This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care.
Hinman, Alan R; Atkinson, Delton; Diehn, Tonya Norvell; Eichwald, John; Heberer, Jennifer; Hoyle, Therese; King, Pam; Kossack, Robert E; Williams, Donna C; Zimmerman, Amy
Infants undergo a series of preventive and therapeutic health interventions and activities. Typically, each activity includes collection and submission of data to a dedicated information system. Subsequently, health care providers, families, and health programs must query each information system to determine the child's status in a given area. Efforts are underway to integrate information in these separate information systems. This requires specifying the core functions that integrated information systems must perform.
Integrating reproductive and child health and HIV services in Tanzania: Implication to policy, systems and services. ... Experts around the world recognize the central role of Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services in preventing HIV infection. Evidence suggests that improving access to contraception for women to ...
Aiga, Hirotsugu; Nguyen, Vinh Duc; Nguyen, Cuong Dinh; Nguyen, Tho Thi Thi; Nguyen, Lien Thi Phuong
. Moreover, to ensure a continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, the HBRs currently fragmented into different MCH stages (i.e. pregnancy, delivery, child immunisation, child growth, and child development) should be integrated. Standardisation and integration of HBRs will help increase technical efficiency and financial sustainability of HBR operations. PMID:26928218
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Abstract: In Tanzania, reproductive health and HIV services are coordinated by the .... and skills that are effectively managed and are equitably distributed to ensure that ..... to access and use PMTCT services and in reducing stigma, denial and.
The objective of this study was to assess the level of integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in facilities providing services for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health (RH) in Senegal. The survey, conducted from August through November, 2014, comprised five parts : a literature review to assess the place of this integration in the health policies, standards, and protocols in effect in Senegal; an analysis by direct observation of attitudes and practices of 25 healthcare providers at 5 randomly-selected obstetrics and gynecology departments representative of different levels of the health pyramid; a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes of 10 providers about the integration of PMTCT services into MNCH/RH facilities; interviews to collect the opinions of 70 clients, including 16 HIV-positive, about the quality of PMTCT services they received; and a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and opinions of 14 policy-makers/managers of health programs focusing on mothers and children about this integration. The literature review revealed several constraints impeding this integration : the policy documents, standards, and protocols of each of the programs involved do not clearly indicate the modalities of this integration; the programs are housed in two different divisions while the national Program against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus reports directly to the Prime Minister; program operations remains generally vertical; the resources for the different programs are not sufficiently shared; there is no integrated training module covering integrated management of pregnancy and delivery; and supervision for each of the different programs is organized separately.The observation of the providers supporting women during pregnancy, during childbirth, and in the postpartum period, showed an effort to integrate PMTCT into the MNCH/RH services delivered daily to clients. But this desire is hampered by many
Tuominen, Miia; Kaljonen, Anne; Ahonen, Pia; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi
Primary maternity care services are globally provided according to various organisational models. Two models are common in Finland: a maternity health clinic and an integrated maternity and child health clinic. The aim of this study was to clarify whether there is a relation between the organisational model of the maternity health clinics and the utilisation of maternity care services, and certain maternal and perinatal health outcomes. A comparative, register-based cross-sectional design was used. The data of women (N = 2741) who had given birth in the Turku University Hospital area between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009 were collected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Comparisons were made between the women who were clients of the maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics. There were no clinically significant differences between the clients of maternity health clinics and integrated maternity and child health clinics regarding the utilisation of maternity care services or the explored health outcomes. The organisational model of the maternity health clinic does not impact the utilisation of maternity care services or maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Primary maternity care could be provided effectively when integrated with child health services.
Seiber, Eric E; Hotchkiss, David R; Rous, Jeffrey J; Berruti, Andrés A
Does the utilization of modern maternal and child health (MCH) services influence subsequent contraceptive use? The answer to this question holds important implications for proposals which advocate MCH and family planning service integration. This study uses data from the 1995/6 Guatemalan Demographic Health Survey and its 1997 Providers Census to test the influence of MCH service utilization on individual contraceptive use decisions. We use a full-information maximum likelihood regression model to control for unobserved heterogeneity. This model produces estimates of the MCH effect, independent of individual women's underlying receptiveness to MCH and contraceptive messages. The results of the analysis indicate that the intensity of MCH service use is indeed positively associated with subsequent contraceptive use among Guatemalan women, even after controlling for observed and unobserved individual- , household- , and community-level factors. Importantly, this finding holds even after controlling for the unobserved factors that 'predispose' some women to use both types of services. Simulations reveal that, for these Guatemalan women, key determinants such as age and primary schooling work indirectly through MCH service use to increase contraceptive utilization.
Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Thomas, Mavuto; Gladstone, Melisa
Stunting and poor child development are major public health concerns in Malawi. Integrated nutrition and early child development (ECD) interventions have shown potential to reduce stunting, but it is not known how these integrated approaches can be implemented in Malawi. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the current jobs status of community health workers and their potential to implement integrated approaches. This was accomplished by a desk review of nutrition and ECD policy documents, as well as interviews with key informants, community health workers, and community members. We found that Malawi has comprehensive policies and well-outlined coordination structures for nutrition and ECD that advocate for integrated approaches. Strong multidisciplinary interaction exists at central levels but not at the community level. Integration of community health workers from different sectors is limited by workload, logistics, and a lack of synchronized work schedules. Favorable, sound policies and well-outlined coordination structures alone are not enough for the establishment of integrated nutrition and ECD activities. Balanced bureaucratic structures, improved task allocation, and synchronization of work schedules across all relevant sectors are needed for integrated intervention in Malawi. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...
Full Text Available Several dominant theoretical perspectives attempt to account for health disparities in developing countries, including political economy, the capability approach, and fundamental cause. This study combines the perspectives in a multi-level analysis of child malnutrition and diarrhea in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of who faces increased health risks and who is shielded from them. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys and World Bank data, I estimate a series of models that predict the likelihood of child malnutrition and diarrhea, based on a set of country- and individual-level explanatory variables. Results suggest that at the individual-level, household wealth and maternal education are the most robust predictors of child health. These social factors are even more important than more proximate factors like clean water or sanitation. At the country-level, gross domestic product (GDP per capita reduces malnutrition, but does not significantly affect incidence of diarrhea. Contrary to the predominant economic development paradigm, health care and education are more important in accounting for the prevalence of diarrhea than GDP. Finally, trade in and of itself is not harmful to well-being in developing countries. It is when countries become too dependent on one or a few commodities that trade starts to have detrimental costs. Thus, a synthesis of theoretical frameworks best illustrates the complex web of social structural factors that manifest as unequal life chances for children.
Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe
International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...
Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews-Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top-ranked research question were: i) "How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?"; ii) "How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource-poor settings?"; and iii) "How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?". Most highly-ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource-limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost-effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial barriers, and quality assessment of programs
.... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...
Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter
. Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high...... child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...
Chiang, Rachelle Johnsson; Meagher, Whitney; Slade, Sean
Background: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model calls for greater collaboration across the community, school, and health sectors to meet the needs and support the full potential of each child. This article reports on how 3 states and 2 local school districts have implemented aspects of the WSCC model through collaboration,…
Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet
Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health
Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Wanga; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Kinney, Mary; Manda, Samuel; Besada, Donela; Jackson, Debra; Daniels, Karen; Rohde, Sarah; van Damme, Wim; Kerber, Kate; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Rudan, Igor; Muniz, Maria; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Zamasiya, Texas; Rohde, Jon; Sanders, David
Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI) programme of support (2007-2013). We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI) 189 to 249) in the period 1991-1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132) in the period 2006-2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24%) and increased household coverage of insecticide-treated bednets (19%). These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub-Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community-based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.
Full Text Available Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI programme of support (2007–2013. We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI 189 to 249 in the period 1991–1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132 in the period 2006–2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24% and increased household coverage of insecticide–treated bednets (19%. These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub–Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community–based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.
Mackenzie, Devon; Pfitzer, Anne; Maly, Christina; Waka, Charles; Singh, Gajendra; Sanyal, Abanti
Maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services represent opportunities to integrate postpartum family planning (PPFP). Objectives were to determine levels of MNCH-family planning (FP) integration and associations between integration, client characteristics and service delivery factors in facilities that received programmatic PPFP support. Cross-sectional client flow assessment conducted during May-July 2014, over 5 days at 10 purposively selected public sector facilities in India (4 hospitals) and Kenya (2 hospitals and 4 health centres). 2158 client visits tracked (1294 India; 864 Kenya). Women aged 18 or older accessing services while pregnant and/or with a child under 2 years. PPFP/postpartum intrauterine device-Bihar, India (2012-2013); Jharkhand, India (2009-2014); Embu, Kenya (2006-2010). Maternal, infant and young child nutrition/FP integration-Bondo, Kenya (2011-2014). Proportion of visits where clients received integrated MNCH-FP services, client characteristics as predictors of MNCH-FP integration and MNCH-FP integration as predictor of length of time spent at facility. Levels of MNCH-FP integration varied widely across facilities (5.3% to 63.0%), as did proportion of clients receiving MNCH-FP integrated services by service area. Clients travelling 30-59 min were half as likely to receive integrated services versus those travelling under 30 min (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7, Pintegration by MNCH service area. FP integration was highest in areas receiving specific support. Integration does not seem to impose an undue burden on clients in terms of time spent at the facility. Clients living furthest from facilities are least likely to receive integrated services. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission.1 These infections can be largely prevented by antenatal screening, treatment and timely vaccination for newborns. Despite challenges in controlling each disease, major achievements have been made. National immunization programmes have reduced the regional hepatitis B prevalence from over 8% in 1990 to 0.93% among children born in 2012. In addition, HIV testing and treatment have helped keep the regional prevalence of HIV infections at 0.1%. In contrast, the number of maternal syphilis cases is still high in the Western Pacific Region, with an estimated 45 million cases in 2012. Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of these infections cannot be achieved through vertically applied programming and require using and augmenting to the shared Maternal, Newborn and Child Health platform to coordinate, integrate and enable cost efficiencies for these elimination efforts. The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018–2030 offers such a coordinated approach towards achieving the triple elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis and provides guidance for decision-makers, managers and health professionals working in programmes addressing maternal, newborn and child health, HIV, hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections and immunization.
Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Corley, Andrew
Theoretical and empirical studies conducted to ascertain the incidence and characteristics of child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing countries around the world are inconsistent and poorly synthesized. In order to prevent and respond to these heinous acts, clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base interventions and treatment programs. The purpose of this study is to conduct an integrative review of the literature concerning CSA in non-industrialized nations. Ultimately, this evidence could be used to drive research and policy implementation in this area. An integrative literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) regarding the incidence and characteristics of all forms of child sexual assault in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) since 1980. Independent and collective thematic assessment and analysis was utilized to identify major concepts of the phenomenon. Forty-four articles were identified. These represented 32 separate low or middle-income countries. More studies were identified in low-income countries, and there was a disproportional distribution of studies conducted on regions of the world. CSA has been identified at all levels of society in nearly every region and continent of the world. It is being falsely perceived as a new phenomenon in some developing countries, most likely as a result of increases in CSA reporting. Researching and discussing CSA is difficult because of the sensitive and taboo nature of the topic. Four major themes emerged including difficulty of accurate measurement, barriers to reporting, barriers to justice, and the false perception of CSA as a new phenomenon. Themes of early marriage, human trafficking, sexual coercion and forced first sex, and males as victims have been identified as characteristics and topics placing individuals at risk for CSA. Poverty and its resultant
Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E
The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A considerable number of cognitive processes depend on the integration of multisensory information. The brain integrates this information, providing a complete representation of our surrounding world and giving us the ability to react optimally to the environment. Infancy is a period of great changes in brain structure and function that are reflected by the increase of processing capacities of the developing child. However, it is unclear if the optimal use of multisensory information is present early in childhood or develops only later, with experience. The first part of this review has focused on the typical development of multisensory integration (MSI. We have described the two hypotheses on the developmental process of MSI in neurotypical infants and children, and have introduced MSI and its neuroanatomic correlates. The second section has discussed the neurodevelopmental trajectory of MSI in cognitively-challenged infants and children. A few studies have brought to light various difficulties to integrate sensory information in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Consequently, we have exposed certain possible neurophysiological relationships between MSI deficits and neurodevelopmental disorders, especially dyslexia and attention deficit disorder with/without hyperactivity.
Spencer, N J; Penlington, E
Community child health medical audit is established in most districts surveyed. A minority have integrated audit with hospital paediatric units. Very few districts use an external auditor. Subject audit is preferred to individual performance audit and school health services were the most common services subjected to medical audit. The need for integrated audit and audit forms suitable for use in the community services is discussed.
Nsirim, Reward O; Iyongo, Joseph A; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Ugochuku, Maureen
One of the fundamental challenges to implementing successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in Nigeria is the uptake of PMTCT services at health facilities. Several issues usually discourage many pregnant women from receiving antenatal care services at designated health facilities within their communities. The CRS Nigeria PMTCT Project funded by the Global Fund in its Round 9 Phase 1 in Nigeria, sought to increase demand for HIV counseling and testing services for pregnant women at 25 supported primary health centers (PHCs) in Kaduna State, North-West Nigeria by integrating traditional birth attendants (TBAs) across the communities where the PHCs were located into the project. Community dialogues were held with the TBAs, community leaders and women groups. These dialogues focused on modes of mother to child transmission of HIV and the need for TBAs to refer their clients to PHCs for testing. Subsequently, data on number of pregnant women who were counseled, tested and received results was collected on a monthly basis from the 25 facilities using the national HIV/AIDS tools. Prior to this integration, the average number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results was 200 pregnant women across all the 25 health facilities monthly. After the integration of TBAs into the program, the number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results kept increasing month after month up to an average of 1500 pregnant women per month across the 25 health facilities. TBAs can thus play a key role in improving service uptake and utilization for pregnant women at primary health centers in the community - especially in the context of HIV/AIDS. They thus need to be integrated, rather than alienated, from primary healthcare service delivery.
Hasegawa, Aya; Yasuoka, Junko; Ly, Po; Nguon, Chea; Jimba, Masamine
Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs' child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers' VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers' knowledge of malaria management. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers' utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs' length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs' service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs' length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers' wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers' literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers' knowledge of malaria management. VMWs' service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers' utilization of VMWs' child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are seeking VMWs' support for childhood illnesses even if they are
Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu
The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reward O. Nsirim
Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges to implementing successful prevention of mother-tochild transmission (PMTCT programs in Nigeria is the uptake of PMTCT services at health facilities. Several issues usually discourage many pregnant women from receiving antenatal care services at designated health facilities within their communities. The CRS Nigeria PMTCT Project funded by the Global Fund in its Round 9 Phase 1 in Nigeria, sought to increase demand for HIV counseling and testing services for pregnant women at 25 supported primary health centers (PHCs in Kaduna State, North-West Nigeria by integrating traditional birth attendants (TBAs across the communities where the PHCs were located into the project. Community dialogues were held with the TBAs, community leaders and women groups. These dialogues focused on modes of mother to child transmission of HIV and the need for TBAs to refer their clients to PHCs for testing. Subsequently, data on number of pregnant women who were counseled, tested and received results was collected on a monthly basis from the 25 facilities using the national HIV/AIDS tools. Prior to this integration, the average number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results was 200 pregnant women across all the 25 health facilities monthly. After the integration of TBAs into the program, the number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results kept increasing month after month up to an average of 1500 pregnant women per month across the 25 health facilities. TBAs can thus play a key role in improving service uptake and utilization for pregnant women at primary health centers in the community – especially in the context of HIV/AIDS. They thus need to be integrated, rather than alienated, from primary healthcare service delivery.
Draws from works by Bronfenbrenner, Tinbergen, and Burgess to conceptualize child maltreatment as a social-psychological phenomenon that is multiply determined by individual, family, community, and cultural forces. (Author/GC)
"Despite children making up around a quarter of the population, the first edition of this book was the first to focus on a public health approach to the health and sickness of children and young people...
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Ruhm, C J
This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.
For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.
Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti
Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.
Nutrition is one of the most important and highly discussed topics in medical community. It determines the quality of health in young citizens as well as the future of the nation. Infant and child nutrition, especially in the first few years of life is crucial; lest ends up in malnutrition. Policies on nutrition and health education of mothers on infant and young child feeding as well as efforts to trigger appropriate behavioural changes among mothers are being considered as direct interventi...
Huybregts, Lieven; Becquey, Elodie; Zongrone, Amanda; Le Port, Agnes; Khassanova, Regina; Coulibaly, Lazare; Leroy, Jef L; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T
Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM) in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage) of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM) model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS) study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM). The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i) repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii) a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of implementation of the intervention guided by country
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. Methods/Design The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM. The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of
Steenhoff, Andrew P; Crouse, Heather L; Lukolyo, Heather; Larson, Charles P; Howard, Cynthia; Mazhani, Loeto; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Niescierenko, Michelle L; Musoke, Philippa; Marshall, Roseda; Soto, Miguel A; Butteris, Sabrina M; Batra, Maneesh
Child mortality remains a global health challenge and has resulted in demand for expanding the global child health (GCH) workforce over the last 3 decades. Institutional partnerships are the cornerstone of sustainable education, research, clinical service, and advocacy for GCH. When successful, partnerships can become self-sustaining and support development of much-needed training programs in resource-constrained settings. Conversely, poorly conceptualized, constructed, or maintained partnerships may inadvertently contribute to the deterioration of health systems. In this comprehensive, literature-based, expert consensus review we present a definition of partnerships for GCH, review their genesis, evolution, and scope, describe participating organizations, and highlight benefits and challenges associated with GCH partnerships. Additionally, we suggest a framework for applying sound ethical and public health principles for GCH that includes 7 guiding principles and 4 core practices along with a structure for evaluating GCH partnerships. Finally, we highlight current knowledge gaps to stimulate further work in these areas. With awareness of the potential benefits and challenges of GCH partnerships, as well as shared dedication to guiding principles and core practices, GCH partnerships hold vast potential to positively impact child health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kismödi, Eszter; Kiragu, Karusa; Sawicki, Olga; Smith, Sally; Brion, Sophie; Sharma, Aditi; Mworeko, Lilian; Iovita, Alexandrina
In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services. The rights-based validation process also involves the assessment of participation of affected communities in EMTCT program development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It brings awareness to the types of human rights abuses and inequalities faced by women living with, at risk of, or affected by HIV and syphilis, and commits governments to eliminate those barriers. This process demonstrates the importance and feasibility of integrating human rights, gender, and community into key public health interventions in a manner that improves health outcomes, legitimizes the participation of affected communities, and advances the human rights of women living with HIV.
Herold, Beth; St Claire, Karen; Snider, Scott; Narayan, Aditee
Child maltreatment is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in the United States, often leading to lifelong adverse health consequences. Currently, there is a nationwide shortage of child abuse pediatricians (CAPs), resulting in many unfilled child abuse positions throughout the United States. In addition, the number of future CAPs currently in fellowship training will meet neither the current need for CAPs nor provide replacements for the senior CAPs who will be retiring in the next 5 to 10 years. Although it is recognized that pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) play an important role in the care of maltreated children, there are few available data on the impact of the PNP as an integral member of the child abuse team. Using the outcomes logic model, we present a systematic process through which the PNP can be effectively integrated into a medical child abuse team. The outcomes from this process show that the addition of PNPs to the child abuse team not only provides immediate relief to the nationwide CAP shortage but also significantly augments the diverse clinical skills and expertise available to the child abuse team. Copyright © 2018 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti
Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...
... events and children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Mental Health ... in childhood Traumatic events and children Related Health Topics Bullying Child Behavior Disorders Mental Disorders Mental Health ...
Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio
We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care-seeking within 24 hours and care-seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers' ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care-seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.
Alyssa B Sharkey
Full Text Available We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.
Full Text Available We assessed the integration of PMTCT services during the postpartum period including early infant diagnosis of HIV (EID and adult and pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in maternal and child health (MCH facilities in Zimbabwe.From August to December 2012 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of 151 MCH facilities. A questionnaire was used to survey each site about staff training, dried blood spot sample (DBS collection, turnaround time (TAT for test results, PMTCT services, and HIV care and treatment linkages for HIV-infected mothers and children and HIV-exposed infants. Descriptive analyses were used. Of the facilities surveyed, all facilities were trained on DBS collection and 92% responded. Approximately, 99% of responding facilities reported providing DBS collection and a basic HIV-exposed infant service package including EID, extended nevirapine prophylaxis, and use of cotrimoxazole. DBS collection was integrated with immunisations at 83% of facilities, CD4 testing with point-of-care machines was available at 37% of facilities, and ART for both mothers and children was provided at 27% of facilities. More than 80% of facilities reported that DBS test results take >4 weeks to return; TAT did not have a direct association with any specific type of transport, distance to the lab, or intermediate stops for data to travel.Zimbabwe has successfully scaled up and integrated the national EID and PMTCT programs into the existing MCH setting. The long TAT of infant DBS test results and the lack of integrated ART programs in the MCH setting could reduce effectiveness of the national PMTCT and ART programs. Addressing these important gaps will support successful implementation of the 2014 Zimbabwe's PMTCT guidelines under which all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women will be offered life-long ART and decentralized ART care.
THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS
The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953
Full Text Available Aims: to systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM. Methods: an iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research priority setting exercise. These experts generated and systematically ranked research questions for iCCM. Research questions were ranked using a “Research Priority Score” (RPS and the “Average Expert Agreement” (AEA was calculated for every question. Our groups of experts were comprised of both individuals working in Ministries of Health or Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs and individuals working in high–income countries (HICs in academia or NGO headquarters. A Spearman's Rho was calculated to determine the correlation between the two groups' research questions' ranks. Results: The overall RPS ranged from 64.58 to 89.31, with a median score of 81.43. AEA scores ranged from 0.54 to 0.86. Research questions involving increasing the uptake of iCCM services, research questions concerning the motivation, retention, training and supervision of Community Health Workers (CHWs and concerning adding additional responsibilities including counselling for infant and young child feeding (IYCF and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM ranked highly. There was weak to moderate, statistically significant, correlation between scores by representatives of high–income countries and those working in–country or regionally (Spearman's ρ = 0.35034, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Operational research to determine optimal training, supervision and modes of motivation and retention for the CHW is vital for improving iCCM, globally, as is research to motivate caregivers to take advantage of iCCM services. Experts working in–country or regionally in
Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M
Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.
Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...
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goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division teams. IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to address health ... Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and dysfunctional ...
Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Function, Integration, and...
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Function, Integration and...
Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.
Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.
Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...
Sodahlon Yao K
Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Methods The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n = 2521 and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n = 2813 in three districts representative of Togo's three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto, central fertile highlands (Ogou and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone. Results In households with children 65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88 and 0.49 (0.35-0.75; Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79 and 0.85 (0.57-1.27, respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children Conclusions A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts.
Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A
Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leroy, Jef L; Olney, Deanna; Ruel, Marie
Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with ∼3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Stunting (height-for-age z score effect in the T24 [7.4 percentage points (pp); P effect across arms were not significant (P > 0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01072279.
Fakir, Adnan M S
The causal link between a household's economic standing and child health is known to suffer from endogeneity. While past studies have exemplified the causal link to be small, albeit statistically significant, this paper aims to estimate the causal effect to investigate whether the effect of income after controlling for the endogeneity remains small in the long run. By correcting for the bias, and knowing the bias direction, one can also infer about the underlying backward effect. This paper uses an instrument variables two-stage-least-squares estimation on the Young Lives 2009 cross-sectional dataset from Andhra Pradesh, India, to understand the aforementioned relationship. The selected measure of household economic standing differentially affects the estimation. There is significant positive effect of both short-run household expenditure and long-run household wealth on child stunting, with the latter having a larger impact. The backward link running from child health to household income is likely an inverse association in our sample with lower child health inducing higher earnings. While higher average community education improved child health, increased community entertainment expenditure is found to have a negative effect. While policies catered towards improving household wealth will decrease child stunting in the long run, maternal education and the community play an equally reinforcing role in improving child health and are perhaps faster routes to achieving the goal of better child health in the short run.
Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J
Child care practices and hygiene measures were studied at 6 months of age in a longitudinally followed cohort of 1476 infants born between September 1984 to March 1987 in four socio-economically different areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Although, 76-98% of the mothers looked after their infants during health and 96-98% during a diarrhoeal illness, child care practices and hygiene measures differed significantly between the four areas. During a diarrhoeal episode, the mothers from the upper middle class took timely medical help, fed ample food and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) to the sick infants and provided uncontaminated food to them in clean surroundings. The mothers from the village and the periurban slum took their sick child, mostly after the second day of illness, to a doctor, but preferred home remedies. Fourteen percent of the mothers in the village and 6% in the periurban slum did not seek any medical help at all. One-third of the families, from these two areas, fed food to children 12 hours after cooking; the surroundings of the child were dirty with large numbers of flies present throughout the year, though the food was commonly kept covered with a lid. We constructed a simple measure of the surroundings of the child, rated as dirty, medium or clean; it was found to be associated to both parental illiteracy and child growth, but not with housing standard. The main conclusion is that any attempt to improve child-care practices and the hygienic environment for the child, should focus on maternal literacy and simple health messages.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee's Integrated Health Management panel was started about 6 years ago to help foster...
Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling
Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....
... could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group Function, Integration, and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee; Function, Integration and Rehabilitation Sciences Subcommittee. Date: June...
... injuries in children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Child Safety updates ... safety Preventing head injuries in children Related Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Internet Safety Motor Vehicle ...
Hutchens, Bridget F; Kearney, Joan; Kennedy, Holly Powell
An integrative review was performed to explore the relationship between a maternal history of child maltreatment and subsequent postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms. Six electronic databases were used to explore the literature, including PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and Scopus. Studies were included that used victims of child maltreatment as one of the independent variables and PPD symptoms as one of the dependent variables. Studies were excluded if they focused only on women with adult intimate partner violence or women with PPD who were perpetrators of child abuse rather than survivors. The studies were required to be original research, and there was no limit to years or language. The search yielded 589 studies, 16 of which were included in the final sample. These studies were assessed for quality, and a data display matrix was developed to extract the sample, design, methods, operational definitions for independent and dependent variables of interest, major findings with effect sizes, and limitations. Using the data display matrix, the studies' methods and findings were synthesized for divergent and convergent patterns. Studies were varied in their designs, samples, and operational definitions of child maltreatment and PPD, and were low to moderate in quality. Results were inconsistent, but a majority suggest a positive association between a maternal history of child maltreatment and subsequent symptoms of PPD. Child maltreatment and PPD are complex issues that require careful screening by women's health care providers and clearly defined operational definitions in future research. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dijk, M. van; Walstock, D.; Zwaanswijk, M.
Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are frequently not identified and properly treated within general practice. Politicians in the Netherlands are promoting more primary healthcare treatment for mental health problems. The current study aims to evaluate an integrated primary
Editorial comment was provided on the features that made the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in India unique and on whether or not the system could focus on younger age groups (e.g., 2-3 years of age). As part of a worldwide effort, India's ICDS program has been directed to human resource development. Over the past 17 years, the program has expanded to include almost 50% of the country's most vulnerable and deprived population. The focus on children aimed to improve their nutrition and health by reducing the incidence of morbidity, mortality, malnutrition, and school dropouts. The concern encompassed physical, social, and psychological development. The focus on mothers stressed enabling them to better care for the health and nutrition of their children. The program included prenatal care, safe delivery, and post natal concern for lactation, breast feeding, and physical growth monitoring in the early years. The program's unique features were its voluntary membership of community health workers, integrated services, and targeted coverage of economically weaker and deprived populations during critical child development periods. Indigenous Indian resources provided the primary financial support. Nation coverage was given for universal immunization, family welfare, child and maternal health, diarrheal disease control, vitamin A supplementation, and anemia screening and treatment. The multisectoral nature of the program has been realized at the village, sector, block, and district levels with linkages within Health, Education, and Social Welfare sectors, and with the Medical Colleges and Home Science Colleges. Feedback from operations research studies and other research activities was provided at the local program level, and interactions occurred between students in training programs and health care delivery systems. The program will be expanded to include the entire country. Health and nutrition education were considered the weakest part of ICDS
... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... table 6 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Related FastStats Adolescent Health ADHD Asthma Infant Health More data: reports ...
Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.
Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:
Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.
Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia
Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents' lack of knowledge and of immunization. Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34% of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents′ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.
A principal purpose of this article has been to examine the gap between research and practice in relation to community factors in child mental health. Two caveats were introduced in preparation for this assessment. First, it was pointed out that the definition of communities has been expanded by considering the organizing properties of social aggregates that are not simply a function of the race, ethnicity, or social class of individuals who compose them. Having these definitions grounded in theory substantially advances the needs of research and the design and goals of community-level interventions. The second caveat relates to the boundaries of the disciplines that cater to the needs of children. During the same era when child psychiatry is largely occupied with placing psychotropic medications at the center of clinical approaches, there is an important effort in child psychology and sociology to cut across their disciplinary confines to form more comprehensive designs that are sensitive to experiences and circumstances that emerge from specific aspects of community context. Research from the PHDCN was used as an example of this new interdisciplinary approach. Several community-based research projects were selected for review based on their clear implications to improve context-sensitive assessment of child mental health and design effective community-based interventions to improve child mental health. The Healthy Start and CATCH programs indicate that involving child professionals at the grassroots of community life requires skill and patience but that the effort is satisfying and potentially effective. Other examples, exemplified by North Carolina's Smart Start initiative and the program of developmental assets from the Search Institute, demonstrate coherent approaches that provide a foundation for long-term capacity building in assessment, local decision making, and the design and evaluation of interventions. Three conclusions are warranted from this
Jan 18, 2018 ... ... improving maternal and child care, even in difficult contexts such as South ... the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa (IMCHA) initiative ... of Health and National Primary Health Care Development Agency, and ...
Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena
Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...
Madan Singh Rathore
Full Text Available Background: The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS scheme is the largest program for promotion of maternal and child health and nutrition. Aims: The present study is aimed to evaluate ICDS program in terms of infrastructure of anganwadi centers (AWCs, characteristics of anganwadi workers (AWWs, coverage of supplementary nutrition (SN, and preschool education (PSE to the beneficiaries. Methods: A total of 39 AWCs from a rural area and 15 from the urban area were surveyed. AWWs were interviewed, and records were reviewed. Information was collected using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results: In the selected AWCs, 88.9% were running in Pucca buildings, 38.9% had electricity, 35.1% had a separate kitchen, 1.8% had cooking gas, and toilets were available in 59.3% AWCs. All the AWW have received job training, 83.3% AWW have received refresher training. 38.8% AWW have received orientation training, 37% have received skill training in World Health Organization growth standards and 18.5% AWW have received skill training in mother and child health. 86.9% registered pregnant women, 90.7% registered lactating women, 72.6% registered adolescent girls were availing SN. 95.4% registered children 6 months to 3 years and 92.4% registered children 3-6 years of age were availing SN. Interruption in SN in last 6 months was seen in 22.2% AWCs. Appropriate and adequate PSE material was available in 59.2% AWCs. Conclusion: There are program gaps in the infrastructure of AWCs, training of AWW, coverage of SN, interruption in the supply of SN.
... PDF Foods For Healthy Teeth - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Office of Oral Health Maryland Department of Health ... PDF Healthy Teeth, Healthy Kids - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Maryland Dental Action Coalition Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ...
Wang, Caroline C; Pies, Cheri A
(1) To introduce photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, for use by MCH program managers to enhance community health assessments and program planning efforts, (2) to enable community people to use the photovoice methodology as a tool to record, reflect, and communicate their family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns, and (3) to educate community leaders about family, maternal, and child health issues from a grassroots perspective. Photovoice is based upon the theoretical literature on education for critical consciousness, feminist theory, and community-based approaches to documentary photography. Picture This Photovoice project took place in Contra Costa, an economically and ethnically diverse county in the San Francisco Bay area. Sixty county residents of ages 13-50 participated in 3 sessions during which they received training from the local health department in the techniques and process of photovoice. Residents were provided with disposable cameras and were encouraged to take photographs reflecting their views on family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns in their community, and then participated in group discussions about their photographs. Community events were held to enable participants to educate MCH staff and community leaders. The photovoice project provided MCH staff with information to supplement existing quantitative perinatal data and contributed to an understanding of key MCH issues that participating community residents would like to see addressed. Participants' concerns centered on the need for safe places for children's recreation and for improvement in the broader community environment within county neighborhoods. Participants' definitions of family, maternal, and child health assets and concerns differed from those that MCH professionals may typically view as MCH issues (low birth weight, maternal mortality, teen pregnancy prevention), which helped MCH program staff to expand priorities and include
Schwartz, Anne L; LeRoy, Lauren
Children and youth are the focus for many foundations and corporate-giving programs working in the health field. Total foundation giving targeted to children and youth more than doubled during the late 1990s; in 2000, health accounted for 25 percent of philanthropic dollars invested in this population. This funding covers a broad range of child health issues but clusters in four key areas-promoting healthy behavior, improving access to care and expanding insurance coverage, strengthening mental health services, and addressing the broader determinants of health.
Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea
Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.
This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...
The SAJCH is a quarterly, peer reviewed, medical child health journal. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.sajch.org.za/index.php/SAJCH/index. Vol 12, No 1 (2018). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Editorial: ...
... robust and inclusive knowledge base for child and adolescent mental health across diverse contexts. To this end the Journal seeks to promote coverage, representation and dissemination of high quality work from around the world that traverses high-, middle- and low- income contexts. Read more about the journal here.
... based on pre-existing conditions. Getting children off to a healthy start at home and at school is vital... Challenge, thousands of child care providers are adopting healthier practices, and 1.7 million Americans... health professionals, faith-based and community organizations, and all levels of government to help...
... healthy communities, we are working to reduce contaminants in our drinking water by updating standards and better protecting our water sources from pollution. We are also building on the successes of the Clean..., child health professionals, faith-based and community organizations, and all levels of government to...
Full Text Available Worldwide deaths of children younger than 5 years reduced from 12.7 million in 1990 to 6.3 million in 2013. Much of this decline is attributed to an increase in the knowledge, skills, and abilities of child health professionals. In turn this increase in knowledge, skills, and abilities has been brought about by increased child-health-focused education available to child health professionals. Therefore child-health-focused education must be part of the strategy to eliminate the remaining 6.3 million deaths and to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. This article describes a child-health-focused program that was established in 1992 and operates in 20 countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Hong Kong, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sierra Leone, the Seychelles, the Solomon Islands, Tanzania, Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. The Diploma in Child Health/International Postgraduate Paediatric Certificate (DCH/IPPC course provides a comprehensive overview of evidence-based current best practice in pediatrics. This includes all subspecialty areas from infectious diseases and emergency medicine through to endocrinology, respiratory medicine, neurology, nutrition, and dietetics. Content is developed and presented by international medical experts in response to global child health needs. Content is provided to students via a combination of learning outcomes, webcasts, lecture notes, personalized study, tutorials, case studies, and clinical practice. One hundred eleven webcasts are provided, and these are updated annually. This article includes a brief discussion of the value and focus of medical education programs; a description of the DCH/IPPC course content, approaches to teaching and learning, course structure and the funding model; the most recent evaluation of the DCH/IPPC course; and recommendations for overcoming the challenges for implementing a multinational child-health
Half of the world's maternal, newborn, and child deaths occur in sub-Saharan ... and child health by using primary health care as an entry point ... Canada's top development priorities and commitment to reducing ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE.
Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa ... spacing are cri cal to maternal and child health programming. It is ... APHRC is the only African ins tu on ... Maternal death review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Child Rearing Practices in Nigeria: Implications for Mental Health. ... over time are important, especially as this region is undergoing rapid transformation. ... Through policy and aggressive health education, traditional child rearing practices in ...
Full Text Available ADHD is the most common and most studied neurodevelopmental problem. Recent statistics from the CDC state that 11% approximately 1 out of every 9 children in the US and 1 in 5 high school boys are diagnosed with ADHD. Lacking from treatment is an interdisciplinary knowledge-based strategy to intervention with child public health concerns addressed the educational system. This study is based on previous findings that ADHD children possess underactivity between sub-cortical and cortical regions. An imbalance of activity or arousal in one area can result in functional disconnections similar to that seen in split-brain patients. As ADD/ADHD children exhibit deficient performance on tests measuring perceptual laterality, evidence of weak laterality or failure to develop laterality has been found across various modalities (auditory, visual, tactile resulting in abnormal cerebral organization and associated dysfunctional specialization needed for lateralized processing of language and non-language function. This pilot study examines groups of ADD/ADHD and control elementary school children all of whom were administered all the subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests, the Brown Parent Questionnaire, and given objective performance measures on tests of motor and sensory coordinative abilities. Results measured after a 12-week remediation program aimed at increasing the activity of the hypothesized underactive right hemisphere function, yielded significant improvement of greater than two years in grade level in all domains except in mathematical reasoning. The treated group also displayed a significant improvement in behavior with a reduction in Brown scale behavioral scores. Non-treated control participants did not exhibit significant differences during the same 12-week period in academic measurements, but did so when compared to the treated group. Results are discussed in the context of the concept of functional disconnectivity in ADD
Skaburskas, K; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D
The Health-e-Child (HeC) project ,  is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite  based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integr...
Racine, Andrew D
The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E
We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.
Effect of integrated responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions in the Lady Health Worker programme in Pakistan on child development, growth, and health outcomes: a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial.
Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Stimulation and nutrition delivered through health programmes at a large scale could potentially benefit more than 200 million young children worldwide who are not meeting their developmental potential. We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of interventions to enhance child development and growth outcomes in the Lady Health Worker (LHW) programme in Sindh, Pakistan. We implemented a community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial through the LHW programme in rural Sindh, Pakistan, with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We randomly allocated 80 clusters (LHW catchments) of children to receive routine health and nutrition services (controls; n=368), nutrition education and multiple micronutrient powders (enhanced nutrition; n=364), responsive stimulation (responsive stimulation; n=383), or a combination of both enriched interventions (n=374). The allocation ratio was 1:20 (ie, 20 clusters per intervention group). The data collection team were masked to the allocated intervention. All children born in the study area between April, 2009, and March, 2010, were eligible for enrolment if they were up to 2·5 months old without signs of severe impairments. Interventions were delivered by LHWs to families with children up to 24 months of age in routine monthly group sessions and home visits. The primary endpoints were child development at 12 and 24 months of age (assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition) and growth at 24 months of age. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT007159636. 1489 mother-infant dyads were enrolled into the study, of whom 1411 (93%) were followed up until the children were 24 months old. Children who received responsive stimulation had significantly higher development scores on the cognitive, language, and motor scales at 12 and 24 months of age, and on the social-emotional scale at 12 months of age, than did those who
McPherson, Charmaine M; McGibbon, Elizabeth A
Primary health care (PHC) renewal was designed explicitly to attend to the multidimensional factors impacting on health, including the social determinants of health. These determinants are central considerations in the development of integrated, cross-sectoral, and multi-jurisdictional policies such as those that inform models of shared mental health care for children. However, there are complex theoretical challenges in translating these multidimensional issues into policy. One of these is the rarely discussed interrelationships among the social determinants of health and identities such as race, gender, age, sexuality, and social class within the added confluence of geographic contexts. An intersectionality lens is used to examine the complex interrelationships among the factors affecting child mental health and the associated policy challenges surrounding PHC renewal. The authors argue that an understanding of the intersections of social determinants of health, identity, and geography is pivotal in guiding policy-makers as they address child mental health inequities using a PHC renewal agenda.
Cesario, Sandra K; Moran, Barbara
The health and productivity of a global society is dependent upon the elimination of gender inequities that prevent girls from achieving their full potential. Although some progress has been made in reducing social, economic, and health disparities between men and women, gender equality continues to be an elusive goal. The Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030) include intergovernmental aspirations to empower women and stress that change must begin with the girl child. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hartinger, SM; Lanata, CF; Hattendorf, J; Verastegui, H; Gil, AI; Wolf, J; Mäusezahl, D
Abstract Background: Diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality, which can be prevented by simple low-cost interventions. Integrated strategies can provide additional benefits by addressing multiple health burdens simultaneously. Methods: We conducted a community-randomized–controlled trial in 51 rural communities in Peru to evaluate whether an environmental home-based intervention package, consisting of improved solid-fuel stoves, kitchen sinks, solar disinfection of drinking water and hygiene promotion, reduces lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal disease and improves growth in children younger than 36 months. The attention control group received an early child stimulation programme. Results: We recorded 24 647 child-days of observation from 250 households in the intervention and 253 in the attention control group during 12-month follow-up. Mean diarrhoea incidence was 2.8 episodes per child-year in the intervention compared with 3.1 episodes in the control arm. This corresponds to a relative rate of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58–1.05] for diarrhoea incidence and an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47–1.06) for diarrhoea prevalence. No effects on acute lower respiratory infections or children’s growth rates were observed. Conclusions: Combined home-based environmental interventions slightly reduced childhood diarrhoea, but the confidence interval included unity. Effects on growth and respiratory outcomes were not observed, despite high user compliance of the interventions. The absent effect on respiratory health might be due to insufficient household air quality improvements of the improved stoves and additional time needed to achieve attitudinal and behaviour change when providing composite interventions. PMID:27818376
Hartinger, S M; Lanata, C F; Hattendorf, J; Verastegui, H; Gil, A I; Wolf, J; Mäusezahl, D
Diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality, which can be prevented by simple low-cost interventions. Integrated strategies can provide additional benefits by addressing multiple health burdens simultaneously. We conducted a community-randomized-controlled trial in 51 rural communities in Peru to evaluate whether an environmental home-based intervention package, consisting of improved solid-fuel stoves, kitchen sinks, solar disinfection of drinking water and hygiene promotion, reduces lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal disease and improves growth in children younger than 36 months. The attention control group received an early child stimulation programme. We recorded 24 647 child-days of observation from 250 households in the intervention and 253 in the attention control group during 12-month follow-up. Mean diarrhoea incidence was 2.8 episodes per child-year in the intervention compared with 3.1 episodes in the control arm. This corresponds to a relative rate of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.05] for diarrhoea incidence and an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47-1.06) for diarrhoea prevalence. No effects on acute lower respiratory infections or children's growth rates were observed. Combined home-based environmental interventions slightly reduced childhood diarrhoea, but the confidence interval included unity. Effects on growth and respiratory outcomes were not observed, despite high user compliance of the interventions. The absent effect on respiratory health might be due to insufficient household air quality improvements of the improved stoves and additional time needed to achieve attitudinal and behaviour change when providing composite interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Frøen, J Frederik; Myhre, Sonja L; Frost, Michael J; Chou, Doris; Mehl, Garrett; Say, Lale; Cheng, Socheat; Fjeldheim, Ingvild; Friberg, Ingrid K; French, Steve; Jani, Jagrati V; Kaye, Jane; Lewis, John; Lunde, Ane; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Nyanchoka, Linda; Stone, Hollie; Venkateswaran, Mahima; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Temmerman, Marleen; Flenady, Vicki J
The Global Roadmap for Health Measurement and Accountability sees integrated systems for health information as key to obtaining seamless, sustainable, and secure information exchanges at all levels of health systems. The Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescent's Health aims to achieve a continuum of quality of care with effective coverage of interventions. The WHO and World Bank recommend that countries focus on intervention coverage to monitor programs and progress for universal health coverage. Electronic health registries - eRegistries - represent integrated systems that secure a triple return on investments: First, effective single data collection for health workers to seamlessly follow individuals along the continuum of care and across disconnected cadres of care providers. Second, real-time public health surveillance and monitoring of intervention coverage, and third, feedback of information to individuals, care providers and the public for transparent accountability. This series on eRegistries presents frameworks and tools to facilitate the development and secure operation of eRegistries for maternal and child health. In this first paper of the eRegistries Series we have used WHO frameworks and taxonomy to map how eRegistries can support commonly used electronic and mobile applications to alleviate health systems constraints in maternal and child health. A web-based survey of public health officials in 64 low- and middle-income countries, and a systematic search of literature from 2005-2015, aimed to assess country capacities by the current status, quality and use of data in reproductive health registries. eRegistries can offer support for the 12 most commonly used electronic and mobile applications for health. Countries are implementing health registries in various forms, the majority in transition from paper-based data collection to electronic systems, but very few have eRegistries that can act as an integrating backbone for health
Alfaham, M; Gray, O P; Davies, D P
Most teaching of child health in Cardiff takes place in block attachments of 8 weeks. There is an introductory seminar of 2 days followed by a 6-week clinical attachment in a district general hospital in Wales, and then a revision period of one week designed to help students formalize and structure their basic knowledge and to clarify aspects of child health which they may have had difficulty in understanding. The revision programme has to take into account: the short time available, the small number of teaching staff, the most relevant basic knowledge and active participation by the student. This paper describes how this week has been improved through the use of student-initiated revision (SIR). The students' appraisal of this revision and in particular SIR is presented.
Paxson, Christina; Schady, Norbert
The effect of macroeconomic crises on child health is a topic of great policy importance. This article analyzes the impact of a profound crisis in Peru on infant mortality. It finds an increase of about 2.5 percentage points in the infant mortality rate for children born during the crisis of the late 1980s, which implies that about 17,000 more children died than would have in the absence o...
Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ
Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842
da Silva, Simone Albino; Fracolli, Lislaine Aparecida
to evaluate the healthcare provided to children under two years old by the Family Health Strategy. evaluative, quantitative, cross-sectional study that used the Primary Care Assessment Tool - Child Version for measuring the access, longitudinality, coordination, integrality, family orientation and community orientation. a total of 586 adults responsible for children under two years old and linked to 33 health units in eleven municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were interviewed. The evaluation was positive for the attributes longitudinality and coordination, and negative for access, integrality, Family orientation and community orientation. there are discrepancies between health needs of children and what is offered by the service; organizational barriers to access; absence of counter-reference; predominance of curative and long-standing and individual preventive practices; verticalization in organization of actions; and lack of good communication between professionals and users.
Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn
This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...
Nina Drange; Kjetil Telle
Proficiency in the language spoken by the majority population may be crucial for the cognitive development of children from immigrant families. High-quality child care is believed to promote such language skills, and it is thus of concern that children from immigrant families are underrepresented in formal child care across OECD countries. How can we increase their participation, and can such participation improve family integration? We study an intervention in some districts of Oslo where ch...
Dutta, Arijita; Ghosh, Smritikana
With child malnutrition detected as a persistent problem in most of the developing countries, public policy has been directed towards offering community-based supplementary feeding provision and nutritional information to caregivers. India, being no exception, has initiated these programs as early as 1970s under integrated child development scheme. Using propensity score matching technique on primary data of 390 households in two districts of West Bengal, an Eastern state in India, the study finds that impact of being included in the program and receiving supplementary feeding is insignificant on child stunting measures, though the program can break the intractable barriers of child stunting only when the child successfully receives not only just the supplementary feeding but also his caregiver collects crucial information on nutritional awareness and growth trajectory of the child. Availability of regular eggs in the feeding diet too can reduce protein-related undernutrition. Focusing on just feeding means low depth of other services offered under integrated child development scheme, including pre-school education, nutritional awareness, and hygiene behavior; thus repealing a part of the apparent food-secure population who puts far more importance on the latter services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wathne, K O; Bøhler, E
Over the last decades, better drinking water and hygiene, improved nutrition and vaccines and antibiotics have greatly reduced child mortality and morbidity. Still, 11 million children under the age of five die every year, many of them from diseases that could have been prevented or treated, given existing knowledge and technology. On the basis of a review of recent literature, this paper discusses current strategies to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Sufficient knowledge and technology exist to further improve the health of the worlds' children. Poverty and its consequences--weak implementation and organisation of health services--is a major obstacle. In order to improve health services in developing countries, additional resources are needed. There is also a need for better quality of service. This will require increased efforts in the field of health policy and systems research.
ers, religious leaders, market women and traditional health workers. They were selected across the selected villages) in the study area. The exercise covered areas like: issues of child marriage, factors influencing child marriage, girl child education, sexual rights and choices in the commu- nity, and common maternal health ...
Predictors on utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services among rural women in Manicaland Zimbabwe. ... Central African Journal of Medicine ... The study targeted women of child bearing age (15-49 years) who were either ...
Maternal and child mortality rates in Mali and Burkina Faso remain ... mother and child through a mobile technology for community health initiative used by site ... by Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the Canadian Institutes of ...
Mestrovic, Julije; Bralic, Irena; Simetin, Ivana Pavic; Mujkic, Aida; Radonić, Marija; Rodin, Urelija; Trošelj, Mario; Stevanović, Ranko; Benjak, Tomislav; Pristaš, Ivan; Mayer, Dijana; Tomić, Branimir
The Republic of Croatia is a Parliamentary Republic with a population of 4.2 million people that sits on the Adriatic coast within Central Europe. Gross domestic product is approximately 60% of the European Union average, which in turn, limits health service spending. The health system is funded through universal health insurance administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund based on the principles of social solidarity and reciprocity. The children of Croatia are guaranteed access to universal primary, hospital, and specialist care provided by a network of health institutions. Pediatricians and school medicine specialists provide comprehensive preventive health care for both preschool and school-aged children. Despite the Croatian War of Independence in the late 20th century, indicators of child health and measures of health service delivery to children and families are steadily improving. However, similar to many European countries, Croatia is experiencing a rise in the "new morbidities" and is responding to these new challenges through a whole society approach to promote healthy lifestyles and insure good quality of life for children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kerbl, Reinhold; Ziniel, Georg; Winkler, Petra; Habl, Claudia; Püspök, Rudolf; Waldhauser, Franz
We describe child health care in Austria, a small country in Central Europe with a population of about 9 million inhabitants of whom approximately 1.7 million are children and adolescents under the age of 20 years. For children and adolescents, few health care indicators are available. Pediatric and adolescent health provision, such as overall health provision, follows a complex system with responsibilities shared by the Ministry of Health, 19 social insurance funds, provinces, and other key players. Several institutions are affiliated with or cooperate with the Ministry of Health to assure quality control. The Austrian public health care system is financed through a combination of income-based social insurance payments and taxes. Pediatric primary health care in Austria involves the services of general pediatricians and general practitioners. Secondary care is mostly provided by the 43 children's hospitals; tertiary care is (particularly) provided in 4 state university hospitals and 1 private university hospital. The training program of residents takes 6 years and is completed by a final examination. Every year, this training program is completed by about 60 residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tonmyr, L; MacMillan, H L; Jamieson, E; Kelly, K
The population health perspective (PHP) is commonly used in addressing a wide range of health issues. This article examines the strengths and limitations of the perspective. The determinants of health that are an integral part of the PHP are used as a framework in considering the range of outcomes associated with exposure to child maltreatment. Directions for further research are outlined.
Batomen Kuimi, Brice Lionel; Oppong-Nkrumah, Oduro; Kaufman, Jay; Nazif-Munoz, Jose Ignacio; Nandi, Arijit
This study aimed to synthesise the available knowledge, identify unexplored areas and discuss general limits of the published evidence. We focused on outcomes commonly hypothesised to be affected by child labour: nutritional status, harmful exposures and injuries. Four electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science) were searched in November 2017. All articles published since 1996, without restrictions on language, were considered for inclusion. Out of the 1090 abstracts initially identified by the search, 78 articles were selected for inclusion and reviewed. Most of the studies were conducted in Asia and South America, and only a third of them compared working children to a control group of non-working children. Child labour appears to be associated with poor nutritional status, diseases due to harmful exposures, and a higher prevalence of injuries. Despite evidence for a negative relation between child work and health, the cross-sectional design of most studies limits the causal interpretation of existing findings. More rigorous observational studies are needed to confirm and better quantify these associations.
Corsello, Giovanni; Ferrara, Pietro; Chiamenti, Gianpietro; Nigri, Luigi; Campanozzi, Angelo; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo
Pediatric care in Italy has been based during the last 40 years on the increased awareness of the importance of meeting the psychosocial and developmental needs of children and of the role of families in promoting the health and well-being of their children. The pediatric health care system in Italy is part of the national health system. It is made up of 3 main levels of intervention: first access/primary care, secondary care/hospital care, and tertiary care based on specialty hospital care. This overview will also include a brief report on neonatal care, pediatric preventive health care, health service accreditation programs, and postgraduate training in pediatrics. The quality of the Italian child health care system is now considered to be in serious danger because of the restriction of investments in public health caused both by the 2008 global and national economic crisis and by a reduction of the pediatric workforce as a result of progressively insufficient replacement of specialists in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program supports research that seeks to ... health; and; Interrelationships and root causes of poor health outcomes and ... The successful candidate will contribute to the program's work on ...
The South African Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (SAACAPAP). The SAACAPAP is a professional body for child and adolescent mental health practitioners in South Africa. It was initiated in 1978, and since then has been an active member of the International Association for Child ...
... whether the child is up-to-date on a schedule of age appropriate preventive and primary health care which... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and... 1304.20(a)(2), and 45 CFR 1304.20(b)(1), “entry” means the first day that Early Head Start or Head...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders
Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties
Niura Aparecida de Moura Ribeiro Padula
Full Text Available Inquérito epidemiológico realizado pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo e Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Bauru visou à realização de exames de plumbemia em 853 crianças de 0 a 12 anos, em Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil (2002, a partir de indícios de chumbo oriundo de resíduos industriais nas proximidades de uma fábrica de baterias. Os níveis sangüíneos de chumbo no grupo controle foram inferiores aos apresentados pelo grupo exposto (p An epidemiological survey was carried out by technicians of the State Health Secretary and the Municipal Health Secretary of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil, due to excessive atmospheric lead emissions caused by a battery manufacturer. This survey included 853 children from 0 to 12 years old, in a 1,000-meter area from the polluting source, in Bauru (2002. The blood lead levels of children in the exposed group were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. 314 children were found to have dosages equal or superior to 10µg/dl, the limit stipulated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public services, universities, and volunteers developed some activities aiming at child diagnosis and treatment. The Municipal Health Secretary coordinated remediation initiatives such as: scraping the superficial surface of streets, internal aspiration of houses with professional equipment, and washing and sealing tanks. Through this work, the Lead Poisoning Study and Research Group (GEPICCB shares an integrated, interdisciplinary, and interinstitutional action proposal.
Alkon, Abbey; Nouredini, Sahar; Swartz, Alicia; Sutherland, Andrew Mason; Stephens, Michelle; Davidson, Nita A; Rose, Roberta
To reduce young children's exposure to pests and pesticides, an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention was provided for child care center staff. The 7-month IPM education and consultation intervention was conducted by trained nurse child care health consultants in 44 child care centers in California. IPM knowledge surveys were completed by child care staff, objective IPM assessments were completed by research assistants pre- and postintervention, and activity logs were completed by the nurses. There were significant increases in IPM knowledge for the child care staff who attended workshops. There were reductions in the prevalence of pests and increases in IPM practices at the postintervention compared with the preintervention time point. The nurses consulted an average of 5.4 hours per center. A nurse-led IPM intervention in child care centers can reduce exposure to harmful substances for young children attending child care centers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L
Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.
Iscoe, Louise; And Others
This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…
Wildeman, Christopher; Goldman, Alyssa W; Turney, Kristin
Mass incarceration has profoundly restructured the life courses of not only marginalized adult men for whom this event is now so prevalent but also their families. We examined research published from 2000 to 2017 on the consequences of parental incarceration for child health in the United States. In addition to focusing on specific health outcomes, we also considered broader indicators of child well-being because there has been little research on the association between parental incarceration and objectively measured child health outcomes. Our findings support 4 conclusions. First, paternal incarceration is negatively associated-possibly causally so-with a range of child health and well-being indicators. Second, although some research has suggested a negative association between maternal incarceration and child health, the evidence on this front is mixed. Third, although the evidence for average effects of paternal incarceration on child health and well-being is strong, research has also suggested that some key factors moderate the association between paternal incarceration and child health and well-being. Finally, because of the unequal concentration of parental incarceration and the negative consequences this event has for children, mass incarceration has increased both intracountry inequality in child health in the United States and intercountry inequality in child health between the United States and other developed democracies. In light of these important findings, investment in data infrastructure-with emphasis on data sets that include reliable measures of parental incarceration and child health and data sets that facilitate causal inferences-is needed to understand the child health effects of parental incarceration.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...
Tottrup, C; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Lindeboom, W
OBJECTIVES: To map and analyse geographical (spatial) variations of child mortality trends in mainland Tanzania. METHODS: We used a geographic information system to integrate data on child mortality and associated risk factors. We then applied spatial statistics to quantify the spatial component...... of child mortality trends, and employed multivariate analysis to break mortality down into a spatial and a local component. RESULTS: The results support our hypothesis that child mortality trends have a spatial component that can be attributed to broad-scale environmental and social-economic factors....... However, the multivariate analysis showed that the spatial component only explained one-third of the variation in child mortality trends. The results thus point towards the presence of local (non-spatial) causative factors, including variations in the access to and quality of child health care...
Sljapić, Ziva; Sljapić-Roganović, Miljana
Documents concerning history of medicine during the Turkish reign (1552-1716) are very rare. However, there is evidence of plague epidemic in 18th century and colera epidemic in the 19th century. The first medical institutions: The German Communal Hospital, The Serbian Hospital and the Pharmacy were founded in the second half of the 18th century. In the year 1803, children were vaccinated against variola. The first Serbian book about child care--"Cadoljub" was written by Dr. Gavrilo Pekarović (1812-1851) during his studies of medicine in Budapest. In 1927 the city founded a dispensary for the newborn. The Polyclinic for schoolchildren was established as a part of the Health Center in 1934. After World War II, Children's Department was opened in the Health Center, later on it was turned into Mother and Child Center. At the beginning of 1955, a provisional children's ward with 18 beds was established in the former sanatorium, whereas till the end of the year it had 49 beds. In May 1965, it was moved into a new hospital building. After integration of Hospital and the Health Center into a Medical Center in 1967, a department for children was founded and it consisted of the emergency center and a hospital. Parents counseling, dispensary for children and dispensary for schoolchildren were founded in August 1971.
Todd, Charlotte; Christian, Danielle; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools play an important role in promoting the health of children. However, little consideration is often given to the influence that headteachers' and school staff's prior beliefs have on the implementation of public health interventions. This study examined primary school headteachers' and school health co-ordinators' views regarding child health in order to provide greater insights on the school's perspective for those designing future school-based health interventions. A qualitative study was conducted using 19 semi-structured interviews with headteachers, deputy headteachers and school health co-ordinators in the primary school setting. All transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Whilst many participants in this study believed good health was vital for learning, wide variance was evident regarding the perceived health of school pupils and the magnitude of responsibility schools should take in addressing child health behaviours. Although staff in this study acknowledged the importance of their role, many believed the responsibility placed upon schools for health promotion was becoming too much; suggesting health interventions need to better integrate school, parental and societal components. With mental health highlighted as an increasing priority in many schools, incorporating wellbeing outcomes into future school based health interventions is advocated to ensure a more holistic understanding of child health is gained. Understanding the health beliefs of school staff when designing interventions is crucial as there appears to be a greater likelihood of interventions being successfully adopted if staff perceive a health issue as important among their pupils. An increased dependability on schools for addressing health was expressed by headteachers in this study, highlighting a need for better understanding of parental, child and key stakeholder perspectives on responsibility for child health. Without this understanding, there is potential for certain
Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health ...
This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in West Africa. A part of the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program, the project's impact will be felt at the national and regional levels in Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal.
This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in East Africa. A part of the Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program, the project's impact will be felt at the national and regional levels in East Africa, specifically in Ethiopia, Malawi ...
Methods: This is a literature review on ethical issues in maternal and child health nursing, challenges faced by maternal and child health nurses and strategies for decision making. Literatures related to the topic was gathered from pertinent literature, completed research works and published articles retrieved from searches ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2014 reporting. Dataset contains...
Sep 6, 2017 ... These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and mentorship allow award holders ... IDRC's Maternal and Child Health program aims to save and ... quality, accessibility, and effectiveness of health services and care.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2016 reporting. Source: Mathematica...
The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing ... The program is part of the Global Health Research Initiative, a collaboration between Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Performance rates on frequently reported health care quality measures in the CMS Medicaid/CHIP Child and Adult Core Sets, for FFY 2015 reporting. Source: Mathematica...
Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Vertejee, Samina; Pirani, Laila
Child labour is a global practice and has many negative outcomes. According to International Labour Organization, child labour is the important source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the number of Pakistani working children to be around 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the children are under the age of ten years. It portrays the society's attitude towards child care. It is therefore, essential to break this vicious cycle and hence, enable the society to produce healthy citizens. This article analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for child's life, in specific, and for the nation, in general, utilizing the model developed by Clemen-stone & McGuire (1991). Since this practice has complex web of causation, a multidisciplinary approach is required to combat this issue through proposed recommendations.
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Skaburskas, K; Estrella, F; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D
The Health-e-Child (HeC) project ,  is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite  based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integration and indicates how these will be resolved in the HeC system. HeC is presented as an example of how computer science (and, in particular Grid infrastructures) originating from high energy physics can be adapted for use by biomedical informaticians to deliver tangible real-world benefits
Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M
Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.
primary cardiac arrest. Circulation. 1998;97(2):155Y160. 8. Sesso HD, Lee IM, Gaziano JM, Rexrode KM, Glynn RJ, Buring JE. Maternal and paternal ...to signal transduction, inflammation, and host–pathogen interactions .27 Whole blood RNA isolation systems such as PAXgene accurately capture in vivo...the effect of healthy behaviors on leukocyte function and leukocyte–endothelium interactions that are important for cardiovascular health
Umpierre, Mari; Meyers, Laura V.; Ortiz, Aida; Paulino, Angela; Rodriguez, Anita Rivera; Miranda, Ana; Rodriguez, Raquel; Kranes, Stephanie; McKay, Mary M.
Objective This article describes Phase 1 of a pilot that aims to develop, implement, and test an intervention to educate and simultaneously engage highly stressed Latino parents in child mental health services. A team of Spanish-speaking academic and community co-investigators developed the intervention using a community-based participatory research approach and qualitative methods. Method Through focus groups, the team identified parents' knowledge gaps and their health communication preferences. Results Latino parents from urban communities need and welcome child mental health literacy interventions that integrate printed materials with videos, preferably in their native language, combined with guidance from professionals. Conclusion A 3-minute video in Spanish that integrates education entertainment strategies and a culturally relevant format was produced as part of the intervention to educate and simultaneously engage highly stressed Latino parents in child mental health care. It is anticipated that the intervention will positively impact service use among this group. PMID:26412954
A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman
Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.
Urke, Helga Bjørnøy
With the global progress in reduction of child mortality, an increasing concern for the health, development and well-being of the surviving child has emerged. It is estimated that 250 million children are not reaching their developmental potential in developing countries, due to among others malnutrition, inadequate care and exposure to violence. In addition, structural and other social aspects of the immediate family and wider community environment of the child exert influence...
Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Wallace, Aaron; Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Nandy, Robin; Durry, Elias; Everard, Marthe
Child Health Days (CHDs) are increasingly used by countries to periodically deliver multiple maternal and child health interventions as time-limited events, particularly to populations not reached by routine health services. In countries with a weak health infrastructure, this strategy could be used to reach many underserved populations with an integrated package of services. In this study, we estimate the incremental costs, impact, cost-effectiveness, and return on investment of 2 rounds of CHDs that were conducted in Somalia in 2009 and 2010. We use program costs and population estimates reported by the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to estimate the average cost per beneficiary for each of 9 interventions delivered during 2 rounds of CHDs implemented during the periods of December 2008 to May 2009 and August 2009 to April 2010. Because unstable areas were unreachable, we calculated costs for targeted and accessible beneficiaries. We model the impact of the CHDs on child mortality using the Lives Saved Tool, convert these estimates of mortality reduction to life years saved, and derive the cost-effectiveness ratio and the return on investment. The estimated average incremental cost per intervention for each targeted beneficiary was $0.63, with the cost increasing to $0.77 per accessible beneficiary. The CHDs were estimated to save the lives of at least 10,000, or 500,000 life years for both rounds combined. The CHDs were cost-effective at $34.00/life year saved. For every $1 million invested in the strategy, an estimated 615 children's lives, or 29,500 life years, were saved. If the pentavalent vaccine had been delivered during the CHDs instead of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, an additional 5000 children's lives could have been saved. Despite high operational costs, CHDs are a very cost-effective service delivery strategy for addressing the leading causes of child mortality in a conflict setting like Somalia and compare
According to a Department of Health (DOH) official speaking at the recent Reproductive Health Advocacy Forum in Zamboanga City, the concept of reproductive health (RH) is now on the way to being fully integrated into the Philippines' primary health care system. The DOH is also developing integrated information, education, and communication material for an intensified advocacy campaign on RH among target groups in communities. The forum was held to enhance the knowledge and practice of RH among health, population and development program managers, field workers, and local government units. In this new RH framework, family planning becomes just one of many concerns of the RH package of services which includes maternal and child health, sexuality education, the prevention and treatment of abortion complications, prevention of violence against women, and the treatment of reproductive tract infections. Of concern, however, the Asian economic crisis has led the Philippine government to reduce funding, jeopardizing the public sector delivery of basic services, including reproductive health care. The crisis has also forced other governments in the region to reassess their priorities and redirect their available resources into projects which are practical and sustainable.
Wilkins, Alexa; Lobo, Roanna C; Griffin, Denese M; Woods, Heather A
The evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal maternal and child health (MCH) sector. Fifty-one MCH professionals from five regions in WA who attended one of three health promotion short courses in 2012-2013 were invited to complete an online survey or a telephone interview, between 4 to 17 months post-course. Respondents were asked how they had utilised the information and resources from the training and to identify the enabling factors or barriers to integrating health promotion into their work practices subsequently. Overall response rate was 33% (n=17); 94% of respondents reported they had utilised the information and resources from the course and 76% had undertaken health promotion activities since attending the course. Building contacts with other MCH providers and access to planning tools were identified as valuable components of the course. Barriers to translating knowledge into practice included financial constraints and lack of organisational support for health promotion activity. Health promotion training provides participants with the skills and confidence to deliver health promotion strategies in their communities. The training presents an opportunity to build health professionals' capacity to address some determinants of poor health outcomes among pregnant Aboriginal women and their babies. SO WHAT?: Training would be enhanced if accompanied by ongoing support for participants to integrate health promotion into their work practice, organisational development including health promotion training for senior management, establishing stronger referral pathways among partner organisations to support continuity of care and embedding training into MCH workforce curricula.
Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.
The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854
Hudak, Mark L; Helm, Mark E; White, Patience H
After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more children and young adults have become insured and have benefited from health care coverage than at any time since the creation of the Medicaid program in 1965. From 2009 to 2015, the uninsurance rate for children younger than 19 years fell from 9.7% to 5.3%, whereas the uninsurance rate for young adults 19 to 25 years of age declined from 31.7% to 14.5%. Nonetheless, much work remains to be done. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that the United States can and should ensure that all children, adolescents, and young adults from birth through the age of 26 years who reside within its borders have affordable access to high-quality and comprehensive health care, regardless of their or their families' incomes. Public and private health insurance should safeguard existing benefits for children and take further steps to cover the full array of essential health care services recommended by the AAP. Each family should be able to afford the premiums, deductibles, and other cost-sharing provisions of the plan. Health plans providing these benefits should ensure, insofar as possible, that families have a choice of professionals and facilities with expertise in the care of children within a reasonable distance of their residence. Traditional and innovative payment methodologies by public and private payers should be structured to guarantee the economic viability of the pediatric medical home and of other pediatric specialty and subspecialty practices to address developing shortages in the pediatric specialty and subspecialty workforce, to promote the use of health information technology, to improve population health and the experience of care, and to encourage the delivery of evidence-based and quality health care in the medical home, as well as in other outpatient, inpatient, and home settings. All current and future health care insurance plans should incorporate the principles for child
Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen
Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Stephens, Michelle; Hazard, Kimberly; Moser, Debra; Cox, Dana; Rose, Roberta; Alkon, Abbey
To reduce young children's exposure to pesticides when attending family child care homes (FCCHs), we developed an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention for FCCH directors. First, we developed IPM educational materials and resources to provide the foundation for an IPM educational intervention for FCCHs. Next, we conducted and evaluated a six-month nurse child care health consultant (CCHC)-led education and consultation IPM intervention to increase IPM knowledge, IPM practices, IPM policies, and decrease the presence or evidence of pests. The pilot intervention study was conducted by three CCHCs in 20 FCCHs in three counties in California. Pre- and post-intervention measures were completed by the FCCH directors and observation measures were completed by the CCHCs. Results indicated significant increases in IPM knowledge, ( t -statistic (degrees of freedom), ( t (df) = 2.55(10), p child care homes to harmful chemicals.
Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems
Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S
Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p health outcome (r = -.33, p health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.
Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé, Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa
RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...
Mirza, Imran Raza; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Mulugeta, Abraham
Somalia, one of the most unstable countries in the world, has been without a permanent government for nearly 2 decades. With a health system in total disarray, coverage of basic health interventions remains low and, maternal and child mortality is among the highest in the world. Health partners jointly outlined an integrated package of critical child survival interventions to be delivered through a population-based delivery strategy known as Child Health Days (CHDs), to reduce child mortality. Using this strategy, key child survival interventions are delivered to the community with an objective of reaching children Somalia every 6 months. Through this strategy, immunization services were reached in remote areas, and coverage disparity between the urban and rural areas was reduced from 17% (42% urban and 25% rural) to 10% (50% urban and 60% rural). In addition, infants were reached with a third dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine, achieving 51% coverage during 2009 and 66% in 2010. This paper summarizes the challenges of scaling up child interventions in the troubled context of Somalia by reviewing the planning, implementation, and achievements of CHDs as well as reflecting on challenges for the future of child survival in Somalia.
Charmian M. Bennett
Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.
Schmeer, Kammi K.; Taylor, Miles
This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children’s social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans et al., 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children’s ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) – and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive crosslagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250
Maternal and child health is a priority for Nigeria, but there are significant challenges and opportunities at state levels that influence efforts to reduce deaths. This project will contribute to government efforts in Delta State to improve delivery and use of maternal and child healthcare services in three marginalized rural ...
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Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.
Dec 6, 2017 ... preventive or promotive tool for monitoring child health as neither ... attitudes and practices of both CGs and HCWs relating to these components; and (iii) identify HCWs' perceptions of the barriers .... In posession of old RtHC (n=54) .... number of CGs (16.4%; 409/1 646) knew that a young child should.
Atilola, O; Ayinde, O O; Emedoh, C T; Oladimeji, O
As most child health initiatives in Nigeria lack a child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) strategy, CAMH issues have remained obscure to the country's policy-makers. The lack of current and representative epidemiological data on the mental health of Nigerian children continues to be a barrier to advocacy for CAMH policy initiatives. In view of the importance of CAMH to national development, there must be a continued search for ways of bringing the state of CAMH in Nigeria to the attention of policy-makers. To use information from UNICEF's State of the World's Children as proxy data to speculate on the state of child mental health in Nigeria. With a view to discussing its CAMH implications, social and health indicators in the Nigerian child were extracted from UNICEF's 2012 edition. Most of the social and health indicators assessed reflect significant mental health risks. Up to 65% of households live on less than US$1·25 per day, child malnutrition is evident in up to 40% of children, and the primary and secondary school net enrolment ratios are only 63% and 25%, respectively. In addition, the rate of attendance for antenatal care was 45%, and only 39% of deliveries were supervised by skilled birth attendants. Child labour and under-age marriage is very common. A literature review demonstrates that children living in these circumstances are at significant risk of mental health problems. Current data on the state of Nigerian children contain indices that can serve as proxy information for the state of CAMH in the country. Policy-makers need to invest more in pre-emptive child health initiatives as a way of preserving the physical and mental health of children.
Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese
Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.
Full Text Available Background: In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres.Study Design: A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (N=91. Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals (health care professionals (N=67 and PCC managers N=12 and PCC-experts (N=12 in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results: Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals' needs dominating clients' needs.Conclusions: Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended.
Full Text Available Background: In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres. Study Design: A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (N=91. Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals (health care professionals (N=67 and PCC managers N=12 and PCC-experts (N=12 in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results: Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals' needs dominating clients' needs. Conclusions: Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release, are produced in support of the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation as selection criteria...
for sick children, routine childhood vaccination services (EPI), and routine growth monitoring services) as a package. ... Government facilities mostly provide all three basic child health services. Among all .... All data editing programs were.
R.E. Juttmann (Rikard); J. Hess (Jakob); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)
textabstractBACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at
report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal ... maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method ..... types of samples were used in order to capture different.
Building a virtual global research institute to support maternal and child health ... Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building ... to information and communication technology (ICT) initiatives through its global ...
Full Text Available There are various cases and impacts of child labour and it has been a universal problem and remains as one of polemical challenge faced by the world. The problem of child labour not only causes to damage their physical and mental health but also their education right freedom development of childhood etc. Both developing countries and developed countries are faced to the phenomenon of child labour. 28 of Working children have faced injuries or fallen ill at least once in a year due to work in Sri Lanka. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of child labours on their health. 200 primary data were collected in Peta Sri Lanka using simple random sampling method. Binary Logistic regression was employed to identify the health effects of child labour. According to the study child labors have faced some illnesses or injuries due to employment. Hours of working carrying of heavy loads operate heavy machines and equipment place of work and expose to things were highly correlated with physical harm of child labors. Carrying heavy load operate heavy machines and equipment and working place highly affected to physical harm of child labor. Many of them are employed on the street as street vendors construction sites factory and hotel and restaurant. Injuries and physical harms are highly related to the working place. Therefor the study recommends to empower the families provide the better formal education and vocational training to overcome this issue.
Conway, Patrick H; White, P Jonathan; Clancy, Carolyn
The public sector plays an important role in promoting child health information technology. Public sector support is essential in 5 main aspects of child health information technology, namely, data standards, pediatric functions in health information systems, privacy policies, research and implementation funding, and incentives for technology adoption. Some innovations in health information technology for adult populations can be transferred to or adapted for children, but there also are unique needs in the pediatric population. Development of health information technology that addresses children's needs and effective adoption of that technology are critical for US children to receive care of the highest possible quality in the future.
The use of the road to health card in monitoring child health. ... The Road to Health Chart (RTHC) provides a simple, cheap, practical and convenient method of monitoring child health. The RTHC could assist ... Conclusions: Many parents believe that the RTHC is only required for Well-baby-clinic visits, not for consultations.
Willis, Brian M.; Levy, Barry S.
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other form...
textabstractThe objective of this thesis is to clarify the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health centres and the possibilities to optimise this prevention programme. To this end the following main questions will be addressed. 1. Does screening for congenital heart malformations, as actually performed in Dutch child health centres, prevent adverse outcomes of these disorders in the short and long run? What would be the answer to ...
research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.
Alexandre Freitas Marchiori
Full Text Available Summary The study was conducted at the Centre Municipal Education Child (CMEI "Sinclair Phillips," located in the city of Vitoria / ES, in the quarter Caratoíra. It is worth emphasizing the importance of believing in the potential and the knowledge that each child brings from an early age, because it is a development and be in full in terms of broadening their knowledge from the opportunities given to it, aiming to form a citizen critical. It is for the purchase of motor skills, promote health, cognitive development (intellectual, literacy and transmission of knowledge and culture / art historically constituted. The creativity and autonomy of the child always been the guiding objectives of the proposed work. He had the following objectives: to consolidate the Body of Culture Movement, working with social learning; provide social inclusion, developing the creativity; lead and supporting construction of autonomy; stimulate the initiative and diversity; provoke awareness of social rules; literacy; provide access the arts; articulate knowledge lived / worked in the school; chance rescue experiences of childhood, and transmit the culture children. The classes are not based in a single perspective, but allowed diverse forms of work, taking the child and its development as the focus of work. Another point of support was the adoption of Culture, Body Movement and Critical-emancipatory to develop intervention and that enabled a rich and varied work. The results are perceived in the day-to-day life of children, demonstrated by the actions of acceptance of others, recognition of the rules of coexistence, the materialization of learning: reading, writing and interpretation of some children's stories - this includes its production / living standalone of children, beyond access to culture and arts offered during the school year. Key Words: Children's Education, Physical Education, school practice, teaching.
Parker, Roses; McKeever, Stephen; Wiseman, Theresa; Twycross, Alison
To identify interventions aimed at helping parents manage their child's pain at home and to establish which aspects of interventions were effective. Integrative narrative review. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, AMED, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases were searched in 2016. This narrative synthesis followed Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and Economic and Social Research Council guidance. Reasons attributed to intervention success were analyzed using content analysis. From 2,534 papers, 17 were included. A majority were randomized controlled trials (n = 13) and most addressed postoperative pain (n = 15). A range of interventions were found that directly targeted parents, including child-parent interactions and health care professional-parent interactions, as well as complex interventions. Three studies were successful in reducing child pain at home and seven in increasing appropriate analgesic drug administration. Analysis of reasons attributed to interventions success revealed characteristics of interventions, components of parental pain management, and key features of research that aid researchers in designing and evaluating interventions. Risk of bias was present because of inadequate randomization, lack of a control group, and underpowered studies. Nurses should be aware that targeting parents directly is the most effective way of reducing child pain at home. Nurses need to advocate for effective analgesics for their child patients because the ineffectiveness of many interventions was attributed to inadequate analgesic drugs. Once this is achieved, success in increasing analgesic drug administration is most likely reached via parent-targeted interventions and those targeting health care professional-parent interactions. Successful interventions will be tailored to the child and adequately powered. Including a measure of sedation will ensure sedation is not mistaken for analgesic effectiveness. Interventions should address
Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.
Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319
Khera, Rohan; Jain, Snigdha; Lodha, Rakesh; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian
Gender-based discrimination is reported across the spectrum of paediatric healthcare including emergency, inpatient, outpatient and preventive care and is mostly reported from South Asia and China with sporadic reports from Africa and South America. Biases against young girls have been documented even in immunisation percentage, home food allocation, seeking medical care for childhood ailments and percentage of household healthcare expenditures allocated to them. Such gender discrimination in access to medical care is likely to have an influence on the overall health of female children. Over the last five decades, the under-5 sex ratios are worsening in India with declining number of girls. Deliberate parental neglect of girls' essential and life-saving medical care is also an important contributing factor apart from sex-selective abortions to the declining gender ratios. Corrective measures and focused action are needed.
Francis, Shefin Vellara
Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy UNICEF reported that only less than fifty percent of children in India receive full immunization. It indicates that majority of children are not protected against vaccine preventable diseases. High infant mortality rate of sixty three deaths for every thousand live birth also points to the neglected child health activities in India. The thesis explores strategies which are needed for improving child immunization in India....
Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.
Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.
Easton, Scott D.; Renner, Lynette M.
Men who were sexually abused during childhood represent a highly stigmatized, marginalized population at risk for a variety of long-term mental health problems. Using the family integration dimension of Durkheim's theory of suicide, factors associated with suicidal ideation among a purposive sample of 487 men with histories of child sexual…
... activity, they teach the habits and values for mental and physical well-being that last a lifetime. However..., increase their physical activity, and develop life-long healthy habits. Child care providers and schools... for the future. As loved ones and educators, mentors and friends, we must do everything in our power...
... 7 CFR Parts 210, 215, 220 et al. Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program..., 220, 225, and 226 RIN 0584-AC24 Child and Adult Care Food Program Improving Management and Program... management and integrity in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), at 67 FR 43447 (June 27, 2002) and...
Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V
The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.
Schultz, Jennifer; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
This paper adds to the literature on social capital and health by testing whether an exogenous shock in the health of a family member (a new baby) affects the family’s investment in social capital. It also contributes to a small but growing literature on the effects of children’s health on family resources and provides information about associations between health and social capital in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing stud...
Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M
The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... as a national information and education resource library to help meet the changing needs of... information from the MCH field that is not readily available from other information sources and to make the... Health Bureau, Title V program to ensure that Georgetown University, Maternal and Child Health Library...
incur substantial costs for accessing services, such as transport and ... 2 Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the ... Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support ... anaemia, raise antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendant.
A baby in San Malen Primary Health Unit in Pujehun, Bo district, Sierra Leone ... Children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa are also 16 times more likely ... Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa teams share early findings.
Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, and good knowledge of the national guidelines on PMTCT was 8.5%, 30.4% and 61.1% respectively. Knowledge of the national guidelines was significantly ...
The findings also indicate that although health facility delivery is high in the districts surveyed, only the well-to-do non-literate, urbanite women and the ... rural communities included the need to improve the quality of maternal and child health service through the supply of major logistic deficiencies, the need to provide ...
government became the main funding source for RH services (44.2%), partly reflecting government enhanced commitment to increase resources for maternal and child health, and due to exemption of pregnant women from paying for health care. Nevertheless, this commitment didn't last and the financing burden was borne ...
Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health concern especially in developed countries and where legal measures take unprecedented time. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of different forms of CSA, and the perceived health consequences among secondary school students in ...
To ascertain parents' preferences in sources of health information concerning their children's general health care needs, and caring for their children when they are sick. Exploratory/descriptive design. A telephone survey secured data for the study and qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Part 2 of a larger study in which Part I evaluated parents' satisfaction with a paediatric telephone triage service. One hundred of the 101 parents who were recruited for Part 1 of the study participated in Part 2, an examination of parents' preferences in information sources relating to their child's health. Parents' preferences in child health information sources varied according to the perceived severity of their child's illness. Parents frequently selected more than one item on a list of health information sources provided. In a non-urgent situation when children were sick a total of 170 selections were made by parents, with 'telephone advice line' the source most frequently selected (58, 34%), followed by general practitioner (27, 15.8%). In an emergency situation the most frequently selected information source was again 'telephone advice line' (74, n=129, 57.4%), followed by 'other' (31, n=129, 24.3%) often identified as relating to dialing '000' (Australia's emergency services number). Finally, when parents required information about the general health care needs of their child, 'other' (most frequently identified as books) was selected on 40 (n=185, 21.6%) occasions, followed by child health clinic (35, n= 185, 18.9%). Parents prefer to receive information about the health care needs of their child from another person rather than a printed or audio-visual source.
Apouey, Bénédicte; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves
Recent studies examining the relationship between family income and child health in the UK have produced mixed findings. We re-examine the income gradient in child general health and its evolution with child age in this country, using a very large sample of British children. We find that there is no correlation between income and child general health at ages 0-1, that the gradient emerges around age 2 and is constant from age 2 to age 17. In addition, we show that the gradient remains large and significant when we reduce the endogeneity of income. Furthermore, our results indicate that the gradient in general health reflects a greater prevalence of chronic conditions among low-income children and a greater severity of these conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that income does matter for child health in the UK and may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adams, M S
One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.
Palma, Jessica Anne
While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...
Clarke, Alina Nadira; Cilenti, Dorothy
Purpose An assessment of the National Maternal and Child Health Workforce Development Center (the Center) was conducted to describe (1) effects of the Center's training on the use of collaborative leadership practices by MCH leaders, and (2) perceived barriers to collaboration for MCH leaders. The Center provides services to strengthen MCH professionals' skills in three core areas: Change Management/Adaptive Leadership, Evidence-Based Decision Making, and Systems Integration. Description This descriptive qualitative study compares eight interview responses from a sample of the Center's participants and findings from a document review of the training curriculum against an existing framework of collaborative leadership themes. Assessment Systems thinking tools and related training were highly referenced, and the interviewees often related process-based leadership practices with their applied learning health transformation projects. Perceived barriers to sustaining collaborative work included: (1) a tendency for state agencies to have siloed priorities, (2) difficulty achieving a consensus to move a project forward without individual partners disengaging, (3) strained organizational partnerships when the individual representative leaves that partnering organization, and (4) difficulty in sustaining project-based partnerships past the short term. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that investments in leadership development training for MCH professionals, such as the Center, can provide opportunities for participants to utilize collaborative leadership practices.
Lal, S; Sachar, R K
India's Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was established in 33 projects in 1975 and is spread over 22 states; 67 additional projects were begun in 1977, and over the next 2 years; 100 additional projects were added. By 1991=92, coverage was almost 50% of the country with 2696 projects; the expectation is for 100% coverage by the year 2000. An infrastructure chart identifies the organization and integration between level and social welfare and health departments. Objectives are clearly identified and the departments functionally linked. Linkages are achieved by shared space and activities at various levels. Over the past 17 years, services have included minimum needs programs, integrated rural development and poverty alleviation, national health policy and education policy, universal immunization, and the development of women and children in rural areas. ICDS is sponsored 100% by the status and uniquely relies on the honorary anganwadi worker (AWW), who is a woman, recruited and chosen by the community, aged 21-45 years and middle-school educated. The AWW was responsibility for 2000 households or 1000 persons in rural areas and 700 persons in tribal areas. The AWW is crucial to the functioning of the program and receives an honorarium of Rs. 225-275/month for implementing the ICDs program; AWWs have helpers who are paid Rs. 110/month. Training over a 3-year period is conducted at the Bal Sevika Training Institute by the Indian Council of Child Welfare. Additional health personnel and their role and the number of persons/per area AWWS are responsible for, equipment, and functions are also described. The AWW is responsible for nonformal preschool education, organization of supplementary nutrition feeding, health and nutrition education of women and families, immunization of women and children, treatment and referral of common illnesses, growing monitoring, and community participation. Presently, there are 2506 central sector projects and 190 state sector
Christensen, Dana; Antle, Becky; Johnson, Lisa
This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple…
Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector.
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Objective To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method Thirty-six classrooms within five urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Results Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Conclusions Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. PMID:22428941
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B; Frazier, Stacy L; Atkins, Marc S; Schoenwald, Sonja K
To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Thirty-six classrooms within 5 urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. © 2012 American Psychological Association
Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent
Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
Victora, Cesar G; Aquino, Estela M L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Barros, Fernando C; Szwarcwald, Celia L
In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5% a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4% a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68% of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37% in 1974-75 to 7% in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4%, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988
Khanna, Rajesh; Karikalan, N; Mishra, Anil Kumar; Agarwal, Anchal; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Das, Jayanta K
Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. The portal 'Repository on Maternal Child Health' was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01), increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00), and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03). There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa statistic 0.72). Efficient management of health information
Despite progress in the past two decades, nearly 800 women die every day due ... their rights and to access the services they require to protect themselves from ... Challenges to providing equitable and accessible health services are further exacerbated in fragile settings. ... Achieve real gender equality for adolescent health.
Ibrahim, Abdalla; Abdalla, Salma M; Jafer, Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Jihad; de Vries, Nanne
To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good. Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Fassil, Hareya; Borrazzo, John; Greene, Richard; Jacobs, Troy; Norton, Maureen; Stanton, Mary Ellen; Kuo, Nana Taona; Rogers, K; Pearson, Luwei; Chaiban, Ted; Banerjee, Anshu; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Seaone, Marta; Starrs, Ann; McCallon, Betsy; Germann, Stefan; Mohan, Anshu; Bustreo, Flavia; Fogstad, Helga; Mishra, C K
Reflecting on Storeng and Béhague ("Lives in the balance": the politics of integration in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. Health Policy and Planning Storeng and Béhague (2016).) historical ethnography of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH), this commentary provides a more current account of PMNCH's trajectory since its inception in 2005. It highlights PMNCH's distinct characteristics and how it is positioned to play an instrumental role in the current global health landscape. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. Methods The portal ‘Repository on Maternal Child Health’ was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. Results The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01, increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00, and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03. There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa
Sivolap, Y P
Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.
Jane L.G. Dytz
Full Text Available ln this article, maternal mode of living is investigated, examining both socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle factors, in order to identify to what extent health policies are tangibly meeting the needs of low income Brazilian mothers and children. Data are derived from unstructured interviews with 17 mothers with children underage 6, residing in the Federal District, Brazil. Their stories reveal a life marked by economic difficulties and inadequate living conditions, aggravated by early reproductive behavior, confinement to the home and no leisure. Although they have access to primary health care, the quality is inadequate. Increased awareness to the mother's situation is necessary in order to improve the health of young children.
... State Offices Search the Organizations Database Center for Oral Health Systems Integration and Improvement (COHSII) COHSII is a ... needs of the MCH population. Brush Up on Oral Health This monthly newsletter provides Head Start staff with ...
Tomasdottir, Margret O; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Bjornsdottir, Amalia; Getz, Linn; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Sigurdsson, Johann A
To study the self-reported prevalence of experienced violence among a cohort of women about two years after giving birth, their health during pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes and their experience of their child's health. In 2011, a total of 657 women participated in phase III of the Childbirth and Health Cohort Study in Icelandic Primary Health Care, 18 to 24 months after delivery. The women had previously participated in phase I around pregnancy week 16 and phase II 5-6 months after delivery. Data were collected by postal questionnaires. Women's reported history of experienced violence, sociodemographic and obstetric background, self-perceived health, the use of medications and their child's perceived health. In phase III, 16% of women reported experiencing violence. These women felt less support from their current partner (p violence. Their pregnancies were more frequently unplanned (p violence considered their child's general health as worse (p = 0.008). Our study confirms that a history of violence is common among women. A history of violence is associated with various maternal health problems during and after pregnancy, a higher rate of caesarean sections and maternal reports of health problems in their child 18-24 months after birth. KEY POINTS Violence is a major concern worldwide. Understanding the impact of violence on human health and developing effective preventive measures are important elements of any public health agenda. • The reported prevalence of experiencing violence was 16% among women attending antenatal care in the primary health care setting in Iceland. • Women with a history of violence reported worse health in general during pregnancy and delivered more often by caesarean section, compared to women with no such history. • Mothers with a history of violence also evaluated the general health of their child as worse than women with no such history. • The findings of this study support the
Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly. About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.
Komro, Kelli A.; Flay, Brian R.; Biglan, Anthony
Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes, and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities. PMID:21468644
Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A
This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Singh, Harpreet; Mallaiah, Raghuram; Yadav, Gautam; Verma, Nitin; Sawhney, Ashu; Brahmachari, Samir K
Reducing child mortality with quality care is the prime-most concern of all nations. Thus in current IT era, our healthcare industry needs to focus on adapting information technology in healthcare services. Barring few preliminary attempts to digitalize basic hospital administrative and clinical functions, even today in India, child health and vaccination records are still maintained as paper-based records. Also, error in manually plotting the parameters in growth charts results in missed opportunities for early detection of growth disorders in children. To address these concerns, we present India's first hospital linked, affordable automated vaccination and real-time child's growth monitoring cloud based application- Integrated Child Health Record cloud (iCHRcloud). This application is based on HL7 protocol enabling integration with hospital's HIS/EMR system. It provides Java (Enterprise Service Bus and Hibernate) based web portal for doctors and mobile application for parents, enhancing doctor-parent engagement. It leverages highchart to automate chart preparation and provides access of data via Push Notification (GCM and APNS) to parents on iOS and Android mobile platforms. iCHRcloud has also been recognized as one of the best innovative solution in three nationwide challenges, 2016 in India. iCHRcloud offers a seamless, secure (256 bit HTTPS) and sustainable solution to reduce child mortality. Detail analysis on preliminary data of 16,490 child health records highlight the diversified need of various demographic regions. Thus, primary lesson would be to implement better validation strategies to fulfill the customize requisites of entire population. This paper presents first glimpse of data and power of the analytics in policy framework.
Jun 28, 2016 ... and neonatal nurses, face ethical issues possibly because of their ... Aim: To identify the ethical issues related to maternal and child care, the challenges faced by ...... Lucas V.A. The business of women's health care. In: E.T. ...
R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)
textabstractThe objective of this thesis is to clarify the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for congenital heart malformations in Dutch child health centres and the possibilities to optimise this prevention programme. To this end the following main questions will be addressed. 1. Does
The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa improve maternal, newborn, and ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations ...
Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen
An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.
Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu
Full Text Available Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. Methodology: This is a descriptive clinic-based study. Eligible and consenting mothers are attending the child immunization clinic in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria participated. Consecutive mothers completed the interview questionnaires independently while those who were not literate had the questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Instruments used were a sociodemographic proforma, the General Health Questionnaire-12, Mother and Infant Attachment Scale (MIAS, and the Zung Depression Scale. Results: In total, ninety-eight women were enrolled, 66.3% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and mean age of 30.9 years (±5.1 standard deviation. Most were aged between 26 and 35 years (66.3%. Over 90% had at secondary school education or more. Over a 10 th (13.3% was unemployed and 96% married. The children were aged between 6 weeks and 1 year, males (63.1%, and females (46.9%, and the majority were born by spontaneous vaginal delivery (82.7%. A 10 th (10.2% of the women had probable psychiatric morbidity, 14.3% had scores suggestive of postpartum depression, and 18 (16.3% scored below average attachment in interaction with their children on the MIAS. There was an association found between reduced maternal-child attachment interaction and maternal depression (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: Emotional disorders, such as depression, in mothers can be associated reduced maternal-child interaction. It is important that integrated mental health
Reid, R S
The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to
Okafor, Chinyelu B
Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.
Bornstein, Marc H
In its most general instrumental sense, parenting consists of care of the young in preparing them to manage the tasks of life. Parents provide childhood experiences and populate the environments that guide children's development and so contribute to child mental health. Parenting is expressed in cognitions and practices. However, parents do not parent, and children do not grow up, in isolation, but in multiple contexts, and one notable context of parenting and child mental health is culture. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as an adequately functioning member of the culture. Insofar as parents subscribe to particular conventions of a culture, they likely follow prevailing "cultural scripts" in childrearing. Broadening our definition, it is therefore the continuing task of parents also to enculturate children by preparing them for the physical, psychosocial, and educational situations that are characteristic of their specific culture. Cross-cultural comparisons show that virtually all aspects of parenting children are informed by culture: culture influences when and how parents care for children, what parents expect of children, and which behaviors parents appreciate, emphasize and reward or discourage and punish. Thus, cultural norms become manifest in the mental health of children through parenting. Furthermore, variations in what is normative in different cultures challenge our assumptions about what is universal and inform our understanding of how parent-child relationships unfold in ways both culturally universal and specific. This essay concerns the contributions of culture to parenting and child mental health. No study of a single society can address this broad issue. It is possible, however, to learn lessons about parenting and child mental health from the study of different societies. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.
Belcher, Harolyn M E; Stone, Jacqueline D; McFadden, Jenese A; Hemmingson, Tyler A; Kreutzer, Cary; Harris, Lisa G; Wheeler, Barbara Y; Van Osdel, Joanne; Avila, Margaret; Yorker, Beatrice; Hoffman, Beth R; Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O
This study examines maternal and child health core competencies and leadership characteristics of undergraduate students following participation in the Maternal and Child Health Careers/Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement-Undergraduate Program (MCHC/RISE-UP). MCHC/RISE-UP is a 10-week public health leadership program designed to promote diversity in public health workforce through mentored research, community engagement and advocacy, and clinical experiences for undergraduate students. The MCHC/RISE-UP is a national consortium of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities including, (1) Kennedy Krieger Institute (Kennedy Krieger, lead institution) partnering with Morgan State University, a Historically Black University, (2) the University of South Dakota partnering with Tribal Serving Institutions; and (3) the University of Southern California Children's Hospital-Los Angeles and their partner institution, California State University Los Angeles, a Hispanic Serving Institution. Eighty-four junior and senior undergraduates and recent baccalaureate degree students who participated in the MCHC/RISE-UP worked on 48 maternal and child health projects. Following the MCHC/RISE-UP, students demonstrated statistically significant improvements in all maternal and child health core competencies. Transformational leadership characteristics also increased (mean increase 9.4, 95% CI 7.2-11.8; p leadership programs may extend the reach and recruitment of diverse students into the maternal and child health field. Experiential, didactic, and mentored learning opportunities may enhance student integration of maternal and child health competencies and transformational leadership characteristics.
consumption, exercise and diet during pregnancy on birth outcomes and considers the problem of identifying the causal effect of these endogenous maternal health behaviours. The analysis controls for a wide range of covariates and exploits sibling variation in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The paper...... the ways in which child health is generated, and - for children of higher birth order - earlier children's outcomes will shape parental investments in child health....
Starfield, B; Riley, A W; Green, B F; Ensminger, M E; Ryan, S A; Kelleher, K; Kim-Harris, S; Johnston, D; Vogel, K
This study was designed to test the reliability and validity of an instrument to assess adolescent health status. Reliability and validity were examined by administration to adolescents (ages 11-17 years) in eight schools in two urban areas, one area in Appalachia, and one area in the rural South. Integrity of the domains and subdomains and construct validity were tested in all areas. Test/retest stability, criterion validity, and convergent and discriminant validity were tested in the two urban areas. Iterative testing has resulted in the final form of the CHIP-AE (Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition) having 6 domains with 20 subdomains. The domains are Discomfort, Disorders, Satisfaction with Health, Achievement (of age-appropriate social roles), Risks, and Resilience. Tested aspects of reliability and validity have achieved acceptable levels for all retained subdomains. The CHIP-AE in its current form is suitable for assessing the health status of populations and subpopulations of adolescents. Evidence from test-retest stability analyses suggests that the CHIP-AE also can be used to assess changes occurring over time or in response to health services interventions targeted at groups of adolescents.
Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S
The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.
Peterson, Lisa A.; Hecht, Stephen S.
Purpose of the review The availability of the Children’s Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Findings Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life such as obesity, behavioral problems and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. While e-cigarettes appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Summary Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies. PMID:28059903
Spencer, Rachael A; Komro, Kelli A
In this review, we examine the effects of family economic security policies (i.e., minimum wage, earned income tax credit, unemployment insurance, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) on child and family health outcomes, summarize policy generosity across states in the USA, and discuss directions and possibilities for future research. This manuscript is an update to a review article that was published in 2014. Millions of Americans are affected by family economic security policies each year, many of whom are the most vulnerable in society. There is increasing evidence that these policies impact health outcomes and behaviors of adults and children. Further, research indicates that, overall, policies which are more restrictive are associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes; however, the strength of the evidence differs across each of the four policies. There is significant diversity in state-level policies, and it is plausible that these policy variations are contributing to health disparities across and within states. Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between economic policies and health, there continues to be limited attention to this issue. State policy variations offer a valuable opportunity for scientists to conduct natural experiments and contribute to evidence linking social policy effects to family and child well-being. The mounting evidence will help to guide future research and policy making for evolving toward a more nurturing society for family and child health and well-being.
Full Text Available En España, la infancia aparece como un grupo de población con escasas necesidades y problemas de salud, lo que lo hace casi invisible en la investigación y en la planificación de servicios. En general, no se tiene en cuenta que se trata de un período de desarrollo y de alta vulnerabilidad a los riesgos físicos y psicosociales, y de respuesta positiva a los factores protectores. En este artículo se recogen datos y reflexiones sobre algunos problemas que mejoran (mortalidad, cáncer y otros que persisten o empeoran (calidad del ambiente, maltrato, salud mental, obesidad, discapacidades y estilos de vida, y se plantean nuevos desafíos relacionados con la calidad de vida y la equidad de género y clase social. Además se revisan las respuestas que se dan desde los servicios de salud, las políticas medioambientales y de promoción de la salud, y se propone una atención específica a la salud de niños y niñas desde un enfoque de los derechos humanos.Children in Spain are considered as being a population group with few health problems and needs therefore making it almost invisible in research and services' planning. Generally, it is not taken into account that this is a development period with very high vulnerability to physical and psychosocial risks whereas there is a positive response to protective factors. This article covers some data and thoughts on their health problems that are improving (mortality, cancer, those that persist or worsen (environmental quality, abuse, mental health, obesity, disabilities and lifestyles and new challenges relating to quality of life and gender and social class equity. Responses provided by the health services are reviewed, as are environmental policies and health promotion and specific care is proposed for boys' and girls' health from a children's human rights-focused perspective.
Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L
There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri
In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.
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Bajenu Gox: A Community Approach to Maternal and Child Health in ... the Bajenu Gox Initiative's contribution to improving maternal and child health across Senegal. ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the ...
Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk
This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819
Dore, Jean-Francois; Hours, Martine; Lelong, Joel; Letertre, Thierry; Moati, Frederique; Nadi, Mustapha; Ndagijimana, Fabien; Pereira De Vasconcelos, Anne; Yardin, Catherine; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Frederic; El Khatib, Aicha; Feltin, Nicolas; Bounouh, Alexandre; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gaffet, Eric; Muzet, Alain; Lafaye, Murielle; Lepoutre, Philippe; Martinsons, Christophe; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Sicard, Yves; Soyez, Alain; Toppila, Esko; Beugnet, Laurent; Douki, Thierry; Roth-Delgado, Olivia Anses; Fite, Johanna; Merckel, Olivier; Saddoki, Sophia; Debuire, Brigitte
Following a request by the Ministries of Health, Ecology and Consumer Affairs, ANSES conducted an expert assessment on the specific impact of radiofrequency waves on children. The conclusions of this assessment were published in July 2016. In its conclusions, the Agency emphasises that children can be more exposed than adults because of their morphological and anatomical features, in particular their small size, as well as the characteristics of some of their tissues. It is issuing a series of recommendations aimed at adapting the regulatory limit values in order to reduce the exposure of children to electromagnetic fields, which starts from a very early age due to the expansion of the use of new technologies. In this context, ANSES recommends moderate and supervised use of wireless communication technologies by children. Specifically concerning mobile telephones, ANSES reiterates the recommendation it had already formulated, calling for a reduction in exposure of children, by advocating moderate use and favouring the use of hands-free kits. Lastly, the expert appraisal identified several studies highlighting an association between intensive and inadequate use of mobile telephones by young people and mental health problems (risk behaviour, depression, suicidal thoughts, etc.). However, it was not possible to use these studies to explore the causality of the observed associations. ANSES recommends that additional studies assess the health and psychosocial impact (school learning, social and family relationships, etc.) in children associated with the use of mobile communication technologies, especially because of addictive phenomena, circadian rhythm disorders, etc. Pending these results, the Agency recommends that parents encourage their children to adopt reasonable use of mobile telephones, avoiding night-time communications and limiting the frequency and duration of calls
Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; Rhodes, Anne E.
In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and…
Mulaudzi, Fhumulani M; Peu, Mmapheko D
Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school. This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu - solidarity and sense of community - as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services. An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model. The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children. Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.
Fhumulani M. Mulaudzi
Full Text Available Background: Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school.Objectives: This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu – solidarity and sense of community – as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services.Method: An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model.Findings: The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children.Conclusion: Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.
Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul
Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Dong, Le; Niu, Wenyi; Zhang, Puhong
Background The application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) is increasing worldwide. However, best practice and the most effective mHealth interventions have not been reviewed systematically. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of mHealth interventions for RMNCH around the world were conducted to investigate their characteristics as well as the features and effectiveness of mHealth interventions. Methods ...
Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori
This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.
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Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. Pakistan has to accelerate improvement of access to maternal health services, particularly contraception, emergency obstetric care and skilled birth attendance; the need to improve maternal and child nutrition cannot be over-emphasised.
Schultz, Jennifer; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
This paper adds to the literature on social capital and health by testing whether an exogenous shock in the health of a family member (a new baby) affects the family's investment in social capital. It also contributes to a small but growing literature on the effects of children's health on family resources and provides information about associations between health and social capital in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, a longitudinal survey of about 5000 births to mostly unwed parents in 20 U.S. cities during the years 1998-2000. Both parents were interviewed at the time of the birth and then again one and three years later. The infants' medical records from the birth hospitalization were reviewed, and poor infant health was characterized to reflect serious and random health problems that were present at birth. Social interactions, reported at three years, include the parents' participation in church groups, service clubs, political organizations, community groups, and organizations working with children; regular religious attendance; and visiting relatives with the child. Education, employment, wages, and sociodemographic characteristics are included in the analyses. The results suggest that infant health shocks do not affect the parents' social interactions.
De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi
Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.
Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl
Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2016.
B. Akbari Neisiani
Full Text Available Every year, many accidents leading to physical injuries in kindergartens, indicates that a very large percentage of them are related to the safety concerns and lack of hygiene in these places. Families, due to their busy life style and working hours and also children needs of preschool education, are searching to find most suitable kindergartens for their children. Selecting a kindergarten with various suitable training programs, although very important criteria for selection, but is not sufficient. Indicators such as health, safety and environment issues in these places must be crucial factors in this decision making. Child safety and health management system is an integrated system, derived from health, safety and environmental management regulations which helps the kindergartens complies with relevant regulations to reduce the number of accidents occurrence. The present case study has tried, by using failure modes and effects analysis method and child safety and health management system to find the best practicable indicators to assess the relative impact of different failures in order to identify the parts of the process that are most in need of change. In this regards, 10 semi-governmental kindergartens located in Tehran District 6 of Tehran Municipality, which are supervised by municipality of Tehran were selected and evaluated. The results showed that according to the child safety and health management system and failure modes and effects analysis, all these places need massive infrastructural changes according to the preventive action list in order to be considered a safe and hygienic place for the children.
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro
The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte
Children who have parents with mental health problems are a vulnerable group. Intervening early to support parents with a mental illness can contribute to improve outcomes for children. Rigging the adult mental health system in such a manner that child responsible personnel are designated in wards is a strategy to systematically address the needs of families. It has since 2010 been mandatory for Norwegian hospitals to appoint such personnel in all hospital wards. The current study aimed to investigate the appointment of child responsible personnel in the adult mental health services in a regional hospital with local clinics. Additionally, to describe the characteristics of child responsible staff in terms of gender and educational background, their competence, clinical practice and knowledge about parental mental illness. A final aim was to study whether or not the clinics had established collaboration with other services concerning follow-up for the children of parents with mental illness. Participants in this study are the staff at psychiatric clinics in a large university hospital in Norway. Practitioners were asked to answer a questionnaire prior to the initial process of implementing the new legislation in 2010 (N = 219). After a three-year period of implementing routines to adopt the new law in the clinic, the same survey was sent out to the staff in 2013 (N = 185) to monitor if changes were taking place. To study if the changes were sustained within the clinics, we conducted a two-year follow up in 2015 (N = 108). The results indicated that the systematic work to change clinical practice in the participating hospital had made a difference. Routines to follow up children's patients after the new legislation had to some extent been implemented. The child responsible personnel had more knowledge and awareness about the consequences of parental mental illness for children. The results of this study suggested that the systems change of establishing child
... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: November 19...
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Background: Inequalities in reproductive and child health (RCH exist, in general, in different regions of India. The present study aims to investigate the current status of RCH and examine the factors responsible for it in different parts of India.
Methods: This study utilized data obtained from two Indian studies – (i National Family Health Survey – 3 (NFHS- 2005-06 and (ii District Level Household Survey (DLHS – 2002-04. Reproductive Health Index was computed on the basis of five variables such as total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, birth order, delivery care and female educational attainment.
Results: In terms of reproductive and child health, a wide range of variation exists in India in its different regions. The study reveals that among Indian states, 13 states have an index value less than the national average. On the basis of the reproductive health index, the Indian states can be divided into three categories, namely; progressive states, semi progressive states and backward states.
Conclusions: The interstate differences in healthcare utilization are partly due to variations in the implementation of maternal health care programs as well as differences in availability of and accessibility to healthcare between Indian states.
Morin, Karen; Small, Leigh; Spatz, Diane L; Solomon, Julie; Lessard, Laura; Leng, Sarah Williams
To describe leadership and patient outcomes from an international leadership development program undertaken by a nursing organization (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing) in partnership with Johnson & Johnson Corporate Contributions to strengthen the leadership base of maternal-child bedside nurses. Pretest/posttest design with no control group program evaluation. Health care facilities, academic institutions, and public health clinics. Mentor/fellow dyads (N = 100) of the Maternal-Child Health Nurse Leadership Academy (MCHNLA). The MCHNLA engaged participants in an 18-month mentored leadership experience within the context of an interdisciplinary team project. Each mentor/fellow dyad was paired with a faculty member during the program. One hundred dyads have participated and conducted projects to improve health care for childbearing women and children up to age 5 years during the past decade. For the two cohorts for which consistent data were obtained, mentors and fellows enhanced leadership knowledge, skills, and behaviors. Review of 2010 to 2011 cohort project reports revealed they had the potential to influence more than 1000 students, 4000 nurses, and 1300 other health care students or professionals during the project period. This leadership development model is replicable in other areas of nursing and other professions. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua
This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
exposures during life at sea and work place health promotion. SEAHEALTH and some of the shipping companies have already added workplace health promotion to occupational health care programs. The purpose of this article is to reinforce this trend by adding some international perspectives and by providing......Workplace Health Promotion is the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work. Integrated maritime health care can be defined as the total maritime health care function that includes the prevention of health risks from harmful...
Avogo, Winfred Aweyire; Agadjanian, Victor
This study investigates the effects of forced migration on child survival and health in Angola. Using survey data collected in Luanda, Angola, in 2004, just two years after the end of that country's prolonged civil war, we compare three groups: migrants who moved primarily due to war, migrants whose moves were not directly related to war, and non-migrants. First, we examine the differences among the three groups in under-five mortality. Using an event-history approach, we find that hazards of child death in any given year were higher in families that experienced war-related migration in the same year or in the previous year, net of other factors. To assess longer-term effects of forced migration, we examine hazards of death of children who were born in Luanda, i.e., after migrants had reached their destinations. We again observe a disadvantage of forced migrants, but this disadvantage is explained by other characteristics. When looking at the place of delivery, number of antenatal consultations, and age-adequate immunization of children born in Luanda, we again detect a disadvantage of forced migrants relative to non-migrants, but now this disadvantage also extends to migrants who came to Luanda for reasons other than war. Finally, no differences across the three groups in child morbidity and related health care seeking behavior in the two weeks preceding the survey are found. We interpret these results within the context of the literature on short- and long-term effects of forced migration on child health.
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies...
Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.
Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional
Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt
The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...
Background: Health workforce governance is increasingly recognized as a burning policy issue and focused on workforce shortages. Yet the most pressing problem is to solve maldistributions through governance and integration. Poor management of health 242 European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 24,
This paper brings together and discusses the implications of various statements of children's rights and legislation protecting children. The Declaration on the Rights of the Child, proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 November 1959 is detailed in terms of individual and social rights. The new (1979) Youth Protection Act…
Kimla, Katarina; Nathanson, Dania; Woolfenden, Susan; Zwi, Karen
Objective The aims of the present study were to describe the prevalence of vulnerability in a cohort of newborns, identify the factors that increase the risk of vulnerability and examine whether those who are most vulnerable are receiving home visits. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed using data collected from questionnaires completed by child and family health nurses and obstetric discharge summaries for each mother-baby dyad. Descriptive frequencies and percentages are used to describe the proportions of children who were vulnerable, offered services and had risk factors for vulnerability. Categorical data were compared using Pearson's Chi-squared analysis. Results In all, 1517 newborns were included in the present study. Of these, 40.5% were identified as vulnerable and 13.9% had two or more risk factors for vulnerability (95% confidence interval (CI) 12-16%). The most common risk factors were biological. Across all newborns, 33.7% were visited at home, and 74.6% of vulnerable newborns were offered a home visit. Children identified as vulnerable were more likely to have a home visit than those who were not (z for 95% CI=1.96; Pvulnerability allowed the offer of home visiting to be directed towards those most likely to benefit. What is known about the topic? Of the Australian child population, 10-20% are vulnerable to adverse health, developmental and wellbeing outcomes. Vulnerable infants are at a greater risk of becoming vulnerable children, adolescents and adults over the life course. Biological and psychosocial risk factors for vulnerability are well described. Families with the greatest need are often the least likely to access or receive support, and have lower utilisation of preventative health services despite evidence that support in the first few years of life can significantly improve long-term outcomes. What does this paper add? This paper provides a detailed description of vulnerabilities in a cohort of newborns and
Guteilus, M F; Kirsch, A D; MacDonald, S; Brooks, M R; McErlean, T
Extensive child health supervision, with emphasis on counseling and anticipatory guidance, was provided for the first three years of life to an experimental series of 47 normal first-born black infants from low-income families living in the environs of Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C. The mothers were unmarried schoolgirls in normal physical and mental health. A control series consisted of 48 similar mother-child dyads from the same area. Data were collected, in part by an outside evaluator, at yearly intervals on both experimental and control series in a form suitable for coding on computer cards. Comparison of differences in behavioral results between the two series showed statistically significant findings in favor of the experimental children, as well as numerous favorable trends during the first six years of life. Positive effects became evident in diet and eating, habits, in some developmental problems of growing up (such as toilet training), and in certain abstract qualities including self-confidence. Significant differences were also noted between the experimental and control mothers for various child rearing practices and personality characteristics. No significant difference or trend favored the control series. We believe that a causal relationship existed between the intervention and at least some of the significant findings.
Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Reddy, Venugopal; Ahamed, Syed Shaheed; Muhammad, Shameer; Thayumanavan, Shanmugam
The dental health of preschool children has extensive implications on the oral heath of the individual as he grows into an adult. Parents/guardians of preschool children play a central role in enforcing proper oral hygiene and preventive regime in these children. This study was conducted with the aim of describing the views of parents/guardians about the dental health of pre-school children. Response was obtained on a 21 point questionnaire from randomly visiting parents of the outpatient section of Rajah Muthiah dental college and Hospital, Annamalainagar, India. The findings of the present study point towards poor awareness among the parents/guardians of preschool children, pertaining to their childs' oral health and this could directly translate to poor oral health among the children in this area.
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Changing Parental Relationships and Child Well-Being. Date: March 5, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...
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Wilson, Damali M; Gross, Deborah
Parents' involvement in their children's education is integral to academic success. Several education-based organizations have identified recommendations for how parents can best support their children's learning. However, executive functioning (EF), a high-ordered cognitive skill set, contributes to the extent to which parents can follow through with these recommendations. This integrative review of the literature describes how executive function can affect parents' ability to facilitate and actively participate in their child's education and provides strategies for all school staff to strengthen parent-school partnerships when parents have limitations in EF. EF skills are fluid and influenced by several factors, including parental age, sleep, stress, and mood/affect. Despite possible limitations in parental EF, there are strategies school personnel can employ to strengthen partnership with parents to support their children's academic success. As reforms in education call for increased customization and collaboration with families, parental EF is an important consideration for school personnel. Awareness and understanding of how parents' EF affects children's learning will help schools better support parents in supporting their children's academic success. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.
Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M
This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lykke Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Ertmann, Ruth
aware of problems in the family. CONCLUSION: The preventive child health examination is an important platform for examination and dialogue concerning a child's health. The physical aspect works well, but there is a need for development of the assessment of the child's mental health and the well....... A total of nine doctors from seven clinics participated. We included 21 cases in our study, each consisting of a consultation and subsequent interviews with the child's parents and with the doctor. RESULTS: The examination of the child's physical health and development is an important feature......INTRODUCTION: In Denmark, around one in six children has significant somatic, psychological or social health problems, often in combination. The preventive child health examinations have a high participation rate; and they produce significant findings, predominantly concerning the child's physical...
Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N
The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ong, Natalie; Llewellyn, Cathy; Brown, Nicola; Woolfenden, Susan; Reti, Thomas; Magiros, Marisa; Todd, Katherine; Booth, Karen; Eastwood, Anne; Eastwood, John
Introduction: Community-based integrated care initiatives for children and families had been developed in Sydney Australia over five years. One of those is the Healthy Homses and Neighbourhoods Integrated Care (HHAN) Initiative. The HHAN design includes several sector workforce capacity building initiatives. A partnership was formed with: primary health networks (PHN), child and family nurses, practice nurses, a general practice training organisation, Sydney Children's Hospita Network and t...
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... GENDER, URBAN/RURAL AND SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES'CROSS-CULTURAL' ISSUES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT ... HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY IN BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN BOCA ...
Committee on Evaluation of Children's Health, National Research Council
... in the effects of environmental contaminants such as lead. Yet major questions still remain about how to assess the status of children's health, what factors should be monitored, and the appropriate measurement tools that should be...
This study sought to understand the relationship between child health outcomes and health spending while investigating lagged effects. The study employed panel data from 45 Sub-Saharan African countries between 1995 and 2011 obtained from the World Bank's World Development Indicators. Fixed and Random effect ...
Riaz, Musarrat; Basit, Abdul
Pakistan is a developing country with diverse social, economic and cultural dimensions along with limited resources. Non communicable diseases (NCDS) including diabetes are highly prevalent compromising the already challenged health care system. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with its associated maternal and foetal complications is increasing with rapidly changing lifestyle pattern. Since Pakistan has limited resources and other health issues compete strongly with gestational diabetes initiatives, the most feasible strategy will be the horizontal integration. This will work with the existing primary health care system integrating NCD control programmes with Maternal and Child health (MCH) programmes. Utilizing the existing health care system is the only implementable cost effective strategy. Antenatal screening and treatment of GDM alone is not sufficient but Post-partum screening (PPS) of women with GDM is an important strategy for prevention of diabetes as the conversion rates of GDM to type 2 diabetes are high. Furthermore, instead of perceiving GDM as a temporary reversible clinical entity, it should be considered as a trans-generational prevention of diabetes that needs to be addressed as a public health issue in order to improve maternal and foetal health.
Serenius, F; Hofvander, Y
The general background to child health in Saudi Arabia is reviewed. Information is provided on the social and demographic characteristics of the population, on common health indicators, on the health care system and its utilization, and on the general pattern of childhood morbidity and mortality. The unprecendented socioeconomic development has transformed the health care system. In 15 years the number of nurses have increased from 3261 to 29896, physicians from 1172 to 14335, primary health care centers from 591 to 1821, and hospital beds from 9036 to 30707. In spite of this progress, the disease pattern seems to resemble that of some developing countries with more limited resources. Parasitic diseases are still widespread, and sample surveys have indicated suboptimal nutrition of rural preschool children. Recent estimates on the infant mortality rate have ranged from 65 to 120 per 1000 live births. The preferred marriage partner is a close relative, and genetic diseases, such as hemoglobin disorders, are common in certain areas. Thus, the prevalence of alpha thalassemia is reported at 50 percent, and the sickle cell trait at 4.4-20 percent in sample surveys from the Eastern Province. The modest educational attainment of the mother, the heavy reliance on foreign manpower in all sectors, including the health sector, and the further development of the primary health care system are key issues today. It is emphasized that demographic and epidemiological information from Saudi Arabia is scarce and frequently uncertain, and that further studies are needed to identify the health needs of Saudi children.
Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam
Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special...
Johnson, Sara B; Little, Todd D; Masyn, Katherine; Mehta, Paras D; Ghazarian, Sharon R
Characterizing the determinants of child health and development over time, and identifying the mechanisms by which these determinants operate, is a research priority. The growth of precision medicine has increased awareness and refinement of conceptual frameworks, data management systems, and analytic methods for multilevel data. This article reviews key methodological challenges in cohort studies designed to investigate multilevel influences on child health and strategies to address them. We review and summarize methodological challenges that could undermine prospective studies of the multilevel determinants of child health and ways to address them, borrowing approaches from the social and behavioral sciences. Nested data, variation in intervals of data collection and assessment, missing data, construct measurement across development and reporters, and unobserved population heterogeneity pose challenges in prospective multilevel cohort studies with children. We discuss innovations in missing data, innovations in person-oriented analyses, and innovations in multilevel modeling to address these challenges. Study design and analytic approaches that facilitate the integration across multiple levels, and that account for changes in people and the multiple, dynamic, nested systems in which they participate over time, are crucial to fully realize the promise of precision medicine for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.
Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rezai Abhari, Farideh; Zarghami, Mehran
While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD) on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009), 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204) and control (N=467) groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively). PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.
Full Text Available While studies have shown the disastrous effects of post-partum depression (PPD on children's behaviors, there is relatively lack of reliable data in Asian countries. This study examined the relative significance of maternal PPD in children's developmental disabilities at age four. In a longitudinal study design (2009, 1801 pregnant women attending in primary health centers of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran provided self-reports of depression from two to twelve postpartum weeks using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Approximately four years later, the women experiencing PPD and twice as the ones who did not experience this disorder were considered as case (N=204 and control (N=467 groups. The association between maternal depression at different times and childhood developmental disabilities based on Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ and other health problems reported by the child were analyzed using two-sample t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression models. The presence of PPD only was not a predictor of child's developmental disabilities at age four. Childhood developmental disabilities in communication, gross motor and personal-social domains of ASQ were associated with the current and concurrent maternal depressive symptoms (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.16-5.78; OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.10-8.96; OR=5.66, 95% CI=1.94-16.54 and OR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.58; OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.72-13.87; OR=6.17, 95% CI=1.95-19.53 respectively. PPD, the current depressive symptoms, and depression at both occasions were associated with more health problems in children. Childhood developmental disabilities in some domains of ASQ were significantly related to the maternal depression chronicity or recurrence. Also, child's difficulties were more prevalent in association with maternal depression regardless of onset time.
Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.
which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose...... while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding...... the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession...
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
demographic and health indicators.1 The data showed a high growth rate in excess of 3% ... an integrated form with all other health care needs including promotive and ... In 1999 the government of Uganda (Ministry of Health) developed a ten .... The usual drug procurement system was strengthened with a special project.
Gawaine Powell Davies
Full Text Available Introduction: To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Description of policy: Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Discussion: Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Davies, Gawaine Powell; Perkins, David; McDonald, Julie; Williams, Anna
To fulfil its role of coordinating health care, primary health care needs to be well integrated, internally and with other health and related services. In Australia, primary health care services are divided between public and private sectors, are responsible to different levels of government and work under a variety of funding arrangements, with no overarching policy to provide a common frame of reference for their activities. Over the past decade, coordination of service provision has been improved by changes to the funding of private medical and allied health services for chronic conditions, by the development in some states of voluntary networks of services and by local initiatives, although these have had little impact on coordination of planning. Integrated primary health care centres are being established nationally and in some states, but these are too recent for their impact to be assessed. Reforms being considered by the federal government include bringing primary health care under one level of government with a national primary health care policy, establishing regional organisations to coordinate health planning, trialling voluntary registration of patients with general practices and reforming funding systems. If adopted, these could greatly improve integration within primary health care. Careful change management and realistic expectations will be needed. Also other challenges remain, in particular the need for developing a more population and community oriented primary health care.
Daly, B; Clarke, W; McEvoy, W; Periam, K; Zoitopoulos, L
To conduct an oral health promotion needs assessment amongst parents and primary care givers of pre-school children in a South East London Sure Start Local Programme (SSLP). To explore the oral health concerns and oral health literacy with regard to children's oral health amongst parents and primary care givers in a South East London SSLP. A qualitative study using four in-depth focus groups with a purposive sample of 20 participants. Data were analysed using the framework method. The SSLP was identified as an important source of information, support and social interaction for participants. Participants rated the informal networks of the programme as equally authoritative as other formal sources of information. Oral health concerns included: introducing healthy eating, establishing tooth brushing, teething and access to dental care. While participants had adequate knowledge of how to prevent oral disease they cited many barriers to acting on their knowledge which included: parents' tiredness, lack of confidence in parenting skills, confusing information, widespread availability of sugary foods and drinks, and lack of local child friendly dentists. Parenting skills and the social support provided by the SSLP appeared to be integral to the introduction of positive oral health behaviours. SSLPs were seen as a trusted source of support and information for carers of pre-school children. Integration of oral health promotion into SSLPs has the potential to tap into early interventions which tackle the wider support needs of carers of pre-school children while also supporting the development of positive oral health behaviours.
Introduction: ATSIHW face significant unique workforce challenges which hinder efforts to improve health for their communities.Practice change: Extensive consultation led to the Qld Child and Youth Clinical Network (QCYCN) establishing a statewide governance model to drive workforce culture change.Aim: To empower ATSIHW to drive change within their workforce & lead an integrated cultural shift toward respect & equity, enabling better health outcomes for ATSI communities.Targeted stake...
Institute Of Medicine Staff; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences
... competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by contract number 282-99-0045, task order number 6 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services. Supplementary funding for a report synthesis and dissemination of the report and report synthesis was supported by contrac...
Psaila, Kim; Schmied, Virginia; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue
To examine collaboration in the provision of universal health services for children and families in Australia from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses. Collaboration is identified as a key concept contributing to families' smooth transition between maternity and child health services. However, evidence suggests that collaboration between services is often lacking. Few studies have explored how maternity and child health and family health services or professionals collaborate to facilitate a smooth transition. This study reports on data collected in phases 1 and 2 of a three-phase mixed-methods study investigating the feasibility of implementing a national approach to child health and family health services in Australia (Child Health: Researching Universal Services study). In phase 1, consultations (via discussion groups, focus groups and teleconferences) were held with 45 midwives and 60 child health and family health nurses. Themes identified were used to develop phase 2 surveys. In phase 2, 1098 child health and family health nurses and 655 midwives returned surveys. Midwives and child health and family health nurses reported 'some collaboration'. Midwives and child health and family health nurses indicated that collaboration was supported by having agreement on common goals and recognising and valuing the contributions of others. Organisational barriers such as poor communication and information transfer processes obstructed relationships. Good collaboration was reported more frequently when working with other professionals (such as allied health professionals) to support families with complex needs. This study provides information on the nature and extent of collaboration from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses providing universal health services for children and families. Both professional groups emphasised the impact of service disconnection on families. However, their ability to negotiate
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available Child abuse is an extremely complicated and a multi-faceted public health concern, significantly influenced by the victim's age, the settings in which the abuse occurs, and the relationship between the victim and perpetrator. The global estimates are just the tip of the iceberg as most of it takes place in the privacy of domestic life and often goes unreported and undetected. In fact, occurrence of child abuse can be best explained by exploring the complex interaction among multiple factors at different levels. In order to counter this menace there is a definite need to involve all the stakeholders and ensure mandatory reporting of child abuse with the help of a surveillance system. To conclude, comprehensive and integrated package of services is desired to minimize the incidence of child abuse and neglect, supplemented with community-based initiatives to facilitate early detection and prolonged follow-up of victims of the abuse. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 955-958
This study describes health, functioning, and health care service use by medically complex technology-dependent children according to condition severity (moderately disabled, severely disabled, and vegetative state). Data were collected monthly for 5 months using the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Module 4.0 Parent-Proxy Report. Health care service use measured the number of routine and acute care office visits (including primary and specialty physicians), emergency department visits, hospitalizations, nursing health care services, special therapies, medications, medical technology devices (MTDs), and assistive devices. Child physical health was different across the condition severity groups. The average age of the children was 10.1 years (SD, 6.2); the average number of medications used was 5.5 (SD, 3.7); the average number of MTDs used was 4.2 (SD, 2.9); and the average number of assistive devices used was 4.3 (SD, 2.7). Severely disabled and vegetative children were similar in age (older) and had a similar number of medications, MTDs, and assistive devices (greater) than moderately disabled children. The advanced practice nurse care coordinator role is necessary for the health and functioning of medically complex, technology-dependent children. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simkin, Deborah R; Popper, Charles W
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) defies simple definition, because the distinction between CAM and conventional medicine is largely arbitrary and fluid. Despite inconclusive data on the efficacy and safety of many CAM treatments in child and adolescent psychiatry, there are enough data on certain treatments to provide guidance to clinicians and researchers. CAM treatments, as adjunctive therapy or monotherapy, can be clinically beneficial and sensible. The low stigma and cost-competitiveness of many CAM psychiatric treatments are highly attractive to children and parents. Physicians need to be knowledgeable about CAM treatments to provide clinically valid informed consent for some conventional treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Afifi, Tracie O; McTavish, Jill; Turner, Sarah; MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine
Despite being a primary response to child abuse, it is currently unknown whether contact with child protection services (CPS) does more good than harm. The aim of the current study was to examine whether contact with CPS is associated with improved mental health outcomes among adult respondents who reported experiencing child abuse, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and abuse severity. The data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-2012), which used a multistage stratified cluster design (household-level response rate = 79.8%). Included in this study were individuals aged 18 years and older living in the 10 Canadian provinces (N = 23,395). Child abuse included physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Mental health outcomes included lifetime mental disorders, lifetime and past year suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts, and current psychological well-being and functioning and distress. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and severity of child abuse. For the majority of outcomes, there were no statistically significant differences between adults with a child abuse history who had CPS contact compared to those without CPS contact. However, those with CPS contact were more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts. These findings suggest that CPS contact is not associated with improved mental health outcomes. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon
This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.
Kristine Husøy Onarheim
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.
Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xiong, Juyang; Hipgrave, David; Myklebust, Karoline; Guo, Sufang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Tong, Xuetao; Yao, Lan; Moran, Andrew E
China embarked on an ambitious health system reform in 2009, and pledged to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2020. However, there are gaps in access to healthcare for some children in China. We assessed health insurance status and associated variables among children under five in twelve communities in 2010: two urban community health centers and two rural township health centers in each of three municipalities located in China's distinctly different East, Central and Western regions. Information on demographic and socio-economic variables and children's insurance status was gathered from parents or caregivers of all children enrolled in local health programs, and others recruited from the local communities. Only 62% of 1131 children assessed were insured. This figure did not vary across geographic regions, but urban children were less likely to be insured than rural children. In multivariate analysis, infants were 2.44 times more likely to be uninsured than older children and children having at least one migrant parent were 1.90 times more likely to be uninsured than those living with non-migrant parents. Low maternal education was also associated with being uninsured. Gaps in China's child health insurance coverage might be bridged if newborns are automatically covered from birth, and if insurance is extended to all urban migrant children, regardless of the family's residential registration status and size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Arredondo López, Abel Armando
To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010. Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133). Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.
Ray, Dee C.
This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…
There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.
Wolever, Ruth Q; Caldwell, Karen L; Wakefield, Jessica P; Little, Kerry J; Gresko, Jeanne; Shaw, Andrea; Duda, Linda V; Kosey, Julie M; Gaudet, Tracy
The aim of this study was to describe integrative health (IH) coaching as developed in three different interventions offered through a major medical center, as a step toward further defining the field of health coaching. An organizational case study was conducted with document analysis and interviews. Interviewees were the first six IH coaches at Duke Integrative Medicine who provided 360 clients with individual and/or group coaching (two to 28 sessions) in a randomized clinical study and two work-site wellness programs. Qualitative analysis using the constant comparative method was conducted. Integrative health coaching is characterized by a process of self-discovery that informs goal setting and builds internal motivation by linking clients' goals to their values and sense of purpose. Time, commitment, and motivation are necessary in the IH coaching process. The underpinnings of IH coaching are distinct from the medical model, and the process is distinct from health education, executive coaching, and psychotherapy. Integrative health coaching fits well with the assumptions of integrative medicine and has a role in supporting behavior change. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vázquez Navarrete, M Luisa; Vargas Lorenzo, Ingrid; Farré Calpe, Joan; Terraza Núñez, Rebeca
There has been a tendency recently to abandon competition and to introduce policies that promote collaboration between health providers as a means of improving the efficiency of the system and the continuity of care. A number of countries, most notably the United States, have experienced the integration of health care providers to cover the continuum of care of a defined population. Catalonia has witnessed the steady emergence of increasing numbers of integrated health organisations (IHO) but, unlike the United States, studies on health providers' integration are scarce. As part of a research project currently underway, a guide was developed to study Catalan IHOs, based on a classical literature review and the development of a theoretical framework. The guide proposes analysing the IHO's performance in relation to their final objectives of improving the efficiency and continuity of health care by an analysis of the integration type (based on key characteristics); external elements (existence of other suppliers, type of services' payment mechanisms); and internal elements (model of government, organization and management) that influence integration. Evaluation of the IHO's performance focuses on global strategies and results on coordination of care and efficiency. Two types of coordination are evaluated: information coordination and coordination of care management. Evaluation of the efficiency of the IHO refers to technical and allocative efficiency. This guide may have to be modified for use in the Catalan context.
Carbone, Sarah; Wigle, Jannah; Akseer, Nadia; Barac, Raluca; Barwick, Melanie; Zlotkin, Stanley
Leading children's hospitals in high-income settings have become heavily engaged in international child health research and educational activities. These programs aim to provide benefit to the institutions, children and families in the overseas locations where they are implemented. Few studies have measured the actual reciprocal value of this work for the home institutions and for individual staff who participate in these overseas activities. Our objective was to estimate the perceived reciprocal value of health professionals' participation in global child health-related work. Benefits were measured in the form of skills, knowledge and attitude strengthening as estimated by an adapted Global Health Competency Model. A survey questionnaire was developed following a comprehensive review of literature and key competency models. It was distributed to all health professionals at the Hospital for Sick Children with prior international work experience (n = 478). One hundred fifty six health professionals completed the survey (34%). A score of 0 represented negligible value gained and a score of 100 indicated significant capacity improvement. The mean respondent improvement score was 57 (95% CI 53-62) suggesting improved overall competency resulting from their international experiences. Mean scores were >50% in 8 of 10 domains. Overall scores suggest that international work brought value to the hospital and over half responded that their international experience would influence their decision to stay on at the hospital. The findings offer tangible examples of how global child health work conducted outside of one's home institution impacts staff and health systems locally.
Yang, Julie; Kurdyak, Paul; Guttmann, Astrid
When the Government of Ontario launched a comprehensive mental health and addictions strategy, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) was tasked with developing a scorecard for ongoing monitoring of the child and youth mental health system. Using existing administrative and survey-based healthcare and education data, researchers at ICES developed a scorecard consisting of 25 indicators that described at-risk populations, child and youth mental healthcare and relevant outcomes. This scorecard is the first in Canada to report on performance indicators for the child and youth mental health system and provides a model for monitoring child and youth mental health using routinely collected administrative data.
Motunrayo A Oyelohunnu; Yewande O Oshodi; Elizabeth A Campbell; Mercy Eigbike; Kofoworola A Odeyemi
Background: Maternal mental health, in particular depression, has been found to negatively impact mother-child interaction, attachment, stimulation, growth, and many important aspects of development in the young child. These early deficits if sustained and unattended may have negative immediate and long-term consequences on the outcomes in the child. The study aimed to assess psychological distress and postpartum depression in mothers, and their relationship to the mother-child interaction. M...
Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri
The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.
Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.
Virgo-Milton, Monica; Boak, Rachel; Hoare, Alexandria; Gold, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Gussy, Mark; Calache, Hanny; O'Callaghan, Elise; de Silva, Andrea M
An important role for parents and caregivers in the prevention of dental caries in children is the early establishment of health-promoting behaviours. This study aimed to examine mothers' views on barriers and facilitators to promoting child and family oral health. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of mothers (n=32) of young children. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Parental knowledge and beliefs, past experiences and child behaviour emerged as major influences on children's oral health. Child temperament and parental time pressures were identified as barriers to good oral health with various strategies reported for dealing with uncooperative children at tooth brushing time. Parental oral health knowledge and beliefs emerged as positive influences on child oral health, however while most mothers were aware of the common causes of dental caries, very few knew of other risk factors such as bedtime feeding. Parents own oral health experiences were also seen to positively influence child oral health, regardless of whether these were positive or negative experiences. Understanding parental oral health beliefs is essential to overcoming barriers, and promoting enablers, for good child oral health. Improving child oral health also requires consideration of child behaviour, family influences, and increasing awareness of lesser-known influencing factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping
Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413
Full Text Available Peter Tsasis,1 Jenna M Evans,2 David Forrest,3 Richard Keith Jones4 1School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Canada; 2Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; 3Global Vision Consulting Ltd, Victoria, Canada; 4R Keith Jones and Associates, Victoria, Canada Abstract: Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. Keywords: integrated care, integrated delivery systems, complex adaptive systems, social capital
Results: Health providers performed well in assessing the child's problem (85%); listening (100%); use of simple language (95%); use of kind tone of voice (99%); showing interest in caregivers (99%); giving feeding ... Keywords: Child, preschool; infant; health-provider; caregiver; counselling; IMCI-counselling; Uganda
Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to assess the oral health promotion services provided as part of the maternal and child health (MCH services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa. Methods: The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a modified standard questionnaire. The population was drawn from the parents/caregivers (PCGs and the MCH nurses at seven clinics during June 2012 and June 2013 in Pretoria. Results: The nurses’ response rate was 83%; average age of 37 years. The majority of the nurses (65% were females; 60% were professional nurses. Most (63% of the nurses reported that they provided oral health education (OHE services. A shortage of dental education materials (43%, staff time (48%, and staff training (52% were large constraints to nurses providing OHE. The majority of PCGs (n = 382; mean age 31.5 years had a low education level (76%. About 55% of PCGs received information on children’s oral health from the television and 35% at the MCH clinics. PCGs beliefs were worrying as about 38% believed primary dentition is not important and need not be saved. Conclusion: There is evidence of minimal integration of OHE at MCH sites. Parents’ beliefs are still worrying as a significant number do not regard the primary dentition as important. The MCH site remains an important easily accessible area for integration of oral health services with general health in complementing efforts in prevention of early childhood caries. Keywords: Oral health; Promotion integration
Berkman, L F; Glass, T; Brissette, I; Seeman, T E
It is widely recognized that social relationships and affiliation have powerful effects on physical and mental health. When investigators write about the impact of social relationships on health, many terms are used loosely and interchangeably including social networks, social ties and social integration. The aim of this paper is to clarify these terms using a single framework. We discuss: (1) theoretical orientations from diverse disciplines which we believe are fundamental to advancing research in this area; (2) a set of definitions accompanied by major assessment tools; and (3) an overarching model which integrates multilevel phenomena. Theoretical orientations that we draw upon were developed by Durkheim whose work on social integration and suicide are seminal and John Bowlby, a psychiatrist who developed attachment theory in relation to child development and contemporary social network theorists. We present a conceptual model of how social networks impact health. We envision a cascading causal process beginning with the macro-social to psychobiological processes that are dynamically linked together to form the processes by which social integration effects health. We start by embedding social networks in a larger social and cultural context in which upstream forces are seen to condition network structure. Serious consideration of the larger macro-social context in which networks form and are sustained has been lacking in all but a small number of studies and is almost completely absent in studies of social network influences on health. We then move downstream to understand the influences network structure and function have on social and interpersonal behavior. We argue that networks operate at the behavioral level through four primary pathways: (1) provision of social support; (2) social influence; (3) on social engagement and attachment; and (4) access to resources and material goods.
Recent studies examining the effect of family income on child health have been unable to account for the endogeneity of income. Using data from a British cohort study, we address this gap by exploiting exogenous variation in local labour market characteristics to instrument for family income. We estimate the causal effect of family income on different measures of child health and explore the role of potential transmission mechanisms. We find that income has a very small but significant causal effect on subjective child health and no significant effect on chronic health conditions, apart from respiratory illnesses. Using the panel structure, we show that the timing of income does not matter for young children. Moreover, our results provide further evidence that parental health does not drive a spurious relationship between family income and child health. Our study implies that financial transfers are unlikely to deliver substantial improvements in child health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subhi, Rami; Duke, Trevor
The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership. PMID:23198107
Full Text Available The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership at national, provincial and local level, and networks of support for staff working in child health in remote areas. In the poorer high mortality burden countries of the Pacific, to meet the clinical and public health gaps, there is a need for increases in the education of child health nurse practitioners, and development of systems of continuing professional development for paediatric doctors and nurses. Involvement in local research, especially that which contributes directly to critical issues in child health policy or strengthening national data systems builds capacity for leadership.
Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David
There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H
Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.
Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M
This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available factors over other contributing factors. The aim of the thesis is three-fold. Firstly, to review theories explaining crime causation in general and child abuse in particular. Secondly to develop the Integrated Modeled Theory as a model that facilitates...
Sexson, Sandra B.; Thomas, Christopher R.; Pope, Kayla
Objective: Previous studies indicate declining interest in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) as a career choice during psychiatry residency training. Programs have developed integrated training in psychiatry and CAP as a means to address the workforce shortage in CAP, but little is known about the number or nature of these training tracks.…
Full Text Available Sally E Findley,1 Omolara T Uwemedimo,2 Henry V Doctor,1,3 Cathy Green,4 Fatima Adamu,5 Godwin Y Afenyadu61Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 2Pediatric Global Health Program, Cohen Children’s Medical Centre of New York, Division of General Pediatrics, New Hyde Park, NY, USA; 3Operations Research Unit, Programme for Reviving Routine Immunization in Northern Nigeria-Maternal Newborn and Child Health (PRRINN-MNCH, Abia State House, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Health Partners International, Waterside Centre, Lewes, East Sussex, United Kingdom; 5Social Development and Community Engagement Unit, 6Operations Research Unit, PRRINN-MNCH Programme, Nassarawa GRA, Kano State, NigeriaBackground: In Northern Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three Northern Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of community-based service delivery (CBSD with a network of community volunteers and community health workers (CHWs, who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs.Methods: We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009 and follow-up (2011 to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in
Kemptner, Daniel; Marcus, Jan
This study investigates the effects of maternal education on child's health and health behavior. We draw on a rich German panel data set containing information about three generations. This allows instrumenting maternal education by the number of her siblings while conditioning on grandparental characteristics. The instrumental variables approach has not yet been used in the intergenerational context and works for the sample sizes of common household panels. We find substantial effects on hea...
Handler, Arden; Klaus, Jaime; Rankin, Kristin; Rosenberg, Deborah
This paper reports on the structure, implementation and outcomes of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology (MCHEPI) program at the University of Illinois School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) and discusses the successes and challenges in developing MCH Epidemiology leaders for the local, state, and national public health workforce. The MCHEPI program at UIC-SPH offers both the MPH and PhD degree and is based on six key components: integration across school divisions, competency-based training, tailored curricula, practica/dissertations with public health agencies, personal leadership training and development, and socialization. Based on data from the 1998-2012 cohorts, all former and current MCHEPI MPH students (n = 28) have participated in practica with local or state public health agencies and former and current MCHEPI doctoral students at the dissertation stage (12 out of 15) have partnered with local, state or national public health agencies in conducting their dissertations. The alumni of the MCHEPI MPH program (n = 25) appear to serve in higher level positions in their second compared to their first placements post-graduation. All MCHEPI doctoral alumni (n = 8) serve at the emerging senior level or senior scientist level upon graduation, in local, state and federal agencies, or in academe. Explicit linkage of MCHEPI students to practice through tailored curricula, practica, and dissertations with public health agencies, and the development of an identity as a member of the MCHEPI field appear to be important to the generation of epidemiology leaders for the MCH workforce. Leadership development is a lifelong process and as such, snapshots of current students and alumni at any one point in time do not provide the entire picture of the impact of MCH epidemiology training programs. Examining the trajectories of emerging leaders over time is essential for evaluating the true success of Maternal and Child Health Bureau workforce and training investments.
Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam
Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.
Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D.; Hartling, Lisa
Background An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster ‘effective consumers’. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps,...
Gagnon, Anita J; Carnevale, Franco; Mehta, Praem; Rousseau, Hélène; Stewart, Donna E
Literature describing effective population interventions related to the pregnancy, birth, and post-birth care of international migrants, as defined by them, is scant. Hence, we sought to determine: 1) what processes are used by migrant women to respond to maternal-child health and psychosocial concerns during the early months and years after birth; 2) which of these enhance or impede their resiliency; and 3) which population interventions they suggest best respond to these concerns. Sixteen international migrant women living in Montreal or Toronto who had been identified in a previous study as having a high psychosocial-risk profile and subsequently classified as vulnerable or resilient based on indicators of mental health were recruited. Focused ethnography including in-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted. Data were analyzed thematically and as an integrated whole. Migrant women drew on a wide range of coping strategies and resources to respond to maternal-child health and psychosocial concerns. Resilient and vulnerable mothers differed in their use of certain coping strategies. Social inclusion was identified as an overarching factor for enhancing resiliency by all study participants. Social processes and corresponding facilitators relating to social inclusion were identified by participants, with more social processes identified by the vulnerable group. Several interventions related to services were described which varied in type and quality; these were generally found to be effective. Participants identified several categories of interventions which they had used or would have liked to use and recommended improvements for and creation of some programs. The social determinants of health categories within which their suggestions fell included: income and social status, social support network, education, personal health practices and coping skills, healthy child development, and health services. Within each of these, the most common
Denno, Donna M; Paul, Shadae L
Ninety-nine percent of the 5.9 million annual child deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Undernutrition underlies 45% of deaths. Determinants include access to care, maternal education, and absolute and relative poverty. Socio-political-economic factors and policies tremendously influence health and their determinants. Most deaths can be prevented with interventions that are currently available and recommended for widespread implementation. Millennium Development Goal 4 was not achieved. Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 presents an even more ambitious target and opportunity to save millions of lives; and requires attention to scaling up interventions, especially among the poorest and most vulnerable children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dickson Abanimi Amugsi
Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.
Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Oduro, Abraham
This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment. The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.
Learn about pesticides/integrated pest management, the health effects associated with exposure to pests and pesticides, and the steps that can be taken to use integrated pest management strategies in childcare facilities.
Full Text Available This study seeks to understand distance from health facilities as a barrier to maternal and child health service uptake within a rural Liberian population. Better understanding the relationship between distance from health facilities and rural health care utilization is important for post–Ebola health systems reconstruction and for general rural health system planning in sub–Saharan Africa.
Tham, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Philip E; Katelaris, Constance H; Vicendese, Don; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan
Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitization, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria were study population aged asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The recent studies and a document publication by the NHF (Neurological Health Foundation) has revealed that the health condition of the Mother of a child with Autism DIRECTLY affects the ability of the autistic child to recover fully from the limiting symptoms of autism and other co-morbid conditions. Today, cutting-edge treatment modalities in autism based on the emerging science of Epigenetics and Applied Intentional Epigenetics are helping the autistic child to thrive free from the limitin...
Phillips, Richard C.
Under new "managed health care systems," the classical functional separation of risk taker, claims payor, and provider are vertically integrated into a common entity. This evolution should produce a competitive environment with medical care rendered to all Americans on a more cost-effective basis. (CJH)
Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno
Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…
Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter
Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. © The Author(s) 2015.
This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.
Parchment, Tyrone M; Small, Latoya; Osuji, Hadiza; McKay, Mary; Bhana, Arvin
The mental health of children is too frequently overlooked in resource scarce low and middle-income countries. South Africa represents one of many country contexts struggling to meet the mental health needs of large numbers of young people. Family caregivers have been identified as potential protective influences on child mental health, even for those children being reared with high exposure to poverty. This paper explores contextual influences on South African caregiver's social-emotional health living in communities impacted by poverty and food insecurity as they attempt to support their children's prosocial skills and behavior. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the relationship between neighborhood social cohesion and caregiver report of child's prosocial behavior as mediated by the caregiver's mental health ( n =478). Results indicated that the more caregivers experience their communities as socially cohesive, the better their social-emotional well-being, thus positively related to their reports of children's prosocial behavior. Furthermore, when there is a male head of household, caregivers reported better social-emotional well-being in comparison to female headed of household. The more food secure caregivers also were likely to report better general health. South African community characteristics and caregivers, in particular male caregivers, are integral to child and caregiver mental health. Future research should examine the impact of interventions that mobilize community and caregiver supports for children's prosocial behavior and mental health.
Rich, M; Bar-On, M
Substantial research has associated exposure to entertainment media with increased levels of interpersonal violence, risky sexual behavior, body image distortion, substance abuse, and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine what pediatric residency programs are teaching trainees about media and the influence of media on the physical and mental health of children and adolescents. Survey of residency curricula, consisting of 17 items about children's exposure to media, including television, movies, popular music, computer/video games and the Internet, the effects of this exposure on specific health risks, and associations between program characteristics and media education in the residency curriculum. Participants. Directors of the 209 accredited pediatric residency programs in the United States. Two hundred four programs (97.6%) responded. Fifty-eight programs (28.4%) offered formal education on 1 or more types of media; 60 programs (29.4%) discussed the influences of media when teaching about specific health conditions. Residents in 96 programs (47.1%) were encouraged to discuss media use with patients and parents; 13 programs (6.4%) taught media literacy as an intervention. Among program characteristics, only media training received by program directors was significantly associated with inclusion of media in residency curricula. Despite increasing awareness of media influence on child health, less than one-third of US pediatric residency programs teach about media exposure. Developing a pediatric media curriculum and training pediatric residency directors or designated faculty may be a resource-effective means of improving health for children growing up in a media-saturated environment.
Smith, Carrie; Fluke, John; Fallon, Barbara; Mishna, Faye; Decker Pierce, Barbara
The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of the child welfare organization by testing the hypothesis that the characteristics of organizations influence decisions made by child protection staff for vulnerable children. The influence of two aspects of organizational structure on the decision to place a child in out-of-home care were examined: service integration and worker specialization. A theoretical framework that integrated the Decision-Making Ecology Framework (Baumann et al., 2011) and Yoo et al. (2007) conceptual framework of organizational constructs as predictors of service effectiveness was tested. Secondary data analysis of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2013 (OIS-2013) was conducted. A subsample of 4949 investigations from 16 agencies was included in this study. Given the nested structure of the data, multi-level modelling was used to test the relative contribution of case and organizational factors to the decision to place. Despite the reported differences among child welfare organizations and research that has demonstrated variance in the placement decision as a result of organizational factors, the structure of the organization (i.e., worker specialization and service integration) showed no predictive power in the final models. The lack of variance may be explained by the relatively low frequency of placements during the investigation phase of service, the hierarchical impact of the factors of the DME and the limited information available regarding the structure of child welfare organizations in Ontario. Suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.; Gendell, Mara, Ed.
"Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…
Zamani, A. Rahman, Ed.; Rose, Bobbie, Ed.; Calder, Judy, Ed.; Garakani, Tahereh, Ed.; Leonard, Victoria, Ed.
"Child Care Health Connections" is a bimonthly newsletter published by the California Childcare Health Program (CCHP), a community-based program of the University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Department of Family Health Care Nursing. The goals of the newsletter are to promote and support a healthy and safe environment…
Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron
The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a short description of the most important developments of mental health services in Finland during the 1990s, examine their influences on the organisation and provision of services, and describe shortly some national efforts to handle the new situation. The Finnish mental health service system experienced profound changes in the beginning of the 1990s. These included the integration of mental health services, being earlier under own separate administration, with other specialised health services, decentralisation of the financing of health services, and de-institutionalisation of the services. The same time Finland underwent the deepest economic recession in Western Europe, which resulted in cut-offs especially in the mental health budgets. Conducting extensive national research and development programmes in the field of mental health has been one typically Finnish way of supporting the mental health service development. The first of these national programmes was the Schizophrenia Project 1981–97, whose main aims were to decrease the incidence of new long-term patients and the prevalence of old long-stay patients by developing an integrated treatment model. The Suicide Prevention Project 1986–96 aimed at raising awareness of this special problem and decreasing by 20% the proportionally high suicide rate in Finland. The National Depression Programme 1994–98 focused at this clearly increasing public health concern by several research and development project targeted both to the general population and specifically to children, primary care and specialised services. The latest, still on-going Meaningful Life Programme 1998–2003 which main aim is, by multi-sectoral co-operation, to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or living with the threat of mental disorders. Furthermore, the government launched in 1999 a new Goal and Action Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care 2000–2003, in
Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz
To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families' engagement in treatment.
Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Zoeckler, Leo; Olsen, Helen Elizabeth; Thomas, Katie; Pinho, Christine; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Ferrari, Alize; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Hay, Simon I.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lopez, Alan; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Patton, George C.; Salomon, Joshua; Sartorius, Benn; Topor-Madry, Roman; Vollset, Stein Emil; Werdecker, Andrea; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Abate, Kalkidan Hasen; Abbas, Kaja; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alemayohu, Mulubirhan Assefa; Altirkawi, Khalid; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Antonio, Carl A. T.; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Bacha, Umar; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till Winfried; Baye, Estifanos; Bedi, Neeraj; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bernal, Oscar Alberto; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Brazinova, Alexandra; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Carter, Austin; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Crump, John; Dandona, Rakhi; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribew, Amare; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dubey, Manisha; Endries, Amanuel Yesuf; Erskine, Holly E.; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas D.; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Fraser, Maya S.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gidey Yihdego, Mahari; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Gizachew, Tessema Assefa; Glaser, Elizabeth; Gold, Audra L.; Goldberg, Ellen; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Jiang, Guohong; Gupta, Rajeev; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Hankey, Graeme J.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hijar, Martha; Horino, Masako; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hu, Guoqing; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jibat, Tariku; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost; Kasaeian, Amir; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter N.; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kulikoff, Rachel; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton Y.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Leung, Janni; Lim, Stephen S.; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Lo, Warren D.; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Malekzadeh, Reza; Markos Shifti, Desalegn; Mazidi, Mohsen; Meaney, Peter A.; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Mendoza, Walter; Abera Mengistie, Mubarek; Mengistu, Gebremichael Welday; Mensah, George A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mock, Charles; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mueller, Ulrich; Nagata, Chie; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nsoesie, Elaine; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Ortiz, Alberto; Paudel, Deepak; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Rankin, Zane; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Sagar, Rajesh; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Kedir Mohammed, Muktar Sano; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; She, June; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder; Silpakit, Naris; Smith, Alison; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Swaminathan, Soumya; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tadese, Fentaw; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Teeple, Stephanie; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Temam Shifa, Girma; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Tran, Bach Xuan; Troeger, Christopher; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Uthman, Olalekan; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Weldemariam; Westerman, Ronny; Williams, Hywel C.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo
Importance Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health. Objective To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion. Evidence Review Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss. Findings Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long
Mott, Frank L.; Quinlan, Stephen V.
This report uses data from the 1983 through 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to provide information about prenatal, infant, and child health. Objectives of the report are to present statistics which should be of value to maternal and child health policymakers, and to provide NLSY users with baseline information about…
... Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for... notification of voluntary relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety...
... Deviation From Competition Requirements: Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Bureau's Research Network on... practice over time (e.g., Preterm birth, Diabetes during pregnancy, Obesity, Nausea and vomiting of... disorders during pregnancy, Down syndrome); Studies that assess the maternal-child health workforce (e.g...
... under subsection (b) shall-- (1) Incorporate behavioral, emotional, educational, and contextual..., Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 31 Center Drive Room..., Analysis and Communications, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. [FR Doc. 2012-7589...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...
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... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 RRG-K 52 1, Rehabilitation Research Career Development Programs. Date: April 17, 2012. Time: 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Hypoxia in Development: Injury and Adaptation Mechanisms. Date: November 22, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the.... Contact Person: Ralph M Nitkin, PhD, Director, B.S.C.D., Biological Sciences and Career Development, NCMRR, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive...
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 3A01, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 451... the meeting. Name of Committee: National Children's Study Advisory Committee. Date: April 27, 2010...
El-Dardiry, Giulia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Tountas, Yannis
In this paper, we examined dimensions of child health-related quality of life in Greece in relation to parental assessments of neighbourhood social capital and social support networks. For the analysis, two main measures were used: (1) child self-reported health-related quality of life in ten dimensions, as measured by the KIDSCREEN questionnaire;…
Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.
Background: The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. Methods: The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and…
Gleason, Mary Margaret; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Boothe, Allison; Keyes, Angela; Rice, Janet
Child care settings may provide an optimal setting for identification of early childhood mental health problems. However, little is known about child care providers' attitudes or knowledge about screening for children's mental health problems. Both attitudes and perceived knowledge could affect the successful implementation of mental health…
... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Systematic Review of Neonatal Medicine. Date: May 23, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications...
... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education (NRC) at the University of Colorado College of ... National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education Email: info@NRCKids.org Please read our disclaimer ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality of children under the age of five remains one of the most important public health challenges in developing countries. In rural settings, the promotion of household and community health practices through community health workers (CHWs is among the key strategies to improve child health. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of CHWs in the promotion of basic child heath services in rural Mali. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multi-stage cluster sampling of wards and villages. Data was collected through questionnaires among 401 child-caregivers and registers of 72 CHWs. Results Of 401 households suppose to receive a visit by a CHW, 219 (54.6%; confidence interval 95%; 49.6-59.5 had received at least one visit in the last three months before the survey. The mother is the most important caregiver (97%; high percentage being illiterate. Caregivers treat fever and diarrhoea with the correct regimen in 40% and 11% of cases respectively. Comparative analysis between households with and without CHW visits showed a positive influence of CHWs on family health practices: knowledge on the management of child fever (p = Conclusion Continuous training, transport means, adequate supervision and motivation of CHWs through the introduction of financial incentives and remuneration are among key factors to improve the work of CHWs in rural communities. Poor performance of basic household health practices can be related to irregular supply of drugs and the need of appropriate follow-up by CHWs.
Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul
In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa.
Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin
The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.
The directive implements the OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) Integrated Health and Safety Standards Operating Practices in conjunction with the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) Worker Protection Standards, replacing the OSWER Integrated Health and Safety Policy
Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa...
Osaki, Keiko; Hattori, Tomoko; Toda, Akemi; Mulati, Erna; Hermawan, Lukas; Pritasari, Kirana; Bardosono, Saptawati; Kosen, Soewarta
Effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (MCHHB), a home-based booklet for pregnancy, delivery and postnatal/child health, was evaluated on care acquisition and home care in rural Java, a low service-coverage area. We conducted a health centre-based randomized trial, with a 2-year follow-up. Intervention included (i) MCHHB provision at antenatal care visits; (ii) records and guides by health personnel on and with the MCHHB; and (iii) sensitization of care by volunteers using the MCHHB. The follow-up rate was 70.2% (183, intervention area; 271, control area). Respondents in the intervention area received consecutive MCH services including two doses of tetanus toxoid injections and antenatal care four times or more during pregnancy, professional assistance during child delivery and vitamin A supplements administration to their children, after adjustment for confounding variables and cluster effects (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.19-3.47). In the intervention area, home care (continued breastfeeding; introducing complementary feeding; proper feeding order; varied foods feeding; self-feeding training; and care for cough), perceived support by husbands, and lower underweight rates and stunting rates among children were observed. MCHHB use promoted continuous care acquisition and care at home from pregnancy to early child-rearing stages in rural Java. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Ma, Hing Keung
Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative, and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture.
Hing Keung eMa
Full Text Available Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1 Physical Survival, Selfishness and Obedience, (2 Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism and Instrumental Purpose; and (3 Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations. At Stage 1, a deep and profound attachment to parents, empathy toward the significant others, and obedience to authorities all contribute to the physical survival of a person at this stage. People at Stage 2 are self-protective, dominant, exploitative and opportunistic. The need to love and to be loved is gratified on the basis of reciprocal altruism. People at Stage 3 have a strong desire to gratify their belongingness needs to a primary group. They are willing to sacrifice for the benefits of the group at great cost. While the psychological needs and altruism are related to the affective aspect of moral development, the justice reasoning is related to the cognitive aspect. The proposed theoretical model attempts to integrate the affective and cognitive aspects of moral development, and prototypic responses to questions related to hypothetical moral dilemmas are presented to substantiate the proposed stage structures. It is hypothesized that the sequence of these three stages is invariant of person and culture.
Broadway, Barbara; Kalb, Guyonne; Kühnle, Daniel; Maeder, Miriam
Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive information from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Children (LSAC), we contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of paid parental leave entitlements on child health up to age seven. Exploiting detailed information on children's health, family background, mothers' pre-birth work histories and mothers' health behaviours during pregnancy with...
Barbara Broadway; Guyonne Kalb
Providing mothers with access to paid parental leave may be an important public policy to improve child and maternal health. Using extensive information from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Children (LSAC), we contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of paid parental leave entitlements on child health up to age seven. Exploiting detailed information on children’s health, family background, mothers’ pre-birth work histories and mothers’ health behaviours during pregnancy with...
Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark
Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.
Renee Yuen-Jan Hsia
Full Text Available Globally, 90% of road crash deaths occur in the developing world. Children in Africa bear the major part of this burden, with the highest unintentional injury rates in the world. Our study aims to better understand injury patterns among children living in Kampala, Uganda and provide evidence that injuries are significant in child health. Trauma registry records of injured children seen at Mulago Hospital in Kampala were analysed. This data was collected when patients were seen initially and included patient condition, demographics, clinical variables, cause, severity, as measured by the Kampala trauma score, and location of injury. Outcomes were captured on discharge from the casualty department and at two weeks for admitted patients. From August 2004 to August 2005, 872 injury visits for children <18 years old were recorded. The mean age was 11 years (95% CI 10.9–11.6; 68% (95% CI 65–72% were males; 64% were treated in casualty and discharged; 35% were admitted. The most common causes were traffic crashes (34%, falls (18% and violence (15%. Most children (87% were mildly injured; 1% severely injured. By two weeks, 6% of the patients admitted for injuries had died and, of these morbidities, 16% had severe injuries, 63% had moderate injuries and 21% had mild injuries. We concluded that, in Kampala, children bear a large burden of injury from preventable causes. Deaths in low severity patients highlight the need for improvements in facility-based care. Further studies are necessary to capture overall child injury mortality and to measure chronic morbidity owing to sequelae of injuries.
Gouws, Eleanor; Bryce, Jennifer; Pariyo, George; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna; Amaral, João; Habicht, Jean-Pierre
Sound policy and program decisions require timely information based on valid and relevant measures. Recent findings suggest that despite the availability of effective and affordable guidelines for the management of sick children in first-level health facilities in developing countries, the quality and coverage of these services remains low. We report on the development and evaluation of a set of summary indices reflecting the quality of care received by sick children in first-level facilities. The indices were first developed through a consultative process to achieve face validity by involving technical experts and policymakers. The definition of evaluation measures for many public health programs stops at this point. We added a second phase in which standard statistical techniques were used to evaluate the content and construct validity of the indices and their reliability, drawing on data sets from the multi-country evaluation of integrated management of childhood illness (MCE) in Brazil, Tanzania and Uganda. The statistical evaluation identified important conceptual errors in the indices arising from the theory-driven expert review. The experts had combined items into inappropriate indicators resulting in summary indices that were difficult to interpret and had limited validity for program decision making. We propose a revised set of summary indices for the measurement of child health care in developing countries that is supported by both expert and statistical reviews and that led to similar programmatic insights across the three countries. We advocate increased cross-disciplinary research within public health to improve measurement approaches. Child survival policymakers, program planners and implementers can use these tools to improve their monitoring and so increase the health impact of investments in health facility care.
Paudel, K P; Bajracharya, D C; Karki, K; K C, A
The immunization card is revised with addition of general information about child health and is later called as child health card. This card is a tool used by Health Management Information System in Nepal. It is important for tracking the records of immunization. Aim is to identify the factors determining the availability, utilization and retention of the child health card in Western Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having children education. Retention of the card was found to be 82.2%. 90.3% retention was seen among 0-12 months children age group whereas it was 74 % among12 to 24 months age group. The reasons for less retention were torn by the child/played by child (54.6%) followed by lack of proper place,unaware about importance and poor quality of card.The new child health cards were insufficient, compelling use of both new and old cards which created problem in consistency. Regarding utilization of child health card, it was found to be used for birth registration and for further studies in abroad. The areas of utilization of child health card should be broadened so that the retention of card can be increased. The main reasons for less retention of the card are torn by children and lack of the proper place.
Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M
Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall
Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jennifer L Brenner
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for community health workers to improve child health in sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Healthy Child Uganda implemented a volunteer community health worker child health promotion model in rural Uganda. An impact evaluation was conducted to assess volunteer community health workers' effect on child morbidity, mortality and to calculate volunteer retention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two volunteer community health workers were selected, trained and promoted child health in each of 116 villages (population ∼61,000 during 2006-2009. Evaluation included a household survey of mothers at baseline and post-intervention in intervention/control areas, retrospective reviews of community health worker birth/child death reports and post-intervention focus group discussions. Retention was calculated from administrative records. Main outcomes were prevalence of recent child illness/underweight status, community health worker reports of child deaths, focus group perception of effect, and community health worker retention. After 18-36 months, 86% of trained volunteers remained active. Post-intervention surveys in intervention households revealed absolute reductions of 10.2% [95%CI (-17.7%, -2.6%] in diarrhea prevalence and 5.8% [95%CI (-11.5%, -0.003%] in fever/malaria; comparative decreases in control households were not statistically significant. Underweight prevalence was reduced by 5.1% [95%CI (-10.7%, 0.4%] in intervention households. Community health worker monthly reports revealed a relative decline of 53% in child deaths (<5 years old, during the first 18 months of intervention. Focus groups credited community health workers with decreasing child deaths, improved care-seeking practices, and new income-generating opportunities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A low-cost child health promotion model using volunteer community health workers demonstrated decreased child morbidity, dramatic mortality trend declines and
Feldman, Maurice; McConnell, David; Aunos, Marjorie
Parents with cognitive impairments (CI) are overrepresented in child custody cases and their children are at risk for adverse outcomes. Ecological-transactional researchers propose that child outcomes are a function of the interaction of multiple distal, intermediate, and proximal risk and resilience factors. This study tested the fit of, and…
Batra, Manu; Shah, Aasim Farooq; Virtanen, Jorma I
Early childhood caries (ECC) continues to affect children worldwide. In India, primary health centers (PHCs) comprises the primary tier where Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) provide integrated curative and preventive health care. The aim of the study was to pilot test the integration of oral health in primary health care through motivational interviewing (MI) for mothers of young children provided by ASHAs. The pilot study was conducted in Kashipur, Uttarakhand. From the six PHCs in Kashipur, three were randomly selected, one each was assigned to MI group, traditional health education group, and control group. From 60 mothers with 8-12 months child, ASHAs of all three groups gathered mother's knowledge regarding child's oral health using close-ended questionnaire and diagnosed clinical risk markers of ECC in children and ASHAs of Group A and B imparted the oral health education as per their training. The comparison of ASHA's performances on the MI training competency pre- and post-test showed an overall average of 74% improvement in post-test scores. Interexaminer reliability of the parallel clinical measurements by 6 ASHAs and the investigator for the maxillary central incisors showed 93% of agreement for both dental plaque and dental caries assessment with 0.86 and 0.89 kappa values, respectively. The health education through MI is feasible and can be cost-effective by utilization of ASHAs at PHCs to provide the oral health education to mothers which will in turn improve the oral health status of children.
May, Allan; Thöns, Sebastian; McMillan, David
window’ allowing for the possible detection of faults up to 6 months in advance. The SHM system model uses a reduction in the probability of failure factor to account for lower modelling uncertainties. A case study is produced that shows a reduction in operating costs and also a reduction in risk......There is a large financial incentive to minimise operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for offshore wind power by optimising the maintenance plan. The integration of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM) may help realise this. There is limited work on the integration...
Lee, Dohoon; Jackson, Margot
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and child health are so strongly related that scholars have speculated child health to be an important pathway through which a “cycle of poverty” is reproduced across generations. Despite increasing recognition that SES and health work reciprocally and dynamically over the life course to produce inequality, however, existing research has yet to address how these two pathways simultaneously shape children’s development. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and marginal structural models, we ask three questions: 1) how does the reciprocal relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and child health affect estimates of each circumstance on children’s cognitive development?; 2) how do their respective effects vary with age?; and 3) do family SES and child health have differential effects on cognitive development across population subgroups? The results show that the negative effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health are insensitive to their reciprocal relationships over time. We find divergent effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health on children’s cognitive trajectories, with a widening pattern for family SES effects and a leveling-off pattern for child health effects. Finally, the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage are similar across all racial/ethnic groups, while the effects of child health are largely driven by white children. We discuss theoretical and policy implications of these findings for future research. PMID:28836169
Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI: an innovative vision for child health care Atenção integrada às doenças prevalentes da infância (AIDPI: uma visão inovadora para os cuidados da saúde da criança
Full Text Available The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO, Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO and the United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF, joint experiences of previous frequent diseases programs in children, with prevention and health promotion activities. In this new approach the family, the community and health workers have a leading role in health condition of the child. The strategy aims a reduction in Infant Mortality Rate, specially in those regions and countries in which it is high. Pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition and other preventable diseases are the main causes of deaths in this settings. Health workers can early recognized danger signs of severe diseases, as well as they can evaluate and treat the most frequent health problems. By enhancing prevention and health promotion activities, as better conditions of life, giving an holistic vision of the child and his family, and not only looking for the symptom that motivate the consultation.A estratégia de Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes da Infância (AIDPI, desenvolvida pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS, Organização Panamericana da Saúde (OPAS e Fundo das Nações Unidas para à Infância (UNICEF, incorpora as experiências prévias de programas para tratar as principais doenças infantis, acrescentando aspectos preventivos e de promoção à saúde. Nesta nova visão, outorga papéis fundamentais à família, à comunidade e ao trabalhador de saúde que desenvolve o seu trabalho no primeiro nível de atenção. A estratégia visa principalmente diminuir as taxas de mortalidade infantil em países e regiões onde elas ainda são muito elevadas, com cifras acima de 40 por 1.000 nascidos vivos, situações em que as pneumonias, diarréias, desnutrição e outras doenças evitáveis são as principais causas de óbito. Pretende também mudar o perfil da demanda ambulatorial dando ênfase a atividades
Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas
Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Winkler, Megan R; Berge, Jerica M; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of health-focused (healthy eating, physical activity) and weight-focused (weight, dieting) parent-child conversations, and to understand who is talking and who is listening, by exploring the associations these conversations have with parent and child characteristics. The study population included 546 parents (age 27-36 years) who participated in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults)-IV (2015-2016) and had a child aged 2-17 years. Cross-sectional prevalence ratios were calculated to identify associations between parent and child characteristics and the parent-child conversations. Conversations about healthy eating (82%) and physical activity (75%) were more prevalent than those about the child's weight (30%), and dieting (25%). In adjusted models, parents meeting physical activity recommendations had a higher prevalence of health-focused conversations (healthy eating PR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.20; physical activity PR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.24); whereas, weight-focused conversations were more common among parents who had recently dieted and perceived their child to be overweight. Health-focused and weight-focused conversations were highly common among the oldest children aged 9-17 years (health-focused = 90-93% and weight-focused = 42-53%); though, a substantial prevalence of health- and weight-focused conversations (>50% and ≥10%, respectively) also occurred with the youngest children (2-4 years). Findings suggest that parent-child health- and weight-focused conversations are common and that characteristics, including child's age and parents' physical activity, dieting, and perceptions of child weight, may be useful to consider in public health messaging, interventions, and family education that address parent-child communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korol, N.; Dukhota, T.
Epidemiological register of Chernobyl child victims was created in 1986 in Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine. It includes most important, risk groups: evacuated children from Chernobyl's zone; children who were exposed with doses on thyroid gland more than 2 Gy; children who were exposed in utero; children who were born from clean-up workers. The annual clinical observation program includes: physical examination, biochemical and hematological analysis, ultrasound of thyroid gland and abdomen, psychological tests for children, social observation for parents. For coding ICD-9 was used. The observations indicate a deterioration of health status among the children victims of the Chernobyl disaster. The healthy children's number decreased from 31 % in 1987 to 8 % in 1997. The number of the invalids more than 4 times higher in comparison Ukrainian children. The annual prevalence all diseases including incidence, new cases, dramatically increased (from 5890.6 0/00 in 1989 to 9148.3 0/00 in 1997). The annual amount all diseases increased from 27100 0/00 in 1989 to 51971 0/00 in 1997. Most important increasing was in such part as digestive tract (from 5294 0/00 in 1989 to 10782 0/00 in 1997), blood diseases (from 927 0/00 in 1989 to 1471 0/00 in 1997), diseases nervous system (from 2373 0/00 in 1989 to 4152 0/00 in 1997). Relative risk was calculated in comparison with same age Ukrainian children for most important disorders: peptic (6.4), cardiovascular (5.3), nervous system (6.2), immune (5.3). Such diseases as digestion organ diseases, nervous system, skin and cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent among victims with psychological impact. All children victims Chernobyl disaster are at risk for psychosomatic disorders. Psychosomatic health promotion program will minimize significantly population health impact after Chernobyl as for children as for Ukrainian adult people. (authors)
Renzaho, A M N; de Silva-Sanigorski, A
To examine the strength of associations between child oral health and aspects of the home environment (child behaviour, parental psychological distress and family functioning) in a large sample of 1- to 12-year-old Australian children. The current study used data from the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Study. Data were obtained on 4590 primary carers. Measures of the family environment included the level of family functioning, parental psychological distress, child's emotion and behavioural problems and the family structure. The odds of children having good oral health status were lower with increasing parental psychological distress and poor family functioning across all age groups, and lower with increasing child mental health or conduct problems among children aged 4 years or older. Socioeconomic factors were also related to child oral health status, but this was significant only among children aged 4-7 years, with the odds of children having good oral health status 68% higher in households with a yearly income ≥AUD$ 60 000 compared with households with income family functioning and the mental health of parents and children into existing systems reaching vulnerable community members may improve child oral health outcomes and reduce the unequal distribution of oral disease across the social gradient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Catarina; Magalhães, Teresa
The authors present the case of a ten-year-old Chinese boy who was taken to a hospital due to the presence of suspicious bruises on his body. The child was examined in the National Institute of Legal Medicine by forensic doctors and a forensic psychologist. Clinical characteristics of the case are summarized stressing that a better understanding of some kinds of integrative medicine (IM) may help to differentiate injuries resulting from those practices. This is the only and unique case diagnosed by the medico-legal services in Portugal. In fact a great range of IM practice has the potential to create confusion in the diagnosis of physical child abuse. This study focuses on the differential diagnosis of one specific kind of frequent skin injury usually seen in situations of both child abuse and IM (in this case TuiNa) - bruises. As the number of people who practice Traditional Chinese Medicine and other forms of IM increases in the Western world, the child protection community would benefit from familiarizing itselves with these practices to prevent social and/or legal conflicts that may arise from mistaken diagnoses of abuse. The objective of this case report is to emphasize the relevance of comprehensive and interdisciplinary evaluation of child abuse cases taking into account the specifics of each case, to achieve a proper diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rafiei, Masoud; Ezzatian, Reza; Farshad, Asghar; Sokooti, Maryam; Tabibi, Ramin; Colosio, Claudio
A healthy workforce is vital for maintaining social and economic development on a global, national and local level. Around half of the world's people are economically active and spend at least one third of their time in their place of work while only 15% of workers have access to basic occupational health services. According to WHO report, since the early 1980s, health indicators in Iran have consistently improved, to the extent that it is comparable with those in developed countries. In this paper it was tried to briefly describe about Health care system and occupational Health Services as part of Primary Health care in Iran. To describe the health care system in the country and the status of occupational health services to the workers and employers, its integration into Primary Health Care (PHC) and outlining the challenges in provision of occupational health services to the all working population. Iran has fairly good health indicators. More than 85 percent of the population in rural and deprived regions, for instance, have access to primary healthcare services. The PHC centers provide essential healthcare and public-health services for the community. Providing, maintaining and improving of the workers' health are the main goals of occupational health services in Iran that are presented by different approaches and mostly through Workers' Houses in the PHC system. Iran has developed an extensive network of PHC facilities with good coverage in most rural areas, but there are still few remote areas that might suffer from inadequate services. It seems that there is still no transparent policy to collaborate with the private sector, train managers or provide a sustainable mechanism for improving the quality of services. Finally, strengthening national policies for health at work, promotion of healthy work and work environment, sharing healthy work practices, developing updated training curricula to improve human resource knowledge including occupational health
Malin, Jane T.; Oliver, Patrick J.
This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.
In recent times, strengths-based recovery approaches that focus on the present and build strategies that look toward the future have become popular. However, some cases require the consideration of experiences from previous stages of the clients' development. This single-case study explores the psychotherapeutic process of a middle-aged woman who presented with a history of child sexual abuse (incest) and a long-term adult diagnosis of depression that was treated in public health services. This psychotherapy involved an integrative approach to solution-focused therapy; specifically, the approach proposed by Yvonne Dolan to work with adult survivors of sexual abuse, in conjunction with techniques and strategies from the transtheoretical model. Measures incorporating therapeutic working alliance and outcomes were administered over sessions. Results showed positive outcomes from this therapeutic intervention, which remained at 3-month and 12-month follow-ups. Implications for practitioners' specialist practice in health services are discussed, given the complexity of comorbid mental health conditions with a history of child sexual abuse.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is a universally accepted tool to understand the social underpinnings of child health that medicine alone cannot address. Injustices plague U.S. society: Child poverty has been increasing since 2000, and the gap between the wealthiest and poorest is growing. Poverty is a toxic stress on child health and well-being. Three articles from the CRC help frame how to address this: nondiscrimination, the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health and access to health care, and the right to a standard of living adequate for complete development.
Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C; Wuermli, Alice J; Betancourt, Theresa S
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey. Five interventions were parent education programs, including center-based sessions (n = 3) and home visiting (n = 2), while one intervention was a teacher education program. All but one study reported improvements in both child development and maltreatment outcomes. The dearth of evidence on ECD+VP interventions suggests additional research is needed. Integrated ECD+VP interventions may improve multiple child outcome domains while leveraging limited resources in LMICs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P
While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.
Flax, Valerie L; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ashorn, Ulla
Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally, but little is known about the ability of adults to detect different types of child undernutrition in low-income countries. We used focused ethnographic methods to understand how Malawian parents and grandparents describe the characteristics they use to identify good and poor child growth, their actual or preferred patterns of health seeking for undernourished children, and the perceived importance of child undernutrition symptoms in relation to other childhood illnesses. Malawians value adiposity rather than stature in assessing child growth. Symptoms of malnutrition, including wasting and edema, were considered the least severe childhood illness symptoms. Parents delayed health care seeking when a child was ill. When they sought care, it was for symptoms such as diarrhea or fever, and they did not recognize malnutrition as the underlying cause. These findings can be used to tailor strategies for preventing and treating growth faltering in Malawian children. © The Author(s) 2015.
In developing countries, height and weight are good indicators of children's health and nutritional status. Maternal education has been accepted as one of the most important influences on child health. Using the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey of Peru, however, I find that the effect of maternal education varies as a function of region. In the most prosperous urban region, maternal education is less important for child health than in poor rural areas, and a higher level of education has a greater effect in rural areas. Multilevel analysis shows that a significant part of the observed correlation between maternal education and child health is moderated by regional differences and community characteristics. The finding suggests that Peruvian public policy should emphasize resource redistribution as well as women's education, and that investment in maternal education should be considered within regional contexts to enhance child health in rural areas.
Erasmus Mundus Master in Social Work with Families and Children The purpose of this study was to understand which parenting style presented by Baumrind (1967) of authoritative, authoritarian or permissive the Nepalese immigrants in Portugal are associated with, what values they transmit to their children and how does it affect child integration in schools. The aim was to know if migrating to a country with difference in culture and values brings changes in the way parenting is provided for...
Berglund, Anna; Lindmark, Gunilla
Maternal health status before pregnancy is a decisive factor for pregnancy outcomes and for risk for maternal and infant complications. Still, maternity care does not start until the pregnancy is established and in most low-income settings not until more than half of the pregnancy has passed, which often is too late to impact outcomes. In Western societies preconception care (PCC) is widely recognized as a way to optimize women's health through biomedical and behavioural changes prior to conception with the aim of improving pregnancy outcomes. But the content of PCC is inconsistent and limited to single interventions or preconception counselling to women with chronic illnesses. It has been suggested that PCC should be extended to preconception health and care (PHC), including interventions prior to pregnancy in order to optimize women's health in general, and thereby subsequent pregnancy outcomes, the well-being of the family, and the health of the future child. With this definition, almost every activity that can improve the health of girls and women can be included in the concept. In the World Health Report of 2005 a longitudinal approach to women's wellness and reproductive health was highlighted, and the World Health Organization has proposed a more comprehensive maternal and child health care, also including psychosocial issues and intimate partner violence. The present article gives an overview of the recent literature and discusses contents and delivery of PCC/PHC in Western as well as low-income countries. The article puts special emphasis on why violence against women is an issue for PHC.
Andrew J. Lewis
Full Text Available Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Lewis, Andrew J; Austin, Emma; Knapp, Rebecca; Vaiano, Tina; Galbally, Megan
Maternal mental disorders over pregnancy show a clear influence on child development. This review is focused on the possible mechanisms by which maternal mental disorders influence fetal development via programming effects. This field is complex since mental health symptoms during pregnancy vary in type, timing and severity and maternal psychological distress is often accompanied by higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, poor diet and lifestyle. Studies are now beginning to examine fetal programming mechanisms, originally identified within the DOHaD framework, to examine how maternal mental disorders impact fetal development. Such mechanisms include hormonal priming effects such as elevated maternal glucocorticoids, alteration of placental function and perfusion, and epigenetic mechanisms. To date, mostly high prevalence mental disorders such as depression and anxiety have been investigated, but few studies employ diagnostic measures, and there is very little research examining the impact of maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, eating disorders and personality disorders on fetal development. The next wave of longitudinal studies need to focus on specific hypotheses driven by plausible biological mechanisms for fetal programming and follow children for a sufficient period in order to examine the early manifestations of developmental vulnerability. Intervention studies can then be targeted to altering these mechanisms of intergenerational transmission once identified.
Agadjanian, Victor; Prata, Ndola
This study arises from a general proposition that different levels and types of exposure to war are crucial in shaping health outcomes in a population under war-induced duress. We analyze civil war-related regional and ethnolinguistic differentials in age-adequate immunization (complete vaccination for age) and levels of malnutrition in Angola. Our analysis is based on data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996, some 2 years after the end of one of the most destructive periods of hostilities in the history of Angolan civil war. The data show that despite Angola's unique mineral wealth, the nation's levels of child age-adequate immunization is lower and malnutrition rates are higher than in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To examine age-adequate immunization and chronic malnutrition we fit logistic regression models that include the regional degree of war impact and ethnolinguistic group, in addition to rural-urban differences and other conventional sociodemographic characteristics. The tests reveal a significant disadvantage of rural children relative to urban children in both immunization and chronic malnutrition. Net of the rural-urban differences, we also detect a significant disadvantage of children residing in parts of the country that had been most affected by the fighting. The tests also point to a lower level of immunization and higher level of chronic malnutrition among children from the ethnolinguistic group commonly identified with the opposition. These associations tend to be stronger among children who were born and/or grew up during war than among children who were born after peace was re-established.
Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.
Subhi, Rami; Duke, Trevor
The content and landscape of global child health is increasingly complex. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of local, national and institutional leadership in reducing child mortality, but this has not been a focus of global health initiatives. Interventions to strengthen health systems should include support for local leadership: building-up institutions of training, empowering national paediatric professional associations, creating opportunities for contribution and leadership ...
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Mohammad Hasan Sahebihagh
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a widespread social phenomenon with serious life-time consequences. Since parents bring their children to healthcare centers for growth screening and vaccinations, Community Health Workers play an important role in identifying and reporting child abuse cases. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate knowledge, attitude and performance of Community Health Workers regarding child abuse in Tabriz. Methods: This is a descriptive (cross-sectional study; census method was used for sampling. Study population consists of 265 people, employed at units of family health and vaccination in Tabriz healthcare centers in 2015-2016. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 23 through descriptive (mean and standard deviation and analytical (Two Independent Samples T-test and analysis of variance statistics. Results: Findings indicate that 58.5 percent of Community Health Workers had good knowledge about causes of child abuse and 45 percent had good knowledge of the signs, symptoms and complications of child abuse. Their total knowledge was good (57%. The mean score of awareness (knowledge was significant according to the variable of training participation (P=0.04. The participants had a favorable attitude toward dealing with child abuse (91.3 %; the mean score of attitude was significant according to the educational field (P<0.001 and their performance in dealing with child abuse was moderate and lower (94.3 %. Conclusion: Community Health Workers had good knowledge regarding child abuse, favorable attitude toward dealing with child abuse, and poor performance in dealing with child abuse. This may be due to fear of side issues to deal with child abuse, or lack of clear legal guidelines regarding this.
Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F
As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental
Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine
In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health
Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.
Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child
Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E
This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tom, Jeffrey O; Chen, Chuhe; Zhou, Yi Yvonne
To determine the association of parental use of integrated personal health records (PHRs) with children's adherence to immunization and well-child care (WCC) visit recommendations. For the immunization and WCC visit measures, we retrospectively analyzed, respectively, 766 and 639 matched pairs at Kaiser Permanente (KP) Hawaii and 2795 and 2448 pairs at KP Northwest who were ≤ 31 days old at enrollment and continuously enrolled for 2 years between January 2007 and July 2011. The independent variable (≥ 1 PHR feature used vs none) was matched using propensity scores on parental and children characteristics. The dependent variables were 2 measures from the 2010 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set: combination 2 immunization (all immunizations vs immunizations only at KP Northwest (KP Hawaii: OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.4, P > .05; KP Northwest OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, P immunizations in only 1 region. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Holm, R S; Shaheen, P N
Building a coalition with others is an effective tool for increasing influence at the state level of the political process. It allows for the hiring of a staff who are able to maintain a constant presence in the ever-changing state political arena, which individual physicians and other caregivers simply cannot do. It allows for the development of increased sophistication among its members, which likewise increases the ability to affect the political process. It should be done with a philosophical set of standards that preserves its integrity and focuses on its goals, which must be carefully delineated from the inception. Coalitions are an effective way to deal with public issues of maternal and child health.
Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate
Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration.