and resolved. One of the important concerns that needs to be addressed is to provide the proof of data integrity, i.e., correctness of the user’s data stored in the Cloud storage. The data in Clouds is physically not accessible to the users. Therefore, a mechanism is required where users can check if the integrity of their valuable data is maintained or compromised. For this purpose some methods are proposed like mirroring, checksumming and using third party auditors amongst others. However, these methods use extra storage space by maintaining multiple copies of data or the presence of a third party verifier is required. In this paper, we address the problem of proving data integrity in Cloud computing by proposing a scheme through which users are able to check the integrity of their data stored in Clouds. In addition, users can track the violation of data integrity if occurred. For this purpose, we utilize a relatively new concept in the Cloud computing called “Data Provenance”. Our scheme is capable to reduce the need of any third party services, additional hardware support and the replication of data items on client side for integrity checking. PMID:28545151

  12. Design and Development of ChemInfoCloud: An Integrated Cloud Enabled Platform for Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Deepak; Bhavasar, Arvind; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    The power of cloud computing and distributed computing has been harnessed to handle vast and heterogeneous data required to be processed in any virtual screening protocol. A cloud computing platorm ChemInfoCloud was built and integrated with several chemoinformatics and bioinformatics tools. The robust engine performs the core chemoinformatics tasks of lead generation, lead optimisation and property prediction in a fast and efficient manner. It has also been provided with some of the bioinformatics functionalities including sequence alignment, active site pose prediction and protein ligand docking. Text mining, NMR chemical shift (1H, 13C) prediction and reaction fingerprint generation modules for efficient lead discovery are also implemented in this platform. We have developed an integrated problem solving cloud environment for virtual screening studies that also provides workflow management, better usability and interaction with end users using container based virtualization, OpenVz.

  13. Integrating Cloud-Computing-Specific Model into Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimin, Tian; Qi, Lin; Guangwen, Yang

    Cloud Computing is becoming increasingly relevant, as it will enable companies involved in spreading this technology to open the door to Web 3.0. In the paper, the new categories of services introduced will slowly replace many types of computational resources currently used. In this perspective, grid computing, the basic element for the large scale supply of cloud services, will play a fundamental role in defining how those services will be provided. The paper tries to integrate cloud computing specific model into aircraft design. This work has acquired good results in sharing licenses of large scale and expensive software, such as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), UG, CATIA, and so on.

  14. Integration of End-User Cloud Storage for CMS Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Riahi, Hassen; Álvarez Ayllón, Alejandro; Balcas, Justas; Ciangottini, Diego; Hernández, José M; Keeble, Oliver; Magini, Nicolò; Manzi, Andrea; Mascetti, Luca; Mascheroni, Marco; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Vaandering, Eric Wayne

    2018-01-01

    End-user Cloud storage is increasing rapidly in popularity in research communities thanks to the collaboration capabilities it offers, namely synchronisation and sharing. CERN IT has implemented a model of such storage named, CERNBox, integrated with the CERN AuthN and AuthZ services. To exploit the use of the end-user Cloud storage for the distributed data analysis activity, the CMS experiment has started the integration of CERNBox as a Grid resource. This will allow CMS users to make use of their own storage in the Cloud for their analysis activities as well as to benefit from synchronisation and sharing capabilities to achieve results faster and more effectively. It will provide an integration model of Cloud storages in the Grid, which is implemented and commissioned over the world’s largest computing Grid infrastructure, Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). In this paper, we present the integration strategy and infrastructure changes needed in order to transparently integrate end-user Cloud storage with...

  15. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  16. Integrating containers in the CERN private cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Bertrand; Michelino, Davide; Velten, Mathieu; Rocha, Ricardo; Trigazis, Spyridon

    2017-01-01

    Containers remain a hot topic in computing, with new use cases and tools appearing every day. Basic functionality such as spawning containers seems to have settled, but topics like volume support or networking are still evolving. Solutions like Docker Swarm, Kubernetes or Mesos provide similar functionality but target different use cases, exposing distinct interfaces and APIs. The CERN private cloud is made of thousands of nodes and users, with many different use cases. A single solution for ...

  17. Statistical retrieval of thin liquid cloud microphysical properties using ground-based infrared and microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marke, Tobias; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, David D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, liquid water cloud microphysical properties are retrieved by a combination of microwave and infrared ground-based observations. Clouds containing liquid water are frequently occurring in most climate regimes and play a significant role in terms of interaction with radiation. Small perturbations in the amount of liquid water contained in the cloud can cause large variations in the radiative fluxes. This effect is enhanced for thin clouds (liquid water path, LWP cloud properties crucial. Due to large relative errors in retrieving low LWP values from observations in the microwave domain and a high sensitivity for infrared methods when the LWP is low, a synergistic retrieval based on a neural network approach is built to estimate both LWP and cloud effective radius (reff). These statistical retrievals can be applied without high computational demand but imply constraints like prior information on cloud phase and cloud layering. The neural network retrievals are able to retrieve LWP and reff for thin clouds with a mean relative error of 9% and 17%, respectively. This is demonstrated using synthetic observations of a microwave radiometer (MWR) and a spectrally highly resolved infrared interferometer. The accuracy and robustness of the synergistic retrievals is confirmed by a low bias in a radiative closure study for the downwelling shortwave flux, even for marginally invalid scenes. Also, broadband infrared radiance observations, in combination with the MWR, have the potential to retrieve LWP with a higher accuracy than a MWR-only retrieval.

  18. Processes that generate and deplete liquid water and snow in thin midlevel mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam J.; Larson, Vincent E.; Niu, Jianguo; Kankiewicz, J. Adam; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2009-06-01

    This paper uses a numerical model to investigate microphysical, radiative, and dynamical processes in mixed-phase altostratocumulus clouds. Three cloud cases are chosen for study, each of which was observed by aircraft during the fifth or ninth Complex Layered Cloud Experiment (CLEX). These three clouds are numerically modeled using large-eddy simulation (LES). The observed and modeled clouds consist of a mixed-phase layer with a quasi-adiabatic profile of liquid, and a virga layer below that consists of snow. A budget of cloud (liquid) water mixing ratio is constructed from the simulations. It shows that large-scale ascent/descent, radiative cooling/heating, turbulent transport, and microphysical processes are all significant. Liquid is depleted indirectly via depositional growth of snow (the Bergeron-Findeisen process). This process is more influential than depletion of liquid via accretional growth of snow. Also constructed is a budget of snow mixing ratio, which turns out to be somewhat simpler. It shows that snow grows by deposition in and below the liquid (mixed-phase) layer, and sublimates in the remainder of the virga region below. The deposition and sublimation are balanced primarily by sedimentation, which transports the snow from the growth region to the sublimation region below. In our three clouds, the vertical extent of the virga layer is influenced more by the profile of saturation ratio below the liquid (mixed-phase) layer than by the mixing ratio of snow at the top of the virga layer.

  19. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liquid water content and the effective number concentration of water clouds. The method is applied to collocated CALIPSO and MODIS measurements obtained during July and October of 2006, and January 2007. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number concentration are presented.

  20. The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, cloud fraction, and cloud dynamics on warm cloud effective radii and liquid water path from CERES-like Aqua MODIS retrievals

    OpenAIRE

    D. Painemal; P. Minnis; S. Sun-Mack

    2013-01-01

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, liquid water path (LWP from AMSR-E), and cloud fraction (CF) on MODIS cloud effective radius (re), retrieved from the 2.1 μm (re2.1) and 3.8 μm (re3.8) channels, is investigated for warm clouds over the southeast Pacific. Values of re retrieved using the CERES Edition 4 algorithms are averaged at the CERES footprint resolution (~ 20 km), while heterogeneities (Hσ) are calculated as the ratio between the standard deviation and mean...

  1. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karalidi, T.; Stam, D.M.; Hovenier, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in

  2. Scene Integration for Online VR Advertising Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kalochristianakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a scene composition approach that allows the combinational use of standard three dimensional objects, called models, in order to create X3D scenes. The module is an integral part of a broader design aiming to construct large scale online advertising infrastructures that rely on virtual reality technologies. The architecture addresses a number of problems regarding remote rendering for low end devices and last but not least, the provision of scene composition and integration. Since viewers do not keep information regarding individual input models or scenes, composition requires the consideration of mechanisms that add state to viewing technologies. In terms of this work we extended a well-known, open source X3D authoring tool.

  3. Dynamic integration of remote cloud resources into local computing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleig, Georg; Erli, Guenther; Giffels, Manuel; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Schnepf, Matthias [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments enormous amounts of data are analyzed and simulated. Traditionally dedicated HEP computing centers are built or extended to meet this steadily increasing demand for computing resources. Nowadays it is more reasonable and more flexible to utilize computing power at remote data centers providing regular cloud services to users as they can be operated in a more efficient manner. This approach uses virtualization and allows the HEP community to run virtual machines containing a dedicated operating system and transparent access to the required software stack on almost any cloud site. The dynamic management of virtual machines depending on the demand for computing power is essential for cost efficient operation and sharing of resources with other communities. For this purpose the EKP developed the on-demand cloud manager ROCED for dynamic instantiation and integration of virtualized worker nodes into the institute's computing cluster. This contribution will report on the concept of our cloud manager and the implementation utilizing a remote OpenStack cloud site and a shared HPC center (bwForCluster located in Freiburg).

  4. New Mexico cloud super cooled liquid water survey final report 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, Nick; Roskovensky, John K.; Ivey, Mark D.

    2010-02-01

    Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories are partners in an effort to survey the super-cooled liquid water in clouds over the state of New Mexico in a project sponsored by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program. This report summarizes the scientific work performed at Sandia National Laboratories during the 2009. In this second year of the project a practical methodology for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water was created. This was accomplished through the analysis of certain MODIS sensor satellite derived cloud products and vetted parameterizations techniques. A software code was developed to analyze multiple cases automatically. The eighty-one storm events identified in the previous year effort from 2006-2007 were again the focus. Six derived MODIS products were obtained first through careful MODIS image evaluation. Both cloud and clear-sky properties from this dataset were determined over New Mexico. Sensitivity studies were performed that identified the parameters which most influenced the estimation of cloud super-cooled liquid water. Limited validation was undertaken to ensure the soundness of the cloud super-cooled estimates. Finally, a path forward was formulized to insure the successful completion of the initial scientific goals which include analyzing different of annual datasets, validation of the developed algorithm, and the creation of a user-friendly and interactive tool for estimating cloud super-cooled liquid water.

  5. An Authentication Gateway for Integrated Grid and Cloud Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaschini, V; Salomoni, D

    2011-01-01

    The WNoDeS architecture, providing distributed, integrated access to both Cloud and Grid resources through virtualization technologies, makes use of an Authentication Gateway to support diverse authentication mechanisms. Three main use cases are foreseen, covering access via X.509 digital certificates, federated services like Shibboleth or Kerberos, and credit-based access. In this paper, we describe the structure of the WNoDeS authentication gateway.

  6. Information content of OCO-2 oxygen A-band channels for retrieving marine liquid cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2018-03-01

    Information content analysis is used to select channels for a marine liquid cloud retrieval using the high-spectral-resolution oxygen A-band instrument on NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). Desired retrieval properties are cloud optical depth, cloud-top pressure and cloud pressure thickness, which is the geometric thickness expressed in hectopascals. Based on information content criteria we select a micro-window of 75 of the 853 functioning OCO-2 channels spanning 763.5-764.6 nm and perform a series of synthetic retrievals with perturbed initial conditions. We estimate posterior errors from the sample standard deviations and obtain ±0.75 in optical depth and ±12.9 hPa in both cloud-top pressure and cloud pressure thickness, although removing the 10 % of samples with the highest χ2 reduces posterior error in cloud-top pressure to ±2.9 hPa and cloud pressure thickness to ±2.5 hPa. The application of this retrieval to real OCO-2 measurements is briefly discussed, along with limitations and the greatest caution is urged regarding the assumption of a single homogeneous cloud layer, which is often, but not always, a reasonable approximation for marine boundary layer clouds.

  7. Integrating multiple scientific computing needs via a Private Cloud infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, S; Berzano, D; Brunetti, R; Lusso, S; Vallero, S

    2014-01-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, diverse applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud facility eases the management and maintenance of heterogeneous use cases such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites catering to different communities, parallel interactive data analysis facilities and others. It allows to dynamically and efficiently allocate resources to any application and to tailor the virtual machines according to the applications' requirements. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques; for example, rolling updates can be performed easily and minimizing the downtime. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 site and a dynamically expandable PROOF-based Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The Private Cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem (used in two different configurations for worker- and service-class hypervisors) and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization). A future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and by using mainstream contextualization tools like CloudInit.

  8. Tavaxy: integrating Taverna and Galaxy workflows with cloud computing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Issa, Shadi Alaa; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2012-05-04

    Over the past decade the workflow system paradigm has evolved as an efficient and user-friendly approach for developing complex bioinformatics applications. Two popular workflow systems that have gained acceptance by the bioinformatics community are Taverna and Galaxy. Each system has a large user-base and supports an ever-growing repository of application workflows. However, workflows developed for one system cannot be imported and executed easily on the other. The lack of interoperability is due to differences in the models of computation, workflow languages, and architectures of both systems. This lack of interoperability limits sharing of workflows between the user communities and leads to duplication of development efforts. In this paper, we present Tavaxy, a stand-alone system for creating and executing workflows based on using an extensible set of re-usable workflow patterns. Tavaxy offers a set of new features that simplify and enhance the development of sequence analysis applications: It allows the integration of existing Taverna and Galaxy workflows in a single environment, and supports the use of cloud computing capabilities. The integration of existing Taverna and Galaxy workflows is supported seamlessly at both run-time and design-time levels, based on the concepts of hierarchical workflows and workflow patterns. The use of cloud computing in Tavaxy is flexible, where the users can either instantiate the whole system on the cloud, or delegate the execution of certain sub-workflows to the cloud infrastructure. Tavaxy reduces the workflow development cycle by introducing the use of workflow patterns to simplify workflow creation. It enables the re-use and integration of existing (sub-) workflows from Taverna and Galaxy, and allows the creation of hybrid workflows. Its additional features exploit recent advances in high performance cloud computing to cope with the increasing data size and complexity of analysis.The system can be accessed either through a

  9. Tavaxy: Integrating Taverna and Galaxy workflows with cloud computing support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouelhoda Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade the workflow system paradigm has evolved as an efficient and user-friendly approach for developing complex bioinformatics applications. Two popular workflow systems that have gained acceptance by the bioinformatics community are Taverna and Galaxy. Each system has a large user-base and supports an ever-growing repository of application workflows. However, workflows developed for one system cannot be imported and executed easily on the other. The lack of interoperability is due to differences in the models of computation, workflow languages, and architectures of both systems. This lack of interoperability limits sharing of workflows between the user communities and leads to duplication of development efforts. Results In this paper, we present Tavaxy, a stand-alone system for creating and executing workflows based on using an extensible set of re-usable workflow patterns. Tavaxy offers a set of new features that simplify and enhance the development of sequence analysis applications: It allows the integration of existing Taverna and Galaxy workflows in a single environment, and supports the use of cloud computing capabilities. The integration of existing Taverna and Galaxy workflows is supported seamlessly at both run-time and design-time levels, based on the concepts of hierarchical workflows and workflow patterns. The use of cloud computing in Tavaxy is flexible, where the users can either instantiate the whole system on the cloud, or delegate the execution of certain sub-workflows to the cloud infrastructure. Conclusions Tavaxy reduces the workflow development cycle by introducing the use of workflow patterns to simplify workflow creation. It enables the re-use and integration of existing (sub- workflows from Taverna and Galaxy, and allows the creation of hybrid workflows. Its additional features exploit recent advances in high performance cloud computing to cope with the increasing data size and

  10. Tavaxy: Integrating Taverna and Galaxy workflows with cloud computing support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade the workflow system paradigm has evolved as an efficient and user-friendly approach for developing complex bioinformatics applications. Two popular workflow systems that have gained acceptance by the bioinformatics community are Taverna and Galaxy. Each system has a large user-base and supports an ever-growing repository of application workflows. However, workflows developed for one system cannot be imported and executed easily on the other. The lack of interoperability is due to differences in the models of computation, workflow languages, and architectures of both systems. This lack of interoperability limits sharing of workflows between the user communities and leads to duplication of development efforts. Results In this paper, we present Tavaxy, a stand-alone system for creating and executing workflows based on using an extensible set of re-usable workflow patterns. Tavaxy offers a set of new features that simplify and enhance the development of sequence analysis applications: It allows the integration of existing Taverna and Galaxy workflows in a single environment, and supports the use of cloud computing capabilities. The integration of existing Taverna and Galaxy workflows is supported seamlessly at both run-time and design-time levels, based on the concepts of hierarchical workflows and workflow patterns. The use of cloud computing in Tavaxy is flexible, where the users can either instantiate the whole system on the cloud, or delegate the execution of certain sub-workflows to the cloud infrastructure. Conclusions Tavaxy reduces the workflow development cycle by introducing the use of workflow patterns to simplify workflow creation. It enables the re-use and integration of existing (sub-) workflows from Taverna and Galaxy, and allows the creation of hybrid workflows. Its additional features exploit recent advances in high performance cloud computing to cope with the increasing data size and complexity of analysis. The system

  11. Integration of smart wearable mobile devices and cloud computing in South African healthcare

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, PS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration of Smart Wearable Mobile Devices and Cloud Computing in South African Healthcare Promise MVELASE, Zama DLAMINI, Angeline DLUDLA, Happy SITHOLE Abstract: The acceptance of cloud computing is increasing in a fast pace in distributed...

  12. Comparison of global cloud liquid water path derived from microwave measurements with CERES-MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y.; Minnis, P.; Huang, J.; Lin, B.; Ayers, K.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fan, A.

    Cloud liquid water path LWP is a crucial parameter for climate studies due to the link that it provides between the atmospheric hydrological and radiative budgets Satellite-based visible infrared techniques such as the Visible Infrared Solar Split-Window Technique VISST can retrieve LWP for water clouds assumes single-layer over a variety of surfaces If the water clouds are overlapped by ice clouds the LWP of the underlying clouds can not be retrieved by such techniques However microwave techniques may be used to retrieve the LWP underneath ice clouds due to the microwave s insensitivity to cloud ice particles LWP is typically retrieved from satellite-observed microwave radiances only over ocean due to variations of land surface temperature and emissivity Recently Deeter and Vivekanandan 2006 developed a new technique for retrieving LWP over land In order to overcome the sensitivity to land surface temperature and emissivity their technique is based on a parameterization of microwave polarization-difference signals In this study a similar regression-based technique for retrieving LWP over land and ocean using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS AMSR-E measurements is developed Furthermore the microwave surface emissivities are also derived using clear-sky fields of view based on the Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer CERES-MODIS cloud mask These emissivities are used in an alternate form of the technique The results are evaluated using independent measurements such

  13. An Uncertainty Data Set for Passive Microwave Satellite Observations of Warm Cloud Liquid Water Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Thomas J.; Bennartz, Ralf; Lebsock, Matthew; Teixeira, João.

    2018-04-01

    The first extended comprehensive data set of the retrieval uncertainties in passive microwave observations of cloud liquid water path (CLWP) for warm oceanic clouds has been created for practical use in climate applications. Four major sources of systematic errors were considered over the 9-year record of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E): clear-sky bias, cloud-rain partition (CRP) bias, cloud-fraction-dependent bias, and cloud temperature bias. Errors were estimated using a unique merged AMSR-E/Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Level 2 data set as well as observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar. To quantify the CRP bias more accurately, a new parameterization was developed to improve the inference of CLWP in warm rain. The cloud-fraction-dependent bias was found to be a combination of the CRP bias, an in-cloud bias, and an adjacent precipitation bias. Globally, the mean net bias was 0.012 kg/m2, dominated by the CRP and in-cloud biases, but with considerable regional and seasonal variation. Good qualitative agreement between a bias-corrected AMSR-E CLWP climatology and ship observations in the Northeast Pacific suggests that the bias estimates are reasonable. However, a possible underestimation of the net bias in certain conditions may be due in part to the crude method used in classifying precipitation, underscoring the need for an independent method of detecting rain in warm clouds. This study demonstrates the importance of combining visible-infrared imager data and passive microwave CLWP observations for estimating uncertainties and improving the accuracy of these observations.

  14. The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, cloud fraction, and cloud dynamics on warm cloud effective radii and liquid water path from CERES-like Aqua MODIS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painemal, D.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2013-05-01

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, liquid water path (LWP from AMSR-E), and cloud fraction (CF) on MODIS cloud effective radius (re), retrieved from the 2.1 μm (re2.1) and 3.8 μm (re3.8) channels, is investigated for warm clouds over the southeast Pacific. Values of re retrieved using the CERES Edition 4 algorithms are averaged at the CERES footprint resolution (~ 20 km), while heterogeneities (Hσ) are calculated as the ratio between the standard deviation and mean 0.64 μm reflectance. The value of re2.1 strongly depends on CF, with magnitudes up to 5 μm larger than those for overcast scenes, whereas re3.8 remains insensitive to CF. For cloudy scenes, both re2.1 and re3.8 increase with Hσ for any given AMSR-E LWP, but re2.1 changes more than for re3.8. Additionally, re3.8 - re2.1 differences are positive ( 50 g m-2, and negative (up to -4 μm) for larger Hσ. Thus, re3.8 - re2.1 differences are more likely to reflect biases associated with cloud heterogeneities rather than information about the cloud vertical structure. The consequences for MODIS LWP are also discussed.

  15. Integrated Geo Hazard Management System in Cloud Computing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, M. I. M.; Omar, R. C.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Ismail, A.; Mustapha, I. S.; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Roslan, R.; Zalam, W. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Geo hazard can result in reducing of environmental health and huge economic losses especially in mountainous area. In order to mitigate geo-hazard effectively, cloud computer technology are introduce for managing geo hazard database. Cloud computing technology and it services capable to provide stakeholder's with geo hazards information in near to real time for an effective environmental management and decision-making. UNITEN Integrated Geo Hazard Management System consist of the network management and operation to monitor geo-hazard disaster especially landslide in our study area at Kelantan River Basin and boundary between Hulu Kelantan and Hulu Terengganu. The system will provide easily manage flexible measuring system with data management operates autonomously and can be controlled by commands to collects and controls remotely by using “cloud” system computing. This paper aims to document the above relationship by identifying the special features and needs associated with effective geohazard database management using “cloud system”. This system later will use as part of the development activities and result in minimizing the frequency of the geo-hazard and risk at that research area.

  16. Integration of Openstack cloud resources in BES III computing cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Cheng, Yaodong; Huang, Qiulan; Cheng, Zhenjing; Shi, Jingyan

    2017-10-01

    Cloud computing provides a new technical means for data processing of high energy physics experiment. However, the resource of each queue is fixed and the usage of the resource is static in traditional job management system. In order to make it simple and transparent for physicist to use, we developed a virtual cluster system (vpmanager) to integrate IHEPCloud and different batch systems such as Torque and HTCondor. Vpmanager provides dynamic virtual machines scheduling according to the job queue. The BES III use case results show that resource efficiency is greatly improved.

  17. Design integration of liquid surface divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.; Cowgill, D.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Nelson, B.E.; Fogarty, P.J.; Rognlien, T.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Hassanein, A.; Smolentsev, S.S.; Kotschenreuther, M.

    2004-01-01

    The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium, sodium and beryllium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied

  18. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Integrated Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Brian; Ryan, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    The proposed paper will cover ongoing work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) on integrated power and propulsion for advanced human exploration. Specifically, it will present findings of the integrated design, testing, and operational challenges of a liquid oxygen / liquid methane (LOx/LCH4) propulsion brassboard and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. Human-Mars architectures point to an oxygen-methane economy utilizing common commodities, scavenged from the planetary atmosphere and soil via In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), and common commodities across sub-systems. Due to the enormous mass gear-ratio required for human exploration beyond low-earth orbit, (for every 1 kg of payload landed on Mars, 226 kg will be required on Earth) increasing commonality between spacecraft subsystems such as power and propulsion can result in tremendous launch mass and volume savings. Historically, propulsion and fuel cell power subsystems have had little interaction outside of the generation (fuel cell) and consumption (propulsion) of electrical power. This was largely due to a mismatch in preferred commodities (hypergolics for propulsion; oxygen & hydrogen for fuel cells). Although this stove-piped approach benefits from simplicity in the design process, it means each subsystem has its own tanks, pressurization system, fluid feed system, etc. increasing overall spacecraft mass and volume. A liquid oxygen / liquid methane commodities architecture across propulsion and power subsystems would enable the use of common tankage and associated pressurization and commodity delivery hardware for both. Furthermore, a spacecraft utilizing integrated power and propulsion could use propellant residuals - propellant which could not be expelled from the tank near depletion due to hydrodynamic considerations caused by large flow demands of a rocket engine - to generate power after all propulsive maneuvers are complete thus utilizing

  19. Satellite retrieval of the liquid water fraction in tropical clouds between −20 and −38 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Mitchell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a satellite remote sensing method for directly retrieving the liquid water fraction in mixed phase clouds, and appears unique in this respect. The method uses MODIS split-window channels for retrieving the liquid fraction from cold clouds where the liquid water fraction is less than 50% of the total condensate. This makes use of the observation that clouds only containing ice exhibit effective 12-to-11 μm absorption optical thickness ratios (βeff that are quasi-constant with retrieved cloud temperature T. This observation was made possible by using two CO2 channels to retrieve T and then using the 12 and 11 μm channels to retrieve emissivities and βeff. Thus for T < −40 °C, βeff is constant, but for T > −40 °C, βeff slowly increases due to the presence of liquid water, revealing mean liquid fractions of ~ 10% around −22 °C from tropical clouds identified as cirrus by the cloud mask. However, the uncertainties for these retrievals are large, and extensive in situ measurements are needed to refine and validate these retrievals. Such liquid levels are shown to reduce the cloud effective diameter De such that cloud optical thickness will increase by more than 50% for a given water path, relative to De corresponding to pure ice clouds. Such retrieval information is needed for validation of the cloud microphysics in climate models. Since low levels of liquid water can dominate cloud optical properties, tropical clouds between −25 and −20 °C may be susceptible to the first aerosol indirect effect.

  20. Information Interpretation Code For Providing Secure Data Integrity On Multi-Server Cloud Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiya Moorthy Srinivsan; Chandrasekar Chaillah

    2014-01-01

    Data security is one of the biggest concerns in cloud computing environment. Although the advantages of storing data in cloud computing environment is extremely high, there arises a problem related to data missing. CyberLiveApp (CLA) supports secure application development between multiple users, even though cloud users distinguish their vision privileges during storing of data. But CyberLiveApp failed to integrate the system with certain cloud-based computing environments on multi-server. En...

  1. A Variational Method to Retrieve the Extinction Profile in Liquid Clouds Using Multiple Field-of-View Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Nicola L.; Hogan, Robin J.; Varnai, Tamas; Battaglia, Alessandro; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    While liquid clouds playa very important role in the global radiation budget, it's been very difficult to remotely determine their internal cloud structure. Ordinary lidar instruments (similar to radars but using visible light pulses) receive strong signals from such clouds, but the information is limited to a thin layer near the cloud boundary. Multiple field-of-view (FOV) lidars offer some new hope as they are able to isolate photons that were scattered many times by cloud droplets and penetrated deep into a cloud before returning to the instrument. Their data contains new information on cloud structure, although the lack of fast simulation methods made it challenging to interpret the observations. This paper describes a fast new technique that can simulate multiple-FOV lidar signals and can even estimate the way the signals would change in response to changes in cloud properties-an ability that allows quick refinements in our initial guesses of cloud structure. Results for a hypothetical airborne three-FOV lidar suggest that this approach can help determine cloud structure for a deeper layer in clouds, and can reliably determine the optical thickness of even fairly thick liquid clouds. The algorithm is also applied to stratocumulus observations by the 8-FOV airborne "THOR" lidar. These tests demonstrate that the new method can determine the depth to which a lidar provides useful information on vertical cloud structure. This work opens the way to exploit data from spaceborne lidar and radar more rigorously than has been possible up to now.

  2. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Y; Fernández-del-Castillo, Enol; López García, Álvaro; Marco de Lucas, Jesús; Matorras Weinig, Francisco; González Caballero, Isidro; Cuesta Noriega, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  3. Impacts of Subgrid Heterogeneous Mixing between Cloud Liquid and Ice on the Wegner-Bergeron-Findeisen Process and Mixed-phase Clouds in NCAR CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds are persistently observed over the Arctic and the phase partitioning between cloud liquid and ice hydrometeors in mixed-phase clouds has important impacts on the surface energy budget and Arctic climate. In this study, we test the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) with the single-column and weather forecast configurations and evaluate the model performance against observation data from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's M-PACE field campaign in October 2004 and long-term ground-based multi-sensor remote sensing measurements. Like most global climate models, we find that CAM5 also poorly simulates the phase partitioning in mixed-phase clouds by significantly underestimating the cloud liquid water content. Assuming pocket structures in the distribution of cloud liquid and ice in mixed-phase clouds as suggested by in situ observations provides a plausible solution to improve the model performance by reducing the Wegner-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process rate. In this study, the modification of the WBF process in the CAM5 model has been achieved with applying a stochastic perturbation to the time scale of the WBF process relevant to both ice and snow to account for the heterogeneous mixture of cloud liquid and ice. Our results show that this modification of WBF process improves the modeled phase partitioning in the mixed-phase clouds. The seasonal variation of mixed-phase cloud properties is also better reproduced in the model in comparison with the long-term ground-based remote sensing observations. Furthermore, the phase partitioning is insensitive to the reassignment time step of perturbations.

  4. Analysis of albedo versus cloud fraction relationships in liquid water clouds using heuristic models and large eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Graham; Balsells, Joseph; Glassmeier, Franziska; Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Kazil, Jan; McComiskey, Allison

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between the albedo of a cloudy scene A and cloud fraction fc is studied with the aid of heuristic models of stratocumulus and cumulus clouds. Existing work has shown that scene albedo increases monotonically with increasing cloud fraction but that the relationship varies from linear to superlinear. The reasons for these differences in functional dependence are traced to the relationship between cloud deepening and cloud widening. When clouds deepen with no significant increase in fc (e.g., in solid stratocumulus), the relationship between A and fc is linear. When clouds widen as they deepen, as in cumulus cloud fields, the relationship is superlinear. A simple heuristic model of a cumulus cloud field with a power law size distribution shows that the superlinear A-fc behavior is traced out either through random variation in cloud size distribution parameters or as the cloud field oscillates between a relative abundance of small clouds (steep slopes on a log-log plot) and a relative abundance of large clouds (flat slopes). Oscillations of this kind manifest in large eddy simulation of trade wind cumulus where the slope and intercept of the power law fit to the cloud size distribution are highly correlated. Further analysis of the large eddy model-generated cloud fields suggests that cumulus clouds grow larger and deeper as their underlying plumes aggregate; this is followed by breakup of large plumes and a tendency to smaller clouds. The cloud and thermal size distributions oscillate back and forth approximately in unison.

  5. The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, cloud fraction, and liquid water path on warm cloud effective radii from CERES-like Aqua MODIS retrievals

    OpenAIRE

    Painemal, D.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, liquid water path (LWP from AMSR-E), and cloud fraction (CF) on MODIS cloud effective radius (re), retrieved from the 2.1 μm (re2.1) and 3.8 μm (re3.8) channels, is investigated for warm clouds over the southeast Pacific. Values of re retrieved using the CERES algorithms are averaged at the CERES footprint resolution (∼20 km), while heterogeneities (Hσ) are calculated as the ratio between the standard deviation and mean 0.64 μm reflectance. ...

  6. How Often and Why MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals Fail for Liquid-Phase Clouds over Ocean? a Comprehensive Analysis Based on a-Train Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, H. M.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Lebsock, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The cloud optical thickness (τ) and droplet effective radius (re) are two key cloud parameters retrieved by MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). These MODIS cloud products are widely used in a broad range of earth system science applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the failed cloud τ and/or re retrievals for liquid-phase clouds over ocean in the Collection 6 MODIS cloud product. The main findings from this study are summarized as follows: MODIS retrieval failure rates for marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a strong dependence on the spectral combination used for retrieval (e.g., 0.86 + 2.1 µm vs. 0.8 + 3.7 µm) and the cloud morphology (i.e., "good" pixels vs. partly cloudy (PCL) pixels). Combining all clear-sky-restoral (CSR) categories (CSR=0,1 and 3), the 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm spectral combinations have an overall failure rate of about 20% and 12%, respectively (See figure below). The PCL pixels (CSR=1 & 3) have significantly higher failure rates and contribute more to the total failure population than the "good" (CSR=0) pixels. The majority of the failed retrievals are caused by the re too large failure, which explains about 85% and 70% of the failed 0.86 + 2.1 µm and 0.86 + 3.7 µm retrievals, respectively. The remaining failures are either due to the re too small failure or τ retrieval failure. The geographical distribution of failure rates has a significant dependence on cloud regime, lower over the coastal stratocumulus cloud regime and higher over the broken trade-wind cumulus cloud regime over open oceans. Enhanced retrieval failure rates are found when MBL clouds have high sub-pixel inhomogeneity , or are located at special Sun-satellite viewing geometries, such as sunglint, large viewing or solar zenith angle, or cloudbow and glory angles, or subject to cloud masking, cloud overlapping and/or cloud phase retrieval issues. About 80% of the failure retrievals can be attributed to at

  7. Big Data X-Learning Resources Integration and Processing in Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangsheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cloud computing platform has good flexibility characteristics, more and more learning systems are migrated to the cloud platform. Firstly, this paper describes different types of educational environments and the data they provide. Then, it proposes a kind of heterogeneous learning resources mining, integration and processing architecture. In order to integrate and process the different types of learning resources in different educational environments, this paper specifically proposes a novel solution and massive storage integration algorithm and conversion algorithm to the heterogeneous learning resources storage and management cloud environments.

  8. A computational- And storage-cloud for integration of biodiversity collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, A.; Thompson, A.; Figueiredo, R. J.; Germain-Aubrey, C.C; Collins, M.; Beeman, R.S; Macfadden, B.J.; Riccardi, G.; Soltis, P.S; Page, L. M.; Fortes, J.A.B

    2013-01-01

    A core mission of the Integrated Digitized Biocollections (iDigBio) project is the building and deployment of a cloud computing environment customized to support the digitization workflow and integration of data from all U.S. nonfederal biocollections. iDigBio chose to use cloud computing technologies to deliver a cyberinfrastructure that is flexible, agile, resilient, and scalable to meet the needs of the biodiversity community. In this context, this paper describes the integration of open source cloud middleware, applications, and third party services using standard formats, protocols, and services. In addition, this paper demonstrates the value of the digitized information from collections in a broader scenario involving multiple disciplines.

  9. An Industrial Cloud: Integrated Operations in Oil and Gas in the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Chunming

    Cloud computing may provide the long waiting technologies and methodologies for large scale industrial collaboration across disciplines and enterprise boundaries. Industrial cloud is introduced as a new inter-enterprise integration concept in cloud computing. Motivations and advantages are given by a practical exploration of the concept from the perspective of the on-going effort by the Norwegian oil and gas industry to build industry wide information integration and collaboration. ISO15926 is recognized as a standard enabling cross boundaries data integration and processing.

  10. Cloud Computing: Should It Be Integrated into the Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchit, Chuleeporn

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing has become increasingly popular among users and businesses around the world, and education is no exception. Cloud computing can bring an increased number of benefits to an educational setting, not only for its cost effectiveness, but also for the thirst for technology that college students have today, which allows learning and…

  11. Cloud Computing : Goals, Issues, SOA, Integrated Technologies and Future -scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Madhu Viswanatham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of networking infrastructure has provided a novel way to store and access resources in a reliable, convenient and affordable means of technology called the Cloud. The cloud has become so popular and established its dominance in many recent world innovations and has highly influenced the trend of the Business process Management with the advantage of shared resources. The ability to remain disaster tolerant, on-demand scalability, flexible deployment and cost effectiveness has made the future world technologies like Internet of Things, to determine the cloud as their data and processing center. However, along with the implementation of cloud based technologies, we must also address the issues involved in its realization. This paper is a review on the advancements, scopes and issues involved in realizing a secured cloud powered environments.

  12. Cloud point extraction: an alternative to traditional liquid-liquid extraction for lanthanides(III) separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Réguillon, Alain; Draye, Micheline; Lebuzit, Gérard; Thomas, Sylvie; Foos, Jacques; Cote, Gérard; Guy, Alain

    2004-06-17

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) was used to extract and separate lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) nitrate from an aqueous solution. The methodology used is based on the formation of lanthanide(III)-8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complexes soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant. The lanthanide(III) complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at a temperature above the cloud point temperature (CPT). The structure of the non-ionic surfactant, and the chelating agent-metal molar ratio are identified as factors determining the extraction efficiency and selectivity. In an aqueous solution containing equimolar concentrations of La(III) and Gd(III), extraction efficiency for Gd(III) can reach 96% with a Gd(III)/La(III) selectivity higher than 30 using Triton X-114. Under those conditions, a Gd(III) decontamination factor of 50 is obtained.

  13. Understanding the drivers of marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties with global observations using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of aerosols, clouds and their interactions with radiation remain among the largest unknowns in the climate system. Even though the processes involved are complex, aerosol–cloud interactions are often analyzed by means of bivariate relationships. In this study, 15 years (2001–2015 of monthly satellite-retrieved near-global aerosol products are combined with reanalysis data of various meteorological parameters to predict satellite-derived marine liquid-water cloud occurrence and properties by means of region-specific artificial neural networks. The statistical models used are shown to be capable of predicting clouds, especially in regions of high cloud variability. On this monthly scale, lower-tropospheric stability is shown to be the main determinant of cloud fraction and droplet size, especially in stratocumulus regions, while boundary layer height controls the liquid-water amount and thus the optical thickness of clouds. While aerosols show the expected impact on clouds, at this scale they are less relevant than some meteorological factors. Global patterns of the derived sensitivities point to regional characteristics of aerosol and cloud processes.

  14. Integrated Model to Assess Cloud Deployment Effectiveness When Developing an IT-strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikov, S.; Prankevich, D.

    2016-04-01

    Developing an IT-strategy of cloud deployment is a complex issue since even the stage of its formation necessitates revealing what applications will be the best possible to meet the requirements of a company business-strategy, evaluate reliability and safety of cloud providers and analyze staff satisfaction. A system of criteria, as well an integrated model to assess cloud deployment effectiveness is offered. The model makes it possible to identify what applications being at the disposal of a company, as well as new tools to be deployed are reliable and safe enough for implementation in the cloud environment. The data on practical use of the procedure to assess cloud deployment effectiveness by a provider of telecommunication services is presented. The model was used to calculate values of integral indexes of services to be assessed, then, ones, meeting the criteria and answering the business-strategy of a company, were selected.

  15. Coupled Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud and Above-Cloud Aerosol Properties Using the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; van Harten, Gerard; Diner, David J.; Davis, Anthony B.; Seidel, Felix C.; Rheingans, Brian; Tosca, Mika; Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Ferrare, Richard A.; Burton, Sharon P.; Fenn, Marta A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Wood, Robert; Redemann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    An optimization algorithm is developed to retrieve liquid water cloud properties including cloud optical depth (COD), droplet size distribution and cloud top height (CTH), and above-cloud aerosol properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo, and microphysical properties from sweep-mode observations by Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) instrument. The retrieval is composed of three major steps: (1) initial estimate of the mean droplet size distribution across the entire image of 80-100 km along track by 10-25 km across track from polarimetric cloudbow observations, (2) coupled retrieval of image-scale cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties by fitting the polarimetric data at all observation angles, and (3) iterative retrieval of 1-D radiative transfer-based COD and droplet size distribution at pixel scale (25 m) by establishing relationships between COD and droplet size and fitting the total radiance measurements. Our retrieval is tested using 134 AirMSPI data sets acquired during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS. The retrieved above-cloud AOD and CTH are compared to coincident HSRL-2 (HSRL-2, NASA Langley Research Center) data, and COD and droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius reff and effective variance veff) are compared to coincident Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies) data. Mean absolute differences between AirMSPI and HSRL-2 retrievals of above-cloud AOD at 532 nm and CTH are 0.03 and mean absolute differences between RSP and AirMSPI retrievals of COD, reff, and veff in the cloudbow area are 2.33, 0.69 μm, and 0.020, respectively. Neglect of smoke aerosols above cloud leads to an underestimate of image-averaged COD by 15%.

  16. A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using ionic liquid based microemulsion coupled with cloud point extraction for determination of copper in serum and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Faheem

    2016-04-01

    A simple and rapid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid assisted microemulsion (IL-µE-DLLME) combined with cloud point extraction has been developed for preconcentration copper (Cu(2+)) in drinking water and serum samples of adolescent female hepatitits C (HCV) patients. In this method a ternary system was developed to form microemulsion (µE) by phase inversion method (PIM), using ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) and nonionic surfactant, TX-100 (as a stabilizer in aqueous media). The Ionic liquid microemulsion (IL-µE) was evaluated through visual assessment, optical light microscope and spectrophotometrically. The Cu(2+) in real water and aqueous acid digested serum samples were complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and extracted into IL-µE medium. The phase separation of stable IL-µE was carried out by the micellar cloud point extraction approach. The influence of of different parameters such as pH, oxine concentration, centrifugation time and rate were investigated. At optimized experimental conditions, the limit of detection and enhancement factor were found to be 0.132 µg/L and 70 respectively, with relative standard deviation <5%. In order to validate the developed method, certified reference materials (SLRS-4 Riverine water) and human serum (Sero-M10181) were analyzed. The resulting data indicated a non-significant difference in obtained and certified values of Cu(2+). The developed procedure was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of trace levels of Cu(2+) in environmental and biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC EXPERIENCE OF INTEGRATING CLOUD COMPUTING INTO PEDAGOGICAL PROCESS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia A. Khmil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article foreign and domestic experience of integrating cloud computing into pedagogical process of higher educational establishments (H.E.E. has been generalized. It has been stated that nowadays a lot of educational services are hosted in the cloud, e.g. infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. The peculiarities of implementing cloud technologies by H.E.E. in Ukraine and abroad have been singled out; the products developed by the leading IT companies for using cloud computing in higher education system, such as Microsoft for Education, Google Apps for Education and Amazon AWS Educate have been reviewed. The examples of concrete types, methods and forms of learning and research work based on cloud services have been provided.

  18. Applications integration in a hybrid cloud computing environment: modelling and platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Ze-yuan; Li, Wei-hua; Li, Jun; Wang, Cheng; Du, Rui-yang

    2013-08-01

    With the development of application services providers and cloud computing, more and more small- and medium-sized business enterprises use software services and even infrastructure services provided by professional information service companies to replace all or part of their information systems (ISs). These information service companies provide applications, such as data storage, computing processes, document sharing and even management information system services as public resources to support the business process management of their customers. However, no cloud computing service vendor can satisfy the full functional IS requirements of an enterprise. As a result, enterprises often have to simultaneously use systems distributed in different clouds and their intra enterprise ISs. Thus, this article presents a framework to integrate applications deployed in public clouds and intra ISs. A run-time platform is developed and a cross-computing environment process modelling technique is also developed to improve the feasibility of ISs under hybrid cloud computing environments.

  19. Security Architecture and Protocol for Trust Verifications Regarding the Integrity of Files Stored in Cloud Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pinheiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is considered an interesting paradigm due to its scalability, availability and virtually unlimited storage capacity. However, it is challenging to organize a cloud storage service (CSS that is safe from the client point-of-view and to implement this CSS in public clouds since it is not advisable to blindly consider this configuration as fully trustworthy. Ideally, owners of large amounts of data should trust their data to be in the cloud for a long period of time, without the burden of keeping copies of the original data, nor of accessing the whole content for verifications regarding data preservation. Due to these requirements, integrity, availability, privacy and trust are still challenging issues for the adoption of cloud storage services, especially when losing or leaking information can bring significant damage, be it legal or business-related. With such concerns in mind, this paper proposes an architecture for periodically monitoring both the information stored in the cloud and the service provider behavior. The architecture operates with a proposed protocol based on trust and encryption concepts to ensure cloud data integrity without compromising confidentiality and without overloading storage services. Extensive tests and simulations of the proposed architecture and protocol validate their functional behavior and performance.

  20. Healthcare professionals' use of health clouds: Integrating technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pi-Jung

    2015-07-01

    Cloud computing technology has recently been seen as an important milestone in medical informatics development. Despite its great potential, there are gaps in our understanding of how users evaluate change in relation to the health cloud and how they decide to resist it. Integrating technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives, this study develops an integrated model to explain healthcare professionals' intention to use the health cloud service and their intention to resist it. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from healthcare professionals; a structural equation model was used to examine the data. A valid sample of 209 healthcare professionals was collected for data analysis. The results show that healthcare professionals' resistance to the use of the health cloud is the result of regret avoidance, inertia, perceived value, switching costs, and perceived threat. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control are shown to have positive and direct effects on healthcare professionals' intention to use the health cloud. The results also indicate a significant negative effect in the relationship between healthcare professionals' intention and resistance to using the health cloud. Our study illustrates the importance of incorporating user resistance in technology acceptance studies in general and in health technology usage studies in particular. This study also identifies key factors for practitioners and hospitals to make adoption decisions in relation to the health cloud. Further, the study provides a useful reference for future studies in this subject field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Security Architecture and Protocol for Trust Verifications Regarding the Integrity of Files Stored in Cloud Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Alexandre; Dias Canedo, Edna; de Sousa Junior, Rafael Timoteo; de Oliveira Albuquerque, Robson; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2018-03-02

    Cloud computing is considered an interesting paradigm due to its scalability, availability and virtually unlimited storage capacity. However, it is challenging to organize a cloud storage service (CSS) that is safe from the client point-of-view and to implement this CSS in public clouds since it is not advisable to blindly consider this configuration as fully trustworthy. Ideally, owners of large amounts of data should trust their data to be in the cloud for a long period of time, without the burden of keeping copies of the original data, nor of accessing the whole content for verifications regarding data preservation. Due to these requirements, integrity, availability, privacy and trust are still challenging issues for the adoption of cloud storage services, especially when losing or leaking information can bring significant damage, be it legal or business-related. With such concerns in mind, this paper proposes an architecture for periodically monitoring both the information stored in the cloud and the service provider behavior. The architecture operates with a proposed protocol based on trust and encryption concepts to ensure cloud data integrity without compromising confidentiality and without overloading storage services. Extensive tests and simulations of the proposed architecture and protocol validate their functional behavior and performance.

  2. A numerical study of aerosol influence on mixed-phase stratiform clouds through modulation of the liquid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations were carried out in a high-resolution two-dimensional framework to increase our understanding of aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase stratiform clouds. Aerosol characteristics explored include insoluble particle type, soluble mass fraction, influence of aerosol-induced freezing point depression and influence of aerosol number concentration. Simulations were analyzed with a focus on the processes related to liquid phase microphysics, and ice formation was limited to droplet freezing. Of the aerosol properties investigated, aerosol insoluble mass type and its associated freezing efficiency was found to be most relevant to cloud lifetime. Secondary effects from aerosol soluble mass fraction and number concentration also alter cloud characteristics and lifetime. These alterations occur via various mechanisms, including changes to the amount of nucleated ice, influence on liquid phase precipitation and ice riming rates, and changes to liquid droplet nucleation and growth rates. Alteration of the aerosol properties in simulations with identical initial and boundary conditions results in large variability in simulated cloud thickness and lifetime, ranging from rapid and complete glaciation of liquid to the production of long-lived, thick stratiform mixed-phase cloud.

  3. Effects of 20–100 nm particles on liquid clouds in the clean summertime Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Leaitch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations addressing effects of aerosol particles on summertime Arctic clouds are limited. An airborne study, carried out during July 2014 from Resolute Bay, Nunavut, Canada, as part of the Canadian NETCARE project, provides a comprehensive in situ look into some effects of aerosol particles on liquid clouds in the clean environment of the Arctic summer. Median cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC from 62 cloud samples are 10 cm−3 for low-altitude cloud (clouds topped below 200 m and 101 cm−3 for higher-altitude cloud (clouds based above 200 m. The lower activation size of aerosol particles is  ≤  50 nm diameter in about 40 % of the cases. Particles as small as 20 nm activated in the higher-altitude clouds consistent with higher supersaturations (S for those clouds inferred from comparison of the CDNC with cloud condensation nucleus (CCN measurements. Over 60 % of the low-altitude cloud samples fall into the CCN-limited regime of Mauritsen et al. (2011, within which increases in CDNC may increase liquid water and warm the surface. These first observations of that CCN-limited regime indicate a positive association of the liquid water content (LWC and CDNC, but no association of either the CDNC or LWC with aerosol variations. Above the Mauritsen limit, where aerosol indirect cooling may result, changes in particles with diameters from 20 to 100 nm exert a relatively strong influence on the CDNC. Within this exceedingly clean environment, as defined by low carbon monoxide and low concentrations of larger particles, the background CDNC are estimated to range between 16 and 160 cm−3, where higher values are due to activation of particles  ≤  50 nm that likely derive from natural sources. These observations offer the first wide-ranging reference for the aerosol cloud albedo effect in the summertime Arctic.

  4. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can......As photovoltaic (PV) integration increases in distribution systems, to investigate the maximum allowable PV integration capacity for a district distribution system becomes necessary in the planning phase, an optimization model is thus proposed to evaluate the maximum PV integration capacity while...

  5. Dynamic Integration of Mobile JXTA with Cloud Computing for Emergency Rural Public Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Rajasekaran; Sriman Narayana Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The existing processes of health care systems where data collection requires a great deal of labor with high-end tasks to retrieve and analyze information, are usually slow, tedious, and error prone, which restrains their clinical diagnostic and monitoring capabilities. Research is now focused on integrating cloud services with P2P JXTA to identify systematic dynamic process for emergency health care systems. The proposal is based on the concepts of a community cloud for preventati...

  6. An integrated calibration system for liquid argon calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Marschalkowski, E; Mense, T; Nürnberger, H A; Schäfer, U

    1999-01-01

    A novel technical solution for an integrated version of the pulse generator of a calibration system for liquid argon calorimeters is presented. It consists of a differential amplifier with automatic offset compensation, a current mirror and a switching logic. These components are integrated on an ASIC chip in CMOS technology. The technical realisation as well as results on the performance are presented. (author)

  7. Integration of cloud, grid and local cluster resources with DIRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, Tom; Sevior, Martin; Carmona, Ana; Casajús, Adrián; Graciani, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Grid computing was developed to provide users with uniform access to large-scale distributed resources. This has worked well, however there are significant resources available to the scientific community that do not follow this paradigm - those on cloud infrastructure providers, HPC supercomputers or local clusters. DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) was originally designed to support direct submission to the Local Resource Management Systems (LRMS) of such clusters for LHCb, matured to support grid workflows and has recently been updated to support Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. This raises a number of new possibilities - by opening avenues to new resources, virtual organisations can change their resources with usage patterns and use these dedicated facilities for a given time. For example, user communities such as High Energy Physics experiments, have computing tasks with a wide variety of requirements in terms of CPU, data access or memory consumption, and their usage profile is never constant throughout the year. Having the possibility to transparently absorb peaks on the demand for these kinds of tasks using Cloud resources could allow a reduction in the overall cost of the system. This paper investigates interoperability by following a recent large-scale production exercise utilising resources from these three different paradigms, during the 2010 Belle Monte Carlo run. Through this, it discusses the challenges and opportunities of such a model.

  8. CertiCloud and JShadObf. Towards Integrity and Software Protection in Cloud Computing Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Bertholon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A simple concept that has emerged out of the notion of heterogeneous distributed computing is that of Cloud Computing (CC) where customers do not own any part of the infrastructure; they simply use the available services and pay for what they use. This approach is often viewed as the next ICT revolution, similar to the birth of the Web or the e-commerce. Indeed, since its advent in the middle of the 2000's, the CC paradigm arouse enthusiasm and interest from the industry and the private secto...

  9. The Integration of CloudStack and OCCI/OpenNebula with DIRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez Muñoz, Víctor; Merino Arévalo, Gonzalo; Fernández Albor, Víctor; Saborido Silva, Juan José; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Casajús Ramo, Adriàn; Fernández Pena, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of Cloud resources is arising as a realistic alternative to the Grid as a paradigm for enabling scientific communities to access large distributed computing resources. The DIRAC framework for distributed computing is an easy way to efficiently access to resources from both systems. This paper explains the integration of DIRAC with two open-source Cloud Managers: OpenNebula (taking advantage of the OCCI standard) and CloudStack. These are computing tools to manage the complexity and heterogeneity of distributed data center infrastructures, allowing to create virtual clusters on demand, including public, private and hybrid clouds. This approach has required to develop an extension to the previous DIRAC Virtual Machine engine, which was developed for Amazon EC2, allowing the connection with these new cloud managers. In the OpenNebula case, the development has been based on the CernVM Virtual Software Appliance with appropriate contextualization, while in the case of CloudStack, the infrastructure has been kept more general, which permits other Virtual Machine sources and operating systems being used. In both cases, CernVM File System has been used to facilitate software distribution to the computing nodes. With the resulting infrastructure, the cloud resources are transparent to the users through a friendly interface, like the DIRAC Web Portal. The main purpose of this integration is to get a system that can manage cloud and grid resources at the same time. This particular feature pushes DIRAC to a new conceptual denomination as interware, integrating different middleware. Users from different communities do not need to care about the installation of the standard software that is available at the nodes, nor the operating system of the host machine which is transparent to the user. This paper presents an analysis of the overhead of the virtual layer, doing some tests to compare the proposed approach with the existing Grid solution. License

  10. The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, cloud fraction, and liquid water path on warm cloud effective radii from CERES-like Aqua MODIS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painemal, D.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2013-10-01

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, liquid water path (LWP from AMSR-E), and cloud fraction (CF) on MODIS cloud effective radius (re), retrieved from the 2.1 μm (re2.1) and 3.8 μm (re3.8) channels, is investigated for warm clouds over the southeast Pacific. Values of re retrieved using the CERES algorithms are averaged at the CERES footprint resolution (∼20 km), while heterogeneities (Hσ) are calculated as the ratio between the standard deviation and mean 0.64 μm reflectance. The value of re2.1 strongly depends on CF, with magnitudes up to 5 μm larger than those for overcast scenes, whereas re3.8 remains insensitive to CF. For cloudy scenes, both re2.1 and re3.8 increase with Hσ for any given AMSR-E LWP, but re2.1 changes more than for re3.8. Additionally, re3.8-re2.1 differences are positive ( 45 gm-2, and negative (up to -4 μm) for larger Hσ. While re3.8-re2.1 differences in homogeneous scenes are qualitatively consistent with in situ microphysical observations over the region of study, negative differences - particularly evinced in mean regional maps - are more likely to reflect the dominant bias associated with cloud heterogeneities rather than information about the cloud vertical structure. The consequences for MODIS LWP are also discussed.

  11. A condensed-mass advection based model for the simulation of liquid polar stratospheric clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lowe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a condensed-mass advection based model (MADVEC designed to simulate the condensation/evaporation of liquid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC particles. A (Eulerian-in-radius discretization scheme is used, making the model suitable for use in global or mesoscale chemistry and transport models (CTMs. The mass advection equations are solved using an adaption of the weighted average flux (WAF scheme. We validate the numerical scheme using an analytical solution for multicomponent aerosols. The physics of the model are tested using a test case designed by Meilinger et al. (1995. The results from this test corroborate the composition gradients across the size distribution under rapid cooling conditions that were reported in earlier studies.

  12. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

    2002-09-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  13. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry L.; Ho, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  14. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  15. Integrating Learning Services in the Cloud: An Approach That Benefits Both Systems and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Carreón, Gustavo; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Jorba, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is an increasing trend to implement functionalities that allow for the development of applications based on Cloud computing. In education there are high expectations for Learning Management Systems since they can be powerful tools to foster more effective collaboration within a virtual classroom. Tools can also be integrated with…

  16. Integration of Point Clouds Dataset from Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, C. K. A. F. Che Ku; Baharuddin, N. Z. S.; Ariff, M. F. M.; Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.; Idris, K. M.; Aspuri, A.

    2017-02-01

    Laser Scanner technology become an option in the process of collecting data nowadays. It is composed of Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). ALS like Phoenix AL3-32 can provide accurate information from the viewpoint of rooftop while TLS as Leica C10 can provide complete data for building facade. However if both are integrated, it is able to produce more accurate data. The focus of this study is to integrate both types of data acquisition of ALS and TLS and determine the accuracy of the data obtained. The final results acquired will be used to generate models of three-dimensional (3D) buildings. The scope of this study is focusing on data acquisition of UTM Eco-home through laser scanning methods such as ALS which scanning on the roof and the TLS which scanning on building façade. Both device is used to ensure that no part of the building that are not scanned. In data integration process, both are registered by the selected points among the manmade features which are clearly visible in Cyclone 7.3 software. The accuracy of integrated data is determined based on the accuracy assessment which is carried out using man-made registration methods. The result of integration process can achieve below 0.04m. This integrated data then are used to generate a 3D model of UTM Eco-home building using SketchUp software. In conclusion, the combination of the data acquisition integration between ALS and TLS would produce the accurate integrated data and able to use for generate a 3D model of UTM eco-home. For visualization purposes, the 3D building model which generated is prepared in Level of Detail 3 (LOD3) which recommended by City Geographic Mark-Up Language (CityGML).

  17. VIRTUAL REALITY-BASED CLOUD BIM PLATFORM FOR INTEGRATED AEC PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Jack Steven; Pour Rahimian Leilabadi, Farzad; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) has demonstrated the need for integrating collaborative design teams’ “project data”, to not only help coordinate the design, engineering, fabrication, construction, and maintenance of various trades, but also facilitate project integration and interchange. Numerous potential benefits have inspired several countries to consider the implications of implementing BIM Level 3 (Cloud) as an innovative way of further enhancing the design, management and delivery...

  18. Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, K; Schneebeli, L; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2012-03-26

    We have developed a novel integrated platform for liquid photonics based on liquid core optical fiber (LCOF). The platform is created by fusion splicing liquid core optical fiber to standard single-mode optical fiber making it fully integrated and practical - a major challenge that has greatly hindered progress in liquid-photonic applications. As an example, we report here the realization of ultralow threshold Raman generation using an integrated CS₂ filled LCOF pumped with sub-nanosecond pulses at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The measured energy threshold for the Stokes generation is 1nJ, about three orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values in the literature for hydrogen gas, a popular Raman medium. The integrated LCOF platform opens up new possibilities for ultralow power nonlinear optics such as efficient white light generation for displays, mid-IR generation, slow light generation, parametric amplification, all-optical switching and wavelength conversion using liquids that have orders of magnitude larger optical nonlinearities compared with silica glass.

  19. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Istomina, Larysa; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow). Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C. In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S) and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S), λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ), and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C) are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice edge are analysed. The retrieved values of τ, reff

  20. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow. Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C.In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S, λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ, and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012 were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice

  1. Integration of XRootD into the cloud infrastructure for ALICE data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompaniets, Mikhail; Shadura, Oksana; Svirin, Pavlo; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zarochentsev, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Cloud technologies allow easy load balancing between different tasks and projects. From the viewpoint of the data analysis in the ALICE experiment, cloud allows to deploy software using Cern Virtual Machine (CernVM) and CernVM File System (CVMFS), to run different (including outdated) versions of software for long term data preservation and to dynamically allocate resources for different computing activities, e.g. grid site, ALICE Analysis Facility (AAF) and possible usage for local projects or other LHC experiments. We present a cloud solution for Tier-3 sites based on OpenStack and Ceph distributed storage with an integrated XRootD based storage element (SE). One of the key features of the solution is based on idea that Ceph has been used as a backend for Cinder Block Storage service for OpenStack, and in the same time as a storage backend for XRootD, with redundancy and availability of data preserved by Ceph settings. For faster and easier OpenStack deployment was applied the Packstack solution, which is based on the Puppet configuration management system. Ceph installation and configuration operations are structured and converted to Puppet manifests describing node configurations and integrated into Packstack. This solution can be easily deployed, maintained and used even in small groups with limited computing resources and small organizations, which usually have lack of IT support. The proposed infrastructure has been tested on two different clouds (SPbSU & BITP) and integrates successfully with the ALICE data analysis model.

  2. The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, cloud fraction, and liquid water path on warm cloud effective radii from CERES-like Aqua MODIS retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Painemal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, liquid water path (LWP from AMSR-E, and cloud fraction (CF on MODIS cloud effective radius (re, retrieved from the 2.1 μm (re2.1 and 3.8 μm (re3.8 channels, is investigated for warm clouds over the southeast Pacific. Values of re retrieved using the CERES algorithms are averaged at the CERES footprint resolution (∼20 km, while heterogeneities (Hσ are calculated as the ratio between the standard deviation and mean 0.64 μm reflectance. The value of re2.1 strongly depends on CF, with magnitudes up to 5 μm larger than those for overcast scenes, whereas re3.8 remains insensitive to CF. For cloudy scenes, both re2.1 and re3.8 increase with Hσ for any given AMSR-E LWP, but re2.1 changes more than for re3.8. Additionally, re3.8–re2.1 differences are positive (Hσ 45 gm−2, and negative (up to −4 μm for larger Hσ. While re3.8–re2.1 differences in homogeneous scenes are qualitatively consistent with in situ microphysical observations over the region of study, negative differences – particularly evinced in mean regional maps – are more likely to reflect the dominant bias associated with cloud heterogeneities rather than information about the cloud vertical structure. The consequences for MODIS LWP are also discussed.

  3. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  4. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd, E-mail: todd.sulchek@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  5. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  6. Crossover integral equation theory for the liquid structure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chen, H.C.

    1994-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to report on a calculation that describes the role of the long-range bridge function [H. Iyetomi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2434 (1982)] as applied to the study of structure of simple liquid metals. It was found here that this bridge function accounts pretty well for the major part of long-range interactions but is physically inadequate for describing the short-range part of liquid structure. To improve on the theory we have drawn attention to the crossover integral equation method which, in essence, amounts to adding to the above bridge function a short-range correction of bridge diagrams. The suggested crossover procedure has been tested for the case of liquid metal Cs. Remarkably good agreement with experiment was obtained confirming our conjecture that the crossover integral equation approach as stressed in this work is potentially an appropriate theory for an accurate study of liquid structure possibly for the supercooled liquid regime. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  7. Two-Level Verification of Data Integrity for Data Storage in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangwei; Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Hongya; Zang, Zhuping; Pang, Mugen; Jiang, Ping

    Data storage in cloud computing can save capital expenditure and relive burden of storage management for users. As the lose or corruption of files stored may happen, many researchers focus on the verification of data integrity. However, massive users often bring large numbers of verifying tasks for the auditor. Moreover, users also need to pay extra fee for these verifying tasks beyond storage fee. Therefore, we propose a two-level verification of data integrity to alleviate these problems. The key idea is to routinely verify the data integrity by users and arbitrate the challenge between the user and cloud provider by the auditor according to the MACs and ϕ values. The extensive performance simulations show that the proposed scheme obviously decreases auditor's verifying tasks and the ratio of wrong arbitration.

  8. Dynamic Integration of Mobile JXTA with Cloud Computing for Emergency Rural Public Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Rajasekaran; Sriman Narayana Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula

    2013-10-01

    The existing processes of health care systems where data collection requires a great deal of labor with high-end tasks to retrieve and analyze information, are usually slow, tedious, and error prone, which restrains their clinical diagnostic and monitoring capabilities. Research is now focused on integrating cloud services with P2P JXTA to identify systematic dynamic process for emergency health care systems. The proposal is based on the concepts of a community cloud for preventative medicine, to help promote a healthy rural community. We investigate the approaches of patient health monitoring, emergency care, and an ambulance alert alarm (AAA) under mobile cloud-based telecare or community cloud controller systems. Considering permanent mobile users, an efficient health promotion method is proposed. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The performance was evaluated from September 2011 to July 2012. A total of 1,856,454 cases were transported and referred to hospital, identified with health problems, and were monitored. We selected all the peer groups and the control server N0 which controls N1, N2, and N3 proxied peer groups. The hospital cloud controller maintains the database of the patients through a JXTA network. Among 1,856,454 transported cases with beneficiaries of 1,712,877 cases there were 1,662,834 lives saved and 8,500 cases transported per day with 104,530 transported cases found to be registered in a JXTA network. The registered case histories were referred from the Hospital community cloud (HCC). SMS messages were sent from node N0 to the relay peers which connected to the N1, N2, and N3 nodes, controlled by the cloud controller through a JXTA network.

  9. Improvement of the cloud point extraction of uranyl ions by the addition of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Sun, Taoxiang; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai

    2013-12-15

    The cloud point extraction (CPE) of uranyl ions by different kinds of extractants in Triton X-114 (TX-114) micellar solution was investigated upon the addition of ionic liquids (ILs) with various anions, i.e., bromide (Br(-)), tetrafluoroborate (BF4(-)), hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)) and bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf2(-)). A significant increase of the extraction efficiency was found on the addition of NTf2(-) based ILs when using neutral extractant tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and the extraction efficiency kept high at both nearly neutral and high acidity. However, the CPE with acidic extractants, e.g., bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) which are only effective at nearly neutral condition, was not improved by ILs. The results of zeta potential and (19)F NMR measurements indicated that the anion NTf2(-) penetrated into the TX-114 micelles and was enriched in the surfactant-rich phase during the CPE process. Meanwhile, NTf2(-) may act as a counterion in the CPE of UO2(2+) by TOPO. Furthermore, the addition of IL increased the separation factor of UO2(2+) and La(3+), which implied that in the micelle TOPO, NTf2(-) and NO3(-) established a soft template for UO2(2+). Therefore, the combination of CPE and IL provided a supramolecular recognition to concentrate UO2(2+) efficiently and selectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of Cloud Technologies for Data Stewardship at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. S.; Hausman, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the last year, the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and its siblings, the National Climatic Data Center and National Geophysical Data Center, were merged into one organization, the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Combining its expertise under one management has helped NCEI accelerate its efforts to embrace and integrate private, public, and hybrid cloud environments into its range of data stewardship services. These services span a range of tiers, from basic, long-term preservation and access, through enhanced access and scientific quality control, to authoritative product development and international-level services. Throughout these tiers of stewardship, partnerships and pilot projects have been launched to identify technological and policy-oriented challenges, to establish solutions to these problems, and to highlight success stories for emulation during operational integration of the cloud into NCEI's data stewardship activities. Some of these pilot activities including data storage, access, and reprocessing in Amazon Web Services, the OneStop data discovery and access framework project, and a set of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements under the Big Data Project with Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and the Open Cloud Consortium. Progress in these efforts will be highlighted along with a future vision of how NCEI could leverage hybrid cloud deployments and federated systems across NOAA to enable effective data stewardship for its oceanographic, atmospheric, climatic, and geophysical Big Data.

  11. Business Process Optimization Through Soa And Cloud Integration Using Soa- Ra Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ejaz Ali Shah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Business processes workflow architecture based on agility and flexibility plays an important role in the success of any enterprise. In new era most of the processes are automated and they are supported by IT-Services in the form of Service Oriented Architecture SOA components. Due to mobility and scalability as well as high performance computing and distributed working environment it is crucial to focus on an architecture which is agile optimized cost effective and easy to implement. In this paper we have conducted a research study on layer based BPM SOA and cloud integrated architecture. The main contribution of the research study is to propose an agile cost effective and scalable solution framework based on Architectural Building Blocks ABBs following a SOA-RA layered model to integrate BPM SOA and cloud services.

  12. Integrating Security Risk Management into Business Process Management for the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Goettelmann , Elio; Mayer , Nicolas; Godart , Claude

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Security issues are still preventing wider adoption of cloud computing, especially for businesses which are handling sensitive information. Indeed, by outsourcing its information system (IS), a company can lose control over its infrastructure, its software or even its data. Therefore, new methods and tools need to be defined to respond to this challenge. In this paper we propose to integrate Security Risk Management approaches into Business Process Management to effect...

  13. Blockchain-based database to ensure data integrity in cloud computing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetani, Edoardo; Aniello, Leonardo; Baldoni, Roberto; Lombardi, Federico; Margheri, Andrea; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2017-01-01

    Data is nowadays an invaluable resource, indeed it guides all business decisions in most of the computer-aided human activities. Threats to data integrity are thus of paramount relevance, as tampering with data may maliciously affect crucial business decisions. This issue is especially true in cloud computing environments, where data owners cannot control fundamental data aspects, like the physical storage of data and the control of its accesses. Blockchain has recently emerged as a fascinati...

  14. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  15. A cloud-based production system for information and service integration: an internet of things case study on waste electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi Vincent; Wang, Lihui

    2017-08-01

    Cloud computing is the new enabling technology that offers centralised computing, flexible data storage and scalable services. In the manufacturing context, it is possible to utilise the Cloud technology to integrate and provide industrial resources and capabilities in terms of Cloud services. In this paper, a function block-based integration mechanism is developed to connect various types of production resources. A Cloud-based architecture is also deployed to offer a service pool which maintains these resources as production services. The proposed system provides a flexible and integrated information environment for the Cloud-based production system. As a specific type of manufacturing, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) remanufacturing experiences difficulties in system integration, information exchange and resource management. In this research, WEEE is selected as the example of Internet of Things to demonstrate how the obstacles and bottlenecks are overcome with the help of Cloud-based informatics approach. In the case studies, the WEEE recycle/recovery capabilities are also integrated and deployed as flexible Cloud services. Supporting mechanisms and technologies are presented and evaluated towards the end of the paper.

  16. Towards an integrated multiscale simulation of turbulent clouds on PetaScale computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianping; Ayala, Orlando; Parishani, Hossein; Gao, Guang R; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Li Xiaoming; Rossi, Louis; Orozco, Daniel; Torres, Claudio; Grabowski, Wojciech W; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej A; Piotrowski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The development of precipitating warm clouds is affected by several effects of small-scale air turbulence including enhancement of droplet-droplet collision rate by turbulence, entrainment and mixing at the cloud edges, and coupling of mechanical and thermal energies at various scales. Large-scale computation is a viable research tool for quantifying these multiscale processes. Specifically, top-down large-eddy simulations (LES) of shallow convective clouds typically resolve scales of turbulent energy-containing eddies while the effects of turbulent cascade toward viscous dissipation are parameterized. Bottom-up hybrid direct numerical simulations (HDNS) of cloud microphysical processes resolve fully the dissipation-range flow scales but only partially the inertial subrange scales. it is desirable to systematically decrease the grid length in LES and increase the domain size in HDNS so that they can be better integrated to address the full range of scales and their coupling. In this paper, we discuss computational issues and physical modeling questions in expanding the ranges of scales realizable in LES and HDNS, and in bridging LES and HDNS. We review our on-going efforts in transforming our simulation codes towards PetaScale computing, in improving physical representations in LES and HDNS, and in developing better methods to analyze and interpret the simulation results.

  17. EXPERIENCE OF THE INTEGRATION OF CLOUD SERVICES GOOGLE APPS INTO INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2013-01-01

    The article investigated the concept of «information and educational space» and determined the aspects of integration of its services. The unified authentication is an important component of information and educational space. It can be based on LDAP-directory. The article analyzes the concept of «cloud computing». This study presented the main advantages of using Google Apps in process of learning. We described the experience of the cloud Google Apps integration into information and education...

  18. Towards Internet of Things (IOTS):Integration of Wireless Sensor Network to Cloud Services for Data Collection and Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Piyare, Rajeev; Lee, Seong Ro

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing provides great benefits for applications hosted on the Web that also have special computational and storage requirements. This paper proposes an extensible and flexible architecture for integrating Wireless Sensor Networks with the Cloud. We have used REST based Web services as an interoperable application layer that can be directly integrated into other application domains for remote monitoring such as e-health care services, smart homes, or even vehicular area networks (VAN)...

  19. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  20. Influence of the liquid layer within mixed-phase clouds on radar observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfitzenmaier, L.; Dufournet, Y.; Unal, C.M.H.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-phase clouds play an important role in the earth system. They affect earth radiative balance and the climate (Comstock et al., 2007; Solomon et al., 2007) as well as the formation of precipitation (de Boer et al., 2009; Fan et al., 2011; Lamb and Verlinde, 2011). Within such mixed-phase clouds

  1. Determination of isoquercitrin in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a novel synergistic cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Sun, Jiang Bing; Wang, Qiao Feng

    2018-01-01

    A novel improved preconcentration method known as synergistic cloud point extraction was established for isoquercitrin preconcentration and determination in rat plasma prior to its determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Synergistic cloud point extraction greatly simplified isoquercitrin extraction and detection. This method was accomplished at room temperature (about 22°C) in 1min with the nonionic surfactant Tergitol TMN-6 as the extractant, n-octanol as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent. Parameters that affect the synergistic cloud point extraction processes, such as the concentrations of Tergitol TMN-6, volume of n-octanol, sample pH, salt content and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve for the analyte was linear in the range from 5 to 500ngmL -1 with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.9996. Meanwhile, limit of detection (S/N=3) was less than 1.6ngmL -1 and limit of quantification (S/N=10) was less than 5ngmL -1 . It demonstrated that the method can be successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic investigation of isoquercitrin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A distributed cloud-based cyberinfrastructure framework for integrated bridge monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongwoon; Hou, Rui; Lynch, Jerome P.; Sohn, Hoon; Law, Kincho H.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a cloud-based cyberinfrastructure framework for the management of the diverse data involved in bridge monitoring. Bridge monitoring involves various hardware systems, software tools and laborious activities that include, for examples, a structural health monitoring (SHM), sensor network, engineering analysis programs and visual inspection. Very often, these monitoring systems, tools and activities are not coordinated, and the collected information are not shared. A well-designed integrated data management framework can support the effective use of the data and, thereby, enhance bridge management and maintenance operations. The cloud-based cyberinfrastructure framework presented herein is designed to manage not only sensor measurement data acquired from the SHM system, but also other relevant information, such as bridge engineering model and traffic videos, in an integrated manner. For the scalability and flexibility, cloud computing services and distributed database systems are employed. The information stored can be accessed through standard web interfaces. For demonstration, the cyberinfrastructure system is implemented for the monitoring of the bridges located along the I-275 Corridor in the state of Michigan.

  3. Implementation of Private Cloud Computing Using Integration of JavaScript and Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper deals with the design and deployment of a novel library class in Python, enabling the use of JavaScript functionalities in Application Programming and the leveraging of this Library into development for third generation technologies such as Private Cloud Computing. The integration of these two prevalent languages provides us with a new level of compliance which helps in developing an understanding between Web Programming and Application Programming. An inter-browser functionality wrapping, which would enable users to have a JavaScript experience in Python interfaces directly, without having to depend on external programs, has been developed. The functionality of this concept is prevalent in the fact that Applications written in JavaScript and accessed on the browser now have the capability of interacting with each other on a common platform with the help of a Python wrapper. The idea is demonstrated by the integrating with the now ubiquitous Cloud Computing concept. With the help of examples, we have showcased the same and explained how the Library XOCOM can be a stepping stone to flexible cloud computing environment.

  4. Design of the Hospital Integrated Information Management System Based on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijing, L; Jin, Y

    2015-12-01

    At present, the outdated information management style cannot meet the needs of hospital management, and has become the bottleneck of hospital's management and development. In order to improve the integrated management of information, hospitals have increased their investment in integrated information management systems. On account of the lack of reasonable and scientific design, some hospital integrated information management systems have common problems, such as unfriendly interface, poor portability and maintainability, low security and efficiency, lack of interactivity and information sharing. To solve the problem, this paper carries out the research and design of a hospital information management system based on cloud platform, which can realize the optimized integration of hospital information resources and save money.

  5. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  6. Six Years of Monitoring of the Sgr B2 Molecular Cloud with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, R.; Bélanger, G.; Ponti, G.; Trap, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Decourchelle, A.

    2009-05-01

    Several molecular clouds around the Galactic Centre (GC) emit strong neutral iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV, as well as hard X-ray emission up to 100 keV. The origin of this emission has long been a matter of controversy: irradiation by low energy cosmic ray electrons or X-rays emitted by a nearby flaring source in the central region. A recent evidence for time variability in the iron line intensity that has been detected in the Sgr B2 cloud favors the reflexion scenario. We present here the data obtained after 6 years of INTEGRAL monitoring of the GC. In particular, we show a lightcurve of Sgr B2 that reveals a decrease in the hard X-ray flux over the last years and discuss its implications. We finally discuss perspectives with Simbol-X.

  7. Mobility, Context and Cloud – Exploring Integration Issues in a Meeting Room Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor-Morten Grønli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we pursue the context-aware paradigm in a distributed mobile environment. Context-awareness plays a significant role in the domain of implicit human computer interaction and we present an intelligent context-aware meeting room application. The distributed mobile application consists of multiple mobile operating system clients, a Google Android based presenter that, through proximity technology, communicates with a server in the meeting room, and a Google Cloud backend server. Over 40 users have evaluated the application. Results show that the context aware meeting room was well received by users who displayed a strong positive bias towards cloud integration and, in particular, automatic meeting-note push. We conclude that our context-aware meeting assistant can provide valuable assistance to end users and that there is promise for such use of heterogeneous mobile context-aware platforms.

  8. An integrated system for land resources supervision based on the IoT and cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shifeng; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Lida; Zhang, Jinqu; Zhou, Peiji; Luo, Kan; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Integrated information systems are important safeguards for the utilisation and development of land resources. Information technologies, including the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, are inevitable requirements for the quality and efficiency of land resources supervision tasks. In this study, an economical and highly efficient supervision system for land resources has been established based on IoT and cloud computing technologies; a novel online and offline integrated system with synchronised internal and field data that includes the entire process of 'discovering breaches, analysing problems, verifying fieldwork and investigating cases' was constructed. The system integrates key technologies, such as the automatic extraction of high-precision information based on remote sensing, semantic ontology-based technology to excavate and discriminate public sentiment on the Internet that is related to illegal incidents, high-performance parallel computing based on MapReduce, uniform storing and compressing (bitwise) technology, global positioning system data communication and data synchronisation mode, intelligent recognition and four-level ('device, transfer, system and data') safety control technology. The integrated system based on a 'One Map' platform has been officially implemented by the Department of Land and Resources of Guizhou Province, China, and was found to significantly increase the efficiency and level of land resources supervision. The system promoted the overall development of informatisation in fields related to land resource management.

  9. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liqui...

  10. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  11. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  12. Integration of XRootD into the cloud infrastructure for ALICE data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaniets, Mikhail; Svirin, Pavlo; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zarochentsev, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Cloud technologies allow easy load balancing between different tasks and projects. From the viewpoint of the data analysis in the ALICE experiment, cloud allows to deploy software using Cern Virtual Machine (CernVM) and CernVM File System (CVMFS), to run different (including outdated) versions of software for long term data preservation and to dynamically allocate resources for different computing activities, e.g. grid site, ALICE Analysis Facility (AAF) and possible usage for local projects or other LHC experiments.We present a cloud solution for Tier-3 sites based on OpenStack and Ceph distributed storage with an integrated XRootD based storage element (SE). One of the key features of the solution is based on idea that Ceph has been used as a backend for Cinder Block Storage service for OpenStack, and in the same time as a storage backend for XRootD, with redundancy and availability of data preserved by Ceph settings. For faster and easier OpenStack deployment was applied the Packstack solution, which is ba...

  13. Simulation of trace gas redistribution by convective clouds - Liquid phase processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional dynamic cloud model with detailed microphysics and a spectral treatment of gas scavenging was used to simulate trace gas vertical redistribution in precipitating continental and maritime clouds. A general picture of gas transport in such clouds has been developed by examining the sensitivity to a range of parameters, including cloud dynamic and microphysical structure, gas solubility, and the method of calculating gas uptake by droplets. Gases with effective Henry's law constants (H* ranging from zero to greater than 109 mol dm-3 atm-1 were simulated. The abundance of highly soluble gases in the uppermost parts (top 1 km or so of continental precipitating clouds was found to be as much as 20-50% of that of the insoluble tracer under conditions where the mixing ratio of the tracer was approximately 5% of its boundary layer value. The abundance of highly soluble gases was approximately 6 times higher in the uppermost parts of the continental cloud than in the maritime cloud, due to differences in wet removal efficiency in the two cloud types. A fully kinetic calculation of gas uptake, as opposed to assuming Henry's law equilibrium, was found to have a significant effect on gas transport, with the abundance of highly soluble gases in the uppermost parts of the cloud being a factor of 5 lower in the equilibrium simulations. The temperature dependence of the Henry's law constant was also found to be an important parameter in determining the abundance of soluble gases at cloud top, with the abundance of moderately soluble gases being as much as 70% lower when the temperature dependence of H* was included. This reduction in abundance was found to be equivalent to increasing the temperature-independent solubility by a factor of 7. The vertical transport of soluble gases could be parameterized in large-scale models by normalizing against the transport of tracers. However, our results suggest that there is no straightforward scaling

  14. Canopy in the Clouds: Integrating Science and Media to Inspire a New Generation of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, G. R.; Fulton, A. D.; Witherill, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    Innovative approaches to science education are critical for inspiring a new generation of scientists. In a world where students are inundated with digital media inviting them to explore exciting, emerging disciplines, science often lags behind in using progressive media techniques. Additionally, science education media often neglects to include the scientists conducting research, thereby disconnecting students from the excitement, adventure, and beauty of conducting research in the field. Here we present initial work from a science education media project entitled Canopy in the Clouds. In particular, we address the goals and approach of the project, the logistics associated with generating educational material at a foreign field site, and the challenges associated with effectively integrating science and media. Canopy in the Clouds is designed to engage students in research, motivate a new generation of young scientists, and promote conservation from the perspective of a current research project being conducted in the canopy of a tropical montane cloud forest located in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The project seeks to generate curriculum based on multiple, immersive forms of novel digital media that attract and maintain student attention. By doing so from the perspective of an adventurous research project in a beautiful and highly biodiverse region, we hope to engage students in science and enhance bioliteracy. However, there are considerable logistic considerations associated with such an approach, including safety, travel, permitting, and equipment maintenance. Additionally, the goals of both the scientific research and the educational media project must be balanced in order to meet objectives in a timely fashion. Finally, materials generated in the field must be translated to viable final products and distributed. Work associated with Canopy in the Clouds will thus provide insight into this process and can serve to inform future science education and outreach

  15. Security Architecture and Protocol for Trust Verifications Regarding the Integrity of Files Stored in Cloud Services †

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is considered an interesting paradigm due to its scalability, availability and virtually unlimited storage capacity. However, it is challenging to organize a cloud storage service (CSS) that is safe from the client point-of-view and to implement this CSS in public clouds since it is not advisable to blindly consider this configuration as fully trustworthy. Ideally, owners of large amounts of data should trust their data to be in the cloud for a long period of time, without the burden of keeping copies of the original data, nor of accessing the whole content for verifications regarding data preservation. Due to these requirements, integrity, availability, privacy and trust are still challenging issues for the adoption of cloud storage services, especially when losing or leaking information can bring significant damage, be it legal or business-related. With such concerns in mind, this paper proposes an architecture for periodically monitoring both the information stored in the cloud and the service provider behavior. The architecture operates with a proposed protocol based on trust and encryption concepts to ensure cloud data integrity without compromising confidentiality and without overloading storage services. Extensive tests and simulations of the proposed architecture and protocol validate their functional behavior and performance. PMID:29498641

  16. An Enhanced Data Integrity Model In Mobile Cloud Environment Using Digital Signature Algorithm And Robust Reversible Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukari Souley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the increase use of hand held devices such as smart phones to access multimedia content in the cloud is increasing with rise and growth in information technology. Mobile cloud computing is increasingly used today because it allows users to have access to variety of resources in the cloud such as image video audio and software applications with minimal usage of their inbuilt resources such as storage memory by using the one available in the cloud. The major challenge faced with mobile cloud computing is security. Watermarking and digital signature are some techniques used to provide security and authentication on user data in the cloud. Watermarking is a technique used to embed digital data within a multimedia content such as image video or audio in order to prevent authorized access to those content by intruders whereas digital signature is used to identify and verify user data when accessed. In this work we implemented digital signature and robust reversible image watermarking in order enhance mobile cloud computing security and integrity of data by providing double authentication techniques. The results obtained show the effectiveness of combining the two techniques robust reversible watermarking and digital signature by providing strong authentication to ensures data integrity and extract the original content watermarked without changes.

  17. The age calibration of integrated ultraviolet colors and young stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.; Brocato, E.; Cassatella, A.; Castellani, V.; Geyer, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated colors in selected far-UV bands are presented for a large sample of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters. Theoretical calculations of these integrated colors are derived and discussed. The location in the two-color diagram C(18-28), C(15-31) is expected to be a sensitive but smooth function of cluster age for ages in the range 5 to 800 million yr. Theoretical results appear in very good agreement with the observed colors of LMC clusters. From this comparison, the gap in the observed colors is suggested to be caused by the lack of LMC clusters in the range of ages between 200 million to one billion yr. The two-color location of old globulars is discussed, also in connection with available data for the M31 clusters. 36 refs

  18. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  19. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco A. [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Sharma, Ramesh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Allen, Mark [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States). Integrated Carbon Solutions; Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Macur, Richard [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences; Cameron, Jemima [Australian Energy Company Ltd., Hovea (Australia). Australian American Energy Corporation (AAEC)

    2013-12-01

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO2 Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO2, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger

  20. EXPERIENCE OF THE INTEGRATION OF CLOUD SERVICES GOOGLE APPS INTO INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of «information and educational space» and determined the aspects of integration of its services. The unified authentication is an important component of information and educational space. It can be based on LDAP-directory. The article analyzes the concept of «cloud computing». This study presented the main advantages of using Google Apps in process of learning. We described the experience of the cloud Google Apps integration into information and educational space of the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Ternopil V. Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University.

  1. Development of Two-Moment Cloud Microphysics for Liquid and Ice Within the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan; Molod, Andrea M.; Bacmeister, Julio; Nenes, Athanasios; Gettelman, Andrew; Morrison, Hugh; Phillips, Vaughan,; Eichmann, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the development of a two-moment cloud microphysics scheme within the version 5 of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5). The scheme includes the implementation of a comprehensive stratiform microphysics module, a new cloud coverage scheme that allows ice supersaturation and a new microphysics module embedded within the moist convection parameterization of GEOS-5. Comprehensive physically-based descriptions of ice nucleation, including homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, and liquid droplet activation are implemented to describe the formation of cloud particles in stratiform clouds and convective cumulus. The effect of preexisting ice crystals on the formation of cirrus clouds is also accounted for. A new parameterization of the subgrid scale vertical velocity distribution accounting for turbulence and gravity wave motion is developed. The implementation of the new microphysics significantly improves the representation of liquid water and ice in GEOS-5. Evaluation of the model shows agreement of the simulated droplet and ice crystal effective and volumetric radius with satellite retrievals and in situ observations. The simulated global distribution of supersaturation is also in agreement with observations. It was found that when using the new microphysics the fraction of condensate that remains as liquid follows a sigmoidal increase with temperature which differs from the linear increase assumed in most models and is in better agreement with available observations. The performance of the new microphysics in reproducing the observed total cloud fraction, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing, and total precipitation is similar to the operational version of GEOS-5 and in agreement with satellite retrievals. However the new microphysics tends to underestimate the coverage of persistent low level stratocumulus. Sensitivity studies showed that the simulated cloud properties are robust to moderate variation in cloud microphysical parameters

  2. HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

    2010-10-01

    As part of the DOE’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to “shift” the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700°C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: • 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal

  3. HTGR-Integrated Coal To Liquids Production Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandrik, Anastasia M.; Wood, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the DOE's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to 'shift' the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700 C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: (1) 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66

  4. Virtual pools for interactive analysis and software development through an integrated Cloud environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, C; Italiano, A; Salomoni, D; Melcarne, A K Calabrese

    2011-01-01

    WNoDeS, an acronym for Worker Nodes on Demand Service, is software developed at CNAF-Tier1, the National Computing Centre of the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) located in Bologna. WNoDeS provides on demand, integrated access to both Grid and Cloud resources through virtualization technologies. Besides the traditional use of computing resources in batch mode, users need to have interactive and local access to a number of systems. WNoDeS can dynamically select these computers instantiating Virtual Machines, according to the requirements (computing, storage and network resources) of users through either the Open Cloud Computing Interface API, or through a web console. An interactive use is usually limited to activities in user space, i.e. where the machine configuration is not modified. In some other instances the activity concerns development and testing of services and thus implies the modification of the system configuration (and, therefore, root-access to the resource). The former use case is a simple extension of the WNoDeS approach, where the resource is provided in interactive mode. The latter implies saving the virtual image at the end of each user session so that it can be presented to the user at subsequent requests. This work describes how the LHC experiments at INFN-Bologna are testing and making use of these dynamically created ad-hoc machines via WNoDeS to support flexible, interactive analysis and software development at the INFN Tier-1 Computing Centre.

  5. Secure kNN Computation and Integrity Assurance of Data Outsourcing in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing has been popularized massively and rapidly, individuals and enterprises prefer outsourcing their databases to the cloud service provider (CSP to save the expenditure for managing and maintaining the data. The outsourced databases are hosted, and query services are offered to clients by the CSP, whereas the CSP is not fully trusted. Consequently, the security shall be violated by multiple factors. Data privacy and query integrity are perceived as two major factors obstructing enterprises from outsourcing their databases. A novel scheme is proposed in this paper to effectuate k-nearest neighbors (kNN query and kNN query authentication on an encrypted outsourced spatial database. An asymmetric scalar-product-preserving encryption scheme is elucidated, in which data points and query points are encrypted with diverse encryption keys, and the CSP can determine the distance relation between encrypted data points and query points. Furthermore, the similarity search tree is extended to build a novel verifiable SS-tree that supports efficient kNN query and kNN query verification. It is indicated from the security analysis and experiment results that our scheme not only maintains the confidentiality of outsourced confidential data and query points but also has a lower kNN query processing and verification overhead than the MR-tree.

  6. Design and Development of Smart Aquaculture System Based on IFTTT Model and Cloud Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulqornain Muhammad Iskandar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet of things technology (IoT is growing very rapidly. IoT implementation has been conducted in several sectors. One of them is for aquaculture. For the traditional farmers, they face problems for monitoring water quality and the way to increase the quality of the water quickly and efficiently. This paper presents a real-time monitoring and controlling system for aquaculture based on If This Then That (IFTTT model and cloud integration. This system was composed of smart sensor module which supports modularity, smart aeration system for controlling system, local network system, cloud computing system and client visualization data. In order to monitor the water condition, we collect the data from smart sensor module. Smart sensor module consists of sensor dissolved oxygen, potential of hydrogen, water temperature and water level. The components of smart aeration system are microcontroller NodeMCU v3, relay, power supply, and propeller that can produce oxygen. The system could set the IFTTT rules for the ideal water condition for the pond in any kinds of aquaculture based on its needs through the web and android application. The experimental result shows that use IFTTT model makes the aquaculture monitoring system more customizable, expandable and dynamic.

  7. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J.; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.

    2018-01-01

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness (τ) and effective radius (re) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5–10 g/m2. In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic re profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques. PMID:29637042

  8. The impact of cloud vertical profile on liquid water path retrieval based on the bispectral method: A theoretical study based on large-eddy simulations of shallow marine boundary layer clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel J; Zhang, Zhibo; Ackerman, Andrew S; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A

    2016-04-27

    Passive optical retrievals of cloud liquid water path (LWP), like those implemented for Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), rely on cloud vertical profile assumptions to relate optical thickness ( τ ) and effective radius ( r e ) retrievals to LWP. These techniques typically assume that shallow clouds are vertically homogeneous; however, an adiabatic cloud model is plausibly more realistic for shallow marine boundary layer cloud regimes. In this study a satellite retrieval simulator is used to perform MODIS-like satellite retrievals, which in turn are compared directly to the large-eddy simulation (LES) output. This satellite simulator creates a framework for rigorous quantification of the impact that vertical profile features have on LWP retrievals, and it accomplishes this while also avoiding sources of bias present in previous observational studies. The cloud vertical profiles from the LES are often more complex than either of the two standard assumptions, and the favored assumption was found to be sensitive to cloud regime (cumuliform/stratiform). Confirming previous studies, drizzle and cloud top entrainment of dry air are identified as physical features that bias LWP retrievals away from adiabatic and toward homogeneous assumptions. The mean bias induced by drizzle-influenced profiles was shown to be on the order of 5-10 g/m 2 . In contrast, the influence of cloud top entrainment was found to be smaller by about a factor of 2. A theoretical framework is developed to explain variability in LWP retrievals by introducing modifications to the adiabatic r e profile. In addition to analyzing bispectral retrievals, we also compare results with the vertical profile sensitivity of passive polarimetric retrieval techniques.

  9. Data Security, Privacy, Availability and Integrity in Cloud Computing: Issues and Current Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Aldossary; William Allen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing changed the world around us. Now people are moving their data to the cloud since data is getting bigger and needs to be accessible from many devices. Therefore, storing the data on the cloud becomes a norm. However, there are many issues that counter data stored in the cloud starting from virtual machine which is the mean to share resources in cloud and ending on cloud storage itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are preventing people from adopting the cl...

  10. User experience integrated life-style cloud-based medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Alexandru; Lupşe, Oana Sorina; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2015-01-01

    Having a modern application capable to automatically collect and process data from users, based on information and lifestyle answers is one of current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to integrate user experience design (UXD) in a cloud-based medical application to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. The process consists of collecting traditional and new data from patients and users using online questionnaires. A questionnaire dynamically asks questions about the user's current diet and lifestyle. After the user will introduce the data, the application will formulate a presumptive nutritional plan and will suggest different medical recommendations regarding a healthy lifestyle, and calculates a risk factor for diseases. This software application, by design and usability will be an efficient tool dedicated for fitness, nutrition and health professionals.

  11. Towards Service-Oriented Middleware for Fog and Cloud Integrated Cyber Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    enables the integration of CPS with other systems such as Cloud and Fog Computing. Furthermore, as CPS can be developed for various applications at different scales, this paper provides a classification for CPS applications and discusses how CPSWare can effectively deal with the different issues in each...... of the applications. An appropriate middleware is needed to provide infrastructural support and assist the development and operations of diverse CPS applications. This paper studies utilizing the service-oriented middleware (SOM) approach for CPS and discusses the advantages and requirements for such utilization....... In addition, it proposes an SOM for CPS, called CPSWare. This middleware views all CPS components as a set of services and provides a service-based infrastructure to develop and operate CPS applications. This approach provides systemic solutions for solving many computing and networking issues in CPS. It also...

  12. The Real-Time Monitoring Service Platform for Land Supervision Based on Cloud Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Mao, M.; Xiang, H.; Wang, G.; Liang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing monitoring has become the important means for land and resources departments to strengthen supervision. Aiming at the problems of low monitoring frequency and poor data currency in current remote sensing monitoring, this paper researched and developed the cloud-integrated real-time monitoring service platform for land supervision which enhanced the monitoring frequency by acquiring the domestic satellite image data overall and accelerated the remote sensing image data processing efficiency by exploiting the intelligent dynamic processing technology of multi-source images. Through the pilot application in Jinan Bureau of State Land Supervision, it has been proved that the real-time monitoring technical method for land supervision is feasible. In addition, the functions of real-time monitoring and early warning are carried out on illegal land use, permanent basic farmland protection and boundary breakthrough in urban development. The application has achieved remarkable results.

  13. WNoDeS, a tool for integrated Grid and Cloud access and computing farm virtualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro; Ronchieri, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    INFN CNAF is the National Computing Center, located in Bologna, Italy, of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). INFN CNAF, also called the INFN Tier-1, provides computing and storage facilities to the International High-Energy Physics community and to several multi-disciplinary experiments. Currently, the INFN Tier-1 supports more than twenty different collaborations; in this context, optimization of the usage of computing resources is essential. This is one of the main drivers behind the development of a software called WNoDeS (Worker Nodes on Demand Service). WNoDeS, developed at INFN CNAF and deployed on the INFN Tier-1 production infrastructure, is a solution to virtualize computing resources and to make them available through local, Grid or Cloud interfaces. It is designed to be fully integrated with a Local Resource Management System; it is therefore inherently scalable and permits full integration with existing scheduling, policing, monitoring, accounting and security workflows. WNoDeS dynamically instantiates Virtual Machines (VMs) on-demand, i.e. only when the need arises; these VMs can be tailored and used for purposes like batch job execution, interactive analysis or service instantiation. WNoDeS supports interaction with user requests through traditional batch or Grid jobs and also via the Open Cloud Computing Interface standard, making it possible to allocate compute, storage and network resources on a pay-as-you-go basis. User authentication is supported via several authentication methods, while authorization policies are handled via gLite Argus. WNoDeS is an ambitious solution aimed at virtualizing cluster resources in medium or large scale computing centers, with up to several thousands of Virtual Machines up and running at any given time. In this paper, we describe the WNoDeS architecture.

  14. WNoDeS, a tool for integrated Grid and Cloud access and computing farm virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro; Ronchieri, Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    INFN CNAF is the National Computing Center, located in Bologna, Italy, of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). INFN CNAF, also called the INFN Tier-1, provides computing and storage facilities to the International High-Energy Physics community and to several multi-disciplinary experiments. Currently, the INFN Tier-1 supports more than twenty different collaborations; in this context, optimization of the usage of computing resources is essential. This is one of the main drivers behind the development of a software called WNoDeS (Worker Nodes on Demand Service). WNoDeS, developed at INFN CNAF and deployed on the INFN Tier-1 production infrastructure, is a solution to virtualize computing resources and to make them available through local, Grid or Cloud interfaces. It is designed to be fully integrated with a Local Resource Management System; it is therefore inherently scalable and permits full integration with existing scheduling, policing, monitoring, accounting and security workflows. WNoDeS dynamically instantiates Virtual Machines (VMs) on-demand, i.e. only when the need arises; these VMs can be tailored and used for purposes like batch job execution, interactive analysis or service instantiation. WNoDeS supports interaction with user requests through traditional batch or Grid jobs and also via the Open Cloud Computing Interface standard, making it possible to allocate compute, storage and network resources on a pay-as-you-go basis. User authentication is supported via several authentication methods, while authorization policies are handled via gLite Argus. WNoDeS is an ambitious solution aimed at virtualizing cluster resources in medium or large scale computing centers, with up to several thousands of Virtual Machines up and running at any given time. In this paper, we descrive the WNoDeS architecture.

  15. An integrated modeling study on the effects of mineral dust and sea salt particles on clouds and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solomos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report addresses the effects of pollution on the development of precipitation in clean ("pristine" and polluted ("hazy" environments in the Eastern Mediterranean by using the Integrated Community Limited Area Modeling System (ICLAMS (an extended version of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS. The use of this model allows one to investigate the interactions of the aerosols with cloud development. The simulations show that the onset of precipitation in hazy clouds is delayed compared to pristine conditions. Adding small concentrations of GCCN to polluted clouds promotes early-stage rain. The addition of GCCN to pristine clouds has no effect on precipitation amounts. Topography was found to be more important for the distribution of precipitation than aerosol properties. Increasing by 15% the concentration of hygroscopic dust particles for a case study over the Eastern Mediterranean resulted in more vigorous convection and more intense updrafts. The clouds that were formed extended about three kilometers higher, delaying the initiation of precipitation by one hour. Prognostic treatment of the aerosol concentrations in the explicit cloud droplet nucleation scheme of the model, improved the model performance for the twenty-four hour accumulated precipitation. The spatial distribution and the amounts of precipitation were found to vary greatly between the different aerosol scenarios. These results indicate the large uncertainty that remains and the need for more accurate description of aerosol feedbacks in atmospheric models and climate change predictions.

  16. An IFC schema extension and binary serialization format to efficiently integrate point cloud data into building models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, T.F.; Beetz, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we suggest an extension to the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) model to integrate point cloud datasets. The proposal includes a schema extension to the core model allowing the storage of points, either as Cartesian coordinates, points in parametric space of associated building

  17. A study of renal function influence by integrating cloud-based manometers and physician order entry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Feng Lin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: In pre–end-stage renal disease patients, regularly monitoring BP by integrating cloud-based manometers appears to result in a significant decrease in creatinine and improvement in nighttime BP control. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria were found to be improved nonsignificantly, and thus, larger population and longer follow-up studies may be needed.

  18. Study on Gas-liquid Falling Film Flow in Internal Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong

    2017-10-01

    Gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow with nonlinear characteristics, study on gas liquid falling film flow regulation control law, can reduce emissions of the distillation column, and it can improve the quality of products. According to the distribution of gas-liquid mass balance internally heat integrated distillation column independent region, distribution model of heat transfer coefficient of building internal heat integrated distillation tower is obtained liquid distillation falling film flow in the saturated vapour pressure of liquid water balance, using heat transfer equation and energy equation to balance the relationship between the circulating iterative gas-liquid falling film flow area, flow parameter information, at a given temperature, pressure conditions, gas-liquid flow falling film theory makes the optimal parameters to achieve the best fitting value with the measured values. The results show that the geometric gas-liquid internally heat integrated distillation column falling film flow heat exchange area and import column thermostat, the average temperature has significant. The positive correlation between the heat exchanger tube entrance due to temperature difference between inside and outside, the heat flux is larger, with the increase of internal heat integrated distillation column temperature, the slope decreases its temperature rise, which accurately describes the internal gas-liquid heat integrated distillation tower falling film flow regularity, take appropriate measures to promote the enhancement of heat transfer. It can enhance the overall efficiency of the heat exchanger.

  19. Cloud Computing Integrated Multi-Factor Authentication Framework Application in Logistics Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Erdi Karabulut

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As new technology enables firms to perform many daily processes easier the need of authentication and authorization process is becoming an integral part of many businesses. Also mobile applications are very popular nowadays play an important role in our lives. Such demands are not only limited to Logistics Information Systems (LIS but many field of information system as well. In this study multi-dimensional authentication which consist of online biometric face detection integrated as cloud computing software as a Service (SaaS, Near Field Communication (NFC card authentication, location confirmation, and temporal data confirmation are gathered together to fulfill different scenarios of authentication needs of business. Microsoft Face API (Application Program Interface, SAAS (software as a service has been used in face recognition module of developed mobile application. The face recognition module of the mobile application has been tested with Yale Face Database. Location, temporal data and NFC card information are collected and confirmed by the mobile application for authentication and authorization. These images were tested with our facial recognition module and confusion matrices were created. The accuracy of the system after the facial recognition test was found to be 100%. NFC card, location and temporal data authentication not only further increases security level but also fulfils many business authentication scenarios successfully. To the best of our knowledge there is no other authentication model other than implemented one that has a-4-factor confirmation including biometric face identification, NFC card authentication, location confirmation and temporal data confirmation.

  20. Impact of Surface Active Ionic Liquids on the Cloud Points of Nonionic Surfactants and the Formation of Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Filipa A; Cardoso, Inês S; Sintra, Tânia E; Lemus, Jesus; Marques, Eduardo F; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P

    2017-09-21

    Aqueous micellar two-phase systems (AMTPS) hold a large potential for cloud point extraction of biomolecules but are yet poorly studied and characterized, with few phase diagrams reported for these systems, hence limiting their use in extraction processes. This work reports a systematic investigation of the effect of different surface-active ionic liquids (SAILs)-covering a wide range of molecular properties-upon the clouding behavior of three nonionic Tergitol surfactants. Two different effects of the SAILs on the cloud points and mixed micelle size have been observed: ILs with a more hydrophilic character and lower critical packing parameter (CPP formation of smaller micelles and concomitantly increase the cloud points; in contrast, ILs with a more hydrophobic character and higher CPP (CPP ≥ 1) induce significant micellar growth and a decrease in the cloud points. The latter effect is particularly interesting and unusual for it was accepted that cloud point reduction is only induced by inorganic salts. The effects of nonionic surfactant concentration, SAIL concentration, pH, and micelle ζ potential are also studied and rationalized.

  1. Measurements of the relation between aerosol properties and microphysics and chemistry of low level liquid water clouds in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lihavainen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of boundary layer clouds, together with relevant aerosol properties, were investigated during the first Pallas Cloud Experiment (First Pace conducted in northern Finland between 20 October and 9 November 2004. Two stations located 6 km apart from each other at different altitudes were employed in measurements. The low-altitude station was always below the cloud layer, whereas the high-altitude station was inside clouds about 75% of the time during the campaign. Direct measurements of cloud droplet populations showed that our earlier approach of determining cloud droplet residual particle size distributions and corresponding activated fractions using continuous aerosol number size distribution measurements at the two stations is valid, as long as the cloud events are carefully screened to exclude precipitating clouds and to make sure the same air mass has been measured at both stations. We observed that a non-negligible fraction of cloud droplets originated from Aitken mode particles even at moderately-polluted air masses. We found clear evidence on first indirect aerosol effect on clouds but demonstrated also that no simple relation between the cloud droplet number concentration and aerosol particle number concentration exists for this type of clouds. The chemical composition of aerosol particles was dominated by particulate organic matter (POM and sulphate in continental air masses and POM, sodium and chlorine in marine air masses. The inorganic composition of cloud water behaved similarly to that of the aerosol phase and was not influenced by inorganic trace gases.

  2. The Integrated Cloud-based Environmental Data Management System at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 13391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz Paige, Karen; Gomez, Penny; Patel, Nita P.; EchoHawk, Chris; Dorries, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    In today's world, instant access to information is taken for granted. The national labs are no exception; our data users expect immediate access to their data. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected over ten million records, and the data needs to be accessible to scientists as well as the public. The data span a wide range of media, analytes, time periods, formats, and quality and have traditionally existed in scattered databases, making comprehensive work with the data impossible. Recently, LANL has successfully integrated all their environmental data into a single, cloud-based, web-accessible data management system. The system combines data transparency to the public with immediate access required by the technical staff. The use of automatic electronic data validation has been critical to immediate data access while saving millions of dollars and increasing data consistency and quality. The system includes a Google Maps based GIS tool that is simple enough for people to locate potentially contaminated sites near their home or workplace, and complex enough to allow scientists to plot and trend their data at the surface and at depth as well as over time. A variety of formatted reports can be run at any desired frequency to report the most current data available in the data base. The advanced user can also run free form queries of the data base. This data management system has saved LANL time and money, an increasingly important accomplishment during periods of budget cuts with increasing demand for immediate electronic services. (authors)

  3. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method using real-time data based on a cloud computing framework is proposed to address the aforementioned issues. The case study indicates that the dynamic pricing captures the variation of energy flow in the household. The dynamic renewable factor introduced in the model supports consumer oriented pricing. A new method is presented in this study to determine the appropriate level of photovoltaic (PV penetration in the distribution system based on voltage stability aspect. The load flow study result for the electric grid in Kerala, India, indicates that the overvoltage caused by various PV penetration levels up to 33% is within the voltage limits defined for distribution feeders. The result justifies the selected level of penetration.

  4. The Integrated Cloud-based Environmental Data Management System at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 13391

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz Paige, Karen; Gomez, Penny; Patel, Nita P.; EchoHawk, Chris; Dorries, Alison M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS M996, Los Alamos, NM, 87544 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In today's world, instant access to information is taken for granted. The national labs are no exception; our data users expect immediate access to their data. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected over ten million records, and the data needs to be accessible to scientists as well as the public. The data span a wide range of media, analytes, time periods, formats, and quality and have traditionally existed in scattered databases, making comprehensive work with the data impossible. Recently, LANL has successfully integrated all their environmental data into a single, cloud-based, web-accessible data management system. The system combines data transparency to the public with immediate access required by the technical staff. The use of automatic electronic data validation has been critical to immediate data access while saving millions of dollars and increasing data consistency and quality. The system includes a Google Maps based GIS tool that is simple enough for people to locate potentially contaminated sites near their home or workplace, and complex enough to allow scientists to plot and trend their data at the surface and at depth as well as over time. A variety of formatted reports can be run at any desired frequency to report the most current data available in the data base. The advanced user can also run free form queries of the data base. This data management system has saved LANL time and money, an increasingly important accomplishment during periods of budget cuts with increasing demand for immediate electronic services. (authors)

  5. An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These automated liquid culture systems, when combined with commercial molecular ... Culture System. Can it Make an Impact for Clinical Diagnosis of ... affected by this disease. .... Tuberculosis in non‑UK‑born persons, England and Wales ...

  6. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can...

  7. Pluggable SaaS Integration: Quality Characteristics for Cloud Based Application Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulkemeier, Fabian; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Cloud services have recently gained popularity and play an increasing role in enterprise architectures. Organizations adopting cloud services expect not only improvements in flexibility and scalability, but also a means of outsourcing IT tasks. In contrast to custom or packaged applications,

  8. [Integral evaluation of immune homeostasis in rockets liquidators and role of this evaluation for prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Long-standing clinical and immunologic monitoring and integral evaluation of immune homeostasis (through generalized parameter) in personnel of Center for liquid-fuel rockets liquidation demonstrated diagnostically reliable immunity parameters that enable to forecast changes in the workers' health state. The authors defined boundary values of the generalized parameter to form risk groups for specific entities formation.

  9. Contribution of nonlinear acoustic to the characterization of micro-bubbles clouds in liquid sodium. Application to the generation IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaro, M.

    2010-11-01

    The SFR system chosen (Sodium Fast Reactor: fast neutron reactors cooled by liquid sodium) by France led to a fourth-generation prototype named ASTRID. The development of this kind of reactors presents several challenges, particularly in terms of improving the safety and monitoring operation. This involves, among other things, characterization of the bubbles presence in liquid sodium. The characterization of the bubbles presence is the subject of this thesis. It involves the determination of void fraction (gas volume fraction) and histogram of the radii of bubbles. The bibliographic work done has shown that linear acoustic techniques for the characterization of bubble clouds are inadequate to achieve this. However promising leads have been identified by studying nonlinear acoustic techniques. This last idea has therefore been explored. An experimental water bench for the generation and optical control of micro-bubbles cloud allowed us to validate finely the reconstruction of histograms of radii through a technique of nonlinear mixing of a high frequency with a low frequency. The potential of the mixing of two high frequencies, more interesting for the industrial point of view has also been demonstrated. Finally, the bases of the transposition of an original technique of nonlinear resonance spectroscopy applied to a bubbles cloud were explored through the introduction of acoustic resonators. The results offer many interesting opportunities, both in terms of industrial applications and for more fundamental understanding of non-linear behavior of a bubble excited by multiple frequencies and of bubbles clouds excited at low frequency. (author)

  10. Long-term monitoring of liquid water content of low clouds and fog in selected small mountainous catchments in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Šír, Miloslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 75-83 ISSN 0071-6715 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS200420562; GA ČR GA205/09/1918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : fog * fog duration, * low clouds * liquid water content * visibility Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. An Integrated Approach Using Liquid Culture System Can it Make ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic dilemma is a common problem faced as culture and polymerase chain reaction results vary in their sensitivity and specificity. A thorough knowledge of epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and spectrum of the disease and importance of including liquid culture system for the diagnosis of this disease are ...

  12. Characterization of porous silicon integrated in liquid chromatography chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Verdoold, Vincent; Eghbali, H.; Desmet, G.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Properties of porous silicon which are relevant for use of the material as a stationary phase in liquid chromatography chips, like porosity, pore size and specific surface area, were determined with high-resolution SEM and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms. For the anodization conditions

  13. Integration of cloud-based storage in BES III computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Hernandez, F; Deng, Z

    2014-01-01

    We present an on-going work that aims to evaluate the suitability of cloud-based storage as a supplement to the Lustre file system for storing experimental data for the BES III physics experiment and as a backend for storing files belonging to individual members of the collaboration. In particular, we discuss our findings regarding the support of cloud-based storage in the software stack of the experiment. We report on our development work that improves the support of CERN' s ROOT data analysis framework and allows efficient remote access to data through several cloud storage protocols. We also present our efforts providing the experiment with efficient command line tools for navigating and interacting with cloud storage-based data repositories both from interactive sessions and grid jobs.

  14. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  15. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Marianne Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment, while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  16. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  17. Cloud-based BP system integrated with CPOE improves self-management of the hypertensive patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peisan; Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Hao, Wen-Rui; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Liu, Shuen-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Sung, Li-Chin; Huang, Jen-Hung; Yang, Hung-Yu; Ye, Jong-Shiuan; Zheng, He-Shun; Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Lu, Richard; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Iqbal, Usman; Huang, Chih-Wei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2016-08-01

    Less than 50% of patients with hypertensive disease manage to maintain their blood pressure (BP) within normal levels. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether cloud BP system integrated with computerized physician order entry (CPOE) can improve BP management as compared with traditional care. A randomized controlled trial done on a random sample of 382 adults recruited from 786 patients who had been diagnosed with hypertension and receiving treatment for hypertension in two district hospitals in the north of Taiwan. Physicians had access to cloud BP data from CPOE. Neither patients nor physicians were blinded to group assignment. The study was conducted over a period of seven months. At baseline, the enrollees were 50% male with a mean (SD) age of 58.18 (10.83) years. The mean sitting BP of both arms was no different. The proportion of patients with BP control at two, four and six months was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The average capture rates of blood pressure in the intervention group were also significantly higher than the control group in all three check-points. Cloud-based BP system integrated with CPOE at the point of care achieved better BP control compared to traditional care. This system does not require any technical skills and is therefore suitable for every age group. The praise and assurance to the patients from the physicians after reviewing the Cloud BP records positively reinforced both BP measuring and medication adherence behaviors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Visualizing Cloud Properties and Satellite Imagery: A Tool for Visualization and Information Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Bedka, K. M.; Minnis, P.; Thieman, M. M.; Nordeen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Providing public access to research products including cloud macro and microphysical properties and satellite imagery are a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a web based visualization tool and API that allows end users to easily create customized cloud product and satellite imagery, ground site data and satellite ground track information that is generated dynamically. The tool has two uses, one to visualize the dynamically created imagery and the other to provide access to the dynamically generated imagery directly at a later time. Internally, we leverage our practical experience with large, scalable application practices to develop a system that has the largest potential for scalability as well as the ability to be deployed on the cloud to accommodate scalability issues. We build upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product information, satellite imagery, ground site data and satellite track information accessible and easily searchable. This tool is the culmination of our prior experience with dynamic imagery generation and provides a way to build a "mash-up" of dynamically generated imagery and related kinds of information that are visualized together to add value to disparate but related information. In support of NASA strategic goals, our group aims to make as much scientific knowledge, observations and products available to the citizen science, research and interested communities as well as for automated systems to acquire the same information for data mining or other analytic purposes. This tool and the underlying API's provide a valuable research tool to a wide audience both as a standalone research tool and also as an easily accessed data source that can easily be mined or used with existing tools.

  19. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  20. A Cloud Computing Workflow for Scalable Integration of Remote Sensing and Social Media Data in Urban Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, A.; Soltani, K.; Yin, J.; Subramaniam, B.; Liu, Y.; Padmanabhan, A.; Riteau, P.; Keahey, K.; Wang, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are unique earth environments because both their physical and social components contribute to the overall dynamics of the system. Up-to-date, remote sensing data (e.g. optical and LiDAR) allowed researchers to monitor the development of impervious surfaces however, it was not adequate to detect associated social dynamics. Geo-located social media (e.g. Twitter) provides a data source to detect population dynamics and understand the interaction of people with their physical environment. Although, integrating social media with remote sensing data has been hindered by large volumes of data and the lack of models for integrating remote sensing products with unstructured social media data. In this research work, we leveraged the NSF chameleon cloud computing platform to provide virtual clusters and elastic auto-scaling of resources that are needed for the synthesis of landuse and geo-located Twitter data. In this context, data synthesis was used to address research questions related to population dynamics in major metropolitan areas. We provide an overview of a cloud computing workflow comprised of a set of coupled scalable synthesis modules for: a) preprocessing data, which includes storage and query of heterogeneous data streams, b) spatial data integration, which matches geo-located Twitter data with user defined landuse maps based on a conceptual model of human mobility and c) visualization of urban mobility patterns. Our results demonstrate the flexibility to connect data, synthesis methods and computing resources using cloud computing, which would be otherwise very difficult for untrained scientists to setup and control. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capabilities of CyberGIS-based workflow using the case study of comparing commuting distances across major US cities from 2013 through the present. We demonstrate how our workflow will support discoveries in urban ecological studies as well as linking human and physical dimensions in environmental

  1. A Karaoke System with Real-Time Media Merging and Sharing Functions for a Cloud-Computing-Integrated Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Tyan Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs, smartphones, and tablets have increased in popularity and are extremely efficient for work-related, social, and entertainment uses. Popular entertainment services have also attracted substantial attention. Thus, relevant industries have exerted considerable efforts in establishing a method by which mobile devices can be used to develop excellent and convenient entertainment services. Because cloud-computing technology is mature and possesses a strong computing processing capacity, integrating this technology into the entertainment service function in mobile devices can reduce the data load on a system and maintain mobile device performances. This study combines cloud computing with a mobile device to design a karaoke system that contains real-time media merging and sharing functions. This system enables users to download music videos (MVs from their mobile device and sing and record their singing by using the device. They can upload the recorded song to the cloud server where it is merged with real-time media. Subsequently, by employing a media streaming technology, users can store their personal MVs in their mobile device or computer and instantaneously share these videos with others on the Internet. Through this process, people can instantly watch shared videos, enjoy the leisure and entertainment effects of mobile devices, and satisfy their desire for singing.

  2. High Resolution Integral Field Spectroscopy of Europa's Sodium Clouds: Evidence for a Component with Origins in Iogenic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Johnson, R. E.; Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Moore, L.; O'Donoghue, J.; Leblanc, F.

    2015-12-01

    With the object of constraining Iogenic contributions and identifying drivers for variability, we report new observations of neutral sodium in Europa's exosphere. An R~20000 integral field spectrograph at McDonald Observatory is used to generate Doppler maps of sodium cloud structures with a resolution of 2.8 km/s/pixel. In the five nights of observations since 2011, measurements on UT 6.15-6.31 May 2015 uniquely feature fast (10s of km/s) neutral sodium clouds extending nearly 100 Europa radii, more distant than in any previous findings. During these measurements, the satellite geometry was favorable for the transfer of Na from Io to Europa, located at 1:55 to 4:00 and 3:38 to 4:39 Jovian local time, respectively. Eastward emission (away from Jupiter) extends 10-20 Europa radii retaining the moon's rest velocity, while westward emission blue-shifts with distance, and a broad range of velocities are measured, reaching at least 70 km/s at 80 Europa radii. These cloud features are distinct from Io's "banana" and "stream" features, the distant Jupiter-orbiting nebula, and from terrestrial OH and Na contaminant emissions. Io's production was quiescent during this observation, following an extremely active phase in February 2015. These results are consistent with previous findings that Europa's Na exosphere has peak emission between midnight and dawn Jovian local time and support the idea that sodium escape from Io can significantly enhance the emission intensity measured at Europa.

  3. The Benefits & Drawbacks of Integrating Cloud Computing and Interactive Whiteboards in Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Elfreda; Tirotta, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first century technology has changed the way tools are used to support and enhance learning and instruction. Cloud computing and interactive white boards, make it possible for learners to interact, simulate, collaborate, and document learning experiences and real world problem-solving. This article discusses how various technologies (blogs,…

  4. Fast Deployment on the Cloud of Integrated Postgres, API and a Jupyter Notebook for Geospatial Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, R.; Tan, A.; Arendt, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a Python-based implementation of a PostgreSQL database accessed through an Application Programming Interface (API) hosted on the Amazon Web Services public cloud. The data is geospatial and concerns hydrological model results in the glaciated catchment basins of southcentral and southeast Alaska. This implementation, however, is intended to be generalized to other forms of geophysical data, particularly data that is intended to be shared across a collaborative team or publicly. An example (moderate-size) dataset is provided together with the code base and a complete installation tutorial on GitHub. An enthusiastic scientist with some familiarity with software installation can replicate the example system in two hours. This installation includes database, API, a test Client and a supporting Jupyter Notebook, specifically oriented towards Python 3 and markup text to comprise an executable paper. The installation 'on the cloud' often engenders discussion and consideration of cloud cost and safety. By treating the process as somewhat "cookbook" we hope to first demonstrate the feasibility of the proposition. A discussion of cost and data security is provided in this presentation and in the accompanying tutorial/documentation. This geospatial data system case study is part of a larger effort at the University of Washington to enable research teams to take advantage of the public cloud to meet challenges in data management and analysis.

  5. Assuring virtual network function image integrity and host sealing in telco cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lal, S.; Ravidas, S.; Oliver, I.; Taleb, T.

    In Telco cloud environment, virtual network func- tions (VNFs) can be shipped in the form of virtual machine images and hosted over commodity hardware. It is likely that these VNF images will contain highly sensitive data and mission critical network operations. For this reason, these VNF images are

  6. CLOUD COMPUTING’ INTEGRATION INTO THE TRAINING PROCESS OF HIGHER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Zaytseva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the training process is necessary to use such powerful technologies, as ‘cloud computing’. Supporting traditional training forms, it’s the new epoch of education development. It’s also economic, effective and flexible way to satisfy the needs of taught in new knowledge getting.

  7. Cloud2IR: Infrared thermography and environmental sensors integrated in an autonomoussystem for long term monitoring of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Mevel, Laurent; Andrade-Barroso, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, the project Cloud2SM aims to develop a robust information system able to assess the long term monitoring of civil engineering structures as well as interfacing various sensors and data. Cloud2SM address three main goals, the management of distributed data and sensors network, the asynchronous processing of the data through network and the local management of the sensors themselves [1]. Integrated to this project Cloud2IR is an autonomous sensor system dedicated to the long term monitoring of infrastructures. Past experimentations have shown the need as well as usefulness of such system [2]. Before Cloud2IR an initially laboratory oriented system was used, which implied heavy operating system to be used [3]. Based on such system Cloud2IR has benefited of the experimental knowledge acquired to redefine a lighter architecture based on generics standards, more appropriated to autonomous operations on field and which can be later included in a wide distributed architecture such as Cloud2SM. The sensor system can be divided in two parts. The sensor side, this part is mainly composed by the various sensors drivers themselves as the infrared camera, the weather station or the pyranometers and their different fixed configurations. In our case, as infrared camera are slightly different than other kind of sensors, the system implement in addition an RTSP server which can be used to set up the FOV as well as other measurement parameter considerations. The second part can be seen as the data side, which is common to all sensors. It instantiate through a generic interface all the sensors and control the data access loop (not the requesting). This side of the system is weakly coupled (see data coupling) with the sensor side. It can be seen as a general framework able to aggregate any sensor data, type or size and automatically encapsulate them in various generic data format as HDF5 or cloud data as OGC SWE standard. This whole part is also responsible of the

  8. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  9. Development and Integration of the Janus Robotic Lander: A Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Propulsion System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Raul

    Initiatives have emerged with the goal of sending humans to other places in our solar system. New technologies are being developed that will allow for more efficient space systems to transport future astronauts. One of those technologies is the implementation of propulsion systems that use liquid oxygen and liquid methane (LO2-LCH4) as propellants. The benefits of a LO2-LCH4 propulsion system are plenty. One of the main advantages is the possibility of manufacturing the propellants at the destination body. A space vehicle which relies solely on liquid oxygen and liquid methane for its main propulsion and reaction control engines is necessary to exploit this advantage. At the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) MIRO Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) such a vehicle is being developed. Janus is a robotic lander vehicle with the capability of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) which integrates several LO2-LCH 4 systems that are being devised in-house. The vehicle will serve as a testbed for the parallel operation of these propulsion systems while being fed from common propellant tanks. The following work describes the efforts done at the cSETR to develop the first prototype of the vehicle as well as the plan to move forward in the design of the subsequent prototypes that will lead to a flight vehicle. In order to ensure an eventual smooth integration of the different subsystems that will form part of Janus, requirements were defined for each individual subsystem as well as the vehicle as a whole. Preliminary testing procedures and layouts have also been developed and will be discussed to detail in this text. Furthermore, the current endeavors in the design of each subsystem and the way that they interact with one another within the lander will be explained.

  10. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  11. Models of evaluating efficiency and risks on integration of cloud-base IT-services of the machine-building enterprise: a system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikov, S.; Kurmanbay, A.

    2016-04-01

    The present paper suggests a system approach to evaluation of the effectiveness and risks resulted from the integration of cloud-based services in a machine-building enterprise. This approach makes it possible to estimate a set of enterprise IT applications and choose the applications to be migrated to the cloud with regard to specific business requirements, a technological strategy and willingness to risk.

  12. Integration of prognostic aerosol-cloud interactions in a chemistry transport model coupled offline to a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. A.; Kahnert, M.; Andersson, C.; Kokkola, H.; Hansson, U.; Jones, C.; Langner, J.; Devasthale, A.

    2015-06-01

    -alone version the values reached only 5 μm. A substantial improvement in the distribution of the cloud liquid-water paths (CLWP) was observed when compared to the satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the boreal summer months. The median and standard deviation values from the "MOD" simulation are closer to observations than those obtained using the stand-alone RCA4 version. These changes resulted in a significant decrease in the total annual mean net fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) by -5 W m-2 over the domain selected in the study. The TOA net fluxes from the "MOD" simulation show a better agreement with the retrievals from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument. The aerosol indirect effects are estimated in the "MOD" simulation in comparison to the pre-industrial aerosol emissions (1900). Our simulations estimated the domain averaged annual mean total radiative forcing of -0.64 W m-2 with a larger contribution from the first indirect aerosol effect (-0.57 W m-2) than from the second indirect aerosol effect (-0.14 W m-2).

  13. Cloud-point extraction is compatible with liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of antazoline in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Kojro, Grzegorz; Piotrowski, Roman; Kułakowski, Piotr; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2016-09-05

    Cloud-point extraction (CPE) is attracting increasing interest in a number of analytical fields, including bioanalysis, as it provides a simple, safe and environmentally-friendly sample preparation technique. However, there are only few reports on the application of this extraction technique in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this study, CPE was used for the isolation of antazoline from human plasma. To date, only one method of antazoline isolation from plasma exists-liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The aim of this study was to prove the compatibility of CPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS and the applicability of CPE to the determination of antazoline in spiked human plasma and clinical samples. Antazoline was isolated from human plasma using Triton X-114 as a surfactant. Xylometazoline was used as an internal standard. NaOH concentration, temperature and Triton X-114 concentration were optimized. The absolute matrix effect was carefully investigated. All validation experiments met international acceptance criteria and no significant relative matrix effect was observed. The compatibility of CPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS was confirmed using clinical plasma samples. The determination of antazoline concentration in human plasma in the range 10-2500ngmL(-1) by the CPE method led to results which are equivalent to those obtained by the widely used liquid-liquid extraction method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The multidensity integral equation approach in the theory of complex liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holovko, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Recent development of the multi-density integral equation approach and its application to the statistical mechanical modelling of a different type of association and clusterization in liquids and solutions are reviewed. The effects of dimerization, polymerization and network formation are discussed. The numerical and analytical solutions of the integral equations in the multi-density formalism for pair correlation functions are used for the description of structural and thermodynamical properties of ionic solutions, polymers and network forming fluids

  15. Integrated cloud infrastructure of the LIT JINR, PE "NULITS" and INP's Astana branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhitova, Yelena; Balashov, Nikita; Baranov, Aleksandr; Kutovskiy, Nikolay; Semenov, Roman

    2018-04-01

    The article describes the distributed cloud infrastructure deployed on the basis of the resources of the Laboratory of Information Technologies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR) and some JINR Member State organizations. It explains a motivation of that work, an approach it is based on, lists of its participants among which there are private entity "Nazarbayev University Library and IT services" (PE "NULITS") Autonomous Education Organization "Nazarbayev University" (AO NU) and The Institute of Nuclear Physics' (INP's) Astana branch.

  16. Intelligent business processes composition based on mas, semantic and cloud integration (IPCASCI)

    OpenAIRE

    García Coria, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    [EN]Component reuse is one of the techniques that most clearly contributes to the evolution of the software industry by providing efficient mechanisms to create quality software. Reuse increases both software reliability, due to the fact that it uses previously tested software components, and development productivity, and leads to a clear reduction in cost. Web services have become are an standard for application development on cloud computing environments and are essential ...

  17. Integrate Product Planning Process of OKP Companies in the Cloud Manufacturing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng , Pai; Xu , Xun; Xie , Sheng ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Cloud-Based Manufacturing; International audience; In today’s competitive market, OKP companies operate in the “engineer-to-order” business mode, whereby analysing the “voice of customer” promptly and accurately in the early design stage determines the success of product development. However, OKP companies have limited resources. They may not be able to afford the cost of the complicated Quality Function Deployment (QFD) product planning process, nor can they obtain abundant CRs infor...

  18. On the integrability of a Hamiltonian reduction of a 2+1-dimensional non-isothermal rotating gas cloud system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C; Schief, W K

    2011-01-01

    A 2+1-dimensional version of a non-isothermal gas dynamic system with origins in the work of Ovsiannikov and Dyson on spinning gas clouds is shown to admit a Hamiltonian reduction which is completely integrable when the adiabatic index γ = 2. This nonlinear dynamical subsystem is obtained via an elliptic vortex ansatz which is intimately related to the construction of a Lax pair in the integrable case. The general solution of the gas dynamic system is derived in terms of Weierstrass (elliptic) functions. The latter derivation makes use of a connection with a stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation and a Steen–Ermakov–Pinney equation, the superposition principle of which is based on the classical Lamé equation

  19. Numerical simulation of liquid film flow on revolution surfaces with momentum integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The momentum integral method is applied in the frame of safety analysis of pressure water reactors under hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions to simulate numerically film condensation, rewetting and vaporization on the inner surface of pressure water reactor containment. From the conservation equations of mass and momentum of a liquid film arising from condensation of steam upon the inner of the containment during a LOCA in a pressure water reactor plant, an integro-differential equation is derived, referring to an arbitrary axisymmetric surface of revolution. This equation describes the velocity distribution of the liquid film along a meridian of a surface of revolution. From the integro-differential equation and ordinary differential equation of first order for the film velocity is derived and integrated numerically. From the velocity distribution the film thickness distribution is obtained. The solution of the enthalpy equation for the liquid film yields the temperature distribution on the inner surface of the containment. (authors)

  20. US/DOE Man-Machine Integration program for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Zmura, A.P.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Man-Machine Integration program was started in 1980 as an addition to the existing Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety base technology program. The overall goal of the DOE program is to enhance the operational safety of liquid metal reactors by optimum integration of humans and machines in the overall reactor plant system and by application of the principles of human-factors engineering to the design of equipment, subsystems, facilities, operational aids, procedures and environments. In the four years since its inception the program has concentrated on understanding the control process for Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) and on applying advanced computer concepts to this process. This paper describes the products that have been developed in this program, present computer-related programs, and plans for the future

  1. Enrichment and Ranking of the YouTube Tag Space and Integration with the Linked Data Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Smitashree; Breslin, John G.; Passant, Alexandre

    The increase of personal digital cameras with video functionality and video-enabled camera phones has increased the amount of user-generated videos on the Web. People are spending more and more time viewing online videos as a major source of entertainment and "infotainment". Social websites allow users to assign shared free-form tags to user-generated multimedia resources, thus generating annotations for objects with a minimum amount of effort. Tagging allows communities to organise their multimedia items into browseable sets, but these tags may be poorly chosen and related tags may be omitted. Current techniques to retrieve, integrate and present this media to users are deficient and could do with improvement. In this paper, we describe a framework for semantic enrichment, ranking and integration of web video tags using Semantic Web technologies. Semantic enrichment of folksonomies can bridge the gap between the uncontrolled and flat structures typically found in user-generated content and structures provided by the Semantic Web. The enhancement of tag spaces with semantics has been accomplished through two major tasks: (1) a tag space expansion and ranking step; and (2) through concept matching and integration with the Linked Data cloud. We have explored social, temporal and spatial contexts to enrich and extend the existing tag space. The resulting semantic tag space is modelled via a local graph based on co-occurrence distances for ranking. A ranked tag list is mapped and integrated with the Linked Data cloud through the DBpedia resource repository. Multi-dimensional context filtering for tag expansion means that tag ranking is much easier and it provides less ambiguous tag to concept matching.

  2. Fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of gas and liquid mixtures composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Groenesteijn, Jarno; van der Wouden, E.J.; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realised a fully integrated microfluidic measurement system for real-time determination of both flow rate and composition of gas- and liquid mixtures. The system comprises relative permittivity sensors, pressure sensors, a Coriolis flow and density sensor, a thermal flow sensor

  3. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  4. Chemical and physical influences on aerosol activation in liquid clouds: a study based on observations from the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple statistical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in warm clouds has been established, based on regression analysis of data from four summertime Cloud and Aerosol Characterisation Experiments (CLACE at the high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (JFJ. It is shown that 79 % of the observed variance in droplet numbers can be represented by a model accounting only for the number of potential cloud condensation nuclei (defined as number of particles larger than 80 nm in diameter, while the mean errors in the model representation may be reduced by the addition of further explanatory variables, such as the mixing ratios of O3, CO, and the height of the measurements above cloud base. The statistical model has a similar ability to represent the observed droplet numbers in each of the individual years, as well as for the two predominant local wind directions at the JFJ (northwest and southeast. Given the central European location of the JFJ, with air masses in summer being representative of the free troposphere with regular boundary layer in-mixing via convection, we expect that this statistical model is generally applicable to warm clouds under conditions where droplet formation is aerosol limited (i.e. at relatively high updraught velocities and/or relatively low aerosol number concentrations. A comparison between the statistical model and an established microphysical parametrization shows good agreement between the two and supports the conclusion that cloud droplet formation at the JFJ is predominantly controlled by the number concentration of aerosol particles.

  5. Thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations and the structure of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Kahl, G.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the application of the new thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations for the determination of the structural properties of liquid metals. We present a detailed comparison of the structure (S(q) and g(r)) for models of liquid alkali metals as obtained from two thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations and some published exact computer simulation results; the range of states extends from the triple point to the expanded metal. The theories which only impose thermodynamic self-consistency without any fitting of external data show an excellent agreement with the simulation results, thus demonstrating that this new type of integral equation is definitely superior to the conventional ones (hypernetted chain, Percus-Yevick, mean spherical approximation, etc). (author)

  6. Integrated cloud infrastructure of the LIT JINR, PE “NULITS” and INP's Astana branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhitova Yelena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the distributed cloud infrastructure deployed on the basis of the resources of the Laboratory of Information Technologies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (LIT JINR and some JINR Member State organizations. It explains a motivation of that work, an approach it is based on, lists of its participants among which there are private entity “Nazarbayev University Library and IT services” (PE “NULITS” Autonomous Education Organization “Nazarbayev University” (AO NU and The Institute of Nuclear Physics’ (INP's Astana branch.

  7. Radiative properties of clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1993-01-01

    The climatic effects of condensation nuclei in the formation of cloud droplets and the subsequent role of the cloud droplets as contributors to the planetary short-wave albedo is emphasized. Microphysical properties of clouds, which can be greatly modified by the degree of mixing with cloud-free air from outside, are discussed. The effect of clouds on visible radiation is assessed through multiple scattering of the radiation. Cloudwater or ice absorbs more with increasing wavelength in the near-infrared region, with water vapor providing the stronger absorption over narrower wavelength bands. Cloud thermal infrared absorption can be solely related to liquid water content at least for shallow clouds and clouds in the early development state. Three-dimensional general circulation models have been used to study the climatic effect of clouds. It was found for such studies (which did not consider variations in cloud albedo) that the cooling effects due to the increase in planetary short-wave albedo from clouds were offset by heating effects due to thermal infrared absorption by the cloud. Two permanent direct effects of increased pollution are discussed in this chapter: (a) an increase of absorption in the visible and near infrared because of increased amounts of elemental carbon, which gives rise to a warming effect climatically, and (b) an increased optical thickness of clouds due to increasing cloud droplet number concentration caused by increasing cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, which gives rise to a cooling effect climatically. An increase in cloud albedo from 0.7 to 0.87 produces an appreciable climatic perturbation of cooling up to 2.5 K at the ground, using a hemispheric general circulation model. Effects of pollution on cloud thermal infrared absorption are negligible

  8. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A. J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong

    2009-02-02

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed average liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the average mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

  9. Extraction of Urban Trees from Integrated Airborne Based Digital Image and LIDAR Point Cloud Datasets - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-10-01

    Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition and structural changes of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting tree features include; ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraint, such as labour intensive field work, a lot of financial requirement, influences by weather condition and topographical covers which can be overcome by means of integrated airborne based LiDAR and very high resolution digital image datasets. This study presented a semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated airborne based LIDAR and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The above scheme includes detection and extraction of shadow free vegetation features based on spectral properties of digital images using shadow index and NDVI techniques and automated extraction of 3D information about vegetation features from the integrated processing of shadow free vegetation image and LiDAR point cloud datasets. The ability of the developed algorithms shows a promising result as an automated and cost effective approach to estimating and delineated 3D information of urban trees. The research also proved that integrated datasets is a suitable technology and a viable source of information for city managers to be used in urban trees management.

  10. Quantum density fluctuations in liquid neon from linearized path-integral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage; Scheers, Johan; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral [J. A. Poulsen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12179 (2003)] representation of quantum correlation functions is applied to compute the spectrum of density fluctuations for liquid neon at T=27.6 K, p=1.4 bar, and Q vector 1.55 Aa -1 . The calculated spectrum as well as the kinetic energy of the liquid are in excellent agreement with the experiment of Cunsolo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 67, 024507 (2003)

  11. Stereovision-based integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M; Miga, Michael I

    2017-07-01

    Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. We present a mock environment developed to acquire stereoimages from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct three-dimensional point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. When comparing our tracked microscope stereo-pair measure of mock vessel displacements to that of the measurement determined by the independent optically tracked stylus marking, the displacement error was [Formula: see text] on average. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to laser range scanners to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  12. Integrating Flexible Sensor and Virtual Self-Organizing DC Grid Model With Cloud Computing for Blood Leakage Detection During Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Tzan; Jong, Tai-Lang; Li, Chien-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious complications during hemodialysis. From the hemodialysis survey reports, these life-threatening events occur to attract nephrology nurses and patients themselves. When the venous needle and blood line are disconnected, it takes only a few minutes for an adult patient to lose over 40% of his / her blood, which is a sufficient amount of blood loss to cause the patient to die. Therefore, we propose integrating a flexible sensor and self-organizing algorithm to design a cloud computing-based warning device for blood leakage detection. The flexible sensor is fabricated via a screen-printing technique using metallic materials on a soft substrate in an array configuration. The self-organizing algorithm constructs a virtual direct current grid-based alarm unit in an embedded system. This warning device is employed to identify blood leakage levels via a wireless network and cloud computing. It has been validated experimentally, and the experimental results suggest specifications for its commercial designs. The proposed model can also be implemented in an embedded system.

  13. An ALMA study of the Orion Integral Filament. I. Evidence for narrow fibers in a massive cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacar, A.; Tafalla, M.; Forbrich, J.; Alves, J.; Meingast, S.; Grossschedl, J.; Teixeira, P. S.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We have investigated the gas organization within the paradigmatic Integral Shape Filament (ISF) in Orion in order to decipher whether or not all filaments are bundles of fibers. Methods: We combined two new ALMA Cycle 3 mosaics with previous IRAM 30m observations to produce a high-dynamic range N2H+ (1-0) emission map of the ISF tracing its high-density material and velocity structure down to scales of 0.009 pc (or 2000 AU). Results: From the analysis of the gas kinematics, we identify a total of 55 dense fibers in the central region of the ISF. Independently of their location in the cloud, these fibers are characterized by transonic internal motions, lengths of 0.15 pc, and masses per unit length close to those expected in hydrostatic equilibrium. The ISF fibers are spatially organized forming a dense bundle with multiple hub-like associations likely shaped by the local gravitational potential. Within this complex network, the ISF fibers show a compact radial emission profile with a median FWHM of 0.035 pc systematically narrower than the previously proposed universal 0.1 pc filament width. Conclusions: Our ALMA observations reveal complex bundles of fibers in the ISF, suggesting strong similarities between the internal substructure of this massive filament and previously studied lower-mass objects. The fibers show identical dynamic properties in both low- and high-mass regions, and their widespread detection in nearby clouds suggests a preferred organizational mechanism of gas in which the physical fiber dimensions (width and length) are self-regulated depending on their intrinsic gas density. Combining these results with previous works in Musca, Taurus, and Perseus, we identify a systematic increase of the surface density of fibers as a function of the total mass per-unit-length in filamentary clouds. Based on this empirical correlation, we propose a unified star-formation scenario where the observed differences between low- and high-mass clouds, and the

  14. Integration of power to gas/power to liquid in the ongoing transformation processes; Integration von Power to Gas/Power to Liquid in den laufenden Transformationsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purr, Katja; Osiek, Dirk; Lange, Martin; and others

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this position paper is to assess from the current level of knowledge of the Federal Environment Agency the role and perspective of power to gas / power to Liquid (PtG / PtL) in a fully renewable energy system and in particular to appoint the challenges of integration and further development of this technique in the current transformation process in the next few years. Here also the comparison to other Power to X-options and their greenhouse gas reduction effect is shown. The geographic focus of the considerations is on Germany, knowing that a full renewable energy supply in Germany must be especially for economic reasons embedded in a long term international energy policy. [German] Ziel dieses Positionspapiers ist es, aus dem derzeitigen Kenntnisstand des Umweltbundesamts die Rolle und Perspektive von Power to Gas/Power to Liquid (PtG/PtL) in einem vollstaendig regenerativen Energiesystem einzuschaetzen und insbesondere die Herausforderungen bei der Integration und Weiterentwicklung dieser Technik im laufenden Transformationsprozess in den naechsten Jahren zu benennen. Dabei wird auch der Vergleich zu anderen Power to X-Optionen und deren Treibhausgasminderungswirkung dargestellt. Der geografische Fokus der Betrachtungen liegt dabei auf Deutschland, wohlwissend, dass eine vollstaendige regenerative Energieversorgung Deutschlands insbesondere aus oekonomischen Gruenden langfristig in eine internationale Energiepolitik eingebettet sein muss.

  15. On-chip nanofluidic integration of acoustic sensors towards high Q in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Liu, Zifeng; Zhang, Hongxiang; Liu, Bohua; Zhang, Menglun; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports an on-chip acoustic sensor comprising a piston-mode film bulk acoustic resonator and a monolithically integrated nanochannel. The resonator with the channel exhibits a resonance frequency (f) of 2.5 GHz and a quality (Q) factor of 436 in deionized water. The f × Q product is as high as 1.1 × 1012, which is the highest among all the acoustic wave sensors in the liquid phase. The sensor consumes 2 pl liquid volume and thus greatly saves the precious assays in biomedical testing. The Q factor is investigated, and real-time viscosity tests of glucose solution are demonstrated. The highly miniaturized and integrated sensor is capable to be arrayed with readout-circuitry, which opens an avenue for portable applications and lab-on-chip systems.

  16. Implementation of a cloud-based electronic medical record exchange system in compliance with the integrating healthcare enterprise's cross-enterprise document sharing integration profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien Hua; Chiu, Ruey Kei; Yeh, Hong Mo; Wang, Da Wei

    2017-11-01

    In 2011, the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Taiwan established the National Electronic Medical Record Exchange Center (EEC) to permit the sharing of medical resources among hospitals. This system can presently exchange electronic medical records (EMRs) among hospitals, in the form of medical imaging reports, laboratory test reports, discharge summaries, outpatient records, and outpatient medication records. Hospitals can send or retrieve EMRs over the virtual private network by connecting to the EEC through a gateway. International standards should be adopted in the EEC to allow users with those standards to take advantage of this exchange service. In this study, a cloud-based EMR-exchange prototyping system was implemented on the basis of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise's Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing integration profile and the existing EMR exchange system. RESTful services were used to implement the proposed prototyping system on the Microsoft Azure cloud-computing platform. Four scenarios were created in Microsoft Azure to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed system successfully completed EMR exchange under the four scenarios created in Microsoft Azure. Additional experiments were conducted to compare the efficiency of the EMR-exchanging mechanisms of the proposed system with those of the existing EEC system. The experimental results suggest that the proposed RESTful service approach is superior to the Simple Object Access Protocol method currently implemented in the EEC system, according to the irrespective response times under the four experimental scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental evidence supporting the insensitivity of cloud droplet formation to the mass accommodation coefficient for condensation of water vapor to liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Richardson, Mathews S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    The mass accommodation coefficient for uptake of water vapor to liquid water, αM, has been constrained using photoacoustic measurements of aqueous absorbing aerosol. Measurements performed over a range of relative humidities and pressures were compared to detailed model calculations treating coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during photoacoustic laser heating cycles. The strengths and weaknesses of this technique are very different to those for droplet growth/evaporation experiments that have typically been applied to these measurements, making this a useful complement to existing studies. Our measurements provide robust evidence that αM is greater than 0.1 for all humidities tested and greater than 0.3 for data obtained at relative humidities greater than 88% where the aerosol surface was most like pure water. These values of αM are above the threshold at which kinetic limitations are expected to impact the activation and growth of aerosol particles in warm cloud formation.

  18. Cloud-Point Extraction Combined with Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Ergosterol, a Natural Product with Diuretic Activity, in Rat Plasma, Urine, and Faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Qian Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergosterol from many medicinal fungi has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. A new method based on cloud-point extraction has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of ergosterol in rat plasma, urine and faeces by liquid chromatography. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (98 : 2, v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The methodology was validated completely. The results indicated good performance in terms of specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of ergosterol in rats. The results indicate that the ergosterol levels in feces are much higher than those in plasma and urine of the rat.

  19. Toward low-cloud-permitting cloud superparameterization with explicit boundary layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parishani, Hossein; Pritchard, Michael S.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wyant, Matthew C.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2017-07-01

    Systematic biases in the representation of boundary layer (BL) clouds are a leading source of uncertainty in climate projections. A variation on superparameterization (SP) called "ultraparameterization" (UP) is developed, in which the grid spacing of the cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is fine enough (250 × 20 m) to explicitly capture the BL turbulence, associated clouds, and entrainment in a global climate model capable of multiyear simulations. UP is implemented within the Community Atmosphere Model using 2° resolution (˜14,000 embedded CRMs) with one-moment microphysics. By using a small domain and mean-state acceleration, UP is computationally feasible today and promising for exascale computers. Short-duration global UP hindcasts are compared with SP and satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere radiation and cloud vertical structure. The most encouraging improvement is a deeper BL and more realistic vertical structure of subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) clouds, due to stronger vertical eddy motions that promote entrainment. Results from 90 day integrations show climatological errors that are competitive with SP, with a significant improvement in the diurnal cycle of offshore Sc liquid water. Ongoing concerns with the current UP implementation include a dim bias for near-coastal Sc that also occurs less prominently in SP and a bright bias over tropical continental deep convection zones. Nevertheless, UP makes global eddy-permitting simulation a feasible and interesting alternative to conventionally parameterized GCMs or SP-GCMs with turbulence parameterizations for studying BL cloud-climate and cloud-aerosol feedback.

  20. INTEGRATION OF POINT CLOUDS AND IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM A LOW-COST NIR CAMERA SENSOR FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial Laser Scanning is currently one of the most common techniques for modelling and documenting structures of cultural heritage. However, only geometric information on its own, without the addition of imagery data is insufficient when formulating a precise statement about the status of studies structure, for feature extraction or indicating the sites to be restored. Therefore, the Authors propose the integration of spatial data from terrestrial laser scanning with imaging data from low-cost cameras. The use of images from low-cost cameras makes it possible to limit the costs needed to complete such a study, and thus, increasing the possibility of intensifying the frequency of photographing and monitoring of the given structure. As a result, the analysed cultural heritage structures can be monitored more closely and in more detail, meaning that the technical documentation concerning this structure is also more precise. To supplement the laser scanning information, the Authors propose using both images taken both in the near-infrared range and in the visible range. This choice is motivated by the fact that not all important features of historical structures are always visible RGB, but they can be identified in NIR imagery, which, with the additional merging with a three-dimensional point cloud, gives full spatial information about the cultural heritage structure in question. The Authors proposed an algorithm that automates the process of integrating NIR images with a point cloud using parameters, which had been calculated during the transformation of RGB images. A number of conditions affecting the accuracy of the texturing had been studies, in particular, the impact of the geometry of the distribution of adjustment points and their amount on the accuracy of the integration process, the correlation between the intensity value and the error on specific points using images in different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum and the selection

  1. Integration of Point Clouds and Images Acquired from a Low-Cost NIR Camera Sensor for Cultural Heritage Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, M.; Walczykowski, P.; Wojtkowska, M.; Fryskowska, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning is currently one of the most common techniques for modelling and documenting structures of cultural heritage. However, only geometric information on its own, without the addition of imagery data is insufficient when formulating a precise statement about the status of studies structure, for feature extraction or indicating the sites to be restored. Therefore, the Authors propose the integration of spatial data from terrestrial laser scanning with imaging data from low-cost cameras. The use of images from low-cost cameras makes it possible to limit the costs needed to complete such a study, and thus, increasing the possibility of intensifying the frequency of photographing and monitoring of the given structure. As a result, the analysed cultural heritage structures can be monitored more closely and in more detail, meaning that the technical documentation concerning this structure is also more precise. To supplement the laser scanning information, the Authors propose using both images taken both in the near-infrared range and in the visible range. This choice is motivated by the fact that not all important features of historical structures are always visible RGB, but they can be identified in NIR imagery, which, with the additional merging with a three-dimensional point cloud, gives full spatial information about the cultural heritage structure in question. The Authors proposed an algorithm that automates the process of integrating NIR images with a point cloud using parameters, which had been calculated during the transformation of RGB images. A number of conditions affecting the accuracy of the texturing had been studies, in particular, the impact of the geometry of the distribution of adjustment points and their amount on the accuracy of the integration process, the correlation between the intensity value and the error on specific points using images in different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum and the selection of the optimal

  2. Simulation, integration, and economic analysis of gas-to-liquid processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Buping; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.; Elbashir, Nimir O.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-to-liquid (GTL) involves the chemical conversion of natural gas into synthetic crude that can be upgraded and separated into different useful hydrocarbon fractions including liquid transportation fuels. Such technology can also be used to convert other abundant natural resources such as coal and biomass to fuels and value added chemicals (referred to as coal-to-liquid (CTL) and biomass-to-liquid (BTL)). A leading GTL technology is the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. The objective of this work is to provide a techno-economic analysis of the GTL process and to identify optimization and integration opportunities for cost saving and reduction of energy usage while accounting for the environmental impact. First, a base-case flowsheet is synthesized to include the key processing steps of the plant. Then, a computer-aided process simulation is carried out to determine the key mass and energy flows, performance criteria, and equipment specifications. Next, energy and mass integration studies are performed to address the following items: (a) heating and cooling utilities, (b) combined heat and power (process cogeneration), (c) management of process water, (c) optimization of tail gas allocation, and (d) recovery of catalyst-supporting hydrocarbon solvents. Finally, these integration studies are conducted and the results are documented in terms of conserving energy and mass resources as well as providing economic impact. Finally, an economic analysis is undertaken to determine the plant capacity needed to achieve the break-even point and to estimate the return on investment for the base-case study. (author)

  3. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  4. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  5. Defining Intercloud Federation Framework for Multi-provider Cloud Services Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkes, M.X.; Ngo, C.; Demchenko, Y.; Strijkers, R.J.; Meijer, R.J.; Laat, C. de

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the on-going research to define the Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF) which is a part of the general Intercloud Architecture Framework (ICAF) proposed by the authors. ICFF attempts to address the interoperability and integration issues in provisioning on-demand

  6. Fast cloud parameter retrievals of MIPAS/Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The infrared limb spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board the Envisat satellite include detailed information on tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC. However, no consolidated cloud product is available for the scientific community. Here we describe a fast prototype processor for cloud parameter retrieval from MIPAS (MIPclouds. Retrieval of parameters such as cloud top height, temperature, and extinction are implemented, as well as retrieval of microphysical parameters, e.g. effective radius and the integrated quantities over the limb path (surface area density and volume density. MIPclouds classifies clouds as either liquid or ice cloud in the upper troposphere and polar stratospheric clouds types in the stratosphere based on statistical combinations of colour ratios and brightness temperature differences.

    Comparison of limb measurements of clouds with model results or cloud parameters from nadir looking instruments is often difficult due to different observation geometries. We therefore introduce a new concept, the limb-integrated surface area density path (ADP. By means of validation and radiative transfer calculations of realistic 2-D cloud fields as input for a blind test retrieval (BTR, we demonstrate that ADP is an extremely valuable parameter for future comparison with model data of ice water content, when applying limb integration (ray tracing through the model fields. In addition, ADP is used for a more objective definition of detection thresholds of the applied detection methods. Based on BTR, a detection threshold of ADP = 107 μm2 cm−2 and an ice water content of 10−5 g m−3 is estimated, depending on the horizontal and vertical extent of the cloud.

    Intensive validation of the cloud detection methods shows that the limb-sounding MIPAS instrument has a sensitivity in detecting stratospheric

  7. One-pot integrated biofuel production using low-cost biocompatible protic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jian; Konda, Murthy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Dutta, Tanmoy; Valiev, Marat; Xu, Feng; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2017-01-01

    The transformation of biomass into liquid fuels is of great importance. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of specific ionic liquids (ILs), such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)C(1)Im][OAc]) and cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]), to be effective biomass pretreatment solvents. Using these ILs for an integrated biomass-to-biofuel configuration is still challenging due to a significant water-wash related to the high toxicity of [C(2)C(1)Im][OAc] and pH adjustment prior to saccharification for the highly basic [Ch][Lys]. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that a one-pot integrated biofuel production is enabled by a low cost (similar to$1 per kg) and biocompatible protic IL (PIL), ethanolamine acetate, without pH adjustments, water-wash and solid-liquid separations. After pretreatment, the whole slurry is directly used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with commercial enzyme cocktails and wild type yeast strains, generating 70% of the theoretical ethanol yield (based on switchgrass). The structure-performance relationships of PILs in terms of lignin removal, net basicity, and pH value are systematically studied. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) revealed that an integrated biorefinery concept based on this PIL process could potentially reduce the minimum ethanol selling price by more than 40% compared to scenarios that require pH adjustment prior to SSF. Improvement of the economic performance will be made by reducing the dilution and enzyme loading during SSF as identified by TEA. This study demonstrates the impact of a biocompatible IL in terms of process optimization and conversion efficiency, and opens up avenues for realizing an IL based efficiently integrated biomass conversion technology.

  8. Liquid Core ARROW Waveguides: A Promising Photonic Structure for Integrated Optofluidic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Testa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW as a novel optofluidic device that can be used to create innovative and highly functional microsensors. Liquid core ARROWs, with their dual ability to guide the light and the fluids in the same microchannel, have shown great potential as an optofluidic tool for quantitative spectroscopic analysis. ARROWs feature a planar architecture and, hence, are particularly attractive for chip scale integrated system. Step by step, several improvements have been made in recent years towards the implementation of these waveguides in a complete on-chip system for highly-sensitive detection down to the single molecule level. We review applications of liquid ARROWs for fluids sensing and discuss recent results and trends in the developments and applications of liquid ARROW in biomedical and biochemical research. The results outlined show that the strong light matter interaction occurring in the optofluidic channel of an ARROW and the versatility offered by the fabrication methods makes these waveguides a very promising building block for optofluidic sensor development.

  9. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  10. Using an Integrated Group Decision Method Based on SVM, TFN-RS-AHP, and TOPSIS-CD for Cloud Service Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-hui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the cloud service supplier selection problem under the background of cloud computing emergence, an integrated group decision method is proposed. The cloud service supplier selection index framework is built from two perspectives of technology and technology management. Support vector machine- (SVM- based classification model is applied for the preliminary screening to reduce the number of candidate suppliers. A triangular fuzzy number-rough sets-analytic hierarchy process (TFN-RS-AHP method is designed to calculate supplier’s index value by expert’s wisdom and experience. The index weight is determined by criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC. The suppliers are evaluated by the improved TOPSIS replacing Euclidean distance with connection distance (TOPSIS-CD. An electric power enterprise’s case is given to illustrate the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR MAPPING URBAN TREES FROM INTEGRATED AERIAL LiDAR POINT CLOUD AND DIGITAL IMAGERY DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Dogon-Yaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  12. Semi-Automated Approach for Mapping Urban Trees from Integrated Aerial LiDAR Point Cloud and Digital Imagery Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-Yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  13. Intelligent Supply Chain Integration and Management Based on Cloud of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Junwei; Xin, Sijin; Liu, Quan; Xu, Wenjun; Yang, Liwen; Fan, Li; Chen, Bo; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The fierce global competition and market turbulence has been forcing the enterprises towards to the integration and intelligence for supply chain management, and the seamless information sharing and collaboration as well as operation agility are the challenges which need to be conquered, in terms of the highly distributed and heterogeneous resources located in separated warehouses. Although a number of works have been done to achieve the aforementioned targets, few of them are able to provide...

  14. Dynamic pricing based on a cloud computing framework to support the integration of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Thankappan Nair; Ashok Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources into the electric grid in the domestic sector results in bidirectional energy flow from the supply side of the consumer to the grid. Traditional pricing methods are difficult to implement in such a situation of bidirectional energy flow and they face operational challenges on the application of price-based demand side management programme because of the intermittent characteristics of renewable energy sources. In this study, a dynamic pricing method usi...

  15. Integration of Slack, a cloud-based team collaboration application, into research coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofine, Miriam; Clark, Sunday

    2017-06-30

    Practitioners of epidemiology require efficient real-time communication and shared access to numerous documents in order to effectively manage a study. Much of this communication involves study logistics and does not require use of Protected Health Information. Slack is a team collaboration app; it archives all direct messages and group conversations, hosts documents internally, and integrates with the Google Docs application. Slack has both desktop and mobile applications, allowing users to communicate in real-time without the need to find email addresses or phone numbers or create contact lists. METHOD: We piloted the integration of Slack into our research team of one faculty member, one research coordinator, and approximately 20 research assistants. Statistics describing the app's usage were calculated twelve months after its implementation. RESULTS: Results indicating heavy usage by both research professionals and assistants are presented. Our Slack group included a cumulative 51 users. Between October 2015 and November 2016, approximately 10,600 messages were sent through Slack; 53% were sent by RA's and 47% were sent by us. Of the 106 files stored on Slack, 82% were uploaded by research staff. In a January 2016 survey, 100% of RA's agreed or strongly agreed that Slack improved communication within the team. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a model for integration of communication technology into academic activities by research teams. Slack is easily integrated into the workflow at an urban, academic medical center and is adopted by users as a highly effective tool for meeting research teams' communication and document management needs.

  16. Integration of Slack, a cloud-based team collaboration application, into research coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gofine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practitioners of epidemiology require efficient real-time communication and shared access to numerous documents in order to effectively manage a study. Much of this communication involves study logistics and does not require use of Protected Health Information. Slack is a team collaboration app; it archives all direct messages and group conversations, hosts documents internally, and integrates with the Google Docs application. Slack has both desktop and mobile applications, allowing users to communicate in real-time without the need to find email addresses or phone numbers or create contact lists.  Method: We piloted the integration of Slack into our research team of one faculty member, one research coordinator, and approximately 20 research assistants. Statistics describing the app’s usage were calculated twelve months after its implementation.  Results: Results indicating heavy usage by both research professionals and assistants are presented. our Slack group included a cumulative 51 users. Between October 2015 and November 2016, approximately 10,600 messages were sent through Slack; 53% were sent by RA’s and 47% were sent by us. Of the 106 files stored on Slack, 82% were uploaded by research staff. In a January 2016 survey, 100% of RA’s agreed or strongly agreed that Slack improved communication within the team.  Conclusion: We demonstrate a model for integration of communication technology into academic activities by research teams. Slack is easily integrated into the workflow at an urban, academic medical center and is adopted by users as a highly effective tool for meeting research teams’ communication and document management needs.

  17. Kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen: a path integral Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Neumann, M.

    1992-01-01

    The translational (center of mass) kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen have been recently measured by means of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. We have evaluated the same quantity, in similar thermodynamic conditions, by means of Path Integral Monte Carlo computer simulation, modelling the system as composed of a set of spherical molecules interacting through a pairwise additive Lennard-Jones potential. In spite of the crude approximations on the interaction potential, the agreement is excellent. The pressure was also computed by means of the same simulations. This quantity, compared with the equation of state for solid para-hydrogen given by Driessen and Silvera, gives an agreement of a lesser quality and a negative value for the liquid state. We attribute this discrepancy to the limitations of the Lennard-Jones potential. (orig.)

  18. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  19. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. SenSyF Experience on Integration of EO Services in a Generic, Cloud-Based EO Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grosso, Nuno; Andrade, Joao; Caumont, Herve; Goncalves, Pedro; Villa, Guillermo; Mangin, Antoine; Serra, Romain; Johnsen, Harald; Grydeland, Tom; Emsley, Stephen; Jauch, Eduardo; Moreno, Jose; Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    SenSyF is a cloud-based data processing framework for EO- based services. It has been pioneer in addressing Big Data issues from the Earth Observation point of view, and is a precursor of several of the technologies and methodologies that will be deployed in ESA's Thematic Exploitation Platforms and other related systems.The SenSyF system focuses on developing fully automated data management, together with access to a processing and exploitation framework, including Earth Observation specific tools. SenSyF is both a development and validation platform for data intensive applications using Earth Observation data. With SenSyF, scientific, institutional or commercial institutions developing EO- based applications and services can take advantage of distributed computational and storage resources, tailored for applications dependent on big Earth Observation data, and without resorting to deep infrastructure and technological investments.This paper describes the integration process and the experience gathered from different EO Service providers during the project.

  1. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  2. Integrating Remote Sensing Data, Hybrid-Cloud Computing, and Event Notifications for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Agram, P.; Manipon, G.; Stough, T. M.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Cruz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are now important elements in our toolset for monitoring earthquake-generating faults, volcanic eruptions, hurricane damage, landslides, reservoir subsidence, and other natural and man-made hazards. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation with high spatial and temporal resolution has revolutionized both earthquake science and volcanology. Continuous monitoring of surface deformation and surface change before, during, and after natural hazards improves decision-making from better forecasts, increased situational awareness, and more informed recovery. However, analyses of InSAR and GPS data sets are currently handcrafted following events and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for use in operational response to natural disasters. Additionally, the sheer data volumes needed to handle a continuous stream of InSAR data sets also presents a bottleneck. It has been estimated that continuous processing of InSAR coverage of California alone over 3-years would reach PB-scale data volumes. Our Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) science data system enables both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interest with derived geodetic data products via seamless data preparation, processing, discovery, and access. We will present our findings on the use of hybrid-cloud computing to improve the timely processing and delivery of geodetic data products, integrating event notifications from USGS to improve the timely processing for response, as well as providing browse results for quick looks with other tools for integrative analysis.

  3. A comparison between integral equation theory and molecular dynamics simulations of dense, flexible polymer liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S.; Grest, G.S.; Kremer, K.; Corporate Research Science Laboratory, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey 08801; Institut fur Festkorperforschung der Kernforschungsanlage Julich, D-5170 Julich, Federal Republic of Germany)

    1989-01-01

    Recently we (J.G.C. and K.S.S.) formulated a tractable ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM) integral equation theory of flexible polymer liquids. The purpose of this paper is to compare the results of the theory with recent molecular dynamics simulations (G.S.G. and K.K.) on dense chain liquids of degree of polymerization N=50 and 200. Specific comparisons were made between theory and simulation for the intramolecular structure factor ω(k) and the intermolecular radial distribution function g(r) in the liquid. In particular it was possible to independently test the assumptions inherent in the RISM theory and the additional ideality approximation that was made in the initial application of the theory. This comparison was accomplished by calculating the intermolecular g(r) using the simulated intramolecular structure factor, as well as, ω(k) derived from a freely jointed chain model.The RISM theory results, using the simulated ω(k), were found to be in excellent agreement, over all length scales, with the g(r) from molecular dynamics simulations. The theoretical predictions using the ''ideal'' intramolecular structure factor tended to underestimate g(r) near contact, indicating local intramolecular expansion of the chains. This local expansion can be incorporated into the theory self consistently by including the effects of the ''medium induced'' potential on the intramolecular structure

  4. Liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of 3D polymer nanopatterns for direct carbonisation with high structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Young; Kim, Cheolho; Park, Gyurim; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    The direct pyrolytic carbonisation of polymer patterns has attracted interest for its use in obtaining carbon materials. In the case of carbonisation of nanopatterned polymers, the polymer flow and subsequent pattern change may occur in order to relieve their high surface energies. Here, we demonstrated that liquid immersion thermal crosslinking of polymer nanopatterns effectively enhanced the thermal resistance and maintained the structure integrity during the heat treatment. We employed the liquid immersion thermal crosslinking for 3D porous SU8 photoresist nanopatterns and successfully converted them to carbon nanopatterns while maintaining their porous features. The thermal crosslinking reaction and carbonisation of SU8 nanopatterns were characterised. The micro-crystallinity of the SU8-derived carbon nanopatterns was also characterised. The liquid immersion heat treatment can be extended to the carbonisation of various polymer or photoresist nanopatterns and also provide a facile way to control the surface energy of polymer nanopatterns for various purposes, for example, to block copolymer or surfactant self-assemblies.

  5. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  6. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. III. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: Fe AND AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we refine our method for the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of the integrated light of unresolved globular clusters (GCs). This method was previously demonstrated for the analysis of old (>10 Gyr) Milky Way (MW) GCs. Here, we extend the technique to young clusters using a training set of nine GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the data, we use 20-100 Fe lines per cluster to successfully constrain the ages of old clusters to within a ∼5 Gyr range, the ages of ∼2 Gyr clusters to a 1-2 Gyr range, and the ages of the youngest clusters (0.05-1 Gyr) to a ∼200 Myr range. We also demonstrate that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with any age less than 12 Gyr with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1-0.25 dex) than those obtained for old MW GCs (0.1 dex); the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. In this paper, we present only Fe abundances and ages. In the next paper in this series, we present our complete analysis of ∼20 elements for which we are able to measure abundances. For several of the clusters in this sample, there are no high-resolution abundances in the literature from individual member stars; our results are the first detailed chemical abundances available. The spectra used in this paper were obtained at Las Campanas with the echelle on the du Pont Telescope and with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  7. Using Long-Term Satellite Observations to Identify Sensitive Regimes and Active Regions of Aerosol Indirect Effects for Liquid Clouds Over Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuepeng; Liu, Yangang; Yu, Fangquan; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT). An aerosol optical thickness (AOT) range of 0.13 change of long-term averaged CDER appears only in limited oceanic regions. The signature of aerosol invigoration of water clouds as revealed by the increase of cloud cover fraction (CCF) and CTH with increasing AOT at the middle/high latitudes of both hemispheres is identified for a pristine atmosphere (AOT polluted marine atmosphere (AOT > 0.3) in the tropical convergence zones. The regions where the second AIE is likely to manifest in the CCF change are limited to several oceanic areas with high CCF of the warm water clouds near the western coasts of continents. The second AIE signature as represented by the reduction of the precipitation efficiency with increasing AOT is more likely to be observed in the AOT regime of 0.08 < AOT < 0.4. The corresponding AIE active regions manifested themselves as the decline of the precipitation efficiency are mainly limited to the oceanic areas downwind of continental aerosols. The sensitive regime of the conventional AIE identified in this observational study is likely associated with the transitional regime from the aerosol-limited regime to the updraft-limited regime identified for aerosol-cloud interaction in cloud model simulations.

  8. Maximized liquid radwaste volume reduction through a total integrated process: A new technology success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    A fundamental nuclear industry goal is the minimization of the generation of radioactive waste. This goal has been dramatically reinforced over the past few years due to the spiraling increased costs of both commercial and DOE disposal. To assist in meeting these goals and reducing the industry's costs, NUKEM initiated a new technology program to maximize the reduction of liquid radwaste through the use of a systematic approach or TIPS (Total Integrated Process System). This concept evaluates the total life cycle of various technologies in a combination that results in the final waste form being minimized to the pure solids content of the waste stream. Additionally, it allows for a final waste form that maximizes the utilization of the waste package and is conditioned to be readily acceptable to additional processing to meet new waste form requirements at future disposal sites, should interim storage of the waste be required. The TIPS, although first introduced at commercial facilities, has broad applications for DOE's liquid waste streams

  9. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  10. Integration of power to gas/power to liquid in the ongoing transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purr, Katja; Osiek, Dirk; Lange, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this position paper is to assess from the current level of knowledge of the Federal Environment Agency the role and perspective of power to gas / power to Liquid (PtG / PtL) in a fully renewable energy system and in particular to appoint the challenges of integration and further development of this technique in the current transformation process in the next few years. Here also the comparison to other Power to X-options and their greenhouse gas reduction effect is shown. The geographic focus of the considerations is on Germany, knowing that a full renewable energy supply in Germany must be especially for economic reasons embedded in a long term international energy policy. [de

  11. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  12. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    A series of Mg/TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%

  13. New Love wave liquid sensor operating at 2 GHz using an integrated micro-flow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assouar, M B; Kirsch, P; Alnot, P

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on waveguide modes with shear-horizontal polarization (Love modes) are very promising for sensor applications, especially in liquid media. We present here the realization of a 2 GHz operating frequency sensor based on the SiO 2 /36YX LiTaO 3 structure with an integrated PDMS micro-flow channel and using electron beam lithography to realize the submicronic interdigital transducers. Using our developed sensor operating at 2 GHz, we carried out alternate cycles of nitrogen and water circulating in the PDMS micro-flow channel. We measured an absolute sensitivity of −19 001 Hz mm 2  ng −1 due to the interaction of the sensor with water. This sensitivity is higher than that of other devices operating at lower frequencies. The detection mechanism, including gravimetric and permittivity effects at high frequency, will be discussed

  14. MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING APPLIED TO HEALTHCARE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Omar AlSheikSalem

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years it was clear that mobile cloud computing was established via integrating both mobile computing and cloud computing to be add in both storage space and processing speed. Integrating healthcare applications and services is one of the vast data approaches that can be adapted to mobile cloud computing. This work proposes a framework of a global healthcare computing based combining both mobile computing and cloud computing. This approach leads to integrate all of ...

  15. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  16. Integration process of fermentation and liquid biphasic flotation for lipase separation from Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Revathy; Show, Pau Loke; Lee, Sze Ying; Yap, Yee Jiun; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Biphasic Flotation (LBF) is an advanced recovery method that has been effectively applied for biomolecules extraction. The objective of this investigation is to incorporate the fermentation and extraction process of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia using flotation system. Initial study was conducted to compare the performance of bacteria growth and lipase production using flotation and shaker system. From the results obtained, bacteria shows quicker growth and high lipase yield via flotation system. Integration process for lipase separation was investigated and the result showed high efficiency reaching 92.29% and yield of 95.73%. Upscaling of the flotation system exhibited consistent result with the lab-scale which are 89.53% efficiency and 93.82% yield. The combination of upstream and downstream processes in a single system enables the acceleration of product formation, improves the product yield and facilitates downstream processing. This integration system demonstrated its potential for biomolecules fermentation and separation that possibly open new opportunities for industrial production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  18. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  19. Rate of non-linearity in DMS aerosol-cloud-climate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The degree of non-linearity in DMS-cloud-climate interactions is assessed using the ECHAM5-HAMMOZ model by taking into account end-to-end aerosol chemistry-cloud microphysics link. The evaluation is made over the Southern oceans in austral summer, a region of minimal anthropogenic influence. In this study, we compare the DMS-derived changes in the aerosol and cloud microphysical properties between a baseline simulation with the ocean DMS emissions from a prescribed climatology, and a scenario where the DMS emissions are doubled. Our results show that doubling the DMS emissions in the current climate results in a non-linear response in atmospheric DMS burden and subsequently, in SO2 and H2SO4 burdens due to inadequate OH oxidation. The aerosol optical depth increases by only ~20 % in the 30° S–75° S belt in the SH summer months. This increases the vertically integrated cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC by 25 %. Since the vertically integrated liquid water vapor is constant in our model simulations, an increase in CDNC leads to a reduction in cloud droplet radius of 3.4 % over the Southern oceans in summer. The equivalent increase in cloud liquid water path is 10.7 %. The above changes in cloud microphysical properties result in a change in global annual mean radiative forcing at the TOA of −1.4 W m−2. The results suggest that the DMS-cloud microphysics link is highly non-linear. This has implications for future studies investigating the DMS-cloud climate feedbacks in a warming world and for studies evaluating geoengineering options to counteract warming by modulating low level marine clouds.

  20. Dual-cloud point extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace sulfonamide antimicrobials in urine and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Chunyan; Niu, Zongliang; Li, Pengyao; Wang, Chunping; Li, Wanyu; Wen, Yingying

    2017-04-15

    Dual-cloud point extraction (dCPE) was successfully developed for simultaneous extraction of trace sulfonamides (SAs) including sulfamerazine (SMZ), sulfadoxin (SDX), sulfathiazole (STZ) in urine and water samples. Several parameters affecting the extraction were optimized, such as sample pH, concentration of Triton X-114, extraction temperature and time, centrifugation rate and time, back-extraction solution pH, back-extraction temperature and time, back-extraction centrifugation rate and time. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied for the SAs analysis. Under the optimum extraction and detection conditions, successful separation of the SAs was achieved within 9min, and excellent analytical performances were attained. Good linear relationships (R 2 ≥0.9990) between peak area and concentration for SMZ and STZ were optimized from 0.02 to 10μg/mL, for SDX from 0.01 to 10μg/mL. Detection limits of 3.0-6.2ng/mL were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 85 to 108% were determined with urine, lake and tap water spiked at 0.2, 0.5 and 1μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 1.5-7.7%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative tool to existing methods for analysing trace residues of SAs in urine and water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Xia, Qinghai; Liu, Mousheng; Yang, Yaling

    2011-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method using Triton X-114 (TX-114) nonionic surfactant was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of propyl gallate (PG), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) from edible oils. The optimum conditions of CPE were 2.5% (v/v) TX-114, 0.5% (w/v) NaCl and 40 min equilibration time at 50 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm, using a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1.5% (v/v) acetic acid. Under the studied conditions, 4 synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were successfully separated within 24 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.9 ng mL(-1) for PG, 11 ng mL(-1) for TBHQ, 2.3 ng mL(-1) for BHA, and 5.9 ng mL(-1) for BHT. Recoveries of the SPAs spiked into edible oil were in the range 81% to 88%. The CPE method was shown to be potentially useful for the preconcentration of the target analytes, with a preconcentration factor of 14. Moreover, the method is simple, has high sensitivity, consumes much less solvent than traditional methods, and is environment-friendly. Practical Application: The method established in this article uses less organic solvent to extract SPAs from edible oils; it is simple, highly sensitive and results in no pollution to the environment.

  2. Using Cloud-Computing Applications to Support Collaborative Scientific Inquiry: Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Barriers to Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna, Joel D.; Miller, Brant G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications, such as Google Drive, can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers' beliefs related to the envisioned use of collaborative,…

  3. Predicting Cloud Computing Technology Adoption by Organizations: An Empirical Integration of Technology Acceptance Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekufu, ThankGod K.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are finding it difficult in today's economy to implement the vast information technology infrastructure required to effectively conduct their business operations. Despite the fact that some of these organizations are leveraging on the computational powers and the cost-saving benefits of computing on the Internet cloud, others…

  4. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  5. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year...... of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol...

  6. Measurement of interactions between solid particles, liquid droplets, and/or gas bubbles in a liquid using an integrated thin film drainage apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louxiang; Sharp, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2013-03-19

    A novel device was designed to measure drainage dynamics of thin liquid films confined between a solid particle, an immiscible liquid droplet, and/or gas bubble. Equipped with a bimorph force sensor, a computer-interfaced video capture, and a data acquisition system, the newly designed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) allows for the direct and simultaneous measurements of force barrier, true film drainage time, and bubble/droplet deformation under a well-controlled external force, receding and advancing contact angles, capillary force, and adhesion (detachment) force between an air bubble or oil droplet and a solid, a liquid, or an air bubble in an immiscible liquid. Using the diaphragm of a high-frequency speaker as the drive mechanism for the air bubble or oil droplet attached to a capillary tube, this newly designed device is capable of measuring forces over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, including bubble approach and retract velocities up to 50 mm/s and displacement range up to 1 mm. The results showed that the ITFDA was capable of measuring hydrodynamic resistance, film drainage time, and other important physical parameters between air bubbles and solid particles in aqueous solutions. As an example of illustrating the versatility, the ITFDA was also applied to other important systems such as interactions between air bubble and oil droplet, two air bubbles, and two oil droplets in an aqueous solution.

  7. Active sensor synergy for arctic cloud microphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kaori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on the retrieval of liquid and ice-phase cloud microphysics from spaceborne and ground-based lidar-cloud radar synergy. As an application of the cloud retrieval algorithm developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission (JAXA-ESA [1], the derived statistics of cloud microphysical properties in high latitudes and their relation to the Arctic climate are investigated.

  8. OCCI-Compliant Cloud Configuration Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed-Nacer , Mehdi; Gaaloul , Walid; Tata , Samir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years many organizations such as, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, have accelerated the development of their cloud computing ecosystem. This rapid development has created a plethora of cloud resource management interfaces for provisioning, supervising, and managing cloud resources. Thus, there is an obvious need for the standardization of cloud resource management interfaces to cope with the prevalent issues of heterogeneity, integration, and portability issues.To this end, Open Cloud Com...

  9. BioVLAB-MMIA: a cloud environment for microRNA and mRNA integrated analysis (MMIA) on Amazon EC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungro; Yang, Youngik; Chae, Heejoon; Nam, Seungyoon; Choi, Donghoon; Tangchaisin, Patanachai; Herath, Chathura; Marru, Suresh; Nephew, Kenneth P; Kim, Sun

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs, by regulating the expression of hundreds of target genes, play critical roles in developmental biology and the etiology of numerous diseases, including cancer. As a vast amount of microRNA expression profile data are now publicly available, the integration of microRNA expression data sets with gene expression profiles is a key research problem in life science research. However, the ability to conduct genome-wide microRNA-mRNA (gene) integration currently requires sophisticated, high-end informatics tools, significant expertise in bioinformatics and computer science to carry out the complex integration analysis. In addition, increased computing infrastructure capabilities are essential in order to accommodate large data sets. In this study, we have extended the BioVLAB cloud workbench to develop an environment for the integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression data, named BioVLAB-MMIA. The workbench facilitates computations on the Amazon EC2 and S3 resources orchestrated by the XBaya Workflow Suite. The advantages of BioVLAB-MMIA over the web-based MMIA system include: 1) readily expanded as new computational tools become available; 2) easily modifiable by re-configuring graphic icons in the workflow; 3) on-demand cloud computing resources can be used on an "as needed" basis; 4) distributed orchestration supports complex and long running workflows asynchronously. We believe that BioVLAB-MMIA will be an easy-to-use computing environment for researchers who plan to perform genome-wide microRNA-mRNA (gene) integrated analysis tasks.

  10. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI)-integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulmala, M.; Asmi, A.; Lappalainen, H.K.; Baltensperger, U.; Brenguier, J.-L.; Facchini, M.C.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hov, Ø.; O'Dowd, C.D.; Pöschl, U.; Wiedensohler, A.; Boers, R.; Boucher, O.; Leeuw, G. de; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Feichter, J.; Krejci, R.; Laj, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Lohmann, U.; McFiggans, G.; Mentel, T.; Pilinis, C.; Riipinen, I.; Schulz, M.; Stohl, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Vignati, E.; Alves, C.; Amann, M.; Ammann, M.; Arabas, S.; Artaxo, P.; Baars, H.; Beddows, D.C.S.; Bergström, R.; Beukes, J.P.; Bilde, M.; Burkhart, J.F.; Canonaco, F.; Clegg, S.L.; Coe, H.; Crumeyrolle, S.; D'Anna, B.; Decesari, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Fischer, M.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Fountoukis, C.; George, C.; Gomes, L.; Halloran, P.; Hamburger, T.; Harrison, R.M.; Herrmann, H.; Hoffmann, T.; Hoose, C.; Hu, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Iinuma, Y.; Iversen, T.; Josipovic, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kiss, G.; Klimont, Z.; Kolmonen, P.; Komppula, M.; Kristjánsson, J.-E.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Labonnote, L.; Lanz, V.A.; Lehtinen, K.E.J.; Rizzo, L.V.; Makkonen, R.; Manninen, H.E.; McMeeking, G.; Merikanto, J.; Minikin, A.; Mirme, S.; Morgan, W.T.; Nemitz, E.; O'Donnell, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Pawlowska, H.; Petzold, A.; Pienaar, J.J.; Pio, C.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Pryor, S.; Reddington, C.L.; Roberts, G.; Rosenfeld, D.; Schwarz, J.; Seland, O.; Sellegri, K.; Shen, X.J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Siebert, H.; Sierau, B.; Simpson, D.; Sun, J.Y.; Topping, D.; Tunved, P.; Vaattovaara, P.; Vakkari, V.; Veefkind, J.P.; Visschedijk, A.; Vuollekoski, H.; Vuolo, R.; Wehner, B.; Wildt, J.; Woodward, S.; Worsnop, D.R.; Zadelhoff, G.J. van; Zardini, A.A.; Zhang, K.; Zyl, P.G. van; Kerminen, V.-M.; Carslaw, K.S.; Pandis, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of

  11. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  12. Synthetic observations of molecular clouds in a galactic centre environment - I. Studying maps of column density and integrated intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Erik; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Ragan, Sarah E.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2016-02-01

    We run numerical simulations of molecular clouds, adopting properties similar to those found in the central molecular zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way. For this, we employ the moving mesh code AREPO and perform simulations which account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of gas and dust. We perform simulations using an initial density of n0 = 103 cm-3 and a mass of 1.3 × 105 M⊙. Furthermore, we vary the virial parameter, defined as the ratio of kinetic and potential energy, α = Ekin/|Epot|, by adjusting the velocity dispersion. We set it to α = 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0, in order to analyse the impact of the kinetic energy on our results. We account for the extreme conditions in the CMZ and increase both the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and the cosmic ray flux (CRF) by a factor of 1000 compared to the values found in the solar neighbourhood. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to compute synthetic images in various diagnostic lines. These are [C II] at 158 μm, [O I] (145 μm), [O I] (63 μm), 12CO (J = 1 → 0) and 13CO (J = 1 → 0) at 2600 and 2720 μm, respectively. When α is large, the turbulence disperses much of the gas in the cloud, reducing its mean density and allowing the ISRF to penetrate more deeply into the cloud's interior. This significantly alters the chemical composition of the cloud, leading to the dissociation of a significant amount of the molecular gas. On the other hand, when α is small, the cloud remains compact, allowing more of the molecular gas to survive. We show that in each case the atomic tracers accurately reflect most of the physical properties of both the H2 and the total gas of the cloud and that they provide a useful alternative to molecular lines when studying the interstellar medium in the CMZ.

  13. Zen of cloud learning cloud computing by examples on Microsoft Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Haishi

    2014-01-01

    Zen of Cloud: Learning Cloud Computing by Examples on Microsoft Azure provides comprehensive coverage of the essential theories behind cloud computing and the Windows Azure cloud platform. Sharing the author's insights gained while working at Microsoft's headquarters, it presents nearly 70 end-to-end examples with step-by-step guidance on implementing typical cloud-based scenarios.The book is organized into four sections: cloud service fundamentals, cloud solutions, devices and cloud, and system integration and project management. Each chapter contains detailed exercises that provide readers w

  14. ATLAS cloud R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Bejar, Jose Caballero; Hover, John; Zaytsev, Alexander; Megino, Fernando Barreiro; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Llamas, Ramon Medrano; Benjamin, Doug; Gable, Ian; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Hendrix, Val; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Walker, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R and D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  15. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  16. Sensitivity study of cloud/radiation interaction using a second order turbulence radiative-convective model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Smith, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution one-dimensional version of a second order turbulence convective/radiative model, developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, was used to conduct a sensitivity study of a stratocumulus cloud deck, based on data taken at San Nicolas Island during the intensive field observation marine stratocumulus phase of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE IFO), conducted during July, 1987. Initial profiles for liquid water potential temperature, and total water mixing ratio were abstracted from the FIRE data. The dependence of the diurnal behavior in liquid water content, cloud top height, and cloud base height were examined for variations in subsidence rate, sea surface temperature, and initial inversion strength. The modelled diurnal variation in the column integrated liquid water agrees quite well with the observed data, for the case of low subsidence. The modelled diurnal behavior for the height of the cloud top and base show qualitative agreement with the FIRE data, although the overall height of the cloud layer is about 200 meters too high

  17. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  18. Integrated design of cryogenic refrigerator and liquid-nitrogen circulation loop for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2016-12-01

    A new concept of cryogenic cooling system is proposed and investigated for application to long-length HTS cables. One of major obstacles to the cable length of 1 km or longer is the difficulty in circulating liquid nitrogen (LN) along the cables, since the temperature rise and pressure drop of LN flow could be excessively large. This study attempts a breakthrough by integrating the refrigerator with the LN circulation loop in order to eliminate the cryogenic LN pumps, and generate a large LN flow with the power of compressors at ambient temperature. A variety of thermodynamic structures are investigated on standard and modified Claude cycles, where nitrogen is used as refrigerant and the LN circulation loop is included as part of the closed cycle. Four proposed cycles are fully analyzed and optimized with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS) to evaluate the FOM (figure of merit) and examine the feasibility. The modified dual-pressure cycle cooled with expander stream is recommended for long HTS cables.

  19. Molar excess volumes of liquid hydrogen and neon mixtures from path integral simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, S.R.; Johnson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Volumetric properties of liquid mixtures of neon and hydrogen have been calculated using path integral hybrid Monte Carlo simulations. Realistic potentials have been used for the three interactions involved. Molar volumes and excess volumes of these mixtures have been evaluated for various compositions at 29 and 31.14 K, and 30 atm. Significant quantum effects are observed in molar volumes. Quantum simulations agree well with experimental molar volumes. Calculated excess volumes agree qualitatively with experimental values. However, contrary to the existing understanding that large positive deviations from ideal mixtures are caused due to quantum effects in Ne - H 2 mixtures, both classical as well as quantum simulations predict the large positive deviations from ideal mixtures. Further investigations using two other Ne - H 2 potentials of Lennard - Jones (LJ) type show that excess volumes are very sensitive to the cross-interaction potential. We conclude that the cross-interaction potential employed in our simulations is accurate for volumetric properties. This potential is more repulsive compared to the two LJ potentials tested, which have been obtained by two different combining rules. This repulsion and a comparatively lower potential well depth can explain the positive deviations from ideal mixing. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. An Integrated Process of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Immobilised Cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ungurean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated process of lignocellulosic biomass conversion was set up involving pretreatment by an ionic liquid (IL and hydrolysis of cellulose using cellulase immobilised by the sol-gel method, with recovery and reuse of both the IL and biocatalyst. As all investigated ILs, regardless of the nature of the anion and the cation, led to the loss of at least 50% of the hydrolytic activity of cellulase, the preferred solution involved reprecipitation of cellulose and lignin after the pretreatment, instead of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis in the same reaction system. The cellulose recovered after pretreatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][Ac] and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (1:1 ratio, v/v was hydrolysed with almost double yield after 8 h of reaction time with the immobilised cellulase, compared to the reference microcrystalline cellulose. The dissolution capacity of the pretreatment mixture was maintained at satisfactory level during five reuse cycles. The immobilised cellulase was recycled in nine reaction cycles, preserving about 30% of the initial activity.

  1. Integration of a Zero-footprint Cloud-based Picture Archiving and Communication System with Customizable Forms for Radiology Research and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Jason; Khanna, Nishanth; Mandell, Jacob C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate web-based forms with a zero-footprint cloud-based Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) to create a tool of potential benefit to radiology research and education. Web-based forms were created with a front-end and back-end architecture utilizing common programming languages including Vue.js, Node.js and MongoDB, and integrated into an existing zero-footprint cloud-based PACS. The web-based forms application can be accessed in any modern internet browser on desktop or mobile devices and allows the creation of customizable forms consisting of a variety of questions types. Each form can be linked to an individual DICOM examination or a collection of DICOM examinations. Several uses are demonstrated through a series of case studies, including implementation of a research platform for multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) studies and other imaging research, and creation of an online Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE) and an educational case file. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Saponaro, Giulia; Virtanen, Timo; Rodriguez, Edith; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Atlaskina, Ksenia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    surface properties, the surface reflectance can be independently retrieved using the AOD for atmospheric correction. For the retrieval of cloud properties, the SACURA algorithm has been implemented in the ADV/ASV aerosol retrieval suite. Cloud properties retrieved from AATSR data are cloud fraction, cloud optical thickness, cloud top height, cloud droplet effective radius, liquid water path. Aerosol and cloud properties are applied for different studies over the Eurasia area. Using the simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties allows for study of the transition from the aerosol regime to the cloud regime, such as changes in effective radius or AOD (aerosol optical depth) to COT (cloud optical thickness). The column- integrated aerosol extinction, aerosol optical depth or AOD, which is primarily reported from satellite observations, can be used as a proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence contains information on the ability of aerosol particles to form clouds. Hence, connecting this information with direct observations of cloud properties provides information on aerosol-cloud interactions.

  3. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  4. Differences in liquid cloud droplet effective radius and number concentration estimates between MODIS collections 5.1 and 6 over global oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rausch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Differences in cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC estimates inferred from the Aqua–MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collections 5.1 (C5.1 and 6 (C6 cloud products (MYD06 are examined for warm clouds over global oceans for the year 2008. Individual pixel level retrievals for both collections are aggregated to 1°  ×  1° and compared globally and regionally for the three main spectral channel pairs used for MODIS cloud optical property retrievals. Comparisons between both collections are performed for cases in which all three effective radii retrievals are classified by the MODIS cloud product as valid. The contribution to the observed differences of several key MYD06 Collection 6 algorithm updates are also explored, with a focus on changes to the surface reflectance model, assumed solar irradiance, above-cloud emission, cloud-top pressure (CTP, and pixel registration. Global results show a neutral to positive (> 50 cm−3 change for C6-derived CDNC relative to C5.1 for the 1.6 and 2.1 µm channel retrievals, corresponding to a neutral to −2 µm difference in droplet effective radius (re. For 3.7 µm retrievals, CDNC results show a negative change in the tropics, with differences transitioning toward positive values with increasing latitude spanning −25 to +50 cm−3 related to a +2.5 to −1 µm transition in effective radius. Cloud optical thickness (τ differences were small relative to effective radius and found to not significantly impact CDNC estimates. Regionally, the magnitude and behavior of the annual CDNC cycle are compared for each effective radius retrieval. Results from this study indicate significant inter-collection differences in aggregated values of effective radius due to changes to the precomputed retrieval lookup tables (LUTs for ocean scenes, changes to retrieved cloud-top pressure, solar irradiance, or above-cloud thermal emission

  5. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-21

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.

  6. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions

  7. Cloud storage based mobile assessment facility for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder using integrated signal processing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Pinugu, Jasmine Nadja J.; Basco, Abigail Joy S.; Cabanada, Myla B.; Gonzales, Patrisha Melrose V.; Marasigan, Juan Carlos C.

    2017-06-01

    The research aims to build a tool in assessing patients for post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD. The parameters used are heart rate, skin conductivity, and facial gestures. Facial gestures are recorded using OpenFace, an open-source face recognition program that uses facial action units in to track facial movements. Heart rate and skin conductivity is measured through sensors operated using Raspberry Pi. Results are stored in a database for easy and quick access. Databases to be used are uploaded to a cloud platform so that doctors have direct access to the data. This research aims to analyze these parameters and give accurate assessment of the patient.

  8. Investigation of the effective peak supersaturation for liquid-phase clouds at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland (3580 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols influence the Earth's radiation budget directly through absorption and scattering of solar radiation in the atmosphere but also indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds. However, climate models still suffer from large uncertainties as a result of insufficient understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. At the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ; 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentrations at eight different supersaturations (SS from 0.24% to 1.18% were measured using a CCN counter during Summer 2011. Simultaneously, in-situ aerosol activation properties of the prevailing ambient clouds were investigated by measuring the total and interstitial (non-activated dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems. Combining all experimental data, a new method was developed to retrieve the so-called effective peak supersaturation SSpeak, as a measure of the SS at which ambient clouds are formed. A 17-month CCN climatology was then used to retrieve the SSpeak values also for four earlier summer campaigns (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2010 where no direct CCN data were available. The SSpeak values varied between 0.01% and 2.0% during all campaigns. An overall median SSpeak of 0.35% and dry activation diameter of 87 nm was observed. It was found that the difference in topography between northwest and southeast plays an important role for the effective peak supersaturation in clouds formed in the vicinity of the JFJ, while differences in the number concentration of potential CCN only play a minor role. Results show that air masses coming from the southeast (with the slowly rising terrain of the Aletsch Glacier generally experience lower SSpeak values than air masses coming from the northwest (steep slope. The observed overall median values were 0.41% and 0.22% for northwest and southeast wind conditions, respectively, corresponding to literature values for cumulus clouds and

  9. New Satellite Estimates of Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties: A Synergistic Approach for Application to Global Satellite Imager Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Spangenberg, D.; Fleeger, C.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.

    2016-12-01

    Determining accurate cloud properties horizontally and vertically over a full range of time and space scales is currently next to impossible using data from either active or passive remote sensors or from modeling systems. Passive satellite imagers provide horizontal and temporal resolution of clouds, but little direct information on vertical structure. Active sensors provide vertical resolution but limited spatial and temporal coverage. Cloud models embedded in NWP can produce realistic clouds but often not at the right time or location. Thus, empirical techniques that integrate information from multiple observing and modeling systems are needed to more accurately characterize clouds and their impacts. Such a strategy is employed here in a new cloud water content profiling technique developed for application to satellite imager cloud retrievals based on VIS, IR and NIR radiances. Parameterizations are developed to relate imager retrievals of cloud top phase, optical depth, effective radius and temperature to ice and liquid water content profiles. The vertical structure information contained in the parameterizations is characterized climatologically from cloud model analyses, aircraft observations, ground-based remote sensing data, and from CloudSat and CALIPSO. Thus, realistic cloud-type dependent vertical structure information (including guidance on cloud phase partitioning) circumvents poor assumptions regarding vertical homogeneity that plague current passive satellite retrievals. This paper addresses mixed phase cloud conditions for clouds with glaciated tops including those associated with convection and mid-latitude storm systems. Novel outcomes of our approach include (1) simultaneous retrievals of ice and liquid water content and path, which are validated with active sensor, microwave and in-situ data, and yield improved global cloud climatologies, and (2) new estimates of super-cooled LWC, which are demonstrated in aviation safety applications and

  10. Path-integral theory of the scattering of 4He atoms at the surface of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.R.; Edwards, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The path-integral theory of the scattering of a 4 He atom near the free surface of liquid 4 He, which was originally formulated by Echenique and Pendry, has been recalculated with use of a physically realistic static potential and atom-ripplon interaction outside the liquid. The static potential and atom-ripplon interaction are based on the variational calculation of Edwards and Fatouros. An important assumption in the path-integral theory is the ''impulse approximation'': that the motion of the scattered atom is very fast compared with the motion of the surface due to ripplons. This is found to be true only for ripplons with wave vectors smaller than q/sub m/∼0.2 A/sup -1/. If ripplons above q/sub m/ made an important contribution to the scattering of the atom there would be a substantial dependence of the elastic reflection coefficient on the angle of incidence of the atom. Since this is not observed experimentally, it is argued that ripplons above q/sub m/ give a negligible effect and should be excluded from the calculation. With this modification the theory gives a good fit to the experimental reflection coefficient as a function of the momentum and angle of incidence of the atom. The new version of the theory indicates that there is a substantial probability that an atom may reach the surface of the liquid without exciting any ripplons. The theory is not valid when the atom enters the liquid but analysis of the experiments shows that, once inside the liquid, the atom has a negligible chance of being scattered out again

  11. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  12. General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simpson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI. EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

  13. Cybersecurity and privacy issues for socially integrated mobile healthcare applications operating in a multi-cloud environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Shahzad, Basit; Saleem, Kashif; Jameel, Wasif; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2017-05-01

    Social media has enabled information-sharing across massively large networks of people without spending much financial resources and time that are otherwise required in the print and electronic media. Mobile-based social media applications have overwhelmingly changed the information-sharing perspective. However, with the advent of such applications at an unprecedented scale, the privacy of the information is compromised to a larger extent if breach mitigation is not adequate. Since healthcare applications are also being developed for mobile devices so that they also benefit from the power of social media, cybersecurity privacy concerns for such sensitive applications have become critical. This article discusses the architecture of a typical mobile healthcare application, in which customized privacy levels are defined for the individuals participating in the system. It then elaborates on how the communication across a social network in a multi-cloud environment can be made more secure and private, especially for healthcare applications.

  14. Introducing Cloud Computing Topics in Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Liu, Yang; Gallagher, Marcus; Pailthorpe, Bernard; Sadiq, Shazia; Shen, Heng Tao; Li, Xue

    2012-01-01

    The demand for graduates with exposure in Cloud Computing is on the rise. For many educational institutions, the challenge is to decide on how to incorporate appropriate cloud-based technologies into their curricula. In this paper, we describe our design and experiences of integrating Cloud Computing components into seven third/fourth-year…

  15. StackInsights: Cognitive Learning for Hybrid Cloud Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Mu; Bathen, Luis; Génot, Simon-Pierre; Lee, Sunhwan; Routray, Ramani

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid cloud is an integrated cloud computing environment utilizing a mix of public cloud, private cloud, and on-premise traditional IT infrastructures. Workload awareness, defined as a detailed full range understanding of each individual workload, is essential in implementing the hybrid cloud. While it is critical to perform an accurate analysis to determine which workloads are appropriate for on-premise deployment versus which workloads can be migrated to a cloud off-premise, the assessment...

  16. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra SR; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2016-01-01

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose. PMID:27822033

  17. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra Sr; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose.

  18. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  19. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  20. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; The ATLAS collaboration; Berghaus, Frank; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  1. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  2. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  3. Path integral molecular dynamics within the grand canonical-like adaptive resolution technique: Simulation of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Animesh, E-mail: animesh@zedat.fu-berlin.de; Delle Site, Luigi, E-mail: dellesite@fu-berlin.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    Quantum effects due to the spatial delocalization of light atoms are treated in molecular simulation via the path integral technique. Among several methods, Path Integral (PI) Molecular Dynamics (MD) is nowadays a powerful tool to investigate properties induced by spatial delocalization of atoms; however, computationally this technique is very demanding. The above mentioned limitation implies the restriction of PIMD applications to relatively small systems and short time scales. One of the possible solutions to overcome size and time limitation is to introduce PIMD algorithms into the Adaptive Resolution Simulation Scheme (AdResS). AdResS requires a relatively small region treated at path integral level and embeds it into a large molecular reservoir consisting of generic spherical coarse grained molecules. It was previously shown that the realization of the idea above, at a simple level, produced reasonable results for toy systems or simple/test systems like liquid parahydrogen. Encouraged by previous results, in this paper, we show the simulation of liquid water at room conditions where AdResS, in its latest and more accurate Grand-Canonical-like version (GC-AdResS), is merged with two of the most relevant PIMD techniques available in the literature. The comparison of our results with those reported in the literature and/or with those obtained from full PIMD simulations shows a highly satisfactory agreement.

  4. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs.Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implementation of data mining techniques through Cloud computing will allow the users to retrieve meaningful information from virtually integrated data warehouse that reduces the costs of infrastructure and storage.

  5. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaggar YSR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yosra SR Elnaggar,1,2 Sara M Talaat,1 Mohammed Bahey-El-Din,3 Ossama Y Abdallah1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Terconazole (Tr is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose. Keywords: terconazole, liquid crystalline, organogel, skin targeting, skin mycosis

  6. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Noel, Brice; Turner, David D.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2015-04-01

    Clouds have a profound influence on both the Arctic and global climate, while they still represent one of the key uncertainties in climate models, limiting the fidelity of future climate projections. The potentially important role of thin liquid-containing clouds over Greenland in enhancing ice sheet melt has recently gained interest, yet current research is spatially and temporally limited, focusing on particular events, and their large scale impact on the surface mass balance remains unknown. We used a combination of satellite remote sensing (CloudSat - CALIPSO), ground-based observations and climate model (RACMO) data to show that liquid-containing clouds warm the Greenland ice sheet 94% of the time. High surface reflectivity (albedo) for shortwave radiation reduces the cloud shortwave cooling effect on the absorbed fluxes, while not influencing the absorption of longwave radiation. Cloud warming over the ice sheet therefore dominates year-round. Only when albedo values drop below ~0.6 in the coastal areas during summer, the cooling effect starts to overcome the warming effect. The year-round excess of energy due to the presence of liquid-containing clouds has an extensive influence on the mass balance of the ice sheet. Simulations using the SNOWPACK snow model showed not only a strong influence of these liquid-containing clouds on melt increase, but also on the increased sublimation mass loss. Simulations with the Community Earth System Climate Model for the end of the 21st century (2080-2099) show that Greenland clouds contain more liquid water path and less ice water path. This implies that cloud radiative forcing will be further enhanced in the future. Our results therefore urge the need for improving cloud microphysics in climate models, to improve future projections of ice sheet mass balance and global sea level rise.

  7. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  8. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: Integrated Data Product With Reprocessed Radiance, Cloud, and Meteorology Inputs, and New Surface Albedo Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  9. An Integrated Ignition and Combustion System for Liquid Propellant Micro Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-26

    using a microfin electrode array. They demonstrated successful gasification and ignition of the liquid propellant using this concept. The concept has...Transition to Detonation of Stoichiometric Ethylene/Oxygen in Microscale Tubes (with M-H. Wu, M.P. Burke, and S.F. Son) Proceedings of the

  10. Enhanced Esterification Conversion in a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid by Integrated Water Removal with Pervaporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Mateus, N.M.M.; Afonso, C. A. M.; Crespo, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2005), s. 141-145 ISSN 1383-5866 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pervaporation * ionic liquids * esterification reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2005

  11. Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction integrated with QuEChERS for determining endocrine-disrupting compounds in fish by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhoufei; Lu, Jing; Li, Haipu; Tu, Yi; Wan, Yuehao; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2018-09-15

    A new, sensitive, and rapid method based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) approach and air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME) technology was developed for the determination of 20 endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in fish by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method first integrates AALLME into QuEChERS to achieve clean-up and enrichment of the EDCs in one step. A self-made glass tube was enfolded with plasticine to withstand the high centrifugal force. The established method was developed by optimization of the parameters. High linearities (R 2  > 0.9924) and recoveries (78.2-118.6%) at three spiked levels (5, 10, and 20 ng g -1 ), and low relative standard deviation values (1.1-14.5%) and limits of detection (0.03-0.80 ng g -1 ) were obtained. The method comparison shows that the proposed method is superior as it involves less organic solvent usage, simple operation and high efficiency. This method was successfully applied to different fishes for analyzing EDCs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  13. Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tock, Laurence; Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or entrained flow gasification, hot or cold gas cleaning, fuel synthesis and upgrading are reviewed and developed. The process is integrated and the optimal utility system is computed. The competitiveness of the different process options is compared systematically with regard to energetic, economic and environmental considerations. At several examples, it is highlighted that process integration is a key element that allows for considerably increasing the performance by optimal utility integration and energy conversion. The performance computations of some exemplary technology scenarios of integrated plants yield overall energy efficiencies of 59.8% (crude FT-fuel), 52.5% (MeOH) and 53.5% (DME), and production costs of 89, 128 and 113 Euro MWh -1 on fuel basis. The applied process design approach allows to evaluate the economic competitiveness compared to fossil fuels, to study the influence of the biomass and electricity price and to project for different plant capacities. Process integration reveals in particular potential energy savings and waste heat valorization. Based on this work, the most promising options for the polygeneration of fuel, power and heat will be determined in a future thermo-economic optimization.

  14. Military clouds: utilization of cloud computing systems at the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süleyman, Sarıkürk; Volkan, Karaca; İbrahim, Kocaman; Ahmet, Şirzai

    2012-05-01

    Cloud computing is known as a novel information technology (IT) concept, which involves facilitated and rapid access to networks, servers, data saving media, applications and services via Internet with minimum hardware requirements. Use of information systems and technologies at the battlefield is not new. Information superiority is a force multiplier and is crucial to mission success. Recent advances in information systems and technologies provide new means to decision makers and users in order to gain information superiority. These developments in information technologies lead to a new term, which is known as network centric capability. Similar to network centric capable systems, cloud computing systems are operational today. In the near future extensive use of military clouds at the battlefield is predicted. Integrating cloud computing logic to network centric applications will increase the flexibility, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility of network-centric capabilities. In this paper, cloud computing and network centric capability concepts are defined. Some commercial cloud computing products and applications are mentioned. Network centric capable applications are covered. Cloud computing supported battlefield applications are analyzed. The effects of cloud computing systems on network centric capability and on the information domain in future warfare are discussed. Battlefield opportunities and novelties which might be introduced to network centric capability by cloud computing systems are researched. The role of military clouds in future warfare is proposed in this paper. It was concluded that military clouds will be indispensible components of the future battlefield. Military clouds have the potential of improving network centric capabilities, increasing situational awareness at the battlefield and facilitating the settlement of information superiority.

  15. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  16. Integrated energy efficient data centre management for green cloud computing : the FP7 GENiC project experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrens, J.I.; Mehta, D.; Zavrel, V.; Grimes, D.; Scherer, Th.; Birke, R.; Chen, L.; Rea, S.; Lopez, L.; Pages, E.; Pesch, D.

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumed by computation and cooling represents the greatest percentage of the average energy consumed in a data centre. As these two aspects are not always coordinated, energy consumption is not optimised. Data centres lack an integrated system that jointly optimises and controls all the

  17. Effects of Aerosol on Cloud Liquid Water Path: Statistical Method a Potential Source for Divergence in Past Observation Based Correlative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Sy Savane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies show a divergence in correlation between aerosol and cloud proxies, which has been thought of in the past as the results of varying physical mechanisms. Though modeling studies have supported this idea, from an observational standpoint it is difficult to attribute with confidence the correlations to specific physical mechanisms. We explore a methodology to assess the correlation between cloud water path and aerosol optical depth using Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua retrieved aerosol and cloud properties for absorbing and non-absorbing aerosol types over land and over the Atlantic Ocean for various meteorological conditions. The data covers a three-month period, June through August, during which different aerosol types are predominant in specific regions. Our approach eliminates outliers; sorts the data into aerosol bins; and the mean Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD value for each bin and the corresponding mean Cloud Water Path (CWP value are determined. The mean CWP is plotted against the mean AOD. The response curve for all aerosol types shows a peak CWP value corresponding to an aerosol loading value AODpeak. The peak is used to divide the total range of aerosol loading into two sub ranges. For AOD value below AODpeak, mean CWP and mean AOD are positively correlated. The correlation between mean CWP and mean AOD is negative for aerosol loading above AODpeak. Irrespective of aerosol type, atmospheric water vapor content and lower tropospheric static stability, the peak observed for each aerosol type seems to describe a universal feature that calls for further investigation. It has been observed for a variety of geographical locations and different seasons.

  18. Zero boil-off methods for large-scale liquid hydrogen tanks using integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; E Fesmire, J.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  19. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  20. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  1. Performance of a liquid argon preshower detector integrated with an Accordion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Bulgakov, N.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Vuillemin, V.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.; Le Meur, G.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype liquid argon preshower detector with a strip granularity of 2.5 mm has been tested at the CERN SPS in front of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter. For charged tracks a signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 and a space resolution of 340 μm were measured; the rejection power against overlapping photons produced in the decay of 50 GeV π 0 's is larger than 3; the precision on the electromagnetic shower direction, determined together with the calorimeter, is better than 7 mrad above 40 GeV; the calorimeter performance behind the preshower (≅4X 0 ) is fully preserved. These results make such a detector attractive for future operation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  2. Precipitation formation from orographic cloud seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey R; Friedrich, Katja; Tessendorf, Sarah A; Rauber, Robert M; Geerts, Bart; Rasmussen, Roy M; Xue, Lulin; Kunkel, Melvin L; Blestrud, Derek R

    2018-02-06

    Throughout the western United States and other semiarid mountainous regions across the globe, water supplies are fed primarily through the melting of snowpack. Growing populations place higher demands on water, while warmer winters and earlier springs reduce its supply. Water managers are tantalized by the prospect of cloud seeding as a way to increase winter snowfall, thereby shifting the balance between water supply and demand. Little direct scientific evidence exists that confirms even the basic physical hypothesis upon which cloud seeding relies. The intent of glaciogenic seeding of orographic clouds is to introduce aerosol into a cloud to alter the natural development of cloud particles and enhance wintertime precipitation in a targeted region. The hypothesized chain of events begins with the introduction of silver iodide aerosol into cloud regions containing supercooled liquid water, leading to the nucleation of ice crystals, followed by ice particle growth to sizes sufficiently large such that snow falls to the ground. Despite numerous experiments spanning several decades, no direct observations of this process exist. Here, measurements from radars and aircraft-mounted cloud physics probes are presented that together show the initiation, growth, and fallout to the mountain surface of ice crystals resulting from glaciogenic seeding. These data, by themselves, do not address the question of cloud seeding efficacy, but rather form a critical set of observations necessary for such investigations. These observations are unambiguous and provide details of the physical chain of events following the introduction of glaciogenic cloud seeding aerosol into supercooled liquid orographic clouds.

  3. A novel sensing platform based on ionic liquid integrated carboxylic-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets for honokiol determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shenghui; Chen, Xuemin; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Chen, Jianpeng; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Chunya

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Piperidinium based ionic liquid bearing pyrrole was synthesized. • Ionic liquid integrated graphene oxide nanocompisite was fabricated. • Polymerized ionic liquid-graphene oxide film electrode was prepared. • The film electrode exhibits high sensitivity towards honokiol and magnolol. • Stimulate determination of honokiol and magnolol was fulfilled. - Abstract: A novel ionic liquid, 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-[1-(3-pyrrolyl-propyl)]-piperidinium bromide, was synthesized and characterized. Carboxylic-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets were modified with this ionic liquid to fabricate a nanocomposite which was denoted as GrO-COO-IL. Characterizations of FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the successful conjunction of these two components. GrO-COO-IL nanocomposites were homogeneously dispersed with utralpure water, and were then coated onto glassy carbon electrode surface. Followed by cyclic voltammetric scanning, a graphene oxide-polymerized ionic liquid film modified electrode (GrO-COO-Poly-IL/GCE) was prepared, and was studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. It was found that both honokiol and magnolol exhibit sensitive voltammetric response at the GrO-COO-Poly-IL/GCE. Simultaneous assay of honokiol and magnolol was realized with differential pulse voltametry. In the presence of magnolol, the oxidation peak current was linearly related to honokiol concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10 −8 ∼ 1.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 with a detection limit of 1.53 × 10 −9 mol L −1 (S/N = 3). Meanwhile, in the presence of honokiol, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and magnolol concentration was found from 7.0 × 10 −8 to 1.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 . The detection limit is calculated to be 8.27 × 10 −9 mol L −1 (S/N = 3). In addition, GrO-COO-Poly-IL/GCE was successfully used for determination of honokiol in

  4. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; Berghaus, Frank; Brasolin, Franco; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for ma...

  5. Enabling Earth Science Through Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sean; Riofrio, Andres; Shams, Khawaja; Freeborn, Dana; Springer, Paul; Chafin, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing holds tremendous potential for missions across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Several flight missions are already benefiting from an investment in cloud computing for mission critical pipelines and services through faster processing time, higher availability, and drastically lower costs available on cloud systems. However, these processes do not currently extend to general scientific algorithms relevant to earth science missions. The members of the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment task at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have worked closely with the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to integrate cloud computing into their science data processing pipeline. This paper details the efforts involved in deploying a science data system for the CARVE mission, evaluating and integrating cloud computing solutions with the system and porting their science algorithms for execution in a cloud environment.

  6. Type-Dependent Responses of Ice Cloud Properties to Aerosols From Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Gu, Yu; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in external forcings on our climate system. Compared with liquid clouds, the observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice clouds is much more limited and shows conflicting results, partly because the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types were seldom considered. Using 9-year satellite retrievals, we find that, for convection-generated (anvil) ice clouds, cloud optical thickness, cloud thickness, and cloud fraction increase with small-to-moderate aerosol loadings (types provide valuable constraints on the modeling assessment of aerosol-ice cloud radiative forcing.

  7. Integral enthalpy of mixing of the liquid ternary Au-Cu-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, S.; Li, Z.; Mikula, A.

    2008-01-01

    The integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary Au-Cu-Sn has been determined with a Calvet type calorimeter at 6 different cross sections at 1273 K. The substitutional solution model of Redlich-Kister-Muggianu was used for a least square fit of the experimental data in order to get an analytical expression for the integral enthalpy of mixing. The ternary extrapolation models of Kohler, Muggianu and Toop were used to calculate the integral enthalpy of mixing and to compare measured and extrapolated values. Additional calculations of the integral enthalpy of mixing using the Chou model have been performed. With the calculated data, the iso-enthalpy lines have been determined using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model. A comparison of the data has been made

  8. Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, C. M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Turner, David D.; Lo, Chaomei; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2010-06-03

    Winter cloud phase and temperature profiles derived from ground-based lidar depolarization and radiosonde measurements are analyzed for two midlatitude locations: the United States Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) in France. Because lidars are attenuated in optically thick clouds, the dataset only includes optically thin clouds (optical thickness < 3). At SGP, 57% of the clouds observed with the lidar in the temperature range 233-273 K are either completely liquid or completely glaciated, while at SIRTA only 42% of the observed clouds are single phase, based on a depolarization ratio threshold of 11% for differentiating liquid from ice. Most optically thin mixed phase clouds show an ice layer at cloud top, and clouds with liquid at cloud top are less frequent. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud base and top. At both sites liquid is more prevalent at colder temperatures than has been found previously in aircraft flights through frontal clouds of greater optical thicknesses. Liquid in clouds persists to colder temperatures at SGP than SIRTA. This information on the average temperatures of mixed phase clouds at both locations complements earlier passive satellite remote sensing measurements that sample cloud phase near cloud top and for a wider range of cloud optical thicknesses.

  9. School on Cloud: Towards a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…

  10. Integration of electrochemistry with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Zheng, Qiuling; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Loo, Joseph A; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) mass spectrometry (MS) combined with electrochemistry (EC) for the first time and its application for the structural analysis of proteins/peptides that contain disulfide bonds. In our approach, a protein/peptide mixture sample undergoes a fast UPLC separation and subsequent electrochemical reduction in an electrochemical flow cell followed by online MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. The electrochemical cell is coupled to the mass spectrometer using our recently developed desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface. Using this UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method, peptides that contain disulfide bonds can be differentiated from those without disulfide bonds, as the former are electroactive and reducible. MS/MS analysis of the disulfide-reduced peptide ions provides increased information on the sequence and disulfide-linkage pattern. In a reactive DESI- MS detection experiment in which a supercharging reagent was used to dope the DESI spray solvent, increased charging was obtained for the UPLC-separated proteins. Strikingly, upon online electrolytic reduction, supercharged proteins (e.g., α-lactalbumin) showed even higher charging, which will be useful in top- down protein structure MS analysis as increased charges are known to promote protein ion dissociation. Also, the separation speed and sensitivity are enhanced by approximately 1(~)2 orders of magnitude by using UPLC for the liquid chromatography (LC)/EC/MS platform, in comparison to the previously used high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method combines the power of fast UPLC separation, fast electrochemical conversion, and online MS structural analysis for a potentially valuable tool for proteomics research and bioanalysis.

  11. Advanced 3-D analysis, client-server systems, and cloud computing-Integration of cardiovascular imaging data into clinical workflows of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Zimmermann, Mathis; Falkner, Juergen

    2013-06-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis is highly prevalent in the aging populations of industrialized countries and is associated with poor prognosis. Surgical valve replacement has been the only established treatment with documented improvement of long-term outcome. However, many of the older patients with aortic stenosis (AS) are high-risk or ineligible for surgery. For these patients, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a treatment alternative. The TAVR procedure is characterized by a lack of visualization of the operative field. Therefore, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for patient selection, pre-procedural planning, and intra-operative decision-making. Incremental to conventional angiography and 2-D echocardiography, multidetector computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role before TAVR. The analysis of 3-D CT data requires extensive post-processing during direct interaction with the dataset, using advance analysis software. Organization and storage of the data according to complex clinical workflows and sharing of image information have become a critical part of these novel treatment approaches. Optimally, the data are integrated into a comprehensive image data file accessible to multiple groups of practitioners across the hospital. This creates new challenges for data management requiring a complex IT infrastructure, spanning across multiple locations, but is increasingly achieved with client-server solutions and private cloud technology. This article describes the challenges and opportunities created by the increased amount of patient-specific imaging data in the context of TAVR.

  12. Resource Management in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei IONESCU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile cloud computing is a major research topic in Information Technology & Communications. It integrates cloud computing, mobile computing and wireless networks. While mainly built on cloud computing, it has to operate using more heterogeneous resources with implications on how these resources are managed and used. Managing the resources of a mobile cloud is not a trivial task, involving vastly different architectures. The process is outside the scope of human users. Using the resources by the applications at both platform and software tiers come with its own challenges. This paper presents different approaches in use for managing cloud resources at infrastructure and platform levels.

  13. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated Shocks in the Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant N103B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Vogt, Frédéric P. A. [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, 763 0355 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Terry, Jason P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia (United States); Williams, Brian J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank, E-mail: pghavamian@towson.edu [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present results of integral field spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated shocks in the LMC supernova remnant (SNR) N103B, carried out using the Wide Field Integral Spectrograph (WiFeS ) on the 2.3 m telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Existing X-ray studies of N103B have indicated an SN Ia origin. Radiative shock emission from clumpy material surrounding the SNR may result from interaction of the forward shock with relic stellar wind material, possibly implicating a thermonuclear explosion in a single-degenerate binary system. The recently discovered Balmer-dominated shocks mark the impact of the forward shock with low density, partially neutral CSM gas, and form a partial shell encircling clumps of material exhibiting radiative shocks. The WiFeS spectra of N103B reveal broad H α emission having a width as high as 2350 km s{sup −1} along the northern rim, and both H α and H β broad profiles having widths around 1300 km s{sup −1} along the southern rim. Fits to the H α line profiles indicate that in addition to the usual broad and narrow emission components, a third component of intermediate width exists in these Balmer-dominated shocks, ranging from around 125 km s{sup −1} up to 225 km s{sup −1} in width. This is consistent with predictions of recent Balmer-dominated shock models, which predict that an intermediate-width component will be generated in a fast neutral precursor. We derive a Sedov age of approximately 685 ± 20 years for N103B from the Balmer-dominated spectra, consistent with the young age of 380–860 years estimated from light echo studies.

  14. Integrating Cloud-Based Strategies and Tools in Face-to-Face Training Sessions to Increase the Impact of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the premise that face-to-face training can be augmented with cloud-based technology tools, to potentially extend viable training supports as higher education staff and faculty implement new content/skills in their jobs and classrooms. There are significant benefits to harnessing cloud-based tools that can facilitate both…

  15. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; Benjamin, D; DiGirolamo, A; Gable, I; Hendrix, V; Hover, J; Kucharczuk, K; Medrano LLamas, R; Love, P; Ohman, H; Paterson, M; Sobie, R; Taylor, R; Walker, R; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained...

  16. The EUCLID/V1 Integrated Code for Safety Assessment of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactors. Part 1: Basic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosunova, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the basic models included in the EUCLID/V1 integrated code intended for safety analysis of liquid metal (sodium, lead, and lead-bismuth) cooled fast reactors using fuel rods with a gas gap and pellet dioxide, mixed oxide or nitride uranium-plutonium fuel under normal operation, under anticipated operational occurrences and accident conditions by carrying out interconnected thermal-hydraulic, neutronics, and thermal-mechanical calculations. Information about the Russian and foreign analogs of the EUCLID/V1 integrated code is given. Modeled objects, equation systems in differential form solved in each module of the EUCLID/V1 integrated code (the thermal-hydraulic, neutronics, fuel rod analysis module, and the burnup and decay heat calculation modules), the main calculated quantities, and also the limitations on application of the code are presented. The article also gives data on the scope of functions performed by the integrated code's thermal-hydraulic module, using which it is possible to describe both one- and twophase processes occurring in the coolant. It is shown that, owing to the availability of the fuel rod analysis module in the integrated code, it becomes possible to estimate the performance of fuel rods in different regimes of the reactor operation. It is also shown that the models implemented in the code for calculating neutron-physical processes make it possible to take into account the neutron field distribution over the fuel assembly cross section as well as other features important for the safety assessment of fast reactors.

  17. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  18. Mobile Application Runner For Cloud And Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj Turlapati

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The term Cloud has been established quite well in the industry People are now leveraging the uses of cloud infrastructure and are quite satisfied with the uses of cloud. On the other hand mobile technology and mobile applications have taken by storm in the recent world. This paper discusses various uses of the dimensionality of the cloud and integrating into mobile. Mobile full cloud stack sync is the next big thing in the industry.

  19. Mobile Application Runner For Cloud And Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharadwaj Turlapati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Cloud has been established quite well in the industry People are now leveraging the uses of cloud infrastructure and are quite satisfied with the uses of cloud. On the other hand mobile technology and mobile applications have taken by storm in the recent world. This paper discusses various uses of the dimensionality of the cloud and integrating into mobile. Mobile full cloud stack sync is the next big thing in the industry.

  20. Using cloud-computing applications to support collaborative scientific inquiry: Examining pre-service teachers’ perceived barriers towards integration / Utilisation d'applications infonuagiques pour appuyer la recherche scientifique collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Donna; Brant G Miller

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays a crucial role in facilitating collaboration within the scientific community. Cloud-computing applications can be used to model such collaboration and support inquiry within the secondary science classroom. Little is known about pre-service teachers’ beliefs related to the envisioned use of this technology in their teaching. These beliefs may influence future integration. This study finds several first-order barriers, such as perceptions that these tools would take too much t...

  1. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  2. The role of structural integrity in liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive studies have demonstrated the favourable safety characteristics of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, which are attributable to both their inherent features and the engineered safeguards which are included. This requires demonstration that there is no risk of sudden catastrophic failure of the core support system allowing the core to drop off the control rods to give a prompt critical reactivity excursion. An important part of our work in support of the safety case for the U.K. Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor is to demonstrate that such a failure is virtually incredible. This covers design features, study of the fracture behaviour of stainless steel structures, and inspection and monitoring during fabrication and service. The paper gives a broad description of the relevant design features and supporting work programme

  3. An emerging integration between ionic liquids and nanotechnology: general uses and future prospects in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Tânia Santos; Júlio, Ana; Mota, Joana Portugal; Rijo, Patrícia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-06-01

    There is a growing need to develop drug-delivery systems that overcome drawbacks such as poor drug solubility/loading/release, systemic side effects and limited stability. Ionic liquids (ILs) offer many advantages and their tailoring represents a valuable tuning tool. Nano-based systems are also prized materials that prevent drug degradation, enhance their transport/distribution and extend their release. Consequently, structures containing ILs and nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to attain synergistic effects. This overview on the properties of ILs, NPs and of their combined structures, reveals the recent advances in these areas through a review of pertinent literature. The IL-NP structures present enhanced properties and the subsequent performance upgrade proves to be useful in drug delivery, although much is yet to be done.

  4. High quality junctions by interpenetration of vapor liquid solid grown nanostructures for microchip integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebril, Seid; Kuhlmann, Hanna; Adelung, Rainer [Funktionale Nanomaterialien, CAU Kiel (Germany); Mueller, Sven [Nanowires and Thin Films, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Universitaet Jena (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Synthese und Realstruktur, CAU Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The usability of nanostructures in electrical devices like gas sensors depends critically on the ability to form high quality contacts and junctions. For the fabrication of various nanostructures, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a wide spread and very efficient technique. However, forming contacts with the VLS grown structures to utilize them in a device is still tedious, because either the substrate has to be epitaxial to the VLS material or a manual alignment is necessary. Here we demonstrate the contact formation by simply using the ability of individual crystals to interpenetrate each other during the straight forward VLS growth. This allows growing VLS structures directly on two neighboring gold circuit paths of a microchip; bridges over predefined gaps will be formed. Moreover, TEM investigations confirm the high quality of the crystalline junctions that allow demonstrations as UV and hydrogen-sensor. The VLS devices are compared with conventional produced.

  5. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute–solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute–solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems. (paper)

  6. Integration of Electrochemistry with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Zheng, Qiuling; Liu, Yong; Helmy, Roy; Loo, Joseph A.; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) combined with electrochemistry (EC) for the first time and its application for the structural analysis of disulfide bond-containing proteins/peptides. In our approach, a protein/peptide mixture sample undergoes fast UPLC separation and subsequent electrochemical reduction in an electrochemical flow cell followed by online MS and MS/MS analyses. The electrochemical cell is coupled to MS using our recently developed desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) interface. Using this UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method, disulfide bond-containing peptides can be differentiated from those without disulfide bonds as the former are electroactive and reducible. Tandem MS analysis of the disulfide-reduced peptide ions provides increased sequence and disulfide linkage pattern information. In a reactive DESI-MS detection experiment in which a supercharging reagent was used to dope the DESI spray solvent, increased charging was obtained for the UPLC-separated proteins. Strikingly, upon online electrolytic reduction, supercharged proteins (e.g., α-lactalbumin) showed even higher charging, which would be useful in top-down protein structure analysis as increased charges are known to promote protein ion dissociation. Also, the separation speed and sensitivity are enhanced by approximately 1~2 orders of magnitude by using UPLC for the LC/EC/MS platform, in comparison to the previously used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This UPLC/EC/DESI-MS method combines the power of fast UPLC separation, fast electrochemical conversion and online MS structural analysis for a potentially valuable tool for proteomics research and bioanalysis. PMID:26307715

  7. Preliminary evaluation of liquid integrity monitoring methods for gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tanks, which contain a supernatant over a layer of radioactive sludge, are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best way to remove the sludge and remediate the tanks. As part of this study, a preliminary assessment of liquid integrity (or ''tightness'') monitoring methods for the Gunite tanks has been conducted. Both an external and an internal liquid integrity monitoring method were evaluated, and a preliminary assessment of the liquid integrity of eight Gunite tanks was made with the internal method. The work presented in this report shows that six of the eight GAAT considered here are liquid tight and that, in the case of the other two, data quality was too poor to allow a conclusive decision. The analysis indicates that when the release detection approach described in this report is used during the upcoming treatability study, it will function as a sensitive and robust integrity monitoring system. Integrity assessments based on both the internal and external methods can be used as a means of documenting the integrity of the tanks before the initiation of in-tank operations. Assessments based on the external method can be used during these operations as a means of providing a nearly immediate indication of a release, should one occur. The external method of release detection measures the electrical conductivity of the water found in the dry wells associated with each of the tanks. This method is based on the fact that the conductivity of the liquid in the GAAT is very high, while the conductivity of the groundwater in the dry wells and the underdrain system for the GAAT is very low

  8. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (psemen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (psemen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (psemen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated photooxidative extractive deep desulfurization using metal doped TiO2 and eutectic based ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul

    2016-11-01

    A series of metal doped TiO2 namely Fe/TiO2, Cu/TiO2 and Cu-Fe/TiO2 were synthesized and characterized, to be used as a photocatalyst in the integrated photooxidative extractive deep desulfurization for model oil (dodecane) and diesel fuel. The order of the photocatalytic activity was Cu-Fe/TiO2 followed by Cu/TiO2 and then Fe/TiO2. Cu-Fe/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst for sulfur conversion at ambient atmospheric pressure. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the source of oxidant and eutectic-based ionic liquid as the extractant. Sulfur conversion in model oil reached 100%. Removal of sulfur from model oil was done by two times extraction with a removal of 97.06% in the first run and 2.94% in the second run.

  10. Development of an integrated approach for α-pinene recovery and sugar production from loblolly pine using ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, Gabriella; Kirby, James; Murthy Konda, N. V. S. N.

    2017-01-01

    perspective for the production of advanced cellulosic biofuels. To date, there have been very few examples where a single conversion process has enabled recovery of both terpenes and fermentable sugars in an integrated fashion. We have used the ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im......][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C in conjunction with analytical protocols using GC-MS, to extract α-pinene and simultaneously pretreat the pine to generate high yields of fermentable sugars after saccharification. Compared to solvent extraction, the IL process enabled higher recovery rates for α-pinene, from three...... tissues type of loblolly pine, i.e. pine chips from forest residues (FC), stems from young pine (YW) and lighter wood (LW), while also generating high yields of fermentable sugars following saccharification. We propose that this combined terpene extraction/lignocellulose pretreatment approach may provide...

  11. Cloud manufacturing: from concept to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Tao, Fei; Zhao, Chun; Chai, Xudong; Zhao, Xinpei

    2015-02-01

    The concept of cloud manufacturing is emerging as a new promising manufacturing paradigm, as well as a business model, which is reshaping the service-oriented, highly collaborative, knowledge-intensive and eco-efficient manufacturing industry. However, the basic concepts about cloud manufacturing are still in discussion. Both academia and industry will need to have a commonly accepted definition of cloud manufacturing, as well as further guidance and recommendations on how to develop and implement cloud manufacturing. In this paper, we review some of the research work and clarify some fundamental terminologies in this field. Further, we developed a cloud manufacturing systems which may serve as an application example. From a systematic and practical perspective, the key requirements of cloud manufacturing platforms are investigated, and then we propose a cloud manufacturing platform prototype, MfgCloud. Finally, a public cloud manufacturing system for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME) is presented. This paper presents a new perspective for cloud manufacturing, as well as a cloud-to-ground solution. The integrated solution proposed in this paper, including the terminology, MfgCloud, and applications, can push forward this new paradigm from concept to practice.

  12. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  13. Delivering Unidata Technology via the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward; Oxelson Ganter, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two years, Docker has emerged as the clear leader in open-source containerization. Containerization technology provides a means by which software can be pre-configured and packaged into a single unit, i.e. a container. This container can then be easily deployed either on local or remote systems. Containerization is particularly advantageous when moving software into the cloud, as it simplifies the process. Unidata is adopting containerization as part of our commitment to migrate our technologies to the cloud. We are using a two-pronged approach in this endeavor. In addition to migrating our data-portal services to a cloud environment, we are also exploring new and novel ways to use cloud-specific technology to serve our community. This effort has resulted in several new cloud/Docker-specific projects at Unidata: "CloudStream," "CloudIDV," and "CloudControl." CloudStream is a docker-based technology stack for bringing legacy desktop software to new computing environments, without the need to invest significant engineering/development resources. CloudStream helps make it easier to run existing software in a cloud environment via a technology called "Application Streaming." CloudIDV is a CloudStream-based implementation of the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). CloudIDV serves as a practical example of application streaming, and demonstrates how traditional software can be easily accessed and controlled via a web browser. Finally, CloudControl is a web-based dashboard which provides administrative controls for running docker-based technologies in the cloud, as well as providing user management. In this work we will give an overview of these three open-source technologies and the value they offer to our community.

  14. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  15. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... There are several types of services available on a cloud. We describe .... CPU speed has been doubling every 18 months at constant cost. Besides this ... Plain text (e.g., email) may be read by anyone who is able to access it.

  16. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  17. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. IV. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: α, Fe-PEAK, LIGHT, AND HEAVY ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ 2 -minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (∼15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ∼ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation.

  18. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-resolution, Integrated-light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: α, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ~ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ2-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (~15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ~ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. A short overview of the microbial population in clouds: Potential roles in atmospheric chemistry and nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delort, Anne-Marie; Vaïtilingom, Mickael; Amato, Pierre; Sancelme, Martine; Parazols, Marius; Mailhot, Gilles; Laj, Paolo; Deguillaume, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies showed that living microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and yeasts, are present in the atmospheric water phase (fog and clouds) and their role in chemical processes may have been underestimated. At the interface between atmospheric science and microbiology, information about this field of science suffers from the fact that not all recent findings are efficiently conveyed to both scientific communities. The purpose of this paper is therefore to provide a short overview of recent work linked to living organisms in the atmospheric water phase, from their activation to cloud droplets and ice crystal, to their potential impact on atmospheric chemical processes. This paper is focused on the microorganisms present in clouds and on the role they could play in atmospheric chemistry and nucleation processes. First, the life cycle of microorganisms via the atmosphere is examined, including their aerosolization from sources, their integration into clouds and their wet deposition on the ground. Second, special attention is paid to the possible impacts of microorganisms on liquid and ice nucleation processes. Third, a short description of the microorganisms that have been found in clouds and their variability in numbers and diversity is presented, emphasizing some specific characteristics that could favour their occurrence in cloud droplets. In the last section, the potential role of microbial activity as an alternative route to photochemical reaction pathways in cloud chemistry is discussed.

  20. Integral equation and simulation studies of a planar nematogenic liquid in crossed external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lado, F; Lomba, E; MartIn, C; Almarza, N G

    2005-01-01

    We study a fluid of nematogenic molecules with centres of mass constrained to lie in a plane but with axes free to rotate in any direction. An external disorienting field perpendicular to the plane along with a second orienting field in the plane induce an in-plane order-disorder transition. We analyse the behaviour of this simple biaxial model using a well-established generalization of molecular integral equation methods built upon specially tailored basis functions that maintain orthogonality in the presence of anisotropy. Computer simulation and integral equation calculations predict an isotropic-nematic transition at low temperatures in zero field and an in-plane transition at somewhat higher temperatures in the presence of the disorienting field. The oriented states obtained in the presence of both fields can subsequently be used as input to uncover in detail first the transition in the absence of the in-plane orienting field and finally the spontaneous transition in the absence of any field. According to the simulation, the transition apparently belongs to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless defect-mediated type, whereas the theory reproduces a weak first-order transition

  1. Rain-shadow: An area harboring "Gray Ocean" clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Harikishan, G.; Morwal, S. B.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    The characteristics of monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India have been investigated using in situ aircraft cloud microphysical observations collected during Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX). The parameters considered for characterization are: liquid water content (LWC), cloud vertical motion (updraft, downdraft: w), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and effective radius (Re). The results are based on 15 research flights which were conducted from the base station Hyderabad during summer monsoon season. The clouds studied were developing congestus. The clouds have low CDNC and low updraft values resembling the oceanic convective clouds. The super-saturation in clouds is found to be low (≤0.2%) due to low updrafts. The land surface behaves like ocean surface during monsoon as deduced from Bowen ratio. Microphysically the clouds showed oceanic characteristics. However, these clouds yield low rainfall due to their low efficiency (mean 14%). The cloud parameters showed a large variability; hence their characteristic values are reported in terms of median values. These values will serve the numerical models for rainfall simulations over the region and also will be useful as a scientific basis for cloud seeding operations to increase the rainfall efficiency. The study revealed that monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region are of oceanic type over the gray land, and therefore we christen them as "Gray Ocean" clouds.

  2. Sequential cloud-point extraction for toxicological screening analysis of medicaments in human plasma by high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Katarzyna; Persona, Karolina; Wandas, Monika; Gomółka, Ewa

    2013-10-18

    A complex extraction system with the use of cloud-point extraction technique (CPE) was developed for sequential isolation of basic and acidic/neutral medicaments from human plasma/serum, screened by HPLC/DAD method. Eight model drugs (paracetamol, promazine, chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, salicyclic acid, opipramol, alprazolam and carbamazepine) were chosen for the study of optimal CPE conditions. The CPE technique consists in partition of an aqueous sample with addition of a surfactant into two phases: micelle-rich phase with the isolated compounds and water phase containing a surfactant below the critical micellar concentration, mainly under influence of temperature change. The proposed extraction system consists of two chief steps: isolation of basic compounds (from pH 12) and then isolation of acidic/neutral compounds (from pH 6) using surfactant Triton X-114 as the extraction medium. Extraction recovery varied from 25.2 to 107.9% with intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) ranged 0.88-1087 and 5.32-17.96, respectively. The limits of detection for the studied medicaments at λ 254nm corresponded to therapeutic or low toxic plasma concentration levels. Usefulness of the proposed CPE-HPLC/DAD method for toxicological drug screening was tested via its application to analysis of two serum samples taken from patients suspected of drug overdosing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Path integral centroid molecular dynamics simulations of semiinfinite slab and bulk liquid of para-hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinugawa, Kenichi [Nara Women`s Univ., Nara (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-10-01

    It has been unsuccessful to solve a set of time-dependent Schroedinger equations numerically for many-body quantum systems which involve, e.g., a number of hydrogen molecules, protons, and excess electrons at a low temperature, where quantum effect evidently appears. This undesirable situation is fatal for the investigation of real low-temperature chemical systems because they are essentially composed of many quantum degrees of freedom. However, if we use a new technique called `path integral centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulation` proposed by Cao and Voth in 1994, the real-time semi-classical dynamics of many degrees of freedom can be computed by utilizing the techniques already developed in the traditional classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Therefore, the CMD simulation is expected to be very powerful tool for the quantum dynamics studies or real substances. (J.P.N.)

  4. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  5. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  6. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  7. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  8. Global Software Development with Cloud Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara, Pavan; Ramachandran, Ramaseshan; Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Muthuswamy, Karthik; Chandrasekar, Divya

    Offshore and outsourced distributed software development models and processes are facing challenges, previously unknown, with respect to computing capacity, bandwidth, storage, security, complexity, reliability, and business uncertainty. Clouds promise to address these challenges by adopting recent advances in virtualization, parallel and distributed systems, utility computing, and software services. In this paper, we envision a cloud-based platform that addresses some of these core problems. We outline a generic cloud architecture, its design and our first implementation results for three cloud forms - a compute cloud, a storage cloud and a cloud-based software service- in the context of global distributed software development (GSD). Our ”compute cloud” provides computational services such as continuous code integration and a compile server farm, ”storage cloud” offers storage (block or file-based) services with an on-line virtual storage service, whereas the on-line virtual labs represent a useful cloud service. We note some of the use cases for clouds in GSD, the lessons learned with our prototypes and identify challenges that must be conquered before realizing the full business benefits. We believe that in the future, software practitioners will focus more on these cloud computing platforms and see clouds as a means to supporting a ecosystem of clients, developers and other key stakeholders.

  9. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  10. Integration of liquid-cooled solar collectors into building walls; Gebaeudeintegration von Sonnenkollektoren mit Fluessigkeitskuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Rockendorf, G.; Bartelsen, B. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Three different methods are presented how to integrate active solar thermal components into building facades. The solar thermal absorber acts as overheating protection and the heat produced can be utilized further. The lower annual yield in comparison to roof-mounted installations is counterbalanced by a more uniform solar gain and an improved wall insulation. The new concept of elastomer-metal-absorbers can be realized in different configurations and material combinations and offers attractive options for collector installation. The methods discussed hold the promise of significant cost reductions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es werden drei Methoden vorgestellt, aktive solarthermische Komponenten mit Fluessigkeit als Waermetraeger in die Gebaeudehuelle zu integrieren. Dabei dient der solarthermische Absorber als Ueberhitzungsschutz und die abgefuehrte Waerme kann einer Nutzung zugefuehrt werden. Der geringere jaehrliche Waermeertrag im Vergleich zur Dachmontage wird durch ein gleichmaesssiges Ertragsprofil und eine verbesserte Waermedaemmung weitgehend ausgeglichen. Das neu entwickelte Elastomer-Metall-Absorber-Konzept (EMA-Konzept) ist in unterschiedliche Konfigurationen und Materialkombinationen umsetzbar und eroeffnet attraktive Moeglichkeiten der Kollektorinstallation. Die diskutierten Methoden lassen eine deutliche Kostenersparnis erwarten. (orig.)

  11. Development and Validation of a Momentum Integral Numerical Analysis Code for Liquid Metal Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangyi; Suh, Kune Y.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, this benchmark problem is conducted to assess the precision of the upgraded in-house code MINA. Comparison of the results from different best estimate codes employed by various grid spacer pressure drop correlations is carried out to suggest the best one. By modifying In's method, it presents good agreement with the experiment data which is shown in Figure 7. The reason for the failure of the prediction in previous work is caused by the utilization of Rehme's method which is categorized into four groups according to different fitting strategy. Through comparison of drag coefficients calculated by four groups of Rheme's method, equivalent drag coefficient calculated by In's method and experiment data shown in Figure 8, we can conclude that Rehme's method considerably underestimate the drag coefficients in grid spacers used in HELIOS and In's method give a reasonable prediction. Starting from the core inlet, the accumulated pressure losses are presented in figure 9 along the accumulated length of the forced convection flow path; the good agreement of the prediction from MINA with the experiment result shows MINA has very good capability in integrated momentum analysis makes it robust in the future design scoping method development of LFR.

  12. Integrated test plan for the field demonstration of the supported liquid membrane unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunks, K.L.; Hodgson, K.M.

    1995-06-01

    This Integrated Test Plan describes the operation and testing of a hybrid reverse osmosis (RO)/coupled transport (CT) groundwater remediation test unit, also referred to as the Environmental Restoration Technology Demonstrations at the Hanford Site. The SLM will be used to remove uranium, technetium-99, and nitrate from a selected groundwater source at the Hanford Site. The overall purpose of this test is to determine the efficiency of the RO/CT membranes operating in a hybrid unit, the ease of operating and maintaining the SLM, and the amount of secondary waste generated as a result of processing. The goal of the SLM is to develop a RO/CT process that will be applicable for removing contaminants from almost any contaminated water. This includes the effluents generated as part of the day-to-day operation of most any US Department of Energy (DOE) site. The removal of contaminants from the groundwaters before they reach the Columbia River or offsite extraction wells will reduce the risk that the population will be exposed to these compounds and will reduce the cost of subsequent groundwater cleanup

  13. Development and Validation of a Momentum Integral Numerical Analysis Code for Liquid Metal Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyi; Suh, Kune Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, this benchmark problem is conducted to assess the precision of the upgraded in-house code MINA. Comparison of the results from different best estimate codes employed by various grid spacer pressure drop correlations is carried out to suggest the best one. By modifying In's method, it presents good agreement with the experiment data which is shown in Figure 7. The reason for the failure of the prediction in previous work is caused by the utilization of Rehme's method which is categorized into four groups according to different fitting strategy. Through comparison of drag coefficients calculated by four groups of Rheme's method, equivalent drag coefficient calculated by In's method and experiment data shown in Figure 8, we can conclude that Rehme's method considerably underestimate the drag coefficients in grid spacers used in HELIOS and In's method give a reasonable prediction. Starting from the core inlet, the accumulated pressure losses are presented in figure 9 along the accumulated length of the forced convection flow path; the good agreement of the prediction from MINA with the experiment result shows MINA has very good capability in integrated momentum analysis makes it robust in the future design scoping method development of LFR.

  14. Two-moment bulk stratiform cloud microphysics in the GFDL AM3 GCM: description, evaluation, and sensitivity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salzmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new stratiform cloud scheme including a two-moment bulk microphysics module, a cloud cover parameterization allowing ice supersaturation, and an ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented into the recently developed GFDL AM3 general circulation model (GCM as part of an effort to treat aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions more realistically. Unlike the original scheme, the new scheme facilitates the study of cloud-ice-aerosol interactions via influences of dust and sulfate on ice nucleation. While liquid and cloud ice water path associated with stratiform clouds are similar for the new and the original scheme, column integrated droplet numbers and global frequency distributions (PDFs of droplet effective radii differ significantly. This difference is in part due to a difference in the implementation of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF mechanism, which leads to a larger contribution from super-cooled droplets in the original scheme. Clouds are more likely to be either completely glaciated or liquid due to the WBF mechanism in the new scheme. Super-saturations over ice simulated with the new scheme are in qualitative agreement with observations, and PDFs of ice numbers and effective radii appear reasonable in the light of observations. Especially, the temperature dependence of ice numbers qualitatively agrees with in-situ observations. The global average long-wave cloud forcing decreases in comparison to the original scheme as expected when super-saturation over ice is allowed. Anthropogenic aerosols lead to a larger decrease in short-wave absorption (SWABS in the new model setup, but outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR decreases as well, so that the net effect of including anthropogenic aerosols on the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere (netradTOA = SWABS-OLR is of similar magnitude for the new and the original scheme.

  15. Two-moment bulk stratiform cloud microphysics in the GFDL AM3 GCM: description, evaluation, and sensitivity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, M.; Ming, Y.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P. A.; Morrison, H.; Gettelman, A.; Krämer, M.; Donner, L. J.

    2010-08-01

    A new stratiform cloud scheme including a two-moment bulk microphysics module, a cloud cover parameterization allowing ice supersaturation, and an ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented into the recently developed GFDL AM3 general circulation model (GCM) as part of an effort to treat aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions more realistically. Unlike the original scheme, the new scheme facilitates the study of cloud-ice-aerosol interactions via influences of dust and sulfate on ice nucleation. While liquid and cloud ice water path associated with stratiform clouds are similar for the new and the original scheme, column integrated droplet numbers and global frequency distributions (PDFs) of droplet effective radii differ significantly. This difference is in part due to a difference in the implementation of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) mechanism, which leads to a larger contribution from super-cooled droplets in the original scheme. Clouds are more likely to be either completely glaciated or liquid due to the WBF mechanism in the new scheme. Super-saturations over ice simulated with the new scheme are in qualitative agreement with observations, and PDFs of ice numbers and effective radii appear reasonable in the light of observations. Especially, the temperature dependence of ice numbers qualitatively agrees with in-situ observations. The global average long-wave cloud forcing decreases in comparison to the original scheme as expected when super-saturation over ice is allowed. Anthropogenic aerosols lead to a larger decrease in short-wave absorption (SWABS) in the new model setup, but outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) decreases as well, so that the net effect of including anthropogenic aerosols on the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere (netradTOA = SWABS-OLR) is of similar magnitude for the new and the original scheme.

  16. An operational procedure for precipitable and cloud liquid water estimate in non-raining conditions over sea Study on the assessment of the nonlinear physical inversion algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Nativi, S; Mazzetti, P

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work, an operative procedure to estimate precipitable and liquid water in non-raining conditions over sea was developed and assessed. The procedure is based on a fast non-linear physical inversion scheme and a forward model; it is valid for most of satellite microwave radiometers and it also estimates water effective profiles. This paper presents two improvements of the procedure: first, a refinement to provide modularity of the software components and portability across different computation system architectures; second, the adoption of the CERN MINUIT minimisation package, which addresses the problem of global minimisation but is computationally more demanding. Together with the increased computational performance that allowed to impose stricter requirements on the quality of fit, these refinements improved fitting precision and reliability, and allowed to relax the requirements on the initial guesses for the model parameters. The re-analysis of the same data-set considered in the previous pap...

  17. Cloud-based Networked Visual Servo Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Lu, Lei; Chen, Chih-Chung

    2013-01-01

    , which integrates networked computational resources for cloud image processing, is considered in this article. The main contributions of this article are i) a real-time transport protocol for transmitting large volume image data on a cloud computing platform, which enables high sampling rate visual...

  18. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  19. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  20. Unidata Cyberinfrastructure in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Young, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Data services, software, and user support are critical components of geosciences cyber-infrastructure to help researchers to advance science. With the maturity of and significant advances in cloud computing, it has recently emerged as an alternative new paradigm for developing and delivering a broad array of services over the Internet. Cloud computing is now mature enough in usability in many areas of science and education, bringing the benefits of virtualized and elastic remote services to infrastructure, software, computation, and data. Cloud environments reduce the amount of time and money spent to procure, install, and maintain new hardware and software, and reduce costs through resource pooling and shared infrastructure. Given the enormous potential of cloud-based services, Unidata has been moving to augment its software, services, data delivery mechanisms to align with the cloud-computing paradigm. To realize the above vision, Unidata has worked toward: * Providing access to many types of data from a cloud (e.g., via the THREDDS Data Server, RAMADDA and EDEX servers); * Deploying data-proximate tools to easily process, analyze, and visualize those data in a cloud environment cloud for consumption by any one, by any device, from anywhere, at any time; * Developing and providing a range of pre-configured and well-integrated tools and services that can be deployed by any university in their own private or public cloud settings. Specifically, Unidata has developed Docker for "containerized applications", making them easy to deploy. Docker helps to create "disposable" installs and eliminates many configuration challenges. Containerized applications include tools for data transport, access, analysis, and visualization: THREDDS Data Server, Integrated Data Viewer, GEMPAK, Local Data Manager, RAMADDA Data Server, and Python tools; * Leveraging Jupyter as a central platform and hub with its powerful set of interlinking tools to connect interactively data servers

  1. Continuous growth of cloud droplets in cumulus cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Suehiro, Tamotsu; Saito, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    A new method to seamlessly simulate the continuous growth of droplets advected by turbulent flow inside a cumulus cloud was developed from first principle. A cubic box ascending with a mean updraft inside a cumulus cloud was introduced and the updraft velocity was self-consistently determined in such a way that the mean turbulent velocity within the box vanished. All the degrees of freedom of the cloud droplets and turbulence fields were numerically integrated. The box ascended quickly inside the cumulus cloud due to the updraft and the mean radius of the droplets grew from 10 to 24 μ m for about 10 min. The turbulent flow tended to slow down the time evolutions of the updraft velocity, the box altitude and the mean cloud droplet radius. The size distribution of the cloud droplets in the updraft case was narrower than in the absence of the updraft. It was also found that the wavenumeber spectra of the variances of the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio were nearly constant in the low wavenumber range. The future development of the new method was argued. (paper)

  2. A stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.

    1994-01-01

    The crude treatment of clouds in general circulation models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in applying these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop in GCMs a stratiform cloud parameterization that expresses clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. Various clouds variables and their interactions are summarized. Precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species

  3. Sensitivity to deliberate sea salt seeding of marine clouds - observations and model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Alterskjaer, K.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Seland, O.

    2012-01-01

    Sea salt seeding of marine clouds to increase their albedo is a proposed technique to counteract or slow global warming. In this study, we first investigate the susceptibility of marine clouds to sea salt injections, using observational data of cloud droplet number concentration, cloud optical depth, and liquid cloud fraction from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. We then compare the derived susceptibility function to...

  4. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  5. Fast and General Method To Predict the Physicochemical Properties of Druglike Molecules Using the Integral Equation Theory of Molecular Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Mišin, Maksim; Fedorov, Maxim V; Llinas, Antonio

    2015-09-08

    We report a method to predict physicochemical properties of druglike molecules using a classical statistical mechanics based solvent model combined with machine learning. The RISM-MOL-INF method introduced here provides an accurate technique to characterize solvation and desolvation processes based on solute-solvent correlation functions computed by the 1D reference interaction site model of the integral equation theory of molecular liquids. These functions can be obtained in a matter of minutes for most small organic and druglike molecules using existing software (RISM-MOL) (Sergiievskyi, V. P.; Hackbusch, W.; Fedorov, M. V. J. Comput. Chem. 2011, 32, 1982-1992). Predictions of caco-2 cell permeability and hydration free energy obtained using the RISM-MOL-INF method are shown to be more accurate than the state-of-the-art tools for benchmark data sets. Due to the importance of solvation and desolvation effects in biological systems, it is anticipated that the RISM-MOL-INF approach will find many applications in biophysical and biomedical property prediction.

  6. Cloud phase identification of Arctic boundary-layer clouds from airborne spectral reflection measurements: test of three approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Arctic boundary-layer clouds were investigated with remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR campaign in March and April 2007. The clouds formed in a cold air outbreak over the open Greenland Sea. Beside the predominant mixed-phase clouds pure liquid water and ice clouds were observed. Utilizing measurements of solar radiation reflected by the clouds three methods to retrieve the thermodynamic phase of the cloud are introduced and compared. Two ice indices IS and IP were obtained by analyzing the spectral pattern of the cloud top reflectance in the near infrared (1500–1800 nm wavelength spectral range which is characterized by ice and water absorption. While IS analyzes the spectral slope of the reflectance in this wavelength range, IS utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA of the spectral reflectance. A third ice index IA is based on the different side scattering of spherical liquid water particles and nonspherical ice crystals which was recorded in simultaneous measurements of spectral cloud albedo and reflectance.

    Radiative transfer simulations show that IS, IP and IA range between 5 to 80, 0 to 8 and 1 to 1.25 respectively with lowest values indicating pure liquid water clouds and highest values pure ice clouds. The spectral slope ice index IS and the PCA ice index IP are found to be strongly sensitive to the effective diameter of the ice crystals present in the cloud. Therefore, the identification of mixed-phase clouds requires a priori knowledge of the ice crystal dimension. The reflectance-albedo ice index IA is mainly dominated by the uppermost cloud layer (τ<1.5. Therefore, typical boundary-layer mixed-phase clouds with a liquid cloud top layer will

  7. New procedure for the determination of radium in water by extraction of radon and application of integral counting with a liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Murakami, Y [Kitasato Univ. (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences

    1981-05-01

    A new Ra determination method is devised, storing the sample in a glass bottle with a Teflon stopper in an upside-down position, extracting Rn with liquid scintillator solution and combining integral counting with a liquid scintillation counter. This method realizes a high sensitivity of 5 x 10/sup -13/ Ci Ra, eliminates the tedious procedure of transferring Rn through the vacuum system to the detector and makes possible repeated determinations of Ra on the same sample without any further chemical treatment except extraction.

  8. Cloud Computing, Tieto Cloud Server Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suikkanen, Saara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what is cloud computing. To be able to make wise decisions when moving to cloud or considering it, companies need to understand what cloud is consists of. Which model suits best to they company, what should be taken into account before moving to cloud, what is the cloud broker role and also SWOT analysis of cloud? To be able to answer customer requirements and business demands, IT companies should develop and produce new service models. IT house T...

  9. Consolidation of cloud computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; The ATLAS collaboration; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Hover, John; Kouba, Tomas; Love, Peter; Mcnab, Andrew; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Sobie, Randall; Giordano, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the first half of LHC Run 2, ATLAS cloud computing has undergone a period of consolidation, characterized by building upon previously established systems, with the aim of reducing operational effort, improving robustness, and reaching higher scale. This paper describes the current state of ATLAS cloud computing. Cloud activities are converging on a common contextualization approach for virtual machines, and cloud resources are sharing monitoring and service discovery components. We describe the integration of Vacuum resources, streamlined usage of the Simulation at Point 1 cloud for offline processing, extreme scaling on Amazon compute resources, and procurement of commercial cloud capacity in Europe. Finally, building on the previously established monitoring infrastructure, we have deployed a real-time monitoring and alerting platform which coalesces data from multiple sources, provides flexible visualization via customizable dashboards, and issues alerts and carries out corrective actions in resp...

  10. Consolidation of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; The ATLAS collaboration; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Kouba, Tomas; Love, Peter; Mcnab, Andrew; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Sobie, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the first year of LHC Run 2, ATLAS Cloud Computing has undergone a period of consolidation, characterized by building upon previously established systems, with the aim of reducing operational effort, improving robustness, and reaching higher scale. This paper describes the current state of ATLAS Cloud Computing. Cloud activities are converging on a common contextualization approach for virtual machines, and cloud resources are sharing monitoring and service discovery components. We describe the integration of Vac resources, streamlined usage of the High Level Trigger cloud for simulation and reconstruction, extreme scaling on Amazon EC2, and procurement of commercial cloud capacity in Europe. Building on the previously established monitoring infrastructure, we have deployed a real-time monitoring and alerting platform which coalesces data from multiple sources, provides flexible visualization via customizable dashboards, and issues alerts and carries out corrective actions in response to problems. ...

  11. Consolidation of cloud computing in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan P.; Domingues Cordeiro, Cristovao Jose; Giordano, Domenico; Hover, John; Kouba, Tomas; Love, Peter; McNab, Andrew; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Sobie, Randall; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the first half of LHC Run 2, ATLAS cloud computing has undergone a period of consolidation, characterized by building upon previously established systems, with the aim of reducing operational effort, improving robustness, and reaching higher scale. This paper describes the current state of ATLAS cloud computing. Cloud activities are converging on a common contextualization approach for virtual machines, and cloud resources are sharing monitoring and service discovery components. We describe the integration of Vacuum resources, streamlined usage of the Simulation at Point 1 cloud for offline processing, extreme scaling on Amazon compute resources, and procurement of commercial cloud capacity in Europe. Finally, building on the previously established monitoring infrastructure, we have deployed a real-time monitoring and alerting platform which coalesces data from multiple sources, provides flexible visualization via customizable dashboards, and issues alerts and carries out corrective actions in response to problems.

  12. ISR-1 Seminar: Nuclear Cloud Lofting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Andrew Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report goes into detail about motivation, background, lofting methodologies (empirical, parcel methods, Navier-Stokes), DELFIC Model, validation, DIORAMA integration, and has the following conclusions: A parcel methodology was applied to develop the DIORAMA cloud lofting module. It is based on the DELFIC model and treats the cloud as a homogenous unit. It solves the set of 8 ODEs for cloud properties. It outputs the time history of the cloud height, radius, and other parameters. The cloud lofting module was tuned with 54 test cases. An iterative brute force search was carried out to find the best fit tuning parameters. The best fit parameters yielded average cloud height errors of 12.9% and 10.3% for the bottom and top, respectively. This all allows for more accurate modeling of the propagation of delayed gamma rays in DIORAMA.

  13. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  14. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Triggered by Strong Aerosol Emissions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Previous process-oriented modeling studies have highlighted the dependence of effectiveness of cloud brightening by aerosols on cloud regimes in warm marine boundary layer. Cloud microphysical processes in clouds that contain ice, and hence the mechanisms that drive aerosol-cloud interactions, are more complicated than in warm clouds. Interactions between ice particles and liquid drops add additional levels of complexity to aerosol effects. A cloud-resolving model is used to study aerosol-cloud interactions in the Arctic triggered by strong aerosol emissions, through either geoengineering injection or concentrated sources such as shipping and fires. An updated cloud microphysical scheme with prognostic aerosol and cloud particle numbers is employed. Model simulations are performed in pure super-cooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds, separately, with or without an injection of aerosols into either a clean or a more polluted Arctic boundary layer. Vertical mixing and cloud scavenging of particles injected from the surface is still quite efficient in the less turbulent cold environment. Overall, the injection of aerosols into the Arctic boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. The pure liquid clouds are more susceptible to the increase in aerosol number concentration than the mixed-phase clouds. Rain production processes are more effectively suppressed by aerosol injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. Aerosol injection into a clean boundary layer results in a greater cloud albedo increase than injection into a polluted one, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, the impact of dynamical feedback due to precipitation changes is small. According to these results, which are dependent upon the representation of ice nucleation

  15. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  16. Transport of infrared radiation in cuboidal clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Weinman, J. A.; Davies, R.

    1981-01-01

    The transport of infrared radiation in a single cuboidal cloud is modeled using a variable azimuth two-stream approximation. Computations are made at 10 microns for a Deirmendjian (1969) C-1 water cloud where the single scattering albedo is equal to 0.638 and the asymmetry parameter is 0.865. The results indicate that the emittance of the top face of the model cloud is always less than that for a plane parallel cloud of the same optical depth. The hemispheric flux escaping from the cloud top possesses a gradient from the center to the edges which are warmer when the cloud is over warmer ground. Cooling rate calculations in the 8-13.6 micron region demonstrate that there is cooling out of the sides of the cloud at all levels even when there is heating of the core from the ground below. The radiances exiting from model cuboidal clouds are computed by path integration over the source function obtained with the two-stream approximation. Results indicate that the brightness temperature measured from finite clouds will overestimate the cloud-top temperature.

  17. Moving towards Cloud Security

    OpenAIRE

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki; Zoltán Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment th...

  18. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  19. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  20. Dynamic Auditing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Data Storage in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Noorul Ameen; J. Jamal Mohamed; N. Nilofer Begam

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing, where the data has been stored on cloud servers and retrieved by users (data consumers) the data from cloud servers. However, there are some security challenges which are in need of independent auditing services to verify the data integrity and safety in the cloud. Until now a numerous methods has been developed for remote integrity checking whichever only serve for static archive data and cannot be implemented to the auditing service if the data in the cloud is being dynamic...

  1. Ship track observations of a reduced shortwave aerosol indirect effect in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. W.; Suzuki, K.; Zambri, B.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol influences on clouds are a major source of uncertainty to our understanding of forced climate change. Increased aerosol can enhance solar reflection from clouds countering greenhouse gas warming. Recently, this indirect effect has been extended from water droplet clouds to other types including mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds are important because of their fundamental role on sea ice loss and polar climate change, but very little is known about aerosol effects on these clouds. Here we provide the first analysis of the effects of aerosol emitted from ship stacks into mixed-phase clouds. Satellite observations of solar reflection in numerous ship tracks reveal that cloud albedo increases 5 times more in liquid clouds when polluted and persist 2 h longer than in mixed-phase clouds. These results suggest that seeding mixed-phase clouds via shipping aerosol is unlikely to provide any significant counterbalancing solar radiative cooling effects in warming polar regions.

  2. Sensitive Data Protection Based on Intrusion Tolerance in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyu Wang; xuefeng Zheng; Dengliang Luo

    2011-01-01

    Service integration and supply on-demand coming from cloud computing can significantly improve the utilization of computing resources and reduce power consumption of per service, and effectively avoid the error of computing resources. However, cloud computing is still facing the problem of intrusion tolerance of the cloud computing platform and sensitive data of new enterprise data center. In order to address the problem of intrusion tolerance of cloud computing platform and sensitive data in...

  3. Telemedicine Based on Mobile Devices and Mobile Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Lidong Wang; Cheryl Ann Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets support kinds of mobile computing and services. They can access to the cloud or offload the computation-intensive part to the cloud computing resources. Mobile cloud computing (MCC) integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment, which extends mobile devices’ battery lifetime, improves their data storage capacity and processing power, and improves their reliability and information security. In this paper, the applications of smartphon...

  4. Architecture of the SDP in the Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Jae-Oh

    Recently, cloud computing, which is Internet-based computing, is attracting type of business. Besides, network is integrated wire and wireless (including mobile) by the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). Therefore, cloud computing needs to support the IMS and common platform in order to support between the IMS and cloud computing. So, in this paper we consider about deployment of the IMS and suggest Service Delivery Platform (SDP) that is common platform for cloud computing.

  5. Cloud Service Platform: Hospital Information eXchange(HIX)

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Zhiyuan; Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Health Information eXchange (HIX) is a part of Happiness Cloud Service Platform of Happiness Guangdong in Guangdong Province of China based on innovation of cloud-based business model. This article illustrates the hospital health care business services system based on cloud computing. major business functions of HIX includes integrated mobile medical information services, and mobile health information services. Key cloud service platform capabilities include appointment of HIX registration, d...

  6. Secure Cloud Computing Implementation Study For Singapore Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    50 Figure 7. Basic Military Cloud Features Integrated into the OODA Loop Figure 8. Process...demand via the network” to cloud users [2]. International Business Machines (IBM) defines it as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources...to Statista [6], the public cloud computing market has shown continuous revenue growth in cloud services, beginning with a notable increase in 5

  7. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  8. Integrating qualitative and quantitative characterization of traditional Chinese medicine injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Xue; Luo, Juan-min; Fu, Chan; Wang, Qiao-wei; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-06-01

    The present study aims to describe and exemplify an integrated strategy of the combination of qualitative and quantitative characterization of a multicomponent mixture for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections with the example of Danhong injection (DHI). The standardized chemical profile of DHI has been established based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray multistage tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry have been developed to identify the major constituents in DHI. The structures of 26 compounds including nucleotides, phenolic acids, and flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized. Meanwhile, the simultaneous determination of seven marker constituents, including uridine, adenosine, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, in DHI was performed by multiwavelength detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The integrated qualitative and quantitative characterization strategy provided an effective and reliable pattern for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex traditional Chinese medicine system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Process-model simulations of cloud albedo enhancement by aerosols in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Ben; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Solomon, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    A cloud-resolving model is used to simulate the effectiveness of Arctic marine cloud brightening via injection of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), either through geoengineering or other increased sources of Arctic aerosols. An updated cloud microphysical scheme is employed, with prognostic CCN and cloud particle numbers in both liquid and mixed-phase marine low clouds. Injection of CCN into the marine boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. Albedo increases are stronger for pure liquid clouds than mixed-phase clouds. Liquid precipitation can be suppressed by CCN injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus, the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. CCN injection into a clean regime results in a greater albedo increase than injection into a polluted regime, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol–cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, dynamical changes in circulation owing to precipitation changes are small. According to these results, which are dependent upon the representation of ice nucleation processes in the employed microphysical scheme, Arctic geoengineering is unlikely to be effective as the sole means of altering the global radiation budget but could have substantial local radiative effects. PMID:25404677

  10. Classification of Arctic, midlatitude and tropical clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The degree of glaciation of mixed-phase clouds constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. In order to better understand cloud glaciation, cloud spectrometer observations are presented in this paper, which were made in the mixed-phase temperature regime between 0 and −38 °C (273 to 235 K, where cloud particles can either be frozen or liquid. The extensive data set covers four airborne field campaigns providing a total of 139 000 1 Hz data points (38.6 h within clouds over Arctic, midlatitude and tropical regions. We develop algorithms, combining the information on number concentration, size and asphericity of the observed cloud particles to classify four cloud types: liquid clouds, clouds in which liquid droplets and ice crystals coexist, fully glaciated clouds after the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process and clouds where secondary ice formation occurred. We quantify the occurrence of these cloud groups depending on the geographical region and temperature and find that liquid clouds dominate our measurements during the Arctic spring, while clouds dominated by the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process are most common in midlatitude spring. The coexistence of liquid water and ice crystals is found over the whole mixed-phase temperature range in tropical convective towers in the dry season. Secondary ice is found at midlatitudes at −5 to −10 °C (268 to 263 K and at higher altitudes, i.e. lower temperatures in the tropics. The distribution of the cloud types with decreasing temperature is shown to be consistent with the theory of evolution of mixed-phase clouds. With this study, we aim to contribute to a large statistical database on cloud types in the mixed-phase temperature regime.

  11. Classification of Arctic, midlatitude and tropical clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anja; Meyer, Jessica; Afchine, Armin; Luebke, Anna; Günther, Gebhard; Dorsey, James R.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Ehrlich, Andre; Wendisch, Manfred; Baumgardner, Darrel; Wex, Heike; Krämer, Martina

    2017-10-01

    The degree of glaciation of mixed-phase clouds constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. In order to better understand cloud glaciation, cloud spectrometer observations are presented in this paper, which were made in the mixed-phase temperature regime between 0 and -38 °C (273 to 235 K), where cloud particles can either be frozen or liquid. The extensive data set covers four airborne field campaigns providing a total of 139 000 1 Hz data points (38.6 h within clouds) over Arctic, midlatitude and tropical regions. We develop algorithms, combining the information on number concentration, size and asphericity of the observed cloud particles to classify four cloud types: liquid clouds, clouds in which liquid droplets and ice crystals coexist, fully glaciated clouds after the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process and clouds where secondary ice formation occurred. We quantify the occurrence of these cloud groups depending on the geographical region and temperature and find that liquid clouds dominate our measurements during the Arctic spring, while clouds dominated by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process are most common in midlatitude spring. The coexistence of liquid water and ice crystals is found over the whole mixed-phase temperature range in tropical convective towers in the dry season. Secondary ice is found at midlatitudes at -5 to -10 °C (268 to 263 K) and at higher altitudes, i.e. lower temperatures in the tropics. The distribution of the cloud types with decreasing temperature is shown to be consistent with the theory of evolution of mixed-phase clouds. With this study, we aim to contribute to a large statistical database on cloud types in the mixed-phase temperature regime.

  12. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  13. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  14. The CTTC 5G End-to-End Experimental Platform : Integrating Heterogeneous Wireless/Optical Networks, Distributed Cloud, and IoT Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Raul; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Vilalta, Ricard; Verikoukis, Christos; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Payaro, Miquel; Perez-Neira, Ana; Casellas, Ramon; Martinez, Ricardo; Nunez-Martinez, Jose; Requena Esteso, Manuel; Pubill, David; Font-Bach, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) will facilitate a wide variety of applications in different domains, such as smart cities, smart grids, industrial automation (Industry 4.0), smart driving, assistance of the elderly, and home automation. Billions of heterogeneous smart devices with different application requirements will be connected to the networks and will generate huge aggregated volumes of data that will be processed in distributed cloud infrastructures. On the other hand, there is also a gen...

  15. Impact of different cloud deployments on real-time video applications for mobile video cloud users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kashif A.; Wang, Qi; Luo, Chunbo; Wang, Xinheng; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The latest trend to access mobile cloud services through wireless network connectivity has amplified globally among both entrepreneurs and home end users. Although existing public cloud service vendors such as Google, Microsoft Azure etc. are providing on-demand cloud services with affordable cost for mobile users, there are still a number of challenges to achieve high-quality mobile cloud based video applications, especially due to the bandwidth-constrained and errorprone mobile network connectivity, which is the communication bottleneck for end-to-end video delivery. In addition, existing accessible clouds networking architectures are different in term of their implementation, services, resources, storage, pricing, support and so on, and these differences have varied impact on the performance of cloud-based real-time video applications. Nevertheless, these challenges and impacts have not been thoroughly investigated in the literature. In our previous work, we have implemented a mobile cloud network model that integrates localized and decentralized cloudlets (mini-clouds) and wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we deploy a real-time framework consisting of various existing Internet cloud networking architectures (Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure and Eucalyptus Cloud) and a cloudlet based on Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud over wireless mesh networking technology for mobile cloud end users. It is noted that the increasing trend to access real-time video streaming over HTTP/HTTPS is gaining popularity among both research and industrial communities to leverage the existing web services and HTTP infrastructure in the Internet. To study the performance under different deployments using different public and private cloud service providers, we employ real-time video streaming over the HTTP/HTTPS standard, and conduct experimental evaluation and in-depth comparative analysis of the impact of different deployments on the quality of service for mobile video cloud users. Empirical

  16. Detecting Super-Thin Clouds With Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere. Solar radiation backscattered from clouds is studied with both satellite data and a radiative transfer model. A distinct feature is found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is backscattered from clouds. The dominant backscattered electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Model results demonstrate that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only 0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only 0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments.

  17. Clouds and snowmelt on the north slope of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Stamnes, K.; Bowling, S.A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Clouds have a large effect on the radiation field. Consequently, possible changes in cloud properties may have a very substantial impact on climate. Of all natural surfaces, seasonal snow cover has the highest surface albedo, which is one of the most important components of the climatic system. Interactions between clouds and seasonal snow cover are expected to have a significant effect on climate and its change at high latitudes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity of the surface cloud-radiative forcing during the period of snowmelt at high latitudes. The primary variables investigated are cloud liquid path (LWP) and droplet equivalent radius (r{sub e}). We will also examine the sensitivity of the surface radiative fluxes to cloud base height and cloud base temperature.

  18. A stratiform cloud parameterization for General Circulation Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.; Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; McCaa, J.

    1994-01-01

    The crude treatment of clouds in General Circulation Models (GCMs) is widely recognized as a major limitation in the application of these models to predictions of global climate change. The purpose of this project is to develop a paxameterization for stratiform clouds in GCMs that expresses stratiform clouds in terms of bulk microphysical properties and their subgrid variability. In this parameterization, precipitating cloud species are distinguished from non-precipitating species, and the liquid phase is distinguished from the ice phase. The size of the non-precipitating cloud particles (which influences both the cloud radiative properties and the conversion of non-precipitating cloud species to precipitating species) is determined by predicting both the mass and number concentrations of each species

  19. A Diagnostic PDF Cloud Scheme to Improve Subtropical Low Clouds in NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Lin, Yanluan; Xu, Shiming; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xie, Shaocheng

    2018-02-01

    Low clouds strongly impact the radiation budget of the climate system, but their simulation in most GCMs has remained a challenge, especially over the subtropical stratocumulus region. Assuming a Gaussian distribution for the subgrid-scale total water and liquid water potential temperature, a new statistical cloud scheme is proposed and tested in NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). The subgrid-scale variance is diagnosed from the turbulent and shallow convective processes in CAM5. The approach is able to maintain the consistency between cloud fraction and cloud condensate and thus alleviates the adjustment needed in the default relative humidity-based cloud fraction scheme. Short-term forecast simulations indicate that low cloud fraction and liquid water content, including their diurnal cycle, are improved due to a proper consideration of subgrid-scale variance over the southeastern Pacific Ocean region. Compared with the default cloud scheme, the new approach produced the mean climate reasonably well with improved shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) due to more reasonable low cloud fraction and liquid water path over regions with predominant low clouds. Meanwhile, the SWCF bias over the tropical land regions is also alleviated. Furthermore, the simulated marine boundary layer clouds with the new approach extend further offshore and agree better with observations. The new approach is able to obtain the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance with a slightly alleviated double ITCZ problem in preliminary coupled simulations. This study implies that a close coupling of cloud processes with other subgrid-scale physical processes is a promising approach to improve cloud simulations.

  20. Study of cloud properties using airborne and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Stefan, Sabina; Vajaiac, Sorin Nicolae

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cloud microphysics properties using aircraft and satellite measurements. Cloud properties were drawn from data acquired both from in situ measurements with state of the art airborne instrumentation and from satellite products of the MODIS06 System. The used aircraft was ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research, property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania, which is specially equipped for this kind of research. The main tool of the airborne laboratory is a Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer - CAPS (30 bins, 0.51- 50 μm). The data was recorded during two flights during the winter 2013-2014, over a flat region in the south-eastern part of Romania (between Bucharest and Constanta). The analysis of cloud particle size variations and cloud liquid water content provided by CAPS can explain cloud processes, and can also indicate the extent of aerosols effects on clouds. The results, such as cloud coverage and/or cloud types, microphysical parameters of aerosols on the one side and the cloud microphysics parameters obtained from aircraft flights on the other side, was used to illustrate the importance of microphysics cloud properties for including the radiative effects of clouds in the regional climate models.

  1. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  2. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Celina M. Olszak

    2014-01-01

    . The paper reviews and critiques current research on Business Intelligence (BI) in cloud. This review highlights that organizations face various challenges using BI cloud. The research objectives for this study are a conceptualization of the BI cloud issue, as well as an investigation of some benefits and risks from BI cloud. The study was based mainly on a critical analysis of literature and some reports on BI cloud using. The results of this research can be used by IT and business leaders ...

  3. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  4. Towards Successful Cloud Ordering Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yan-Kwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rise of cloud services has led to a drastic growth of e-commerce and a greater investment in development of new cloud services systems by related industries. For SaaS developers, it is important to understand customer needs and make use of available resources at as early as the system design and development stage. Objectives: This study integrates E-commerce Systems (ECS Success model and Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA into empirical research of the critical factors for cloud ordering system success. Methods/Approach: A survey research is conducted to collect data on customer perceptions of the importance and performance of each attribute of the particular cloud ordering service. The sample is further divided according to the degree of use of online shopping into high-usage users and low-usage users in order to explore their views regarding the system and generate adequate coping strategies. Results: Developers of online ordering systems can refer to the important factors obtained in this study when planning strategies of product/service improvement. Conclusions: The approach proposed in this study can also be applied to evaluation of other kinds of cloud services systems.

  5. Aerosol effects on cloud water amounts were successfully simulated by a global cloud-system resolving model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yousuke; Goto, Daisuke; Michibata, Takuro; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tomita, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2018-03-07

    Aerosols affect climate by modifying cloud properties through their role as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei, called aerosol-cloud interactions. In most global climate models (GCMs), the aerosol-cloud interactions are represented by empirical parameterisations, in which the mass of cloud liquid water (LWP) is assumed to increase monotonically with increasing aerosol loading. Recent satellite observations, however, have yielded contradictory results: LWP can decrease with increasing aerosol loading. This difference implies that GCMs overestimate the aerosol effect, but the reasons for the difference are not obvious. Here, we reproduce satellite-observed LWP responses using a global simulation with explicit representations of cloud microphysics, instead of the parameterisations. Our analyses reveal that the decrease in LWP originates from the response of evaporation and condensation processes to aerosol perturbations, which are not represented in GCMs. The explicit representation of cloud microphysics in global scale modelling reduces the uncertainty of climate prediction.

  6. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter S. K.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5°C to -40°C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  7. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  8. A New Cloud Architecture of Virtual Trusted Platform Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongxi; Lee, Jack; Jang, Julian; Nepal, Surya; Zic, John

    We propose and implement a cloud architecture of virtual Trusted Platform Modules (TPMs) to improve the usability of TPMs. In this architecture, virtual TPMs can be obtained from the TPM cloud on demand. Hence, the TPM functionality is available for applications that do not have physical TPMs in their local platforms. Moreover, the TPM cloud allows users to access their keys and data in the same virtual TPM even if they move to untrusted platforms. The TPM cloud is easy to access for applications in different languages since cloud computing delivers services in standard protocols. The functionality of the TPM cloud is demonstrated by applying it to implement the Needham-Schroeder public-key protocol for web authentications, such that the strong security provided by TPMs is integrated into high level applications. The chain of trust based on the TPM cloud is discussed and the security properties of the virtual TPMs in the cloud is analyzed.

  9. The Challenge of Private Cloud for the Digital Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Petac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For various organizations, a Private Cloud represents a stepping stone to a fully public model,while others consider it to be the ideal solution. Organizations such as the governmentalinstitutions that have stringent data security needs might choose the Private Cloud model. Itsqualities such as availability, security, compliance may convince other organizations to look at aprivate cloud model as well. In this paper we propose an integrated solution within the privatecloud area, based on open source software. In section 2 we provide brief characterizations of theexisting types of Clouds, focusing then on Private Cloud. In section 3 we address the security issuesin Private Cloud. In section 4 we present and analyze different open source software solutionswithin Private Cloud. Section 5 encompasses some conclusions regarding the benefits anddownsides of this technology, along with some detail information on how to set up an organizationthat runs in a Private Cloud.

  10. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  11. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results

  12. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results.

  13. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  14. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

  15. Dynamics of a quantum spin liquid beyond integrability: The Kitaev-Heisenberg-Γ model in an augmented parton mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Johannes; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, Roderich

    2018-04-01

    We present an augmented parton mean-field theory which (i) reproduces the exact ground state, spectrum, and dynamics of the quantum spin-liquid phase of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and (ii) is amenable to the inclusion of integrability breaking terms, allowing a perturbation theory from a controlled starting point. Thus, we exemplarily study dynamical spin correlations of the honeycomb Kitaev quantum spin liquid within the K -J -Γ model, which includes Heisenberg and symmetric-anisotropic (pseudodipolar) interactions. This allows us to trace changes of the correlations in the regime of slowly moving fluxes, where the theory captures the dominant deviations when integrability is lost. These include an asymmetric shift together with a broadening of the dominant peak in the response as a function of frequency, the generation of further-neighbor correlations and their structure in real and spin space, and a resulting loss of an approximate rotational symmetry of the structure factor in reciprocal space. We discuss the limitations of this approach and also view the neutron-scattering experiments on the putative proximate quantum spin-liquid material α -RuCl3 in the light of the results from this extended parton theory.

  16. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved

  17. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic force and spatial thin film thickness between deformable and solid surfaces by integrated thin liquid film force apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Manica, Rogerio; Wang, Louxiang; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-09

    Interactions involving deformable surfaces reveal a number of distinguishing physicochemical characteristics that do not exist in interactions between rigid solid surfaces. A unique fully custom-designed instrument, referred to as integrated thin liquid film force apparatus (ITLFFA), was developed to study the interactions between one deformable and one solid surface in liquid. Incorporating a bimorph force sensor with interferometry, this device allows for the simultaneous measurement of the time-dependent interaction force and the corresponding spatiotemporal film thickness of the intervening liquid film. The ITLFFA possesses the specific feature of conducting measurement under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, with a displacement velocity of deformable surfaces ranging from 2 μm s -1 to 50 mm s -1 . Equipped with a high speed camera, the results of a bubble interacting with hydrophilic and partially hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions indicated that ITLFFA can provide information on interaction forces and thin liquid film drainage dynamics not only in a stable film but also in films of the quick rupture process. The weak interaction force was extracted from a measured film profile. Because of its well-characterized experimental conditions, ITLFFA permits the accurate and quantitative comparison/validation between measured and calculated interaction forces and temporal film profiles.

  18. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  19. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  20. Cloud CCN feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result

  1. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can...... diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International...

  2. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid cloud for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kirsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Understand the cloud and implement a cloud strategy for your business Cloud computing enables companies to save money by leasing storage space and accessing technology services through the Internet instead of buying and maintaining equipment and support services. Because it has its own unique set of challenges, cloud computing requires careful explanation. This easy-to-follow guide shows IT managers and support staff just what cloud computing is, how to deliver and manage cloud computing services, how to choose a service provider, and how to go about implementation. It also covers security and

  4. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  5. Clouds of Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollenberg, R G [Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301, U.S.A.; Hansen, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Ragent, B [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Calif. (USA). Ames Research Center; Martonchik, J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA); Tomasko, M [Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA)

    1977-05-01

    The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.

  6. Strong Constraints on Aerosol-Cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, Florent F.; Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Gettelman, Andrew; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Allan, Richard P.; Karset, Inger Helene H.; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; hide

    2017-01-01

    Aerosols have a potentially large effect on climate, particularly through their interactions with clouds, but the magnitude of this effect is highly uncertain. Large volcanic eruptions produce sulfur dioxide, which in turn produces aerosols; these eruptions thus represent a natural experiment through which to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions. Here we show that the massive 2014-2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets - consistent with expectations - but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties. The reduction in droplet size led to cloud brightening and global-mean radiative forcing of around minus 0.2 watts per square metre for September to October 2014. Changes in cloud amount or cloud liquid water path, however, were undetectable, indicating that these indirect effects, and cloud systems in general, are well buffered against aerosol changes. This result will reduce uncertainties in future climate projections, because we are now able to reject results from climate models with an excessive liquid-water-path response.

  7. Dispersion bias, dispersion effect, and the aerosol-cloud conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Guo Huan; Peng Yiran

    2008-01-01

    This work examines the influences of relative dispersion (the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) on cloud albedo and cloud radiative forcing, derives an analytical formulation that accounts explicitly for the contribution from droplet concentration and relative dispersion, and presents a new approach to parameterize relative dispersion in climate models. It is shown that inadequate representation of relative dispersion in climate models leads to an overestimation of cloud albedo, resulting in a negative bias of global mean shortwave cloud radiative forcing that can be comparable to the warming caused by doubling CO 2 in magnitude, and that this dispersion bias is likely near its maximum for ambient clouds. Relative dispersion is empirically expressed as a function of the quotient between cloud liquid water content and droplet concentration (i.e., water per droplet), yielding an analytical formulation for the first aerosol indirect effect. Further analysis of the new expression reveals that the dispersion effect not only offsets the cooling from the Twomey effect, but is also proportional to the Twomey effect in magnitude. These results suggest that unrealistic representation of relative dispersion in cloud parameterization in general, and evaluation of aerosol indirect effects in particular, is at least in part responsible for several outstanding puzzles of the aerosol-cloud conundrum: for example, overestimation of cloud radiative cooling by climate models compared to satellite observations; large uncertainty and discrepancy in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect; and the lack of interhemispheric difference in cloud albedo.

  8. Separation of cadmium and lead from wastewater using supported liquid membrane integrated with in-situ electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2017-01-01

    A novel process for separation of heavy metals from liquid wastes and/or industrial effluents has been developed as described in this paper wherein the technique of supported liquid membrane based extraction and stripping of heavy metals has been augmented with electroplating inside the stripping chamber of SLM. Wastewater, infested with cadmium and lead, has been subject of research in this work. The said process is employed in transporting the heavy metals from the polluted source phase (wastewater) to the sink (or strip) phase while simultaneously depositing the heavy metals in-situ on the electrode placed inside the strip phase, and thereby the strip phase is remained ever-unsaturated. This arrangement yields high gradient of chemical potential across the liquid membrane and thereby facilitates enhanced and faster recovery of said heavy metals and also yields value added component, viz. electroplated items, for suitable end use.

  9. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using...... methanol is converted to a hydrogen rich gas with CO2 trace amounts of CO, the increased operating temperatures allow the fuel cell to tolerate much higher CO concentrations than Nafion-based membranes. The increased tolerance to CO also enables the use of reformer systems with less hydrogen cleaning steps...... liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydrogen storages, simplifies refueling, and enables the use of existing fuel distribution systems. The liquid...

  10. The Many Colors and Shapes of Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T.

    While many enterprises and business entities are deploying and exploiting Cloud Computing, the academic institutes and researchers are also busy trying to wrestle this beast and put a leash on this possible paradigm changing computing model. Many have argued that Cloud Computing is nothing more than a name change of Utility Computing. Others have argued that Cloud Computing is a revolutionary change of the computing architecture. So it has been difficult to put a boundary of what is in Cloud Computing, and what is not. I assert that it is equally difficult to find a group of people who would agree on even the definition of Cloud Computing. In actuality, may be all that arguments are not necessary, as Clouds have many shapes and colors. In this presentation, the speaker will attempt to illustrate that the shape and the color of the cloud depend very much on the business goals one intends to achieve. It will be a very rich territory for both the businesses to take the advantage of the benefits of Cloud Computing and the academia to integrate the technology research and business research.

  11. ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D project

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; Benjamin, D; DiGirolamo, A; Gable, I; Hendrix, V; Hover, J; Kucharczuk, K; Medrano LLamas, R; Ohman, H; Paterson, M; Sobie, R; Taylor, R; Walker, R; Zaytsev, A

    2013-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained...

  12. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  13. Estimation of cloud optical thickness by processing SEVIRI images and implementing a semi analytical cloud property retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N.

    2009-04-01

    this algorithm. The two visible channels of SEVIRI are used to find the COT and the near infra red channel to estimate the effective radius of droplets. Estimation of COT using a semi analytical scheme, which doesn't involve the conventional look-up table approach, is the aim of this work and henceforth, vertically integrated liquid water (w) or ice water content will be retrieved. The COT estimated and w obtained, will be compared with the values obtained from other approaches and will be validated with in situ measurements. Corresponding author address: Praveen Pandey, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400, Mol, Belgium. E-mail: praveen.pandey@vito.be

  14. MCloud: Secure Provenance for Mobile Cloud Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    Feasibility of Smartphone Clouds, 2015 15th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid). 04-MAY- 15, Shenzhen, China...compromised kernel, with the highest privilege. MCloud context data gathered by smartphone sensors can now be relayed correctly and with integrity...aspects of people’s daily online and physical activities. Yet, in critical settings it is especially difficult to ascertain and assert an acceptable level

  15. Cloud Computing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    regardless of  access point or the device being used across the Global Information Grid ( GIG ).  These data  centers will host existing applications...state.  It  illustrates that the DoD Enterprise Cloud is an integrated environment on the  GIG , consisting of  DoD Components, commercial entities...Operations and Maintenance (O&M) costs by  leveraging  economies  of scale, and automate monitoring and provisioning to reduce the  human cost of service

  16. SecSLA: A Proactive and Secure Service Level Agreement Framework for Cloud Services

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad F. Alruwaili; T. Aaron Gulliver

    2014-01-01

    Cloud customers migrate to cloud services to reduce the operational costs of information technology (IT) and increase organization efficiency. However, ensuring cloud security is very challenging. As a consequence, cloud service providers find it difficult to persuade customers to acquire their services due to security concerns. In terms of outsourcing applications, software, and/or infrastructure services to the cloud, customers are concerned about the availability, integrity, privacy...

  17. Securing Cloud - The Quantum Way

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Marmik

    2015-01-01

    Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability are basic goals of security architecture. To ensure CIA, many authentication scheme has been introduced in several years. Currently deployment of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a most significant solution. PKI involving exchange key using certificates via a public channel to a authenticate users in the cloud infrastructure. It is exposed to widespread security threats such as eavesdropping, the man in the middle attack, masquerade et al. Quantu...

  18. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  19. Development of an integrated liquid radioactive waste management system. Part of a coordinated programme on integrated radioactive waste management systems and their impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, O.

    1976-09-01

    This final report discusses the theory of the air heated non-boiling evaporation and the laboratory and pilot plant experiences of simultaneous evaporation and solidification. The evaporator concentrates and dries the radioactive liquid wastes by hot air-flow circulating in closed circuit. The air is used both for heating and removal of vapours. The liquid waste becomes saturated and the salt cake is accumulated in the tank. The yield evaporation rate and the decontamination factor or 90 Sr and 137 Cs was investigated as a function to air-flow, air temperature and humidity. During the evaporation process a simultaneous cementation method was developed to fix the water soluble components of the salt cake. The leaching rate of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the firmness and the homogeneity of the concrete was investigated

  20. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.W.; Nenni, J.A.; Yoder, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility

  1. Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

    2012-11-01

    A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Prcontinuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moving towards Cloud Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment the users have to know the rule of cloud usage, however they have little knowledge about traditional IT security. It is important to measure the level of their knowledge, and evolve the training system to develop the security awareness. The article proves the importance of suggesting new metrics and algorithms for measuring security awareness of corporate users and employees to include the requirements of emerging cloud security.

  3. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  4. Cloud Computing for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, SS; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future

  5. Cloud computing for radiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  6. Representation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds and the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process in climate models: Perspectives from a cloud-resolving study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiwen; Ghan, Steven; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Korolev, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of Arctic mixed-phase clouds observed during the ISDAC and M-PACE field campaigns are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with size-resolved cloud microphysics. The modeled cloud properties agree reasonably well with aircraft measurements and surface-based retrievals. Cloud properties such as the probability density function (PDF) of vertical velocity (w), cloud liquid and ice, regimes of cloud particle growth, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process, and the relationships among properties/processes in mixed-phase clouds are examined to gain insights for improving their representation in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The PDF of the simulated w is well represented by a Gaussian function, validating, at least for arctic clouds, the subgrid treatment used in GCMs. The PDFs of liquid and ice water contents can be approximated by Gamma functions, and a Gaussian function can describe the total water distribution, but a fixed variance assumption should be avoided in both cases. The CRM results support the assumption frequently used in GCMs that mixed phase clouds maintain water vapor near liquid saturation. Thus, ice continues to grow throughout the stratiform cloud but the WBF process occurs in about 50% of cloud volume where liquid and ice co-exist, predominantly in downdrafts. In updrafts, liquid and ice particles grow simultaneously. The relationship between the ice depositional growth rate and cloud ice strongly depends on the capacitance of ice particles. The simplified size-independent capacitance of ice particles used in GCMs could lead to large deviations in ice depositional growth.

  7. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  8. Cloud computing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2011-01-01

    A guide to managing cloud projects, Cloud Computing Strategies provides the understanding required to evaluate the technology and determine how it can be best applied to improve business and enhance your overall corporate strategy. Based on extensive research, it examines the opportunities and challenges that loom in the cloud. It explains exactly what cloud computing is, what it has to offer, and calls attention to the important issues management needs to consider before passing the point of no return regarding financial commitments.

  9. Towards Indonesian Cloud Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Thamrin, Taqwan; Lukman, Iing; Wahyuningsih, Dina Ika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Cloud Computing is most discussed term in business and academic environment.Cloud campus has many benefits such as accessing the file storages, e-mails, databases,educational resources, research applications and tools anywhere for faculty, administrators,staff, students and other users in university, on demand. Furthermore, cloud campus reduces universities’ IT complexity and cost.This paper discuss the implementation of Indonesian cloud campus and various opportunies and benefits...

  10. Cloud Infrastructure Security

    OpenAIRE

    Velev , Dimiter; Zlateva , Plamena

    2010-01-01

    Part 4: Security for Clouds; International audience; Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business. At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security, privacy and reliability. Usually the information security professiona...

  11. Cloud services in organization

    OpenAIRE

    FUXA, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the definition of the word cloud computing, cloud computing models, types, advantages, disadvantages, and comparing SaaS solutions such as: Google Apps and Office 365 in the area of electronic communications. The work deals with the use of cloud computing in the corporate practice, both good and bad practice. The following section describes the methodology for choosing the appropriate cloud service organization. Another part deals with analyzing the possibilities of SaaS i...

  12. Orchestrating Your Cloud Orchestra

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Abram

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing potentially ushers in a new era of computer music performance with exceptionally large computer music instruments consisting of 10s to 100s of virtual machines which we propose to call a `cloud-orchestra'. Cloud computing allows for the rapid provisioning of resources, but to deploy such a complicated and interconnected network of software synthesizers in the cloud requires a lot of manual work, system administration knowledge, and developer/operator skills. This is a barrier ...

  13. Cloud security mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has brought great benefits in cost and flexibility for provisioning services. The greatest challenge of cloud computing remains however the question of security. The current standard tools in access control mechanisms and cryptography can only partly solve the security challenges of cloud infrastructures. In the recent years of research in security and cryptography, novel mechanisms, protocols and algorithms have emerged that offer new ways to create secure services atop cloud...

  14. Cloud computing for radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Amit T Kharat; Amjad Safvi; S S Thind; Amarjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as...

  15. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  16. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhamrit Kaur; Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computin...

  17. Mixed phase clouds: observations and theoretical advances (overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Alexei

    2013-04-01

    Mixed phase clouds play important role in precipitation formation and radiation budget of the Earth. The microphysical measurements in mixed phase clouds are notoriously difficult due to many technical challenges. The airborne instrumentation for characterization of the microstructure of mixed phase clouds is discussed. The results multiyear airborne observations and measurements of frequency of occurrence of mixed phase, characteristic spatial scales, humidity in mixed phase and ice clouds are presented. A theoretical framework describing the thermodynamics and phase transformation of a three phase component system consisting of ice particles, liquid droplets and water vapor is discussed. It is shown that the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process plays different role in clouds with different dynamics. The problem of maintenance and longevity of mixed phase clouds is discussed.

  18. Moving ERP Systems to the Cloud - Data Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Saa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light data security issues and concerns for organizations by moving their Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems to the cloud. Cloud computing has become the new trend of how organizations conduct business and has enabled them to innovate and compete in a dynamic environment through new and innovative business models. The growing popularity and success of the cloud has led to the emergence of cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS ERP systems, a new alternative approach to traditional on-premise ERP systems. Cloud-based ERP has a myriad of benefits for organizations. However, infrastructure engineers need to address data security issues before moving their enterprise applications to the cloud. Cloud-based ERP raises specific concerns about the confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in the cloud. Such concerns that affect the adoption of cloud-based ERP are based on the size of the organization. Small to medium enterprises (SMEs gain the maximum benefits from cloud-based ERP as many of the concerns around data security are not relevant to them. On the contrary, larger organizations are more cautious in moving their mission critical enterprise applications to the cloud. A hybrid solution where organizations can choose to keep their sensitive applications on-premise while leveraging the benefits of the cloud is proposed in this paper as an effective solution that is gaining momentum and popularity for large organizations.

  19. Chargeback for cloud services.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.; Khadka, R.; Stefanov, H.; Jansen, S.; Batenburg, R.; Heusden, E. van

    2014-01-01

    With pay-per-use pricing models, elastic scaling of resources, and the use of shared virtualized infrastructures, cloud computing offers more efficient use of capital and agility. To leverage the advantages of cloud computing, organizations have to introduce cloud-specific chargeback practices.

  20. On CLOUD nine

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  1. Cloud Computing Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  2. Greening the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoed, Robert; Hoekstra, Eric; Procaccianti, G.; Lago, P.; Grosso, Paola; Taal, Arie; Grosskop, Kay; van Bergen, Esther

    The cloud has become an essential part of our daily lives. We use it to store our documents (Dropbox), to stream our music and lms (Spotify and Net ix) and without giving it any thought, we use it to work on documents in the cloud (Google Docs). The cloud forms a massive storage and processing

  3. Security in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  4. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  5. Quantitative Measures of Immersion in Cloud and the Biogeography of Cloud Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. O.; Nair, U. S.; Ray, D.; Regmi, A.; Pounds, J. A.; Welch, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Sites described as tropical montane cloud forests differ greatly, in part because observers tend to differ in their opinion as to what constitutes frequent and prolonged immersion in cloud. This definitional difficulty interferes with hydrologic analyses, assessments of environmental impacts on ecosystems, and biogeographical analyses of cloud forest communities and species. Quantitative measurements of cloud immersion can be obtained on site, but the observations are necessarily spatially limited, although well-placed observers can examine 10 50 km of a mountain range under rainless conditions. Regional analyses, however, require observations at a broader scale. This chapter discusses remote sensing and modeling approaches that can provide quantitative measures of the spatiotemporal patterns of cloud cover and cloud immersion in tropical mountain ranges. These approaches integrate remote sensing tools of various spatial resolutions and frequencies of observation, digital elevation models, regional atmospheric models, and ground-based observations to provide measures of cloud cover, cloud base height, and the intersection of cloud and terrain. This combined approach was applied to the Monteverde region of northern Costa Rica to illustrate how the proportion of time the forest is immersed in cloud may vary spatially and temporally. The observed spatial variation was largely due to patterns of airflow over the mountains. The temporal variation reflected the diurnal rise and fall of the orographic cloud base, which was influenced in turn by synoptic weather conditions, the seasonal movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the north-easterly trade winds. Knowledge of the proportion of the time that sites are immersed in clouds should facilitate ecological comparisons and biogeographical analyses, as well as land use planning and hydrologic assessments in areas where intensive on-site work is not feasible.

  6. DICOM relay over the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís A Bastião; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luis

    2013-05-01

    Healthcare institutions worldwide have adopted picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for enterprise access to images, relying on Digital Imaging Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standards for data exchange. However, communication over a wider domain of independent medical institutions is not well standardized. A DICOM-compliant bridge was developed for extending and sharing DICOM services across healthcare institutions without requiring complex network setups or dedicated communication channels. A set of DICOM routers interconnected through a public cloud infrastructure was implemented to support medical image exchange among institutions. Despite the advantages of cloud computing, new challenges were encountered regarding data privacy, particularly when medical data are transmitted over different domains. To address this issue, a solution was introduced by creating a ciphered data channel between the entities sharing DICOM services. Two main DICOM services were implemented in the bridge: Storage and Query/Retrieve. The performance measures demonstrated it is quite simple to exchange information and processes between several institutions. The solution can be integrated with any currently installed PACS-DICOM infrastructure. This method works transparently with well-known cloud service providers. Cloud computing was introduced to augment enterprise PACS by providing standard medical imaging services across different institutions, offering communication privacy and enabling creation of wider PACS scenarios with suitable technical solutions.

  7. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  8. CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...

  9. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  10. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  11. The Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As the two galaxies nearest to our own, the Magellanic Clouds hold a special place in studies of the extragalactic distance scale, of stellar evolution and the structure of galaxies. In recent years, results from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and elsewhere have shown that it is possible to begin understanding the three dimensional structure of the Clouds. Studies of Magellanic Cloud Cepheids have continued, both to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the Clouds and to learn more about Cepheids and their use as extragalactic distance indicators. Other research undertaken at SAAO includes studies on Nova LMC 1988 no 2 and red variables in the Magellanic Clouds

  12. Cloud Computing Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Sosinsky, Barrie

    2010-01-01

    The complete reference guide to the hot technology of cloud computingIts potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you'll be using or implementing cloud computing.Cloud computing offers significant cost savings by eliminating upfront expenses for hardware and software; its growing popularit

  13. Experimental investigation of a building integrated photovoltaic/thermal roof collector combined with a liquid desiccant enhanced indirect evaporative cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buker, Mahmut Sami; Mempouo, Blaise; Riffat, Saffa B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel solar thermal collector for liquid desiccant air conditioning was introduced. • Low cost poly heat exchanger loop underneath the photovoltaic modules was proposed. • The ability of the combined system was experimentally investigated. • Water temperature in the loop could reach up to 35.5 °C during the tests. • This tri-gen system can supply 3 kW heating, 5.2 kW cooling and 10.3 MW h/year power. - Abstract: Large consumption of limited conventional fossil fuel resources, economic and environmental problems associated with the global warming and climate change have emphasized the immediate need to transition to renewable energy resources. Solar thermal applications along with renewable energy based cooling practices have attracted considerable interest towards sustainable solutions promising various technical, economic and environmental benefits. This study introduces a new concept on solar thermal energy driven liquid desiccant based dew point cooling system that integrates several green technologies; including photovoltaic modules, polyethylene heat exchanger loop and a combined liquid desiccant dehumidification-indirect evaporative air conditioning unit. A pilot scale experimental set-up was developed and tested to investigate the performance of the proposed system and influence of the various parameters such as weather condition, air flow and regeneration temperature. A cost effective, easy-to-make polyethylene heat exchanger loop was employed underneath PV panels for heat generation. In addition, a liquid desiccant enhanced dew point cooling unit was utilized to provide air conditioning through dehumidification of humid air and indirect evaporative cooling. The experimental results show that the proposed tri-generation system is capable of providing about 3 kW of heating, 5.2 kW of cooling power and 10.3 MW h/year power generation, respectively. The findings confirm the potential of the examined technology, and elucidate the

  14. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan IOVAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing reprentes the software applications offered as a service online, but also the software and hardware components from the data center.In the case of wide offerd services for any type of client, we are dealing with a public cloud. In the other case, in wich a cloud is exclusively available for an organization and is not available to the open public, this is consider a private cloud [1]. There is also a third type, called hibrid in which case an user or an organization might use both services available in the public and private cloud. One of the main challenges of cloud computing are to build the trust and ofer information privacy in every aspect of service offerd by cloud computingle. The variety of existing standards, just like the lack of clarity in sustenability certificationis not a real help in building trust. Also appear some questions marks regarding the efficiency of traditionsecurity means that are applied in the cloud domain. Beside the economic and technology advantages offered by cloud, also are some advantages in security area if the information is migrated to cloud. Shared resources available in cloud includes the survey, use of the "best practices" and technology for advance security level, above all the solutions offered by the majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  15. Absorption of solar radiation in broken clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.; Zhuravleva, T.B. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    It is recognized now that the plane-parallel model unsatisfactorily describes the transfer of radiation through broken clouds and that, consequently, the radiation codes of general circulation models (GCMs) must be refined. However, before any refinement in a GCM code is made, it is necessary to investigate the dependence of radiative characteristics on the effects caused by the random geometry of cloud fields. Such studies for mean fluxes of downwelling and upwelling solar radiation in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range were performed by Zuev et al. In this work, we investigate the mean spectral and integrated absorption of solar radiation by broken clouds (in what follows, the term {open_quotes}mean{close_quotes} will be implied but not used, for convenience). To evaluate the potential effect of stochastic geometry, we will compare the absorption by cumulus (0.5 {le} {gamma} {le} 2) to that by equivalent stratus ({gamma} <<1) clouds; here {gamma} = H/D, H is the cloud layer thickness and D the characteristic horizontal cloud size. The equivalent stratus clouds differ from cumulus only in the aspect ratio {gamma}, all the other parameters coinciding.

  16. Cloud Computing and Virtual Desktop Infrastructures in Afloat Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gillette, Stefan E.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of “cloud computing” has become ubiquitous among users of the Internet and many commercial applications. Yet, the U.S. Navy has conducted limited research in this nascent technology. This thesis explores the application and integration of cloud computing both at the shipboard level and in a multi-ship environment. A virtual desktop infrastructure, mirroring a shipboard environment, was built and analyzed in the Cloud Lab at the Naval Postgraduate School, which offers a potentia...

  17. Establishing a Cloud Computing Success Model for Hospitals in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Jiunn-Woei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the critical quality-related factors that affect cloud computing success of hospitals in Taiwan. In this study, private cloud computing is the major research target. The chief information officers participated in a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that the integration of trust into the information systems success model will have acceptable explanatory power to understand cloud computing success in the hospital. Moreover, information quality...

  18. The Impact of Aerosols on Cloud and Precipitation Processes: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen; Khain, Alexander; Matsui, Toshihisa; Lang, Stephen; Simpson, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al ., 2001]." Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 19991. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005

  19. Following a drop of water from the cloud, throughout the sewer system, into the receiving water - Model predictive control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari

    This article presents selected examples of model-based prediction and control of integrated sewer-wastewater treatment systems, developed within the framework of the Storm- and Wastewater Informatics project (SWI). By exploiting all the available on-line information (e.g. radar based rainfall...... of pollutants discharged from treatment plants, etc.). The tools developed in the SWI project include (but are not limited to (i) rainfall nowcasting based on radar measurements, (ii) probabilistic flow forecasting based on data assimilation and stochastic models, (iii) prediction and optimization of wet......-weather performance of wastewater treatment plants, and (iv) integrated control of the different elements of the integrated wastewater systems. Full-scale testing of these tools in different catchment located in Denmark ensure that the developed tools can represent an important step forwards for on-line operation...

  20. Explicit prediction of ice clouds in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Martin

    1999-11-01

    Although clouds play extremely important roles in the radiation budget and hydrological cycle of the Earth, there are large quantitative uncertainties in our understanding of their generation, maintenance and decay mechanisms, representing major obstacles in the development of reliable prognostic cloud water schemes for General Circulation Models (GCMs). Recognizing their relative neglect in the past, both observationally and theoretically, this work places special focus on ice clouds. A recent version of the UCLA - University of Utah Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) that includes interactive radiation is used to perform idealized experiments to study ice cloud maintenance and decay mechanisms under various conditions in term of: (1) background static stability, (2) background relative humidity, (3) rate of cloud ice addition over a fixed initial time-period and (4) radiation: daytime, nighttime and no-radiation. Radiation is found to have major effects on the life-time of layer-clouds. Optically thick ice clouds decay significantly slower than expected from pure microphysical crystal fall-out (taucld = 0.9--1.4 h as opposed to no-motion taumicro = 0.5--0.7 h). This is explained by the upward turbulent fluxes of water induced by IR destabilization, which partially balance the downward transport of water by snowfall. Solar radiation further slows the ice-water decay by destruction of the inversion above cloud-top and the resulting upward transport of water. Optically thin ice clouds, on the other hand, may exhibit even longer life-times (>1 day) in the presence of radiational cooling. The resulting saturation mixing ratio reduction provides for a constant cloud ice source. These CRM results are used to develop a prognostic cloud water scheme for the UCLA-GCM. The framework is based on the bulk water phase model of Ose (1993). The model predicts cloud liquid water and cloud ice separately, and which is extended to split the ice phase into suspended cloud ice (predicted