WorldWideScience

Sample records for integrate prior knowledge

  1. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  2. Memory integration in amnesia: prior knowledge supports verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Palombo, Daniela J; Cadden, Margaret; Burke, Keely; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-04-01

    Short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have traditionally been considered cognitively distinct. However, it is known that STM can improve when to-be-remembered information appears in contexts that make contact with prior knowledge, suggesting a more interactive relationship between STM and LTM. The current study investigated whether the ability to leverage LTM in support of STM critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampus. Specifically, we investigated whether the hippocampus differentially supports between-domain versus within-domain STM-LTM integration given prior evidence that the representational domain of the elements being integrated in memory is a critical determinant of whether memory performance depends on the hippocampus. In Experiment 1, we investigated hippocampal contributions to within-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of words improves in MTL amnesic patients when words are presented in familiar verbal contexts (meaningful sentences) compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts (random word lists). Patients demonstrated a robust sentence superiority effect, whereby verbal STM performance improved in familiar compared to unfamiliar verbal contexts, and the magnitude of this effect did not differ from that in controls. In Experiment 2, we investigated hippocampal contributions to between-domain STM-LTM integration by testing whether immediate verbal recall of digits improves in MTL amnesic patients when digits are presented in a familiar visuospatial context (a typical keypad layout) compared to an unfamiliar visuospatial context (a random keypad layout). Immediate verbal recall improved in both patients and controls when digits were presented in the familiar compared to the unfamiliar keypad array, indicating a preserved ability to integrate activated verbal information with stored visuospatial knowledge. Together, these results demonstrate that immediate verbal recall in amnesia can benefit from two

  3. Integration of prior knowledge into dense image matching for video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menze, M.; Heipke, C.

    2014-08-01

    Three-dimensional information from dense image matching is a valuable input for a broad range of vision applications. While reliable approaches exist for dedicated stereo setups they do not easily generalize to more challenging camera configurations. In the context of video surveillance the typically large spatial extent of the region of interest and repetitive structures in the scene render the application of dense image matching a challenging task. In this paper we present an approach that derives strong prior knowledge from a planar approximation of the scene. This information is integrated into a graph-cut based image matching framework that treats the assignment of optimal disparity values as a labelling task. Introducing the planar prior heavily reduces ambiguities together with the search space and increases computational efficiency. The results provide a proof of concept of the proposed approach. It allows the reconstruction of dense point clouds in more general surveillance camera setups with wider stereo baselines.

  4. Stress affects the neural ensemble for integrating new information and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-06-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a schema, facilitates memory encoding. This schema-related learning is assumed to rely on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that rapidly integrates new information into the schema, whereas schema-incongruent or novel information is encoded by the hippocampus. Stress is a powerful modulator of prefrontal and hippocampal functioning and first studies suggest a stress-induced deficit of schema-related learning. However, the underlying neural mechanism is currently unknown. To investigate the neural basis of a stress-induced schema-related learning impairment, participants first acquired a schema. One day later, they underwent a stress induction or a control procedure before learning schema-related and novel information in the MRI scanner. In line with previous studies, learning schema-related compared to novel information activated the mPFC, angular gyrus, and precuneus. Stress, however, affected the neural ensemble activated during learning. Whereas the control group distinguished between sets of brain regions for related and novel information, stressed individuals engaged the hippocampus even when a relevant schema was present. Additionally, stressed participants displayed aberrant functional connectivity between brain regions involved in schema processing when encoding novel information. The failure to segregate functional connectivity patterns depending on the presence of prior knowledge was linked to impaired performance after stress. Our results show that stress affects the neural ensemble underlying the efficient use of schemas during learning. These findings may have relevant implications for clinical and educational settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  6. A linear programming computational framework integrates phosphor-proteomics and prior knowledge to predict drug efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing; Yan, Ke; Dong, Ligang; Meng, Guanmin; Shi, Lei

    2017-12-21

    In recent years, the integration of 'omics' technologies, high performance computation, and mathematical modeling of biological processes marks that the systems biology has started to fundamentally impact the way of approaching drug discovery. The LINCS public data warehouse provides detailed information about cell responses with various genetic and environmental stressors. It can be greatly helpful in developing new drugs and therapeutics, as well as improving the situations of lacking effective drugs, drug resistance and relapse in cancer therapies, etc. In this study, we developed a Ternary status based Integer Linear Programming (TILP) method to infer cell-specific signaling pathway network and predict compounds' treatment efficacy. The novelty of our study is that phosphor-proteomic data and prior knowledge are combined for modeling and optimizing the signaling network. To test the power of our approach, a generic pathway network was constructed for a human breast cancer cell line MCF7; and the TILP model was used to infer MCF7-specific pathways with a set of phosphor-proteomic data collected from ten representative small molecule chemical compounds (most of them were studied in breast cancer treatment). Cross-validation indicated that the MCF7-specific pathway network inferred by TILP were reliable predicting a compound's efficacy. Finally, we applied TILP to re-optimize the inferred cell-specific pathways and predict the outcomes of five small compounds (carmustine, doxorubicin, GW-8510, daunorubicin, and verapamil), which were rarely used in clinic for breast cancer. In the simulation, the proposed approach facilitates us to identify a compound's treatment efficacy qualitatively and quantitatively, and the cross validation analysis indicated good accuracy in predicting effects of five compounds. In summary, the TILP model is useful for discovering new drugs for clinic use, and also elucidating the potential mechanisms of a compound to targets.

  7. Creating illusions of knowledge: learning errors that contradict prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  8. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  9. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  10. The Role of Prior Knowledge in International Franchise Partner Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Catherine; Altinay, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of prior knowledge in the international franchise partner recruitment process and to evaluate how cultural distance influences the role of prior knowledge in this process. Design/Methodology/Approach A single embedded case study of an international hotel firm was the focus of the enquiry. Interviews, observations and document analysis were used as the data collection techniques. Findings Findings reveal that prior knowledge of the franchisor enab...

  11. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  12. Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks…

  13. Relations among conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and procedural flexibility in two samples differing in prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R

    2011-11-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of prior knowledge on the relations. To overcome these problems, we modeled the three constructs in the domain of equation solving as latent factors and tested (a) whether the predictive relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge were bidirectional, (b) whether these interrelations were moderated by prior knowledge, and (c) how both constructs contributed to procedural flexibility. We analyzed data from 2 measurement points each from two samples (Ns = 228 and 304) of middle school students who differed in prior knowledge. Conceptual and procedural knowledge had stable bidirectional relations that were not moderated by prior knowledge. Both kinds of knowledge contributed independently to procedural flexibility. The results demonstrate how changes in complex knowledge structures contribute to competence development.

  14. The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Broers, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Broers, N. J. (2011). The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 274-291. doi: 10.1348/000709910X517425

  15. Knowledge integration by thinking along

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.; Debackere, K.; Garud, R.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Organizing depends on the integration of specialized knowledge that lies distributed across individuals. There are benefits from specialization, and, yet, the integration of knowledge across boundaries is critical for organizational vitality. How do organizations benefit from knowledge that lies in

  16. Variational segmentation problems using prior knowledge in imaging and vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundana, Ketut

    This dissertation addresses variational formulation of segmentation problems using prior knowledge. Variational models are among the most successful approaches for solving many Computer Vision and Image Processing problems. The models aim at finding the solution to a given energy functional defined......, prior knowledge is needed to obtain the desired solution. The introduction of shape priors in particular, has proven to be an effective way to segment objects of interests. Firstly, we propose a prior-based variational segmentation model to segment objects of interest in image sequences, that can deal....... Many objects have high variability in shape and orientation. This often leads to unsatisfactory results, when using a segmentation model with single shape template. One way to solve this is by using more sophisticated shape models. We propose to incorporate shape priors from a shape sub...

  17. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eOhst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly ‘incompatible’ with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (reorganizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces.

  18. Preparing learners with partly incorrect intuitive prior knowledge for learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohst, Andrea; Fondu, Béatrice M. E.; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Learners sometimes have incoherent and fragmented intuitive prior knowledge that is (partly) “incompatible” with the to-be-learned contents. Such knowledge in pieces can cause conceptual disorientation and cognitive overload while learning. We hypothesized that a pre-training intervention providing a generalized schema as a structuring framework for such knowledge in pieces would support (re)organizing-processes of prior knowledge and thus reduce unnecessary cognitive load during subsequent learning. Fifty-six student teachers participated in the experiment. A framework group underwent a pre-training intervention providing a generalized, categorical schema for categorizing primary learning strategies and related but different strategies as a cognitive framework for (re-)organizing their prior knowledge. Our control group received comparable factual information but no framework. Afterwards, all participants learned about primary learning strategies. The framework group claimed to possess higher levels of interest and self-efficacy, achieved higher learning outcomes, and learned more efficiently. Hence, providing a categorical framework can help overcome the barrier of incorrect prior knowledge in pieces. PMID:25071638

  19. Estimating Functions with Prior Knowledge, (EFPK) for diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Kim; Kessler, Mathieu; Madsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction of a...... of an estimating function. It may be useful when the full Bayesian analysis is difficult to carry out for computational reasons. This is almost always the case for diffusions, which is the focus of this paper, though the method applies in other settings.......In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction...

  20. The Integration of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of knowledge demands an interdisciplinary reflection on how to integrate the different branches of the natural sciences and the humanities into a coherent picture of world, life, and mind. Insightful intellectual tools, like evolutionary Biology and Neuroscience, can facilitate this project. It is the task of Philosophy to identify those fundamental concepts whose explanatory power can illuminate the thread that leads from the most elementary realities to the most complex spheres. This article aims to explore the importance of the ideas of conservation, selection, and unification for achieving the goal.

  1. Prior knowledge processing for initial state of Kalman filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2010), s. 188-202 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/06/P434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Kalman filtering * prior knowledge * state-space model * initial state distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/suzdaleva-prior knowledge processing for initial state of kalman filter.pdf

  2. Exploiting prior knowledge of English, Mathematics and Chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores prior knowledge with the view to enhancing the study of French. Juxtaposing sentences in French and English to underscore syntactic differences and similarities, the paper attributes numerical values to nouns and adjectives in French in order to demonstrate the mathematical imbalance and lack of ...

  3. Quantitative utilization of prior biological knowledge in the Bayesian network modeling of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shouguo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bayesian Network (BN is a powerful approach to reconstructing genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, expression data by itself suffers from high noise and lack of power. Incorporating prior biological knowledge can improve the performance. As each type of prior knowledge on its own may be incomplete or limited by quality issues, integrating multiple sources of prior knowledge to utilize their consensus is desirable. Results We introduce a new method to incorporate the quantitative information from multiple sources of prior knowledge. It first uses the Naïve Bayesian classifier to assess the likelihood of functional linkage between gene pairs based on prior knowledge. In this study we included cocitation in PubMed and schematic similarity in Gene Ontology annotation. A candidate network edge reservoir is then created in which the copy number of each edge is proportional to the estimated likelihood of linkage between the two corresponding genes. In network simulation the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm is adopted, and samples from this reservoir at each iteration to generate new candidate networks. We evaluated the new algorithm using both simulated and real gene expression data including that from a yeast cell cycle and a mouse pancreas development/growth study. Incorporating prior knowledge led to a ~2 fold increase in the number of known transcription regulations recovered, without significant change in false positive rate. In contrast, without the prior knowledge BN modeling is not always better than a random selection, demonstrating the necessity in network modeling to supplement the gene expression data with additional information. Conclusion our new development provides a statistical means to utilize the quantitative information in prior biological knowledge in the BN modeling of gene expression data, which significantly improves the performance.

  4. Incorporating prior knowledge induced from stochastic differential equations in the classification of stochastic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollanvari, Amin; Dougherty, Edward R

    2016-12-01

    In classification, prior knowledge is incorporated in a Bayesian framework by assuming that the feature-label distribution belongs to an uncertainty class of feature-label distributions governed by a prior distribution. A posterior distribution is then derived from the prior and the sample data. An optimal Bayesian classifier (OBC) minimizes the expected misclassification error relative to the posterior distribution. From an application perspective, prior construction is critical. The prior distribution is formed by mapping a set of mathematical relations among the features and labels, the prior knowledge, into a distribution governing the probability mass across the uncertainty class. In this paper, we consider prior knowledge in the form of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We consider a vector SDE in integral form involving a drift vector and dispersion matrix. Having constructed the prior, we develop the optimal Bayesian classifier between two models and examine, via synthetic experiments, the effects of uncertainty in the drift vector and dispersion matrix. We apply the theory to a set of SDEs for the purpose of differentiating the evolutionary history between two species.

  5. Science Literacy and Prior Knowledge of Astronomy MOOC Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, Sanlyn; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Many of science classes offered on Coursera fall into fall into the category of general education or general interest classes for lifelong learners, including our own, Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space. Very little is known about the backgrounds and prior knowledge of these students. In this talk we present the results of a survey of our Astronomy MOOC students. We also compare these results to our previous work on undergraduate students in introductory astronomy courses. Survey questions examined student demographics and motivations as well as their science and information literacy (including basic science knowledge, interest, attitudes and beliefs, and where they get their information about science). We found that our MOOC students are different than the undergraduate students in more ways than demographics. Many MOOC students demonstrated high levels of science and information literacy. With a more comprehensive understanding of our students’ motivations and prior knowledge about science and how they get their information about science, we will be able to develop more tailored learning experiences for these lifelong learners.

  6. An Integrated Knowledge Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a Knowledge Management System based on Fuzzy Logic (FLKMS, a real-time expert system to meet the challenges of the dynamic environment. The main feature of our integrated shell FLKMS is that it models and integrates the temporal relationships between the dynamic of the evolution of an economic process with some fuzzy inferential methods, using a knowledge model for control, embedded within the expert system’s operational knowledge base.

  7. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Age differences in suggestibility to contradictions of demonstrated knowledge: the influence of prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanath, Sharda

    2016-11-01

    People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge. Older adults consistently demonstrated more prior knowledge than younger adults but also gained access to even more across time. Additionally, they did not show a reduction in new learning from the stories, indicating lesser involvement of episodic memory failures. Critically, when knowledge was stably accessible, older adults relied more heavily on that knowledge compared to younger adults, resulting in reduced suggestibility. Implications for the broader role of knowledge in aging are discussed.

  9. Estimating kinetic mechanisms with prior knowledge I: Linear parameter constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Autoosa; Navarro, Marco A; Milescu, Mirela; Milescu, Lorin S

    2018-02-05

    To understand how ion channels and other proteins function at the molecular and cellular levels, one must decrypt their kinetic mechanisms. Sophisticated algorithms have been developed that can be used to extract kinetic parameters from a variety of experimental data types. However, formulating models that not only explain new data, but are also consistent with existing knowledge, remains a challenge. Here, we present a two-part study describing a mathematical and computational formalism that can be used to enforce prior knowledge into the model using constraints. In this first part, we focus on constraints that enforce explicit linear relationships involving rate constants or other model parameters. We develop a simple, linear algebra-based transformation that can be applied to enforce many types of model properties and assumptions, such as microscopic reversibility, allosteric gating, and equality and inequality parameter relationships. This transformation converts the set of linearly interdependent model parameters into a reduced set of independent parameters, which can be passed to an automated search engine for model optimization. In the companion article, we introduce a complementary method that can be used to enforce arbitrary parameter relationships and any constraints that quantify the behavior of the model under certain conditions. The procedures described in this study can, in principle, be coupled to any of the existing methods for solving molecular kinetics for ion channels or other proteins. These concepts can be used not only to enforce existing knowledge but also to formulate and test new hypotheses. © 2018 Salari et al.

  10. Visibility Restoration for Single Hazy Image Using Dual Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingye Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single image haze removal has been a challenging task due to its super ill-posed nature. In this paper, we propose a novel single image algorithm that improves the detail and color of such degraded images. More concretely, we redefine a more reliable atmospheric scattering model (ASM based on our previous work and the atmospheric point spread function (APSF. Further, by taking the haze density spatial feature into consideration, we design a scene-wise APSF kernel prediction mechanism to eliminate the multiple-scattering effect. With the redefined ASM and designed APSF, combined with the existing prior knowledge, the complex dehazing problem can be subtly converted into one-dimensional searching problem, which allows us to directly obtain the scene transmission and thereby recover visually realistic results via the proposed ASM. Experimental results verify that our algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art dehazing techniques in terms of robustness, effectiveness, and efficiency.

  11. Algorithms and tools for system identification using prior knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskog, P.

    1994-01-01

    One of the hardest problems in system identification is that of model structure selection. In this thesis two different kinds of a priori process knowledge are used to address this fundamental problem. Concentrating on linear model structures, the first prior advantage of is knowledge about the systems' dominating time constants and resonance frequencies. The idea is to generalize FIR modelling by replacing the usual delay operator with discrete so-called Laguerre or Kautz filters. The generalization is such that stability, the linear regression structure and the approximation ability of the FIR model structure is retained, whereas the prior is used to reduce the number of parameters needed to arrive at a reasonable model. Tailorized and efficient system identification algorithms for these model structures are detailed in this work. The usefulness of the proposed methods is demonstrated through concrete simulation and application studies. The other approach is referred to as semi-physical modelling. The main idea is to use simple physical insight into the application, often in terms of a set of unstructured equations, in order to come up with suitable nonlinear transformation of the raw measurements, so as to allow for a good model structure. Semi-physical modelling is less ''ambitious'' than physical modelling in that no complete physical structure is sought, just combinations of inputs and outputs that can be subjected to more or less standard model structures, such as linear regressions. The suggested modelling procedure shows a first step where symbolic computations are employed to determine a suitable model structure - a set of regressors. We show how constructive methods from commutative and differential algebra can be applied for this. Subsequently, different numerical schemes for finding a subset of ''good'' regressors and for estimating the corresponding linear-in-the-parameters model are discussed. 107 refs, figs, tabs

  12. Recognition of Prior Learning as an integral component of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is irrespective of whether that learning has been acquired through unstructured learning, performance development, off-the-job assessment, or skills and knowledge that meet workplace needs but have been gained through various previous learning experiences. The concept Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is ...

  13. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  14. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsoonthorn, C; Yokozuka, T; Miura, S; Ogawa, K; Miyake, Y

    2016-12-02

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony.

  15. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment.
    This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability

  16. The Effects of Prior Knowledge on Children's Memory and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischberger, Holger B.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the…

  17. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  18. Prior implicit knowledge shapes human threshold for orientation noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Bex, Peter J; Fiser, József

    2015-01-01

    , resulting in an image-class-specific threshold that changes the shape and position of the dipper function according to image class. These findings do not fit a filter-based feed-forward view of orientation coding, but can be explained by a process that utilizes an experience-based perceptual prior...

  19. Sleep Spindle Density Predicts the Effect of Prior Knowledge on Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Kempkes, Marleen; Cousins, James N.; Lewis, Penelope A.

    2016-01-01

    Information that relates to a prior knowledge schema is remembered better and consolidates more rapidly than information that does not. Another factor that influences memory consolidation is sleep and growing evidence suggests that sleep-related processing is important for integration with existing knowledge. Here, we perform an examination of how sleep-related mechanisms interact with schema-dependent memory advantage. Participants first established a schema over 2 weeks. Next, they encoded new facts, which were either related to the schema or completely unrelated. After a 24 h retention interval, including a night of sleep, which we monitored with polysomnography, participants encoded a second set of facts. Finally, memory for all facts was tested in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Behaviorally, sleep spindle density predicted an increase of the schema benefit to memory across the retention interval. Higher spindle densities were associated with reduced decay of schema-related memories. Functionally, spindle density predicted increased disengagement of the hippocampus across 24 h for schema-related memories only. Together, these results suggest that sleep spindle activity is associated with the effect of prior knowledge on memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memories are gradually assimilated into long-term memory and this process is strongly influenced by sleep. The consolidation of new information is also influenced by its relationship to existing knowledge structures, or schemas, but the role of sleep in such schema-related consolidation is unknown. We show that sleep spindle density predicts the extent to which schemas influence the consolidation of related facts. This is the first evidence that sleep is associated with the interaction between prior knowledge and long-term memory formation. PMID:27030764

  20. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Gender on Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences on the Conceptual Survey in Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) have been extensively studied. Ten semesters (N=1621) of CSEM data is presented showing male students outperform female students on the CSEM posttest by 5 % (p qualitative in-semester test questions by 3 % (p = . 004), but no significant difference between male and female students was found on quantitative test questions. Male students enter the class with superior prior preparation in the subject and score 4 % higher on the CSEM pretest (p questions correctly (N=822), male and female differences on the CSEM and qualitative test questions cease to be significant. This suggests no intrinsic gender bias exists in the CSEM itself and that gender differences are the result of prior preparation measured by CSEM pretest score. Gender differences between male and female students increase with pretest score. Regression analyses are presented to further explore interactions between preparation, gender, and achievement.

  1. The critical success factors and impact of prior knowledge to nursing students when transferring nursing knowledge during nursing clinical practise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Tsai, Ling-Long

    2005-11-01

    Nursing practise plays an important role in transferring nursing knowledge to nursing students. From the related literature review, prior knowledge will affect how learners gain new knowledge. There has been no direct examination of the prior knowledge interaction effect on students' performance and its influence on nursing students when evaluating the knowledge transfer success factors. This study explores (1) the critical success factors in transferring nursing knowledge, (2) the impact of prior knowledge when evaluating the success factors for transferring nursing knowledge. This research utilizes in-depth interviews to probe the initial success factor phase. A total of 422 valid questionnaires were conducted by the authors. The data were analysed by comparing the mean score and t-test between two groups. Seventeen critical success factors were identified by the two groups of students. Twelve items were selected to examine the diversity in the two groups. Students with prior knowledge were more independent than the other group. They also preferred self-directed learning over students without prior knowledge. Students who did not have prior knowledge were eager to take every opportunity to gain experience and more readily adopted new knowledge.

  2. Managing heterogeneous knowledge: A Theory of External Knowledge Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge integration has been theorised at the levels of organisations and inter-organisational dyads. However, no theory exists yet of the integration of knowledge from an organisation's environment. This paper addresses this void in the literature by presenting a theory of external knowledge

  3. Contribution of Prior Semantic Knowledge to New Episodic Learning in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Irene P.; Alexander, Michael P.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether prior semantic knowledge would enhance episodic learning in amnesia. Subjects studied prices that are either congruent or incongruent with prior price knowledge for grocery and household items and then performed a forced-choice recognition test for the studied prices. Consistent with a previous report, healthy controls'…

  4. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low.

  5. The Effect of Prior Knowledge on Price Acceptability and the Type of Information Examined.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Akshay R; Sieben, Wanda A

    1992-01-01

    This article assesses whether differences in prior knowledge result in differences in (1) price acceptability and (2) the extent to which different types of information are examined. Using a personal computer-based methodology, subjects who varied in their prior product knowledge provided price responses, and the time they spent examining various kinds of information was measured. Acceptable price-range and points (price limits) were found to be lowest for low-knowledge subjects. Further, the...

  6. Knowledge Integration Reconceptualized from an Integrationist Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Taxén, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The concept of knowledge integration remains on precarious ontological and epistemological grounds. Hence, the purpose of this contribution is to suggest a reconceptualization of knowledge integration from the integrationist perspective proposed by the English linguist Roy Harris. In this view, all knowledge is internally generated by the human capacity for sign-making and hence, knowledge arises from creative attempts to integrate the various activities of which human are capable of. Integra...

  7. Incorporating prior knowledge into beam orientation optimization in IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei M.S.; Lei Xing

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Selection of beam configuration in currently available intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning systems is still based on trial-and-error search. Computer beam orientation optimization has the potential to improve the situation, but its practical implementation is hindered by the excessive computing time associated with the calculation. The purpose of this work is to provide an effective means to speed up the beam orientation optimization by incorporating a priori geometric and dosimetric knowledge of the system and to demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm for beam placement in IMRT. Methods and Materials: Beam orientation optimization was performed in two steps. First, the quality of each possible beam orientation was evaluated using beam's-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) developed in our previous study. A simulated annealing algorithm was then employed to search for the optimal set of beam orientations, taking into account the BEVD scores of different incident beam directions. During the calculation, sampling of gantry angles was weighted according to the BEVD score computed before the optimization. A beam direction with a higher BEVD score had a higher probability of being included in the trial configuration, and vice versa. The inclusion of the BEVD weighting in the stochastic beam angle sampling process made it possible to avoid spending valuable computing time unnecessarily at 'bad' beam angles. An iterative inverse treatment planning algorithm was used for beam intensity profile optimization during the optimization process. The BEVD-guided beam orientation optimization was applied to an IMRT treatment of paraspinal tumor. The advantage of the new optimization algorithm was demonstrated by comparing the calculation with the conventional scheme without the BEVD weighting in the beam sampling. Results: The BEVD tool provided useful guidance for the selection of the potentially good directions for the beams to incident and was used

  8. Designing Critique for Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mie Elissa

    Generating explanations is central to science and has the potential to have a powerful impact on students' conceptual understanding in science instruction. However, improving conceptual understanding by generating explanations is a fraught affair: students may struggle with the sense of false clarity that may arise from generating explanations, fail to detect gaps in their understanding, and dismiss salient information that contradict their beliefs. Critiquing explanations has the potential to counteract these pitfalls by exposing students to alternative ideas to contrast with their own. This dissertation seeks to clarify how to design critique in technology-enhanced science instruction to support students in revising their explanations about scientific phenomena, and in doing so, refining their conceptual understanding. Using the Knowledge Integration framework, I revised two technology-enhanced curriculum units, Plate Tectonics and Global Climate Change, in a design partnership between teachers, researchers, and technologists. I conducted a series of studies with sixth-grade students to investigate the conditions under which guided critique of explanations can support revision. The pilot critique study investigated the impact of the revised Plate Tectonics unit on students' understanding of convection, as well as of a preliminary design of critique where students generated and applied their own criteria for what makes a good explanation in science. The guidance study explored how incorporating a complex selection task that features meta-explanatory criteria into critique supports students in distinguishing among different criteria, as well as how students use peer or expert guidance on their initial explanation during revision. The critique study investigated how designing critique with a complex selection task that features plausible alternative ideas and giving guidance on students' critiques support students in distinguishing among a range of relevant ideas

  9. Integrated learning: Ways of fostering the applicability of teachers’ pedagogical and psychological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eHarr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In teacher education, general pedagogical and psychological knowledge is often taught separately from the teaching subject itself, potentially leading to inert knowledge. In an experimental study with 69 mathematics student teachers, we tested the benefits of fostering the integration of pedagogical content knowledge and general pedagogical and psychological knowledge with respect to knowledge application. Integration was fostered either by integrating the contents or by prompting the learners to integrate separately-taught knowledge. Fostering integration, as compared to a separate presentation without integration help, led to more applicable pedagogical and psychological knowledge and greater simultaneous application of pedagogical and psychological knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. The advantages of fostering knowledge integration were not moderated by the student teachers’ prior knowledge or working memory capacity. A disadvantage of integrating different knowledge types referred to increased learning times.

  10. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  11. Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer for Learning Tactual Properties of New Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Feng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reusing the tactile knowledge of some previously-explored objects (prior objects helps us to easily recognize the tactual properties of new objects. In this paper, we enable a robotic arm equipped with multi-modal artificial skin, like humans, to actively transfer the prior tactile exploratory action experiences when it learns the detailed physical properties of new objects. These experiences, or prior tactile knowledge, are built by the feature observations that the robot perceives from multiple sensory modalities, when it applies the pressing, sliding, and static contact movements on objects with different action parameters. We call our method Active Prior Tactile Knowledge Transfer (APTKT, and systematically evaluated its performance by several experiments. Results show that the robot improved the discrimination accuracy by around 10 % when it used only one training sample with the feature observations of prior objects. By further incorporating the predictions from the observation models of prior objects as auxiliary features, our method improved the discrimination accuracy by over 20 % . The results also show that the proposed method is robust against transferring irrelevant prior tactile knowledge (negative knowledge transfer.

  12. Effects of prior knowledge on decisions made under perceptual vs. categorical uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eHansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans use prior knowledge to bias decisions made under uncertainty. In this fMRI study we predicted that different brain dynamics play a role when prior knowledge is added to decisions made under perceptual vs. categorical uncertainty. Subjects decided whether shapes belonged to Category S – smoother – or Category B – bumpier – under both uncertainty conditions, with or without prior knowledge cues. When present, the prior knowledge cue, 80/20 or 50/50, indicated that 80% and 20% (or 50% and 50% were the chances that responding "S" and "B" (or vice versa would be correct. During perceptual uncertainty, shapes were degraded with noise. During categorical uncertainty, shapes were ambiguous. Adding the 80/20 cue increased activation during perceptual uncertainty in bilateral lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus (MidFG, and decreased activity in bilateral lateral occipital cortex during categorical uncertainty. Right MidFG and other frontoparietal regions were active in all conditions. The results demonstrate that left MidFG shows activation changes, suggestive of an influence on visual cortex, that depend on the factor that makes the decisions difficult. When sensory evidence is difficult to perceive, prior knowledge increases visual cortical activity. When the sensory evidence is easy to perceive but difficult to interpret, prior knowledge decreases visual cortical activity.

  13. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  14. Can Prior Knowledge Hurt Text Comprehension? An Answer Borrowed from Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence B.

    Taking a philosophical approach based on what Plato, Aristotle, and Descartes said about knowledge, this paper addresses some of the murkiness in the conceptual space surrounding the issue of whether prior knowledge does or does not facilitate text comprehension. Specifically, the paper first develops a non-exhaustive typology of cases in which…

  15. The relation between prior knowledge and students' collaborative discovery learning processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijlers, Aaltje H.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication

  16. Analysis of the IJCNN 2007 agnostic learning vs. prior knowledge challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Isabelle; Saffari, Amir; Dror, Gideon; Cawley, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    We organized a challenge for IJCNN 2007 to assess the added value of prior domain knowledge in machine learning. Most commercial data mining programs accept data pre-formatted in the form of a table, with each example being encoded as a linear feature vector. Is it worth spending time incorporating domain knowledge in feature construction or algorithm design, or can off-the-shelf programs working directly on simple low-level features do better than skilled data analysts? To answer these questions, we formatted five datasets using two data representations. The participants in the "prior knowledge" track used the raw data, with full knowledge of the meaning of the data representation. Conversely, the participants in the "agnostic learning" track used a pre-formatted data table, with no knowledge of the identity of the features. The results indicate that black-box methods using relatively unsophisticated features work quite well and rapidly approach the best attainable performance. The winners on the prior knowledge track used feature extraction strategies yielding a large number of low-level features. Incorporating prior knowledge in the form of generic coding/smoothing methods to exploit regularities in data is beneficial, but incorporating actual domain knowledge in feature construction is very time consuming and seldom leads to significant improvements. The AL vs. PK challenge web site remains open for post-challenge submissions: http://www.agnostic.inf.ethz.ch/.

  17. Fuzzy knowledge bases integration based on ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Ternovoy, Maksym; Shtogrina, Olena

    2012-01-01

    the paper describes the approach for fuzzy knowledge bases integration with the usage of ontology. This approach is based on metadata-base usage for integration of different knowledge bases with common ontology. The design process of metadata-base is described.

  18. Untangling knowledge creation and knowledge integration in enterprise wikis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Roman; Rai, Arun; Fischbach, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge organizations face is how to build, store, and maintain knowledge over time. Enterprise wikis are community-based knowledge systems situated in an organizational context. These systems have the potential to play an important role in managing knowledge within organizations......, but the motivating factors that drive individuals to contribute their knowledge to these systems is not very well understood. We theorize that enterprise wiki initiatives require two separate and distinct types of knowledge-sharing behaviors to succeed: knowledge creation (KC) and knowledge integration (KI). We...... examine a Wiki initiative at a major German bank to untangle the motivating factors behind KC and KI. Our results suggest KC and KI are indeed two distinct behaviors, reconcile inconsistent findings from past studies on the role of motivational factors for knowledge sharing to establish shared electronic...

  19. COGMIR: A computer model for knowledge integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.X.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explores some aspects of knowledge integration, namely, accumulation of scientific knowledge and performing analogical reasoning on the acquired knowledge. Knowledge to be integrated is conveyed by paragraph-like pieces referred to as documents. By incorporating some results from cognitive science, the Deutsch-Kraft model of information retrieval is extended to a model for knowledge engineering, which integrates acquired knowledge and performs intelligent retrieval. The resulting computer model is termed COGMIR, which stands for a COGnitive Model for Intelligent Retrieval. A scheme, named query invoked memory reorganization, is used in COGMIR for knowledge integration. Unlike some other schemes which realize knowledge integration through subjective understanding by representing new knowledge in terms of existing knowledge, the proposed scheme suggests at storage time only recording the possible connection of knowledge acquired from different documents. The actual binding of the knowledge acquired from different documents is deferred to query time. There is only one way to store knowledge and numerous ways to utilize the knowledge. Each document can be represented as a whole as well as its meaning. In addition, since facts are constructed from the documents, document retrieval and fact retrieval are treated in a unified way. When the requested knowledge is not available, query invoked memory reorganization can generate suggestion based on available knowledge through analogical reasoning. This is done by revising the algorithms developed for document retrieval and fact retrieval, and by incorporating Gentner's structure mapping theory. Analogical reasoning is treated as a natural extension of intelligent retrieval, so that two previously separate research areas are combined. A case study is provided. All the components are implemented as list structures similar to relational data-bases.

  20. Deepening Understanding of Prior Knowledge: What Diverse First-Generation College Students in the U.S. Can Teach Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    Educational research indicates that teachers revealing and utilizing students' prior knowledge supports students' academic learning. Yet, the variation in students' prior knowledge is not fully known. To better understand students' prior knowledge, I drew on sociocultural learning theories to examine racially and ethnically diverse college…

  1. Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic (ECoG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoguan eWang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs use brain signals to convey a user's intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (eg{} hand velocity or finger flexion. The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the anatomic constraints and dynamic constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS. Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation.

  2. Integrated knowledge translation: digging deeper, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Wathen, C Nadine

    2017-06-01

    Integrated knowledge translation has risen in popularity as a solution to the underuse of research in policy and practice settings. It engages knowledge users-policymakers, practitioners, patients/consumers or their advocates, and members of the wider public-in mutually beneficial research that can involve the joint development of research questions, data collection, analysis and dissemination of findings. Knowledge that is co-produced has a better chance of being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to update developments in the field of integrated knowledge translation through a deeper analysis of the approach in practice-oriented and policy-oriented health research. We present collaborative models that fall outside the scope of integrated knowledge translation, but then explore consensus-based approaches and networks as alternate sites of knowledge co-production. We discuss the need to advance the field through the development, or use, of data collection and interpretation tools that creatively engage knowledge users in the research process. Most importantly, conceptually relevant outcomes need to be identified, including ones that focus on team transformation through the co-production of knowledge. We explore some of these challenges and benefits in detail to help researchers understand what integrated knowledge translation means, and whether the approach's potential added value is worth the investment of time, energy and other resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Evolution of Industry Knowledge in the Public Domain: Prior Art Searching for Software Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseok Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching prior art is a key part of the patent application and examination processes. A comprehensive prior art search gives the inventor ideas as to how he can improve or circumvent existing technology by providing up to date knowledge on the state of the art. It also enables the patent applicant to minimise the likelihood of an objection from the patent office. This article explores the characteristics of prior art associated with software patents, dealing with difficulties in searching prior art due to the lack of resources, and considers public contribution to the formation of prior art databases. It addresses the evolution of electronic prior art in line with technological development, and discusses laws and practices in the EPO, USPTO, and the JPO in relation to the validity of prior art resources on the Internet. This article also investigates the main features of searching sources and tools in the three patent offices as well as non-patent literature databases. Based on the analysis of various searching databases, it provides some strategies of efficient prior art searching that should be considered for software-related inventions.

  4. Does prior domain-specific content knowledge influence students' recall of arguments surrounding interdisciplinary topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hiemke K; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2017-12-01

    Awareness of various arguments can help interactants present opinions, stress points, and build counterarguments during discussions. At school, some topics are taught in a way that students learn to accumulate knowledge and gather arguments, and later employ them during debates. Prior knowledge may facilitate recalling information on well structured, fact-based topics, but does it facilitate recalling arguments during discussions on complex, interdisciplinary topics? We assessed the prior knowledge in domains related to a bioethical topic of 277 students from Germany (approximately 15 years old), their interest in the topic, and their general knowledge. The students read a text with arguments for and against prenatal diagnostics and tried to recall the arguments one week later and again six weeks later. Prior knowledge in various domains related to the topic individually and separately helped students recall the arguments. These relationships were independent of students' interest in the topic and their general knowledge. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of representations in a mobile learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.-C. Liu (Tzu-Chien); Y.-C. Lin (Yi-Chun); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTwo experiments examined the effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of multiple representations in a mobile learning environment on plant leaf morphology for primary school students. Experiment 1 compared the learning effects of a mobile learning environment

  6. Effects of Example Variability and Prior Knowledge in How Students Learn to Solve Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently demonstrated that multiple examples are better than one example in facilitating learning because the comparison evoked by multiple examples supports learning and transfer. However, research outcomes are unclear regarding the effects of example variability and prior knowledge on learning from comparing multiple…

  7. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  8. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on Perception and Action: Relationships to Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Gavin; Michelakakis, Elizabeth Evgenia; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan

    2016-01-01

    Autism is characterised by a range of perceptual and sensorimotor deficits, which might be related to abnormalities in how autistic individuals use prior knowledge. We investigated this proposition in a large non-clinical population in the context of the size-weight illusion, where individual's expectations about object weight influence their…

  9. Making Connections in Math: Activating a Prior Knowledge Analogue Matters for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Pooja G.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated analogical transfer of conceptual structure from a prior-knowledge domain to support learning in a new domain of mathematics: division by fractions. Before a procedural lesson on division by fractions, fifth and sixth graders practiced with a surface analogue (other operations on fractions) or a structural analogue (whole…

  10. The Impact of Learner's Prior Knowledge on Their Use of Chemistry Computer Simulations: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Chin; Andre, Thomas; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    It is complicated to design a computer simulation that adapts to students with different characteristics. This study documented cases that show how college students' prior chemistry knowledge level affected their interaction with peers and their approach to solving problems with the use of computer simulations that were designed to learn…

  11. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  12. The Effects of Prior-Knowledge and Online Learning Approaches on Students' Inquiry and Argumentation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Ren; She, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Kai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of students' prior science knowledge and online learning approaches (social and individual) on their learning with regard to three topics: science concepts, inquiry, and argumentation. Two science teachers and 118 students from 4 eighth-grade science classes were invited to participate in this research. Students…

  13. Sex differences in foreign language text comprehension : The role of interests and prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bügel, K; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1996-01-01

    The scores obtained by female students on the national foreign language examinations in the Netherlands have been slightly but consistently lower than those of male students. The present research among 2980 high school students tested the hypothesis that, owing to sex differences in prior knowledge

  14. Feedback Both Helps and Hinders Learning: The Causal Role of Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Feedback can be a powerful learning tool, but its effects vary widely. Research has suggested that learners' prior knowledge may moderate the effects of feedback; however, no causal link has been established. In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned elementary school children (N = 108) to a condition based on a crossing of 2 factors: induced strategy…

  15. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Burkhardt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results: Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (µ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001. Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (µ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01. No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion: Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest.

  16. Overcoming Knowledge Gaps in Postmerger Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria Eliisa; Martela, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) fail, mainly because of integration problems. In such integrations, much of the experiential (learning-by-doing) knowledge critical for running the business becomes redundant or is lost. However, we know virtually nothing about what type of mechanisms...

  17. An Integrated Knowledge Translation Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatto, Marlene P.; Miller, Linda T.; Kothari, Anita; Seewald, Richard; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric audiologists lack evidence-based, age-appropriate outcome evaluation tools with well-developed normative data that could be used to evaluate the auditory development and performance of children aged birth to 6 years with permanent childhood hearing impairment. Bagatto and colleagues recommend a battery of outcome tools that may be used with this population. This article provides results of an evaluation of the individual components of the University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP) version 1.0 by the audiologists associated with the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada. It also provides information regarding barriers and facilitators to implementing outcome measures in clinical practice. Results indicate that when compared to the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) Diary, audiologists found the PEACH Rating Scale to be a more clinically feasible evaluation tool to implement in practice from a time, task, and consistency of use perspective. Results also indicate that the LittlEARS® Auditory Questionnaire could be used to evaluate the auditory development and performance of children aged birth to 6 years with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI). The most cited barrier to implementation is time. The result of this social collaboration was the creation of a knowledge product, the UWO PedAMP v1.0, which has the potential to be useful to audiologists and the children and families they serve. PMID:22194315

  18. Browsing while reading: effects of instructional design and learners' prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theimo Müller-Kalthoff

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the key reasons that multimedia, and particularly hypertext systems, are gaining in importance is that they inspire hopes of optimizing learners' processes of knowledge construction. The present study is concerned with the respective influence of individual learner variables (i.e. particularly domain-specific prior knowledge on the use of different design attributes. Thirty-six university students worked through a hierarchically structured two-part hypertext about the psychology of memory under two experimental browsing conditions (reduced versus free browsing. Results show that deeper-level comprehension (i.e. structural knowledge was predicted by the interaction of experimental condition and prior knowledge, but that simply retaining facts was not. Participants with low prior knowledge performed better on the comprehension test if they had worked on the version with reduced access. Moreover, the version with reduced access helped to reduce feelings of disorientation. The measure of disorientation also appeared to be closely linked with the individual's computer experience, self-concept of computer ability and subject-related interest. The main implications for educational practice relate to the design of an adaptive multimedia and hypertext learning system and the successful learning with it.

  19. Towards an Integrative Model of Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Heslop, Ben

    This paper aims to contribute towards the advancement of an efficient architecture of a single market for knowledge through the development of an integrative model of knowledge transfer. Within this aim, several points of departure can be singled out. One, the article builds on the call of the Eu......This paper aims to contribute towards the advancement of an efficient architecture of a single market for knowledge through the development of an integrative model of knowledge transfer. Within this aim, several points of departure can be singled out. One, the article builds on the call...... business and academia, and implementing the respective legislature are enduring. The research objectives were to explore (i) the process of knowledge transfer in universities, including the nature of tensions, obstacles and incentives, (ii) the relationships between key stakeholders in the KT market...... of the emergent integrative model of knowledge transfer. In an attempt to bring it to a higher level of generalizability, the integrative model of KT is further conceptualized from a ‘sociology of markets’ perspective resulting in an emergent architecture of a single market for knowledge. Future research...

  20. Understanding foreign language teachers’ practical knowledge: What’s the role of prior language learning experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Arıoğul

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefsand thinking (Borg, 2003 which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin,1988 and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer,Verloop, and Beijard, 1999. This paper initially discusses how language teachers areinfluenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, priorteaching experience, and professional coursework in pre- and in-service education. Bydrawing its data from the author’s longitidunal study, it also presents the findings of a crosscasetheme emerged from the investigation of three English as a foreign language (EFLteachers’ prior language learning experiences. The paper also discusses how the participationin studies on teachers’ knowledge raises teachers’ own awareness while it informs theresearch.

  1. Drive Cost Reduction, Increase Innovation and Mitigate Risk with Advanced Knowledge Discovery Tools Designed to Unlock and Leverage Prior Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry is knowledge-intensive and includes a diverse number of stakeholders. Much of this knowledge is at risk as engineers, technicians and project professionals retire, leaving a widening skills and information gap. This knowledge is critical in an increasingly complex environment with information from past projects often buried in decades-old, non-integrated systems enterprise. Engineers can spend 40% or more of their time searching for answers across the enterprise instead of solving problems. The inability to access trusted industry knowledge results in increased risk and expense. Advanced knowledge discovery technologies slash research times by as much as 75% and accelerate innovation and problem solving by giving technical professionals access to the information they need, in the context of the problems they are trying to solve. Unlike traditional knowledge management approaches, knowledge discovery tools powered by semantic search technologies are adept at uncovering answers in unstructured data and require no tagging, organization or moving of data, meaning a smaller IT footprint and faster time-to-knowledge. This session will highlight best-in-class knowledge discovery technologies, content, and strategies to give nuclear industry organizations the ability to leverage the corpus of enterprise knowledge into the future. (author

  2. Correlation set analysis: detecting active regulators in disease populations using prior causal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chia-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of active causal regulators is a crucial problem in understanding mechanism of diseases or finding drug targets. Methods that infer causal regulators directly from primary data have been proposed and successfully validated in some cases. These methods necessarily require very large sample sizes or a mix of different data types. Recent studies have shown that prior biological knowledge can successfully boost a method's ability to find regulators. Results We present a simple data-driven method, Correlation Set Analysis (CSA, for comprehensively detecting active regulators in disease populations by integrating co-expression analysis and a specific type of literature-derived causal relationships. Instead of investigating the co-expression level between regulators and their regulatees, we focus on coherence of regulatees of a regulator. Using simulated datasets we show that our method performs very well at recovering even weak regulatory relationships with a low false discovery rate. Using three separate real biological datasets we were able to recover well known and as yet undescribed, active regulators for each disease population. The results are represented as a rank-ordered list of regulators, and reveals both single and higher-order regulatory relationships. Conclusions CSA is an intuitive data-driven way of selecting directed perturbation experiments that are relevant to a disease population of interest and represent a starting point for further investigation. Our findings demonstrate that combining co-expression analysis on regulatee sets with a literature-derived network can successfully identify causal regulators and help develop possible hypothesis to explain disease progression.

  3. Factors affecting learning of vector math from computer-based practice: Feedback complexity and prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. Heckler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In experiments including over 450 university-level students, we studied the effectiveness and time efficiency of several levels of feedback complexity in simple, computer-based training utilizing static question sequences. The learning domain was simple vector math, an essential skill in introductory physics. In a unique full factorial design, we studied the relative effects of “knowledge of correct response” feedback and “elaborated feedback” (i.e., a general explanation both separately and together. A number of other factors were analyzed, including training time, physics course grade, prior knowledge of vector math, and student beliefs about both their proficiency in and the importance of vector math. We hypothesize a simple model predicting how the effectiveness of feedback depends on prior knowledge, and the results confirm this knowledge-by-treatment interaction. Most notably, elaborated feedback is the most effective feedback, especially for students with low prior knowledge and low course grade. In contrast, knowledge of correct response feedback was less effective for low-performing students, and including both kinds of feedback did not significantly improve performance compared to elaborated feedback alone. Further, while elaborated feedback resulted in higher scores, the learning rate was at best only marginally higher because the training time was slightly longer. Training time data revealed that students spent significantly more time on the elaborated feedback after answering a training question incorrectly. Finally, we found that training improved student self-reported proficiency and that belief in the importance of the learned domain improved the effectiveness of training. Overall, we found that computer based training with static question sequences and immediate elaborated feedback in the form of simple and general explanations can be an effective way to improve student performance on a physics essential skill

  4. Analysis of Students’ Missed Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions that Stress the Importance of Prior General Chemistry Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Ealy

    2018-01-01

    A concern about students’ conceptual difficulties in organic chemistry prompted this study. It was found that prior knowledge from general chemistry was critical in organic chemistry, but what were some of the concepts that comprised that prior knowledge? Therefore an analysis of four years of organic chemistry quiz data was undertaken. Multiple general chemistry concepts were revealed that are essential prior knowledge in organic chemistry. The general chemistry concepts that were foun...

  5. Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    USS Port Royal hit a coral reef in order to provide an independent review of the damage the ship sustained. Our classified report discussed...Improved Weight Management Needed Prior to Further Investments, GAO-14-349SU (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 8, 2014); Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of...Early in the program, the Navy decided to forgo a number of traditional ship requirements in order to help reduce the costs and the weight and size

  6. Laevo: A Temporal Desktop Interface for Integrated Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven; Bardram, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies show that knowledge work is characterized by highly interlinked practices, including task, file and window management. However, existing personal information management tools primarily focus on a limited subset of knowledge work, forcing users to perform additional manual...... states and transitions of an activity. The life cycle is used to inform the design of Laevo, a temporal activity-centric desktop interface for personal knowledge work. Laevo allows users to structure work within dedicated workspaces, managed on a timeline. Through a centralized notification system which...... configuration work to integrate the different tools they use. In order to understand tool usage, we review literature on how users' activities are created and evolve over time as part of knowledge worker practices. From this we derive the activity life cycle, a conceptual framework describing the different...

  7. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  8. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes...... employed in the same company, constituted a supporting factor for the possibilities to integrate ergonomic knowledge into the engineering design processes. However, the integration activities remained discrete and only happened in some of the design projects. A major barrier was related to the business...... to the ergonomic ambitions of the clients. The ergonomists’ ability to navigate, act strategically, and compromise on ergonomic inputs is also important in relation to having an impact in the engineering design processes. Familiarity with the engineering design terminology and the setup of design projects seems...

  9. AutoSOME: a clustering method for identifying gene expression modules without prior knowledge of cluster number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper James B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clustering the information content of large high-dimensional gene expression datasets has widespread application in "omics" biology. Unfortunately, the underlying structure of these natural datasets is often fuzzy, and the computational identification of data clusters generally requires knowledge about cluster number and geometry. Results We integrated strategies from machine learning, cartography, and graph theory into a new informatics method for automatically clustering self-organizing map ensembles of high-dimensional data. Our new method, called AutoSOME, readily identifies discrete and fuzzy data clusters without prior knowledge of cluster number or structure in diverse datasets including whole genome microarray data. Visualization of AutoSOME output using network diagrams and differential heat maps reveals unexpected variation among well-characterized cancer cell lines. Co-expression analysis of data from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells using AutoSOME identifies >3400 up-regulated genes associated with pluripotency, and indicates that a recently identified protein-protein interaction network characterizing pluripotency was underestimated by a factor of four. Conclusions By effectively extracting important information from high-dimensional microarray data without prior knowledge or the need for data filtration, AutoSOME can yield systems-level insights from whole genome microarray expression studies. Due to its generality, this new method should also have practical utility for a variety of data-intensive applications, including the results of deep sequencing experiments. AutoSOME is available for download at http://jimcooperlab.mcdb.ucsb.edu/autosome.

  10. The Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation on Study Time Allocation and Free Recall: Investigating the Discrepancy Reduction Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); R.M.J.P. Rikers (Remy); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, the authors examined the influence of prior knowledge activation on information processing by means of a prior knowledge activation procedure adopted from the read–generate paradigm. On the basis of cue-target pairs, participants in the experimental groups generated two

  11. Effects of Prior Knowledge in Mathematics on Learner-Interface Interactions in a Learning-by-Teaching Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.; Dela Cruz, Cecilio; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the influence of prior knowledge in mathematics of students on learner-interface interactions in a learning-by-teaching intelligent tutoring system. One hundred thirty-nine high school students answered a pretest (i.e., the prior knowledge in mathematics) and a posttest. In between the pretest and posttest, they…

  12. Is an Illustration Always Worth Ten Thousand Words? Effects of Prior Knowledge, Learning Style and Multimedia Illustrations on Text Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerenshaw, Alison; Aidman, Eugene; Kidd, Garry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined comprehension in four groups of undergraduates under text only, multimedia, and two diagram conditions of text supplementation. Results indicated that effects of text supplementation are mediated by prior knowledge and learning style: multimedia appears more beneficial to surface learners with little prior knowledge and makes…

  13. Selective influence of prior allocentric knowledge on the kinesthetic learning of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, Matthieu; Vidal, Manuel; Berthoz, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Spatial cognition studies have described two main cognitive strategies involved in the memorization of traveled paths in human navigation. One of these strategies uses the action-based memory (egocentric) of the traveled route or paths, which involves kinesthetic memory, optic flow, and episodic memory, whereas the other strategy privileges a survey memory of cartographic type (allocentric). Most studies have dealt with these two strategies separately, but none has tried to show the interaction between them in spite of the fact that we commonly use a map to imagine our journey and then proceed using egocentric navigation. An interesting question is therefore: how does prior allocentric knowledge of the environment affect the egocentric, purely kinesthetic navigation processes involved in human navigation? We designed an experiment in which blindfolded subjects had first to walk and memorize a path with kinesthetic cues only. They had previously been shown a map of the path, which was either correct or distorted (consistent shrinking or growing). The latter transformations were studied in order to observe what influence a distorted prior knowledge could have on spatial mechanisms. After having completed the first learning travel along the path, they had to perform several spatial tasks during the testing phase: (1) pointing towards the origin and (2) to specific points encountered along the path, (3) a free locomotor reproduction, and (4) a drawing of the memorized path. The results showed that prior cartographic knowledge influences the paths drawn and the spatial inference capacity, whereas neither locomotor reproduction nor spatial updating was disturbed. Our results strongly support the notion that (1) there are two independent neural bases underlying these mechanisms: a map-like representation allowing allocentric spatial inferences, and a kinesthetic memory of self-motion in space; and (2) a common use of, or a switching between, these two strategies is

  14. Stochastic formulation of patient positioning using linac-mounted cone beam imaging with prior knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegele, W.; Loeschel, R.; Dobler, B.; Hesser, J.; Koelbl, O.; Zygmanski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, a novel stochastic framework for patient positioning based on linac-mounted CB projections is introduced. Based on this formulation, the most probable shifts and rotations of the patient are estimated, incorporating interfractional deformations of patient anatomy and other uncertainties associated with patient setup. Methods: The target position is assumed to be defined by and is stochastically determined from positions of various features such as anatomical landmarks or markers in CB projections, i.e., radiographs acquired with a CB-CT system. The patient positioning problem of finding the target location from CB projections is posed as an inverse problem with prior knowledge and is solved using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach. The prior knowledge is three-fold and includes the accuracy of an initial patient setup (such as in-room laser and skin marks), the plasticity of the body (relative shifts between target and features), and the feature detection error in CB projections (which may vary depending on specific detection algorithm and feature type). For this purpose, MAP estimators are derived and a procedure of using them in clinical practice is outlined. Furthermore, a rule of thumb is theoretically derived, relating basic parameters of the prior knowledge (initial setup accuracy, plasticity of the body, and number of features) and the parameters of CB data acquisition (number of projections and accuracy of feature detection) to the expected estimation accuracy. Results: MAP estimation can be applied to arbitrary features and detection algorithms. However, to experimentally demonstrate its applicability and to perform the validation of the algorithm, a water-equivalent, deformable phantom with features represented by six 1 mm chrome balls were utilized. These features were detected in the cone beam projections (XVI, Elekta Synergy) by a local threshold method for demonstration purposes only. The accuracy of estimation

  15. Top-down (Prior Knowledge) and Bottom-up (Perceptual Modality) Influences on Spontaneous Interpersonal Synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Christina L; Gorman, Jamie C; Hessler, Eric E

    2016-04-01

    Coordination with others is such a fundamental part of human activity that it can happen unintentionally. This unintentional coordination can manifest as synchronization and is observed in physical and human systems alike. We investigated the role of top-down influences (prior knowledge of the perceptual modality their partner is using) and bottom-up factors (perceptual modality combination) on spontaneous interpersonal synchronization. We examine this phenomena with respect to two different theoretical perspectives that differently emphasize top-down and bottom-up factors in interpersonal synchronization: joint-action/shared cognition theories and ecological-interactive theories. In an empirical study twelve dyads performed a finger oscillation task while attending to each other's movements through either visual, auditory, or visual and auditory perceptual modalities. Half of the participants were given prior knowledge of their partner's perceptual capabilities for coordinating across these different perceptual modality combinations. We found that the effect of top-down influence depends on the perceptual modality combination between two individuals. When people used the same perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in less synchronization and when people used different perceptual modalities, top-down influence resulted in more synchronization. Furthermore, persistence in the change in behavior as a result of having perceptual information about each other ('social memory') was stronger when this top-down influence was present.

  16. Challenges of knowledge integration in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoos Mohannak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to develop a better understanding of the challenges of knowledge integration (KI within the innovation process in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Using several case studies, this study investigates how knowledge integration may be managed within the context of innovation in SMEs. The research places particular focus on identifying the challenges of knowledge integration in SMEs in relation to three aspects of knowledge integration activities, namely knowledge identification, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge sharing. Four distinct tasks emerged in the knowledge integration process, namely team building capability, capturing tacit knowledge, role of knowledge management (KM systems, and technological systemic integration. The paper suggests that managing knowledge integration in SMEs can be best managed by focusing on these four tasks, which in turn will lead to innovation.

  17. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the

  18. Presentation planning using an integrated knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Yigal; Miller, Lawrence; Sondheimer, Norman

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of user interface research aimed at bringing together multiple input and output modes in a way that handles mixed mode input (commands, menus, forms, natural language), interacts with a diverse collection of underlying software utilities in a uniform way, and presents the results through a combination of output modes including natural language text, maps, charts and graphs. The system, Integrated Interfaces, derives much of its ability to interact uniformly with the user and the underlying services and to build its presentations, from the information present in a central knowledge base. This knowledge base integrates models of the application domain (Navy ships in the Pacific region, in the current demonstration version); the structure of visual displays and their graphical features; the underlying services (data bases and expert systems); and interface functions. The emphasis is on a presentation planner that uses the knowledge base to produce multi-modal output. There has been a flurry of recent work in user interface management systems. (Several recent examples are listed in the references). Existing work is characterized by an attempt to relieve the software designer of the burden of handcrafting an interface for each application. The work has generally focused on intelligently handling input. This paper deals with the other end of the pipeline - presentations.

  19. An Integrated Model of Knowledge Acquisition and Innovation: Examining the Mediation Effects of Knowledge Integration and Knowledge Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiyat, Samer E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to empirically investigate the relationships among the three vital knowledge management processes of acquisition, integration and application, and their effects on organisational innovation in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry in Jordan; a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) sector. Structural equation…

  20. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-09-01

    Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking. Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies.

  1. An Appraisal of Financial Authority Transfers' Prior-Knowledge in Adult Learning Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ettien

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at reviewing financial authority trainers prior knowledge in adult learners' learning assessment. For this aim, we tried to verify the fol-lowing research hypothesis: Ivorian financial authority trainers are able to assess adult learners correctly. Knowles andragogy principles are the comparison basis. We were positively impressed by trainers awareness of some of the principles of andragogy relative to their avoidance of summative assessment in favor of task-based assessment and problem-solving activities. However, the same trainers tendency to ignore the self-directedness nature of adult learners as well as their ability to engage in self-assessment made us believe that a sound training in adult learning assessment would help each of them become a better adult trainer.

  2. Prior-knowledge-based feedforward network simulation of true boiling point curve of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Chen, D Z

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical results and practical experience indicate that feedforward networks can approximate a wide class of functional relationships very well. This property is exploited in modeling chemical processes. Given finite and noisy training data, it is important to encode the prior knowledge in neural networks to improve the fit precision and the prediction ability of the model. In this paper, as to the three-layer feedforward networks and the monotonic constraint, the unconstrained method, Joerding's penalty function method, the interpolation method, and the constrained optimization method are analyzed first. Then two novel methods, the exponential weight method and the adaptive method, are proposed. These methods are applied in simulating the true boiling point curve of a crude oil with the condition of increasing monotonicity. The simulation experimental results show that the network models trained by the novel methods are good at approximating the actual process. Finally, all these methods are discussed and compared with each other.

  3. How Prior Knowledge and Colour Contrast Interfere Visual Search Processes in Novice Learners: An Eye Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Duygu; Altun, Arif; Mazman, Sacide Guzin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how prior content knowledge and prior exposure to microscope slides on the phases of mitosis effect students' visual search strategies and their ability to differentiate cells that are going through any phases of mitosis. Two different sets of microscope slide views were used for this purpose; with high and low colour…

  4. The Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation on Study Time Allocation and Free Recall: Investigating the Discrepancy Reduction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Rikers, Remy; Schmidt, Henk

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, the authors examined the influence of prior knowledge activation on information processing by means of a prior knowledge activation procedure adopted from the read–generate paradigm. On the basis of cue-target pairs, participants in the experimental groups generated two different sets of items before studying a relevant list. Subsequently, participants were informed that they had to study the items in the list and that they should try to remember as many items as po...

  5. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A striking feature of the knowledge management (KM literature is that the standard list of KM processes either subsumes or overlooks the process of knowledge seeking. Knowledge seeking is manifestly under-theorised, making the need to address this gap in KM theory and practice clear and urgent.Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking.Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies.Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing.Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies. 

  6. Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating indigenous games and knowledge into Physical Education: Implications for ... The aim of this study was to analyse indigenous Zulu games towards integrating indigenous game skill and knowledge ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Utilizing knowledge from prior plans in the evaluation of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy.Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients’ plans were adapted to a test patient’s anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate.Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V 75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48   ±   2.65% for the rectum and 4.90   ±   1.98% for the bladder. 19   ±   10 mm single leaf and 1.9   ±   0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6   ±   0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11   ±   0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6   ±   1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0   ±   0.7° of gantry-MLC lag.Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient’s anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified. A

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Prior Knowledge on Rain Gardens and Supports for Adopting Rain Gardens Using a Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyeon Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prior knowledge and visual evaluation on supports for rain garden installations. To achieve this objective, a survey was conducted to obtain prior knowledge of rain gardens, rain garden implementation support ratings, and visual evaluation of rain gardens in 100 visitors of three rain garden sites. Results of the analysis revealed that users’ visual evaluation of rain gardens played a role as a moderator in the relationship between prior knowledge and support for rain garden installations. In other words, education and publicity of rain gardens alone cannot increase support for rain gardens. However, if rain gardens are visually evaluated positively, the effects of education and publicity of rain gardens can be expected. Therefore, to successfully apply a rain garden policy in the future, basic consideration should be given to aesthetics in order to meet visitors’ visual expectations prior to education and publicity of rain gardens.

  10. Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Wang, Yuh-Chao; Tai, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differential impacts of an inquiry-based instruction on conceptual changes across levels of prior knowledge and reading ability. The instrument emphasized four simultaneously important components: conceptual knowledge, reading ability, attitude toward science, and learning environment. Although the learning patterns and…

  11. Building on prior knowledge: schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-10-01

    mechanisms underlying acquisition of new knowledge that can be integrated into preexisting conceptual schemas and may indicate how relevant this process is for study success.

  12. Interdisciplinarity to Integrate Knowledge in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Abreu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented at the 2nd International Conference of the Portuguese Society for Engineering Education and aims to describe an interdisciplinarity teaching experiment involving three subjects of the scientific area of Mathematics and a fourth one in the area of Management. Using only one project, the students developed skills, in an integrated way, in the fields of the subjects involved. The structure of the project is described in detail. It is shown how the knowledge obtained in the different subjects is needed and how it connects together to answer the proposed challenges. We report the progress of the students’ work, the main difficulties and the skills developed during this process. We conclude with a reflection on the main problems and gains that may arise in similar projects.

  13. Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Johan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August). Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format. Round table session presented at the Junior Researchers pre-conference of the biannual meeting of the European

  14. A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

  15. GO-PCA: An Unsupervised Method to Explore Gene Expression Data Using Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide expression profiling is a widely used approach for characterizing heterogeneous populations of cells, tissues, biopsies, or other biological specimen. The exploratory analysis of such data typically relies on generic unsupervised methods, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering. However, generic methods fail to exploit prior knowledge about the molecular functions of genes. Here, I introduce GO-PCA, an unsupervised method that combines PCA with nonparametric GO enrichment analysis, in order to systematically search for sets of genes that are both strongly correlated and closely functionally related. These gene sets are then used to automatically generate expression signatures with functional labels, which collectively aim to provide a readily interpretable representation of biologically relevant similarities and differences. The robustness of the results obtained can be assessed by bootstrapping. I first applied GO-PCA to datasets containing diverse hematopoietic cell types from human and mouse, respectively. In both cases, GO-PCA generated a small number of signatures that represented the majority of lineages present, and whose labels reflected their respective biological characteristics. I then applied GO-PCA to human glioblastoma (GBM) data, and recovered signatures associated with four out of five previously defined GBM subtypes. My results demonstrate that GO-PCA is a powerful and versatile exploratory method that reduces an expression matrix containing thousands of genes to a much smaller set of interpretable signatures. In this way, GO-PCA aims to facilitate hypothesis generation, design of further analyses, and functional comparisons across datasets.

  16. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia Chareka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given by children in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and with improving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  17. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia CHAREKA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given bychildren in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and withimproving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  18. Knowledge integration, teamwork and performance in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Mirjam; Lippenberger, Corinna; Becker, Sonja; Reichler, Lars; Müller, Christian; Zimmermann, Linda; Rundel, Manfred; Baumeister, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge integration is the process of building shared mental models. The integration of the diverse knowledge of the health professions in shared mental models is a precondition for effective teamwork and team performance. As it is known that different groups of health care professionals often tend to work in isolation, the authors compared the perceptions of knowledge integration. It can be expected that based on this isolation, knowledge integration is assessed differently. The purpose of this paper is to test these differences in the perception of knowledge integration between the professional groups and to identify to what extent knowledge integration predicts perceptions of teamwork and team performance and to determine if teamwork has a mediating effect. The study is a multi-center cross-sectional study with a descriptive-explorative design. Data were collected by means of a staff questionnaire for all health care professionals working in the rehabilitation clinics. The results showed that there are significant differences in knowledge integration within interprofessional health care teams. Furthermore, it could be shown that knowledge integration is significantly related to patient-centered teamwork as well as to team performance. Mediation analysis revealed partial mediation of the effect of knowledge integration on team performance through teamwork. PRACTICAL/IMPLICATIONS: In practice, the results of the study provide a valuable starting point for team development interventions. This is the first study that explored knowledge integration in medical rehabilitation teams and its relation to patient-centered teamwork and team performance.

  19. Influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on pacing strategies during game-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Walker, Ben; Walker, Shane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during game-based activities. Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition. These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.

  20. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  1. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Influence of Prior Knowledge Questions on Pupils’ Performance in Reading Comprehension in Primary Schools in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Onyi Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the influence of prior knowledge questions on pupils’ performance in reading comprehension in primary schools in Kaduna, Nigeria. Two schools were used for the study. Ungwar Dosa primary school was used as the experimental school while Ungwar Rimi primary school was used as the control school. Thirty (30 primary five pupils from each of the two schools were used for the study. A total of sixty pupils were used for the study. A pre-test was administered on both groups of pupils before the commencement of teaching. A post-test was administered after six weeks of teaching. Data was analysed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings revealed significant difference in the performance of pupils taught reading comprehension using prior knowledge questions. Based on the findings, teachers are encouraged among others, to use prior knowledge questions to motivate and stimulate pupils to use their relevant background knowledge to interpret and understand new information in their reading comprehension texts. Curriculum planners and textbook writers are encouraged to include prior knowledge questions as part of the activities pupils should be exposed to during reading comprehension lessons.

  3. Comprehension challenges in the fourth grade: The roles of text cohesion, text genre, and readers’ prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNamara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined young readers’ comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science, text cohesion (high, low, and readers’ abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge. The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the fourth grade slump. Children in grade 4 read four texts, including one high and one low cohesion text from each genre. Comprehension of each text was assessed with 12 multiple-choice questions and free and cued recall. Comprehension was enhanced by increased knowledge: high knowledge readers showed better comprehension than low knowledge readers and narratives were comprehended better than science texts. Interactions between readers’ knowledge levels and text characteristics indicated that the children showed larger effects of knowledge for science than for narrative texts, and those with more knowledge better understood the low cohesion, narrative texts, showing a reverse cohesion effect. Decoding skill benefited comprehension, but effects of text genre and cohesion depended less on decoding skill than prior knowledge. Overall, the study indicates that the fourth grade slump is at least partially attributable to the emergence of complex dependencies between the nature of the text and the reader’s prior knowledge. The results also suggested that simply adding cohesion cues, and not explanatory information, is not likely to be sufficient for young readers as an approach to improving comprehension of challenging texts.

  4. Comprehension challenges in the fourth grade: The roles of text cohesion, text genre, and readers’ prior knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined young readers’ comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science, text cohesion (high, low, and readers’ abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge. The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the fourth grade slump. Children in grade 4 read four texts, including one high and one low cohesion text from each genre. Comprehension of each text was assessed with 12 multiple-choice questions and free and cued recall. Comprehension was enhanced by increased knowledge: high knowledge readers showed bettercomprehension than low knowledge readers and narratives were comprehended better than science texts. Interactions between readers’ knowledge levels and text characteristics indicated that thechildren showed larger effects of knowledge for science than for narrative texts, and those with more knowledge better understood the low cohesion, narrative texts, showing a reverse cohesion effect.Decoding skill benefited comprehension, but effects of text genre and cohesion depended less on decoding skill than prior knowledge. Overall, the study indicates that the fourth grade slump is at leastpartially attributable to the emergence of complex dependencies between the nature of the text and the reader’s prior knowledge. The results also suggested that simply adding cohesion cues, and notexplanatory information, is not likely to be sufficient for young readers as an approach to improving comprehension of challenging texts.

  5. Intelligent Assistants for Distributed Knowledge Acquisition, Integration, Validation, and Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tecuci, Gheorghe; Boicu, Mihai

    2008-01-01

    This research has developed an integrated set of tools, called Disciple 2008 learning agent shell, for continuous acquisition of knowledge directly from subject matter experts, and for the integration...

  6. Prediction of microwave absorption properties of tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker radar absorbing material without prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jiang-Fan; Song, Zhong-Guo; Xi, Xiao-Li

    2017-07-01

    The radar absorbing material (RAM) containing a tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) has been proved to have good efficiency of microwave absorption. However, the available theoretical models, which are intended to predict the microwave absorbing properties of such an interesting composite, still cannot work well without some prior knowledge, like the measured effective electromagnetic parameters of the prepared T-ZnOw composite. Hence, we propose a novel predictive method here to calculate the reflectivity of T-ZnOw RAM without prior knowledge. In this method, the absorbing ability of this kind of material is divided into three main aspects: the unstructured background, the conductive network, and the nanostructured particle. Then, the attenuation properties of these three parts are represented, respectively, by three different approaches: the equivalent spherical particle and the static strong fluctuation theory, the equivalent circuit model obtained from the complex impedance spectra technology, and the combination of four different microscopic electromagnetic responses. The operational calculation scheme can be obtained by integrating these three absorption effects into the existing theoretical attenuation model. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of a T-ZnON/SiO2 composite in the range of 8-14 GHz shows that the proposed scheme can predict the microwave absorption properties of the T-ZnOw RAM. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of these three mechanisms indicates that, on the one hand, the background plays a dominant role in determining the real part of the effective permittivity of the T-ZnOw composite while the network and the particle are the decisive factors of its material loss; on the other hand, an zero-phase impedance, i.e., a pure resistance, with appropriate resonance characteristic might be a rational physical description of the attenuation property of the conductive network, but it is difficult to realize

  7. "She Has to Drink Blood of the Snake": Culture and Prior Knowledge in Science|Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Leah A.; Reeve, Suzanne; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this analysis, we argue that science education should attend more deeply to youths' cultural resources and practices (e.g. material, social, and intellectual). Inherent in our argument is a call for revisiting conceptions of "prior knowledge" to theorize how people make sense of the complex ecologies of experience, ideas, and cultural…

  8. The Effectiveness of Worked Examples Associated with Presentation Format and Prior Knowledge: A Web-Based Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether presentation format and prior knowledge affect the effectiveness of worked examples. The experiment was conducted through a specially designed online instrument. A 2X2X3 factorial before-and-after design was conducted. Three-way ANOVA was employed for data analysis. The result showed first, that prior…

  9. The Effect of Prior Knowledge and Feedback Type Design on Student Achievement and Satisfaction in Introductory Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Donald P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of student prior knowledge and feedback type on student achievement and satisfaction in an introductory managerial accounting course using computer-based formative assessment tools. The study involved a redesign of the existing Job Order Costing unit using the ADDIE model of instructional design. The…

  10. When Relationships Depicted Diagrammatically Conflict with Prior Knowledge: An Investigation of Students' Interpretations of Evolutionary Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Laura R.; Catley, Kefyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Science is an important domain for investigating students' responses to information that contradicts their prior knowledge. In previous studies of this topic, this information was communicated verbally. The present research used diagrams, specifically trees (cladograms) depicting evolutionary relationships among taxa. Effects of college…

  11. Prior knowledge about spatial pattern affects patch assessment rather than movement between patches in tactile-feeding Mallard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.H.G.; Nolet, B.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    1. Heterogeneity in food abundance allows a forager to concentrate foraging effort in patches that are rich in food. This might be problematic when food is cryptic, as the content of patches is unknown prior to foraging. In such case knowledge about the spatial pattern in the distribution of food

  12. THE MEASUREMENT, TREATMENT, AND IMPACT OF SPECTRAL COVARIANCE AND BAYESIAN PRIORS IN INTEGRAL -FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, Johnny P. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brandt, Timothy D. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The recovery of an exoplanet’s atmospheric parameters from its spectrum requires accurate knowledge of the spectral errors and covariances. Unfortunately, the complex image processing used in high-contrast integral-field spectrograph (IFS) observations generally produces spectral covariances that are poorly understood and often ignored. In this work, we show how to measure the spectral errors and covariances and include them self-consistently in parameter retrievals. By combining model exoplanet spectra with a realistic noise model generated from the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) early science data, we show that ignoring spectral covariance in high-contrast IFS data can both bias inferred parameters and lead to unreliable confidence regions on those parameters. This problem is made worse by the common practice of scaling the χ {sup 2} per degree of freedom to unity; the input parameters then fall outside the 95% confidence regions in as many as ∼80% of noise realizations. The biases we observe can approach the typical levels of precision achieved in high-contrast spectroscopy. Accounting for realistic priors in fully Bayesian retrievals can also have a significant impact on the inferred parameters. Plausible priors on effective temperature and surface gravity can vary by an order of magnitude across the confidence regions appropriate for objects with weak age constraints; priors for objects with good age constraints are dominated by modeling uncertainties. Our methods are directly applicable to existing high-contrast IFSs including GPI and SPHERE, as well as upcoming instruments like CHARIS and, ultimately, WFIRST-AFTA.

  13. An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Steinheider, B.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and

  14. Development of a new prior knowledge based image reconstruction algorithm for the cone-beam-CT in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaegler, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of cancer in radiation therapy is achievable today by techniques that enable highly conformal dose distributions and steep dose gradients. In order to avoid mistreatment, these irradiation techniques have necessitated enhanced patient localization techniques. With an integrated x-ray tube at modern linear accelerators kV-projections can be acquired over a sufficiently large angular space and can be reconstructed to a volumetric image data set from the current situation of the patient prior to irradiation. The so-called Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) allows a precise verification of patient positioning as well as adaptive radiotherapy. The benefits of an improved patient positioning due to a daily performed CBCT's is contrary to an increased and not negligible radiation exposure of the patient. In order to decrease the radiation exposure, substantial research effort is focused on various dose reduction strategies. Prominent strategies are the decrease of the charge per projection, the reduction of the number of projections as well as the reduction of the acquisition space. Unfortunately, these acquisition schemes lead to images with degraded quality with the widely used Feldkamp-Davis-Kress image reconstruction algorithm. More sophisticated image reconstruction techniques can deal with these dose-reduction strategies without degrading the image quality. A frequently investigated method is the image reconstruction by minimizing the total variation (TV), which is also known as Compressed Sensing (CS). A Compressed Sensing-based reconstruction framework that includes prior images into the reconstruction algorithm is the Prior-Image-Constrained- Compressed-Sensing algorithm (PICCS). The images reconstructed by PICCS outperform the reconstruction results of the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm (FDK) based method if only a small number of projections are available. However, a drawback of PICCS is that major deviations between prior image data sets and the

  15. Knowledge-sharing Behavior and Post-acquisition Integration Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    AbstractNot achieving the anticipated synergy effects in the post-acquisition integration context is a serious causefor the high acquisition failure rate. While existing studies on failures of acquisitions exist fromeconomics, finance, strategy, organization theory, and human resources management......, this paper appliesinsights from the knowledge-sharing literature. The paper establishes a conceptual link between obstaclesin the post-acquisition integration processes and individual knowledge-sharing behavior as related toknowledge transmitters and knowledge receivers. We argue that such an angle offers...... important insights toexplaining the high failure rate in acquisitions.Descriptors: post-acquisition integration, acquisition failure, individual knowledge-sharing behavior...

  16. Lung cancer gene expression database analysis incorporating prior knowledge with support vector machine-based classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable and precise classification is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Gene expression microarrays have provided the high-throughput platform to discover genomic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Rational use of the available bioinformation can not only effectively remove or suppress noise in gene chips, but also avoid one-sided results of separate experiment. However, only some studies have been aware of the importance of prior information in cancer classification. Methods Together with the application of support vector machine as the discriminant approach, we proposed one modified method that incorporated prior knowledge into cancer classification based on gene expression data to improve accuracy. A public well-known dataset, Malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma gene expression database, was used in this study. Prior knowledge is viewed here as a means of directing the classifier using known lung adenocarcinoma related genes. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results The modified method performed better after incorporating prior knowledge. Accuracy of the modified method improved from 98.86% to 100% in training set and from 98.51% to 99.06% in test set. The standard deviations of the modified method decreased from 0.26% to 0 in training set and from 3.04% to 2.10% in test set. Conclusion The method that incorporates prior knowledge into discriminant analysis could effectively improve the capacity and reduce the impact of noise. This idea may have good future not only in practice but also in methodology.

  17. Uncovering and Informing Preservice Teachers' Prior Knowledge about Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Charlotte Anne; Leko, Melinda Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored 30 preservice teachers' knowledge on issues related to poverty. In an open-ended questionnaire, preservice teachers' perceptions of poverty and how teachers should respond to students from poverty were explored. Results indicated that preservice teachers' knowledge was nonspecific and lacked focus on the relationship among…

  18. Integrating technologies for effective knowledge management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugrand, F.S.; Curtis, T.A. [Public Petroleum Data Model, PPDM Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    In order to succeed in today's business environment, effective knowledge management strategies are needed along with effective tools to solve real business problems. Relational databases provide accessible and practical tools that can be used to manage corporate knowledge assets. However, technology is growing so rapidly that it is difficult and too expensive for individual corporations to pursue each line of development independently. Collaborative efforts are needed to improve access to shared knowledge. The PPDM Association is an international not for profit standards body that is working collaboratively with the petroleum exploration and production industry to develop standards for managing data and knowledge, spatially enabling data, standardizing data content and data exchange. The PPDM Association provides a vendor-neutral environment for development, technical support and a methodology for designing, developing and publishing technical deliverables.

  19. From Knowledge Theory to Management Practice: Towards an Integrated Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minsoo; Holden, Tony; Schmidt, Ruth A.

    2001-01-01

    Critically contrasts the three main schools of thought on knowledge and assesses the resulting implications for knowledge management. Presents a conceptual model to integrate theoretical and practical themes to serve as a framework for developing a future research agenda for the development of knowledge management business tools and applications.…

  20. Theoretical implementation of prior knowledge in the design of a multi-scale prosthesis satisfaction questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Tim; Beckerle, Philipp; Preller, Julia; Vogt, Joachim; Christ, Oliver

    2016-12-19

    In product development for lower limb prosthetic devices, a set of special criteria needs to be met. Prosthetic devices have a direct impact on the rehabilitation process after an amputation with both perceived technological and psychological aspects playing an important role. However, available psychometric questionnaires fail to consider the important links between these two dimensions. In this article a probabilistic latent trait model is proposed with seven technical and psychological factors which measure satisfaction with the prosthesis. The results of a first study are used to determine the basic parameters of the statistical model. These distributions represent hypotheses about factor loadings between manifest items and latent factors of the proposed psychometric questionnaire. A study was conducted and analyzed to form hypotheses for the prior distributions of the questionnaire's measurement model. An expert agreement study conducted on 22 experts was used to determine the prior distribution of item-factor loadings in the model. Model parameters that had to be specified as part of the measurement model were informed prior distributions on the item-factor loadings. For the current 70 items in the questionnaire, each factor loading was set to represent the certainty with which experts had assigned the items to their respective factors. Considering only the measurement model and not the structural model of the questionnaire, 70 out of 217 informed prior distributions on parameters were set. The use of preliminary studies to set prior distributions in latent trait models, while being a relatively new approach in psychological research, provides helpful information towards the design of a seven factor questionnaire that means to identify relations between technical and psychological factors in prosthetic product design and rehabilitation medicine.

  1. The Influence of Instruction, Prior Knowledge, and Values on Climate Change Risk Perception among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Osman; McNeal, Karen S.; Gold, Anne U.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Harris, Sara

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated influences on the climate change risk perceptions of undergraduate students in an introductory Earth Science course. For this sample, domain-specific content knowledge about climate change was a significant predictor of students' risk perception of climate change while cultural worldviews (individualism, hierarchy) and political…

  2. Connecting Learning: Brain-Based Strategies for Linking Prior Knowledge in the Library Media Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Kathi L.

    2005-01-01

    The brain is a complex organ and learning is a complex process. While there is not complete agreement among researchers about brain-based learning and its direct connection to neuroscience, knowledge about the brain as well as the examination of cognitive psychology, anthropology, professional experience, and educational research can provide…

  3. Learners' strategies for reconstructing cognitive frameworks and navigating conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Annette M.

    Problem. Science teachers are charged with preparing students to become scientifically literate individuals. Teachers are given curriculum that specifies the knowledge that students should come away with; however, they are not necessarily aware of the knowledge with which the student arrives or how best to help them navigate between the two knowledge states. Educators must be aware, not only of where their students are conceptually, but how their students move from their prior knowledge and naive theories, to scientifically acceptable theories. The understanding of how students navigate this course has the potential to revolutionize educational practices. Methods. This study explored how five 9th grade biology students reconstructed their cognitive frameworks and navigated conceptual change from prior conception to consensual genetics knowledge. The research questions investigated were: (1) how do students in the process of changing their naive science theories to accepted science theories describe their journey from prior knowledge to current conception, and (2) what are the methods that students utilize to bridge the gap between alternate and consensual science conceptions to effect conceptual change. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. In depth, semi-structured interviews formed the primary data for probing the context and details of students' conceptual change experience. Primary interview data was coded by thematic analysis. Results and discussion. This study revealed information about students' perceived roles in learning, the role of articulation in the conceptual change process, and ways in which a community of learners aids conceptual change. It was ascertained that students see their role in learning primarily as repeating information until they could add that information to their knowledge. Students are more likely to consider challenges to their conceptual frameworks and be more motivated to become active

  4. Collective Problem-Solving: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Skill, and Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Geifman

    2015-12-01

    In a controlled experiment, 632 participants in 47 markets traded a solution to a complex problem, a naïve framing of the knapsack problem. Contrary to earlier research, we find that technical and functional self-efficacy perceptions are indistinguishable, probably due to a focus on outcomes rather than on resources. Further, results demonstrate that prediction markets are an effective collective problem-solving platform that correctly aggregates individual knowledge and is resilient to traders’ self-efficacy.

  5. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriculture –based livelihoods, demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. .... (CGIAR) shows the vital role of Agricultural development in Rwanda's ... Network, Rwanda National Backbone Project, Regional Communication.

  6. Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk Management in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 mars 2008 ... Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk Management in support of Community Based Adaptation. Traditionally, African farmers have used indigenous knowledge to understand weather and climate patterns and make decisions about crop and irrigation cycles. However, increased variability ...

  7. Fundamentals of microfluidics for high school students with no prior knowledge of fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vishal; Peck, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Three microfluidics-based laboratory exercises were developed and implemented in a high school science classroom setting. The first exercise demonstrated ways in which flows are characterized, including viscosity, turbulence, shear stress, reversibility, compressibility, and hydrodynamic resistance. Students characterized flows in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices in the other two exercises, where they observed the mixing characteristics of laminar flows, and conservation of volumetric flow rate for incompressible flows. In surveys, the students self-reported increased knowledge of microfluidics, and an improved attitude toward science and nanotechnology.

  8. Biomarker Gene Signature Discovery Integrating Network Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fröhlich

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of prognostic and diagnostic biomarker gene signatures for diseases, such as cancer, is seen as a major step towards a better personalized medicine. During the last decade various methods, mainly coming from the machine learning or statistical domain, have been proposed for that purpose. However, one important obstacle for making gene signatures a standard tool in clinical diagnosis is the typical low reproducibility of these signatures combined with the difficulty to achieve a clear biological interpretation. For that purpose in the last years there has been a growing interest in approaches that try to integrate information from molecular interaction networks. Here we review the current state of research in this field by giving an overview about so-far proposed approaches.

  9. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  10. Integrating knowledge based functionality in commercial hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M L; Ganslandt, T; Eich, H P; Lang, K; Ohmann, C; Prokosch, H U

    2000-01-01

    Successful integration of knowledge-based functions in the electronic patient record depends on direct and context-sensitive accessibility and availability to clinicians and must suit their workflow. In this paper we describe an exemplary integration of an existing standalone scoring system for acute abdominal pain into two different commercial hospital information systems using Java/Corba technolgy.

  11. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  12. Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge (PPK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions (“integrated” vs. “separated”), participants individually worked on computer-based learning environments addressing the same topic: use and handling of multiple external representations, a central issue in mathematics. We experimentally varied whether PPK aspects and PCK aspects were treated integrated or apart from one another. As expected, the integrated condition led to greater application of pedagogical/psychological aspects and an increase in applying both knowledge types simultaneously compared to the separated condition. Overall, our findings indicate beneficial effects of an integrated design in teacher education. PMID:25191300

  13. Approaching multidimensional forms of knowledge through Personal Meaning Mapping in science integrating teaching outside the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke; Bolling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    knowledge dimensions is important, especially in science teaching outside the classroom, where “hands-on” approaches and experiments are often part of teaching and require procedural knowledge, among other things. Therefore, this study investigates PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions......Current research points to Personal Meaning Mapping (PMM) as a method useful in investigating students’ prior and current science knowledge. However, studies investigating PMM as a method for exploring specific knowledge dimensions are lacking. Ensuring that students are able to access specific...... in formal science education integrating teaching outside the classroom. We applied a case study design involving two schools and four sixth-grade classes. Data were collected from six students in each class who constructed personal meaning maps and were interviewed immediately after natural science...

  14. Absolute Thickness Measurements on Coatings Without Prior Knowledge of Material Properties Using Terahertz Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Harder, Bryan; Zhu, Dongming; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of a novel noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement method for measuring thickness in dielectric coating systems having either dielectric or conductive substrate materials. The method does not require knowledge of the velocity of terahertz waves in the coating material. The dielectric coatings ranged from approximately 300 to 1400 m in thickness. First, the terahertz method was validated on a bulk dielectric sample to determine its ability to precisely measure thickness and density variation. Then, the method was studied on simulated coating systems. One simulated coating consisted of layered thin paper samples of varying thicknesses on a ceramic substrate. Another simulated coating system consisted of adhesive-backed Teflon adhered to conducting and dielectric substrates. Alumina samples that were coated with a ceramic adhesive layer were also investigated. Finally, the method was studied for thickness measurement of actual thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on ceramic substrates. The unique aspects and limitations of this method for thickness measurements are discussed.

  15. Integrating knowledge and knowledge processes: A critical incident study of product development projects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Various scholars have argued that knowledge processes in organizations are integrally linked in practice. The extant literature though treats them separately and thereby disregards the interactions and tensions between them. A result of this way of studying knowledge processes is that little is

  16. Learning knowledge as an integral part of competencies in higher education: Effects on students' knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bommel, Marijke; Boshuizen, Els; Kwakman, Kitty

    2011-01-01

    Van Bommel, M., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Kwakman, K. (2010, 25-27 August). Learning knowledge as an integral part of competencies in higher education: Effects on students' knowledge. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  17. The effects of prior knowledge on study-time allocation and free recall: investigating the discrepancy reduction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the influence of prior knowledge activation on information processing by means of a prior knowledge activation procedure adopted from the read-generate paradigm. On the basis of cue-target pairs, participants in the experimental groups generated two different sets of items before studying a relevant list. Subsequently, participants were informed that they had to study the items in the list and that they should try to remember as many items as possible. The authors assessed the processing time allocated to the items in the list and free recall of those items. The results revealed that the experimental groups spent less time on items that had already been activated. In addition, the experimental groups outperformed the control group in overall free recall and in free recall of the activated items. Between-group comparisons did not demonstrate significant effects with respect to the processing time and free recall of nonactivated items. The authors interpreted these results in terms of the discrepancy reduction model of regulating the amount of processing time allocated to different parts of the list.

  18. Learning Using Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Students' Comprehension, Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Status of a Biotechnological Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2010-05-01

    The importance of biotechnology education at the high-school level has been recognized in a number of international curriculum frameworks around the world. One of the most problematic issues in learning biotechnology has been found to be the biotechnological methods involved. Here, we examine the unique contribution of an animation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in promoting conceptual learning of the biotechnological method among 12th-grade biology majors. All of the students learned about the PCR using still images ( n = 83) or the animation ( n = 90). A significant advantage to the animation treatment was identified following learning. Students’ prior content knowledge was found to be an important factor for students who learned PCR using still images, serving as an obstacle to learning the PCR method in the case of low prior knowledge. Through analysing students’ discourse, using the framework of the conceptual status analysis, we found that students who learned about PCR using still images faced difficulties in understanding some mechanistic aspects of the method. On the other hand, using the animation gave the students an advantage in understanding those aspects.

  19. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  20. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  1. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1 using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2 using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  2. An integrative approach to knowledge transfer and integration: Spanning boundaries through objects, people and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, M.; Rijnveld, M.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge transfer and integration is the main challenge in many knowledge management projects. This challenge follows from the observation that it is difficult to determine how and what knowledge may transfer from one person to another, from one team to another and from one network or organization

  3. Semantic Health Knowledge Graph: Semantic Integration of Heterogeneous Medical Knowledge and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of healthcare information, there has been a tremendous amount of heterogeneous textual medical knowledge (TMK, which plays an essential role in healthcare information systems. Existing works for integrating and utilizing the TMK mainly focus on straightforward connections establishment and pay less attention to make computers interpret and retrieve knowledge correctly and quickly. In this paper, we explore a novel model to organize and integrate the TMK into conceptual graphs. We then employ a framework to automatically retrieve knowledge in knowledge graphs with a high precision. In order to perform reasonable inference on knowledge graphs, we propose a contextual inference pruning algorithm to achieve efficient chain inference. Our algorithm achieves a better inference result with precision and recall of 92% and 96%, respectively, which can avoid most of the meaningless inferences. In addition, we implement two prototypes and provide services, and the results show our approach is practical and effective.

  4. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...... and goals and incorporate knowledge about redundancy and reliability data. Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used build knowledge bases representing plant goals and functions and has been applied for fault diagnosis and supervisory control but currently it does not take into account structural information...

  5. The Role of Integrated Knowledge Translation in Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-04-01

    There is widespread recognition across the full range of applied research disciplines, including health and social services, about the challenges of integrating scientifically derived research evidence into policy and/or practice decisions. These "disconnects" or "knowledge-practice gaps" between research production and use have spawned a new research field, most commonly known as either "implementation science" or "knowledge translation." The present paper will review key concepts in this area, with a particular focus on "integrated knowledge translation" (IKT)-which focuses on researcher-knowledge user partnership-in the area of mental health and prevention of violence against women and children using case examples from completed and ongoing work. A key distinction is made between the practice of KT (disseminating, communicating, etc.), and the science of KT, i.e., research regarding effective KT approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance of IKT for mental health intervention research with children and adolescents.

  6. Indicators and measurement tools for health system integration: a knowledge synthesis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D; Suter, Esther; da Silva Lima, Maria Alice Dias; Van Vliet-Brown, Cheryl

    2015-07-29

    Health system integration is a key component of health system reform with the goal of improving outcomes for patients, providers, and the health system. Although health systems continue to strive for better integration, current delivery of health services continues to be fragmented. A key gap in the literature is the lack of information on what successful integration looks like and how to measure achievement towards an integrated system. This multi-site study protocol builds on a prior knowledge synthesis completed by two of the primary investigators which identified 10 key principles that collectively support health system integration. The aim is to answer two research questions: What are appropriate indicators for each of the 10 key integration principles developed in our previous knowledge synthesis and what measurement tools are used to measure these indicators? To enhance generalizability of the findings, a partnership between Canada and Brazil was created as health system integration is a priority in both countries and they share similar contexts. This knowledge synthesis will follow an iterative scoping review process with emerging information from knowledge-user engagement leading to the refinement of research questions and study selection. This paper describes the methods for each phase of the study. Research questions were developed with stakeholder input. Indicator identification and prioritization will utilize a modified Delphi method and patient/user focus groups. Based on priority indicators, a search of the literature will be completed and studies screened for inclusion. Quality appraisal of relevant studies will be completed prior to data extraction. Results will be used to develop recommendations and key messages to be presented through integrated and end-of-grant knowledge translation strategies with researchers and knowledge-users from the three jurisdictions. This project will directly benefit policy and decision-makers by providing an easy

  7. A Sociology of Knowledge Approach to European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Scholars are deeply involved in the process of European integration, but we lack systematic understanding of this involvement. On the one hand, scholars, academic ideas and ideologies shape European integration and policies (e.g. the Economic and Monetary Union and the free movement of people......). On the other hand, EU institutions, policies and practitioners produce particular forms of knowledge (e.g. the Eurobarometer and benchmarking of national performances) that inform social scientific choices of theories, methods and research topics. Drawing on the new sociology of knowledge as well as Science...

  8. The Influence of Age-Related Differences in Prior Knowledge and Attentional Refreshing Opportunities on Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Anglin, Julia

    2015-09-01

    The assumption that working memory (WM) is embedded within long-term memory suggests that the effectiveness of switching information between activated states in WM (i.e., attentional refreshing) may depend on whether that information is semantically relevant. Given that older adults often have greater general knowledge than younger adults, age-related deficits in episodic memory (EM) could be ameliorated by studying information that has existing semantic representations compared with unknown information. Younger and older adults completed a modified operation span task that varied the number of refreshing opportunities. The memoranda used were equally known to younger and older adults (neutral words; e.g., father), better known to older adults than younger adults (dated words; e.g., mirth), or unknown to both groups (unknown words; e.g., cobot). Results for immediate and delayed recall indicated an age-related improvement for dated memoranda and no age difference for unknown memoranda. Furthermore, refreshing opportunities predicted delayed recall of neutral memoranda more strongly for younger adults than older adults, whereas older adults' recall advantage for dated memoranda was explained by their prior knowledge and not refreshing opportunities. The results suggest that older adults' EM deficits could potentially be ameliorated by incorporating their superior knowledge to supplement relatively ineffective attentional refreshing in WM. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An integrative model of knowledge management and team work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Human Resource Management relevance in Knowledge Management has been studied in academic literature mostly from the point of view of recruitment, selection, wages and salaries and career development processes. We have found few publications that are focused in the behaviour of the group of people who generate, share and transfer that knowledge while working in a team. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework that describes the relation between knowledge management and team work,, integrating Nonaka and Takeuchi, Leonard- Barton and Heisig framework proposals, as well as to outline some reflexions for further researches.

  10. Integrating external biological knowledge in the construction of regulatory networks from time-series expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Kenneth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inference about regulatory networks from high-throughput genomics data is of great interest in systems biology. We present a Bayesian approach to infer gene regulatory networks from time series expression data by integrating various types of biological knowledge. Results We formulate network construction as a series of variable selection problems and use linear regression to model the data. Our method summarizes additional data sources with an informative prior probability distribution over candidate regression models. We extend the Bayesian model averaging (BMA variable selection method to select regulators in the regression framework. We summarize the external biological knowledge by an informative prior probability distribution over the candidate regression models. Conclusions We demonstrate our method on simulated data and a set of time-series microarray experiments measuring the effect of a drug perturbation on gene expression levels, and show that it outperforms leading regression-based methods in the literature.

  11. Using prior risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions: lessons learnt from a tunneling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van de Linde, Wim; Kaalberg, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the investigation into the use of these models in a real case study project. The use of the models is challenging given the need to provide information on risks that usually are both project and context dependent. The latter is of particular concern in underground construction projects. Tunnel risks are the consequences of interactions between site- and project-specific factors. Large variations and uncertainties in ground conditions as well as project singularities give rise to particular risk factors with very specific impacts. These circumstances mean that existing risk information, gathered from previous projects, is extremely difficult to use in other projects. This article considers these issues and addresses the extent to which prior risk-related knowledge, in the form of causal models, as the models developed for the investigation, can be used to provide useful risk information for the case study project. The identification and characterization of the causes and conditions that lead to failures and their interactions as well as their associated probabilistic information is assumed to be risk-related knowledge in this article. It is shown that, irrespective of existing constraints on using information and knowledge from past experiences, construction risk-related knowledge can be transferred and used from project to project in the form of comprehensive models based on probabilistic-causal relationships. The article also shows that the developed models provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures by means of the identification of critical risk factors, and therefore they support risk management decisions. Similarly, a number of limitations of the models are

  12. Pre-service teacher professional development on climate change: Assessment of workshop success and influence of prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Ad-Marbach, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Ozbay, G.; Sezen-Barrie, A.; Wolfson, J.

    2017-12-01

    As states move to adopt the next generation science standards, in-service teachers are being provided with professional development that introduces climate change content and best practices for teaching climate change in the classroom. However, research has shown that it is challenging to bring this information into the higher education curriculum in education courses for pre-service teachers due to curricular and programming constraints. Over two years, the Maryland and Delaware Climate Change Assessment and Research (MADE-CLEAR) project explored a professional development approach for pre-service teachers which employed paired workshops that resulted in participant-developed lesson plans based on climate change content. The workshops were designed to provide pre-service teachers with climate change content related to the carbon cycle and to model a variety of techniques and activities for presenting this information in the classroom. Lesson plans were developed between the first and second workshop, presented at the second workshop and discussed with peers and in-service teachers, and then revised in response to feedback from the second workshop. Participant climate change content knowledge was assessed before the first workshop, and after the final revision of the lesson plan was submitted to the MADE-CLEAR team. Climate content knowledge was also assessed using the same survey for additional pre-service teacher groups who did not participate in the professional development. Results show that while the paired workshop approach increased climate content knowledge, the amount of improvement varied depending on the participants' prior knowledge in climate change content. In addition, some alternate conceptions of climate change were not altered by participant involvement in the professional development approach. Revised lesson plans showed understanding of underlying climate change impacts and demonstrated awareness of appropriate techniques for introducing this

  13. Novel joint TOA/RSSI-based WCE location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takahiro; Anzai, Daisuke; Jianqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel joint time of arrival (TOA)/received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) location tracking method without prior knowledge of biological human tissues. Generally, TOA-based localization can achieve much higher localization accuracy than other radio frequency-based localization techniques, whereas wireless signals transmitted from a WCE pass through various kinds of human body tissues, as a result, the propagation velocity inside a human body should be different from one in free space. Because the variation of propagation velocity is mainly affected by the relative permittivity of human body tissues, instead of pre-measurement for the relative permittivity in advance, we simultaneously estimate not only the WCE location but also the relative permittivity information. For this purpose, this paper first derives the relative permittivity estimation model with measured RSSI information. Then, we pay attention to a particle filter algorithm with the TOA-based localization and the RSSI-based relative permittivity estimation. Our computer simulation results demonstrates that the proposed tracking methods with the particle filter can accomplish an excellent localization accuracy of around 2 mm without prior information of the relative permittivity of the human body tissues.

  14. An Integrated Model for Effective Knowledge Management in Chinese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaomi; Deng, Hepu; Wang, Yiwen; Chao, Lemen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide organizations in the Chinese cultural context with a conceptual model for an integrated adoption of existing knowledge management (KM) methods and to improve the effectiveness of their KM activities. Design/methodology/approaches: A comparative analysis is conducted between China and the western…

  15. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy | Balraj ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. Already projects such as Agriculture Management Information System (AMIS), and e-Soko (which means electronic marketing) – which provides farmers with the price decision making tools enlightens the path to socio-economic development through agriculture.

  16. Folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential introduction of mandatory fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, the New Zealand Ministry of Health recommends women take supplemental folic acid from at least one month preconception until the end of the twelfth week of pregnancy, as well as consume folate-rich foods. A postpartum survey was conducted to describe folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread in May 2012. Increasing knowledge of folic acid recommendations was associated with higher supplement uptake among women who planned their pregnancies (p=0.001 for linear trend). Folic acid information failed to adequately reach some socio-demographic subgroups before conception, even when pregnancy was planned, including: indigenous Maori, Pacific and Asian women, younger women, women with large families, and women with lower educational attainment and income. Only half of all women surveyed knew some bread contained added folic acid, and among these women, less than 2% consistently chose voluntarily fortified bread during the periconceptional period by inspecting labels. Sixty-one percent of women indicated they were either in favour of mandatory fortification, or held no opinion on the matter, while 4% were opposed to the addition of folic acid to bread. Approximately one-third (35%) of women agreed with voluntary fortification. Future health promotion initiatives should be tailored toward women who are younger, less educated, with lower income, multiparous or of minority ethnicity status. Nonetheless, mandatory folic acid fortification may be required to attain the desired degree of equity.

  17. Challenges and promises of integrating knowledge engineering and qualitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, C. Gustav; Holm, Gunilla

    Our goal is to expose some of the close ties that exist between knowledge engineering (KE) and qualitative methodology (QM). Many key concepts of qualitative research, for example meaning, commonsense, understanding, and everyday life, overlap with central research concerns in artificial intelligence. These shared interests constitute a largely unexplored avenue for interdisciplinary cooperation. We compare and take some steps toward integrating two historically diverse methodologies by exploring the commonalities of KE and QM both from a substantive and a methodological/technical perspective. In the second part of this essay, we address knowledge acquisition problems and procedures. Knowledge acquisition within KE has been based primarily on cognitive psychology/science foundations, whereas knowledge acquisition within QM has a broader foundation in phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, and ethnomethodology. Our discussion and examples are interdisciplinary in nature. We do not suggest that there is a clash between the KE and QM frameworks, but rather that the lack of communication potentially may limit each framework's future development.

  18. Community-based participatory research and integrated knowledge translation: advancing the co-creation of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Giles, Audrey; Graham, Ian D

    2017-12-19

    Better use of research evidence (one form of "knowledge") in health systems requires partnerships between researchers and those who contend with the real-world needs and constraints of health systems. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and integrated knowledge translation (IKT) are research approaches that emphasize the importance of creating partnerships between researchers and the people for whom the research is ultimately meant to be of use ("knowledge users"). There exist poor understandings of the ways in which these approaches converge and diverge. Better understanding of the similarities and differences between CBPR and IKT will enable researchers to use these approaches appropriately and to leverage best practices and knowledge from each. The co-creation of knowledge conveys promise of significant social impacts, and further understandings of how to engage and involve knowledge users in research are needed. We examine the histories and traditions of CBPR and IKT, as well as their points of convergence and divergence. We critically evaluate the ways in which both have the potential to contribute to the development and integration of knowledge in health systems. As distinct research traditions, the underlying drivers and rationale for CBPR and IKT have similarities and differences across the areas of motivation, social location, and ethics; nevertheless, the practices of CBPR and IKT converge upon a common aim: the co-creation of knowledge that is the result of knowledge user and researcher expertise. We argue that while CBPR and IKT both have the potential to contribute evidence to implementation science and practices for collaborative research, clarity for the purpose of the research-social change or application-is a critical feature in the selection of an appropriate collaborative approach to build knowledge. CBPR and IKT bring distinct strengths to a common aim: to foster democratic processes in the co-creation of knowledge. As research

  19. Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Putra, M. J.; Widodo, A.; Sopandi, W.

    2017-09-01

    The integrated approach refers to the stages of pupils’ psychological development. Unfortunately, the competences which are designed into the curriculum is not appropriate with the child development. This Manuscript presents PCK (pedagogical content knowledge) of teachers who teach science content utilizing an integrated approach. The data has been collected by using CoRe, PaP-eR, and interviews from six elementary teachers who teach science. The paper informs that high and stable teacher PCKs have an impact on how teachers present integrated teaching. Because it is influenced by the selection of important content that must be submitted to the students, the depth of the content, the reasons for choosing the teaching procedures and some other things. So for teachers to be able to integrate teaching, they should have a balanced PCK.

  20. Integrated knowledge base tool for acquisition and verification of NPP alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and knowledge base verification are important activities in developing knowledge-based systems such as alarm processing systems. In this work, we developed the integrated tool, for knowledge acquisition and verification of NPP alarm processing systems, by using G2 tool. The tool integrates document analysis method and ECPN matrix analysis method, for knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification, respectively. This tool enables knowledge engineers to perform their tasks from knowledge acquisition to knowledge verification consistently

  1. Effect of Instruction Using Students' Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Change Strategies on Science Learning. Part I: Development, Application and Evaluation of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Mariana G.

    Reported is the development, use, and evaluation of an instructional technique based upon: (1) the assessment of students' prior knowledge; and (2) a theoretical perspective advocated by Ausubel and others which emphasizes the importance of existing knowledge in influencing subsequent concept learning. The experimental group of 46 South African…

  2. Effects of Prior Economic Education, Native Language, and Gender on Economic Knowledge of First-Year Students in Higher Education. A Comparative Study between Germany and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Sebastian; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Walstad, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of university students' economic knowledge has become an increasingly important research area within and across countries. Particularly, the different influences of prior education, native language, and gender as some of the main prerequisites on students' economic knowledge have been highlighted since long. However, the findings…

  3. Enabling collaboration on semiformal mathematical knowledge by semantic web integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is becoming increasingly collaborative, but software does not sufficiently support that: Social Web applications do not currently make mathematical knowledge accessible to automated agents that have a deeper understanding of mathematical structures. Such agents exist but focus on individual research tasks, such as authoring, publishing, peer-review, or verification, instead of complex collaboration workflows. This work effectively enables their integration by bridging the document-oriented perspective of mathematical authoring and publishing, and the network perspective of threaded

  4. Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    comprehension. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1977. Craik , F.I.M., and Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning A...Table 5.9 presents summary data regarding the performance levels and memory and search processes of individual subjects. The first row in Table 5.9...R-2256-ARP A June 1979 ARPA Order No.: 189-1 9020 Cybernetics Technology Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and

  5. Reducing scan angle using adaptive prior knowledge for a limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for conformal arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhang, You; Ren, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an adaptive prior knowledge guided image estimation technique to reduce the scan angle needed in the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for 4D-CBCT reconstruction. The LIVE system has been previously developed to reconstruct 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the 4D-CBCT images for faster intrafraction verification. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on kV-MV projections acquired in extremely limited angle (orthogonal 3°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of the respiratory motion. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and a CIRS 008A dynamic thoracic phantom were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique. The reconstruction accuracy of the technique was evaluated by calculating both the center-of-mass-shift (COMS) and 3D volume-percentage-difference (VPD) of the tumor in reconstructed images and the true on-board images. The performance of the technique was also assessed with varied breathing signals against scanning angle, lesion size, lesion location, projection sampling interval, and scanning direction. In the XCAT study, using orthogonal-view of 3° kV and portal MV projections, this technique achieved an average tumor COMS/VPD of 0.4  ±  0.1 mm/5.5  ±  2.2%, 0.6  ±  0.3 mm/7.2  ±  2.8%, 0.5  ±  0.2 mm/7.1  ±  2.6%, 0.6  ±  0.2 mm/8.3  ±  2.4%, for baseline drift, amplitude variation, phase shift, and patient breathing signal variation

  6. Knowledge Management tools integration within DLR's concurrent engineering facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. P.; Soragavi, G.; Deshmukh, M.; Ludtke, D.

    The complexity of space endeavors has increased the need for Knowledge Management (KM) tools. The concept of KM involves not only the electronic storage of knowledge, but also the process of making this knowledge available, reusable and traceable. Establishing a KM concept within the Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) has been a research topic of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). This paper presents the current KM tools of the CEF: the Software Platform for Organizing and Capturing Knowledge (S.P.O.C.K.), the data model Virtual Satellite (VirSat), and the Simulation Model Library (SimMoLib), and how their usage improved the Concurrent Engineering (CE) process. This paper also exposes the lessons learned from the introduction of KM practices into the CEF and elaborates a roadmap for the further development of KM in CE activities at DLR. The results of the application of the Knowledge Management tools have shown the potential of merging the three software platforms with their functionalities, as the next step towards the fully integration of KM practices into the CE process. VirSat will stay as the main software platform used within a CE study, and S.P.O.C.K. and SimMoLib will be integrated into VirSat. These tools will support the data model as a reference and documentation source, and as an access to simulation and calculation models. The use of KM tools in the CEF aims to become a basic practice during the CE process. The settlement of this practice will result in a much more extended knowledge and experience exchange within the Concurrent Engineering environment and, consequently, the outcome of the studies will comprise higher quality in the design of space systems.

  7. Simultaneous-Fault Diagnosis of Automotive Engine Ignition Systems Using Prior Domain Knowledge and Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Vong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine ignition patterns can be analyzed to identify the engine fault according to both the specific prior domain knowledge and the shape features of the patterns. One of the challenges in ignition system diagnosis is that more than one fault may appear at a time. This kind of problem refers to simultaneous-fault diagnosis. Another challenge is the acquisition of a large amount of costly simultaneous-fault ignition patterns for constructing the diagnostic system because the number of the training patterns depends on the combination of different single faults. The above problems could be resolved by the proposed framework combining feature extraction, probabilistic classification, and decision threshold optimization. With the proposed framework, the features of the single faults in a simultaneous-fault pattern are extracted and then detected using a new probabilistic classifier, namely, pairwise coupling relevance vector machine, which is trained with single-fault patterns only. Therefore, the training dataset of simultaneous-fault patterns is not necessary. Experimental results show that the proposed framework performs well for both single-fault and simultaneous-fault diagnoses and is superior to the existing approach.

  8. Prior knowledge of deaf students fluent in brazilian sign languages regarding the algebraic language in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresinha Frizzarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few researches with deeper reflections on the study of algebra with deaf students. In order to validate and disseminate educational activities in that context, this article aims at highlighting the deaf students’ prior knowledge, fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, referring to the algebraic language used in high school. The theoretical framework used was Duval’s theory, with analysis of the changes, by treatment and conversion, of different registers of semiotic representation, in particular inequalities. The methodology used was the application of a diagnostic evaluation performed with deaf students, all fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, in a special school located in the north of Paraná State. We emphasize the need to work in both directions of conversion, in different languages, especially when the starting record is the graphic. Therefore, the conclusion reached was that one should not separate the algebraic representation from other records, due to the need of sign language perform not only the communication function, but also the functions of objectification and treatment, fundamental in cognitive development.

  9. Integrating Ecological and Social Knowledge: Learning from CHANS Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Shindler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are increasingly called upon to integrate across ecological and social disciplines to tackle complex coupled human and natural system (CHANS problems. Integration of these disciplines is challenging and many scientists do not have experience with large integrated research projects. However, much can be learned about the complicated process of integration from such efforts. We document some of these lessons from a National Science Foundation-funded CHANS project (Forests, People, Fire and present considerations for developing and engaging in coupled human and natural system projects. Certainly we are not the first to undertake this endeavor, and many of our findings complement those of other research teams. We focus here on the process of coming together, learning to work as an integrated science team, and describe the challenges and opportunities of engaging stakeholders (agency personnel and citizen communities of interests in our efforts. Throughout this project our intention was to foster dialogue among diverse interests and, thus, incorporate this knowledge into uncovering primary social and ecological drivers of change. A primary tool was an agent-based model, Envision, that used this information in landscape simulation, visualization models, and scenario development. Although integration can be an end in itself, the proof of value in the approach can be the degree to which it provides new insights or tools to CHANS, including closer interaction among multiple stakeholders, that could not have been reached without it.

  10. Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alexander R; Badola, Hemant K; Dhyani, Pitamber P; Rana, Santosh K

    2017-03-29

    Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.

  11. Integrating prior knowledge in multiple testing under dependence with applications to detecting differential DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Pei Fen; Chiang, Derek Y

    2012-09-01

    DNA methylation has emerged as an important hallmark of epigenetics. Numerous platforms including tiling arrays and next generation sequencing, and experimental protocols are available for profiling DNA methylation. Similar to other tiling array data, DNA methylation data shares the characteristics of inherent correlation structure among nearby probes. However, unlike gene expression or protein DNA binding data, the varying CpG density which gives rise to CpG island, shore and shelf definition provides exogenous information in detecting differential methylation. This article aims to introduce a robust testing and probe ranking procedure based on a nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model that incorporates the above-mentioned features for detecting differential methylation. We revisit the seminal work of Sun and Cai (2009, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology)71, 393-424) and propose modeling the nonnull using a nonparametric symmetric distribution in two-sided hypothesis testing. We show that this model improves probe ranking and is robust to model misspecification based on extensive simulation studies. We further illustrate that our proposed framework achieves good operating characteristics as compared to commonly used methods in real DNA methylation data that aims to detect differential methylation sites. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Knowledge integration in One Health policy formulation, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Esposito, Roberto; Canali, Massimo; Aragrande, Maurizio; Häsler, Barbara; Rüegg, Simon R

    2018-03-01

    The One Health concept covers the interrelationship between human, animal and environmental health and requires multistakeholder collaboration across many cultural, disciplinary, institutional and sectoral boundaries. Yet, the implementation of the One Health approach appears hampered by shortcomings in the global framework for health governance. Knowledge integration approaches, at all stages of policy development, could help to address these shortcomings. The identification of key objectives, the resolving of trade-offs and the creation of a common vision and a common direction can be supported by multicriteria analyses. Evidence-based decision-making and transformation of observations into narratives detailing how situations emerge and might unfold in the future can be achieved by systems thinking. Finally, transdisciplinary approaches can be used both to improve the effectiveness of existing systems and to develop novel networks for collective action. To strengthen One Health governance, we propose that knowledge integration becomes a key feature of all stages in the development of related policies. We suggest several ways in which such integration could be promoted.

  13. Knowledge Integration and Inter-Disciplinary Communication in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Heidi Ann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a plenary talk at WMSCI 2012 entitled "Planning for Action Research: Looking at Practice through a Different Lens," this author asserted that behavioral science practitioners, often "back into" action research – they start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way, i.e., generalizable knowledge, that seems worthwhile to share with their community of practice. It was further asserted that, had the efforts been conceived of as research from the outset, the contributions to the body of knowledge would be more robust and the utility of the projects would improve as well. This paper continues on that theme. Action research and process improvement methods are briefly described and compared. A comparison of two Los Alamos National Laboratory engineering ethics training projects – one developed using a process improvement framework, the other using an action research framework – is put forth to provide evidence that use of a research "lens" can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them. The linkage between the Specifying Learning and Diagnosing stages of the Action Research Cycle provides one mechanism for integrating the knowledge gained into the product or process being studied and should provide a reinforcing loop that leads to continual improvement. The collaborative relationships among researchers and the individual, group, or organization that is the subject of the imp rovement op p ortunity (the "client", who are likely from very different backgrounds, and the interpretive epistemology that are among the hallmarks of action research also contribute to the quality of the knowledge gained. This paper closes with a discussion of how Inter-Disciplinary Communication is embedded within the action research paradigm and how this likely also enriches the knowledge gained.

  14. Developing integrated crop knowledge networks to advance candidate gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Castellote, Martin; Esch, Maria; Hindle, Matthew; Lysenko, Artem; Taubert, Jan; Rawlings, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    The chances of raising crop productivity to enhance global food security would be greatly improved if we had a complete understanding of all the biological mechanisms that underpinned traits such as crop yield, disease resistance or nutrient and water use efficiency. With more crop genomes emerging all the time, we are nearer having the basic information, at the gene-level, to begin assembling crop gene catalogues and using data from other plant species to understand how the genes function and how their interactions govern crop development and physiology. Unfortunately, the task of creating such a complete knowledge base of gene functions, interaction networks and trait biology is technically challenging because the relevant data are dispersed in myriad databases in a variety of data formats with variable quality and coverage. In this paper we present a general approach for building genome-scale knowledge networks that provide a unified representation of heterogeneous but interconnected datasets to enable effective knowledge mining and gene discovery. We describe the datasets and outline the methods, workflows and tools that we have developed for creating and visualising these networks for the major crop species, wheat and barley. We present the global characteristics of such knowledge networks and with an example linking a seed size phenotype to a barley WRKY transcription factor orthologous to TTG2 from Arabidopsis, we illustrate the value of integrated data in biological knowledge discovery. The software we have developed (www.ondex.org) and the knowledge resources (http://knetminer.rothamsted.ac.uk) we have created are all open-source and provide a first step towards systematic and evidence-based gene discovery in order to facilitate crop improvement.

  15. New ways of integrating material knowledge into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Anders; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    – based on technical performance, no longer apply. Accordingly the approach in this paper is to view information and knowledge about materials through the perspective of organizational memory and technology brokering. This paper is build upon two cases from the German based design studio: designaffairs...... libraries and thereby access to information on new material possibilities has also changed the way designers integrate knowledge about materials into the design process. This means that the traditional design process model, where the selection of materials takes place after the design of form and function...... in order to help clients to find the right material among hundreds of samples. Furthermore a number of material libraries have also been developed into online database, which provides detailed information about new material and makes the information accessible from almost everywhere. The access to material...

  16. Cognition and Knowledge Sharing in Post-acquisition Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya; Michailova, Snejina

    2014-01-01

    conducted with ten respondents in four Indian IT companies that have acquired firms abroad. Findings: The authors find evidence for supporting the negative effect of in- and out-groups differentiation and the positive effect of interpersonal interaction on knowledge sharing among employees of the acquired...... of organisational objectives in a post-acquisition context. Managers should understand that the knowledge their employees possess is a strategic asset, and therefore how they use it is influential in attaining organisational goals in general, and acquisition integration objectives in particular. The creation...... of task- and project-related communities or groups can help in establishing a shared organisational identity, especially after the turbulent event of one company acquiring another one. The creation of communities or groups where socialisation is encouraged can lead to employees interacting with one...

  17. Knowledge Representation and Management, It's Time to Integrate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhombres, F; Charlet, J

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To select, present, and summarize the best papers published in 2016 in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods: A comprehensive and standardized review of the medical informatics literature was performed based on a PubMed query. Results: Among the 1,421 retrieved papers, the review process resulted in the selection of four best papers focused on the integration of heterogeneous data via the development and the alignment of terminological resources. In the first article, the authors provide a curated and standardized version of the publicly available US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Such a resource will improve the quality of the underlying data, and enable standardized analyses using common vocabularies. The second article describes a project developed in order to facilitate heterogeneous data integration in the i2b2 framework. The originality is to allow users integrate the data described in different terminologies and to build a new repository, with a unique model able to support the representation of the various data. The third paper is dedicated to model the association between multiple phenotypic traits described within the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and the corresponding genotype in the specific context of rare diseases (rare variants). Finally, the fourth paper presents solutions to annotation-ontology mapping in genome-scale data. Of particular interest in this work is the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) and its generic association model, the Ontology of Biomedical AssociatioN (OBAN). Conclusion: Ontologies have started to show their efficiency to integrate medical data for various tasks in medical informatics: electronic health records data management, clinical research, and knowledge-based systems development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  18. Strategical integration and prior evaluation of science and innovation projects in Ecuadorians sports organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Barroso Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the design of a procedure for evaluating the strategical integration of science and innovation projects level in the physical and sport sphere, and its validation through expert criteria for application to Ecuadorian sports organizations. As a result, it was possible to demonstrate the validity of the procedure designed, so it will be possible to be used to facilitate decision-making in relation to the execution of such projects considering, as a value judgment, the level of their essential components integration for the achievement of objectives aligned to the strategic priorities of the Ecuadorians sports organizations.  

  19. Match & Manage : The use of knowledge matching and project management to integrate knowledge in collaborative inbound open innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lakemond, Nicolette; Bengtsson, Lars; Laursen, Keld; Tell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Despite mounting evidence on the potential benefits of inbound open innovation, little is known about how firms purposefully manage inflows of knowledge. We investigate the use of two knowledge governance procedures—project management and knowledge matching—in collaborative inbound open innovation. Our findings suggest that, in addition to “knowledge-precursors,” which the literature on open innovation and absorptive capacity has shown to be important for the integration of external knowledge...

  20. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating the effect of lay knowledge and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients, on health-belief model in a high-risk pulmonary TB transmission population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Rizqy Amelia; Suhariadi, Fendy; Hendriani, Wiwin

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of lay knowledge of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients on a health-belief model (HBM) as well as to identify the social determinants that affect lay knowledge. Survey research design was conducted, where participants were required to fill in a questionnaire, which measured HBM and lay knowledge of pulmonary TB. Research participants were 500 residents of Semampir, Asemrowo, Bubutan, Pabean Cantian, and Simokerto districts, where the risk of pulmonary TB transmission is higher than other districts in Surabaya. Being a female, older in age, and having prior contact with pulmonary TB patients significantly increase the likelihood of having a higher level of lay knowledge. Lay knowledge is a substantial determinant to estimate belief in the effectiveness of health behavior and personal health threat. Prior contact with pulmonary TB patients is able to explain the belief in the effectiveness of a health behavior, yet fails to estimate participants' belief in the personal health threat. Health authorities should prioritize males and young people as their main target groups in a pulmonary TB awareness campaign. The campaign should be able to reconstruct people's misconception about pulmonary TB, thereby bringing around the health-risk perception so that it is not solely focused on improving lay knowledge.

  2. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca, E-mail: mfspadea@unicz.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Fassi, Aurora [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zaffino, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit—CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  3. Supporting students' knowledge integration with technology-enhanced inquiry curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer Lopseen

    Dynamic visualizations of scientific phenomena have the potential to transform how students learn and understand science. Dynamic visualizations enable interaction and experimentation with unobservable atomic-level phenomena. A series of studies clarify the conditions under which embedding dynamic visualizations in technology-enhanced inquiry instruction can help students develop robust and durable chemistry knowledge. Using the knowledge integration perspective, I designed Chemical Reactions, a technology-enhanced curriculum unit, with a partnership of teachers, educational researchers, and chemists. This unit guides students in an exploration of how energy and chemical reactions relate to climate change. It uses powerful dynamic visualizations to connect atomic level interactions to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. The series of studies were conducted in typical classrooms in eleven high schools across the country. This dissertation describes four studies that contribute to understanding of how visualizations can be used to transform chemistry learning. The efficacy study investigated the impact of the Chemical Reactions unit compared to traditional instruction using pre-, post- and delayed posttest assessments. The self-monitoring study used self-ratings in combination with embedded assessments to explore how explanation prompts help students learn from dynamic visualizations. The self-regulation study used log files of students' interactions with the learning environment to investigate how external feedback and explanation prompts influence students' exploration of dynamic visualizations. The explanation study compared specific and general explanation prompts to explore the processes by which explanations benefit learning with dynamic visualizations. These studies delineate the conditions under which dynamic visualizations embedded in inquiry instruction can enhance student outcomes. The studies reveal that visualizations can be deceptively clear

  4. Assembly and integration of geo-scientific knowledge and arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewki, P.; Gautschi, A.; Nguyen, T.S.; Laaksohaju, M.; Rohlig, K.J.; Peake, T.; Peltier, R.; Pitkanen, P.; Skagius Elert, K.; Sykes, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this working group was to consider the assembly and integration of geo-scientific knowledge and arguments. In an introductory presentation, K. Skagius Elert presented 'Assessment of Uncertainty and Confidence in Site Descriptive Models Experience from the On-going Site Investigation Programme in Sweden'. The detailed description of concepts and procedures established at SKB for the development of a Site Descriptive Model (SDM) provided a starting point for the discussion of the working group. The SDM components and the procedures to achieve them were used as 'references' for the discussion of comparable elements in other national programmes. The observations have been placed into two broad themes: 1. How to manage the integration? 2. How to handle uncertainties? No specific prescription was identified for either of these questions; rather a range of suggestions were noted based on experience. The appropriate solution will depend on the organisation, the site, the state of the programme, and other factors. A final observation from the working group was on the handling of evolution of the site with time. This topic incorporates aspects of both site integration and uncertainty management. Specifically, the integrated site description model (SDM) noted above represents a description of the site as it presently exists. This description takes into account the site history, but does not describe its evolution. The latter involves a number of uncertainties. This time evolution of the site can be described through Scenarios. The definition of scenarios, similar to the definition of the SDM, is an integrated and multidisciplinary process in order to ensure a self-consistent description. It will involve use of common assumptions. Since it involves the future and the associated uncertainties, it can be useful to draw on expert panels to help define the key assumptions and outlines for scenarios. (authors)

  5. Effects of Reading Ability, Prior Knowledge, Topic Interest, and Locus of Control on At-Risk College Students' Use of Graphic Organizers and Summarizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; Weisberg, Renee

    A study investigated the influence of key factors (general comprehension ability, prior knowledge of passage topic, interest in passage topic, and locus of control) on training at-risk college students in the use of graphic organizers as a cognitive learning strategy. Subjects, 60 college freshmen required to take a developmental reading/study…

  6. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  7. An integrated system for interactive continuous learning of categorical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočaj, Danijel; Vrečko, Alen; Mahnič, Marko; Janíček, Miroslav; Kruijff, Geert-Jan M.; Hanheide, Marc; Hawes, Nick; Wyatt, Jeremy L.; Keller, Thomas; Zhou, Kai; Zillich, Michael; Kristan, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article presents an integrated robot system capable of interactive learning in dialogue with a human. Such a system needs to have several competencies and must be able to process different types of representations. In this article, we describe a collection of mechanisms that enable integration of heterogeneous competencies in a principled way. Central to our design is the creation of beliefs from visual and linguistic information, and the use of these beliefs for planning system behaviour to satisfy internal drives. The system is able to detect gaps in its knowledge and to plan and execute actions that provide information needed to fill these gaps. We propose a hierarchy of mechanisms which are capable of engaging in different kinds of learning interactions, e.g. those initiated by a tutor or by the system itself. We present the theory these mechanisms are build upon and an instantiation of this theory in the form of an integrated robot system. We demonstrate the operation of the system in the case of learning conceptual models of objects and their visual properties.

  8. Accelerating knowledge discovery through community data sharing and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Y L

    2009-01-01

    To summarize current excellent research in the field of bioinformatics. Synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2009. The selection process for this yearbook's section on Bioinformatics results in six excellent articles highlighting several important trends First, it can be noted that Semantic Web technology continues to play an important role in heterogeneous data integration. Novel applications also put more emphasis on its ability to make logical inferences leading to new insights and discoveries. Second, translational research, due to its complex nature, increasingly relies on collective intelligence made available through the adoption of community-defined protocols or software architectures for secure data annotation, sharing and analysis. Advances in systems biology, bio-ontologies and text-ming can also be noted. Current biomedical research gradually evolves towards an environment characterized by intensive collaboration and more sophisticated knowledge processing activities. Enabling technologies, either Semantic Web or other solutions, are expected to play an increasingly important role in generating new knowledge in the foreseeable future.

  9. Systematic integration of biomedical knowledge prioritizes drugs for repurposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Daniel Scott; Lizee, Antoine; Hessler, Christine; Brueggeman, Leo; Chen, Sabrina L; Hadley, Dexter; Green, Ari; Khankhanian, Pouya; Baranzini, Sergio E

    2017-09-22

    The ability to computationally predict whether a compound treats a disease would improve the economy and success rate of drug approval. This study describes Project Rephetio to systematically model drug efficacy based on 755 existing treatments. First, we constructed Hetionet (neo4j.het.io), an integrative network encoding knowledge from millions of biomedical studies. Hetionet v1.0 consists of 47,031 nodes of 11 types and 2,250,197 relationships of 24 types. Data were integrated from 29 public resources to connect compounds, diseases, genes, anatomies, pathways, biological processes, molecular functions, cellular components, pharmacologic classes, side effects, and symptoms. Next, we identified network patterns that distinguish treatments from non-treatments. Then, we predicted the probability of treatment for 209,168 compound-disease pairs (het.io/repurpose). Our predictions validated on two external sets of treatment and provided pharmacological insights on epilepsy, suggesting they will help prioritize drug repurposing candidates. This study was entirely open and received realtime feedback from 40 community members.

  10. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  11. Anatomical knowledge retention in third-year medical students prior to obstetrics and gynecology and surgery rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F; Krapf, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an anatomical knowledge deficit are lacking, as are specifics as to what content should be reinforced. This study identifies baseline areas of strength and weakness in the surgical anatomy knowledge of medical students entering surgical rotations. Third-year medical students completed a 20-25-question test at the beginning of the General Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology rotations. Knowledge of inguinal anatomy (45.3%), orientation in abdominal cavity (38.8%), colon (27.7%), and esophageal varices (12.8%) was poor. The numbers in parentheses are the percentage of questions answered correctly per topic. In comparing those scores to matched test items from this cohort as first-year students in the anatomy course, the drop in retention overall was very significant (P = 0.009) from 86.9 to 51.5%. Students also scored lower in questions relating to pelvic organs (46.7%), urogenital development (54.0%), pulmonary development (17.8%), and pregnancy (17.8%). These data showed that indeed, knowledge of surgical anatomy is poor for medical students entering surgical clerkships. These data collected will be utilized to create interactive learning modules, aimed at improving clinically relevant anatomical knowledge retention. These modules, which will be available to students during their inpatient surgical rotations, connect basic anatomy principles to clinical cases, with the ultimate goal of closing the anatomical knowledge gap. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. The Impact of Organizational Knowledge Integrators on Cooperative R&D Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulathsinhala, Nadika

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that R&D projects that incorporate external knowledge sources not only depend on the number of sources, but also on integrating the right source. An organizational knowledge integrator has a natural interest due to its position in the value chain and the technology...... phase to pull the knowledge from earlier phases of development closer towards commercialization. The aim of the paper is to examine if organizational knowledge integrators in R&D projects have a positive impact on innovative performance compared to projects that do not involve a knowledge integrator...

  13. Sets of priors reflecting prior-data conflict and agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.M.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Carvalho, J.P.; Lesot, M.-J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian inference enables combination of observations with prior knowledge in the reasoning process. The choice of a particular prior distribution to represent the available prior knowledge is, however, often debatable, especially when prior knowledge is limited or data are scarce, as then

  14. The KNOMAD Methodology for Integration of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Knowledge within Aerospace Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper is associated with the integration of multi-disciplinary knowledge within a Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE)-enabled design framework. To support this integration effort, the KNOMAD methodology has been devised. KNOMAD stands for Knowledge Optimized Manufacture And Design and is a

  15. Students' inductive reasoning skills and the relevance of prior knowledge: an exploratory study with a computer-based training course on the topic of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn-Ritzinger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Johannes; Horn, Michael; Smolle, Josef

    2011-04-01

    The importance of inductive instruction in medical education is increasingly growing. Little is known about the relevance of prior knowledge regarding students' inductive reasoning abilities. The purpose is to evaluate this inductive teaching method as a means of fostering higher levels of learning and to explore how individual differences in prior knowledge (high [HPK] vs. low [LPK]) contribute to students' inductive reasoning skills. Twenty-six LPK and 18 HPK students could train twice with an interactive computer-based training object to discover the underlying concept before doing the final comprehension check. Students had a median of 76.9% of correct answers in the first, 90.9% in the second training, and answered 92% of the final assessment questions correctly. More important, 86% of all students succeeded with inductive learning, among them 83% of the HPK students and 89% of the LPK students. Prior knowledge did not predict performance on overall comprehension. This inductive instructional strategy fostered students' deep approaches to learning in a time-effective way.

  16. Official language knowledge among foreign-born immigrants in Catalonia, Spain, and implications for their social integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Solana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Catalonia has experienced asignificant in flux of international immigrants, added to the already important internal migration flows of prior decades. Now, however, this immigration takes place in a political and social context in which Catalan is the language of official use in all branches of government administration as well as in the education system. Knowledge of the Catalan language has been consideredan essential part of the process of integration for the immigrant population residing in Catalonia. Using the data provided by therecent 2007 National Survey of Immigrants, this article analyzes the immigrant population’s knowledge of Catalan in relation totheir knowledge of Castilian (Spanish. The data indicates that inspite of the offi cial status of the Catalan language in Catalonia,knowledge of Catalan among immigrants to the region is relatively low and much lower than that of Castilian, a situation that invitesrefl ection on the social implications of this reality.

  17. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  18. Integration of asynchronous knowledge sources in a novel speech recognition framework

    OpenAIRE

    Van hamme, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Van hamme H., ''Integration of asynchronous knowledge sources in a novel speech recognition framework'', Proceedings ITRW on speech analysis and processing for knowledge discovery, 4 pp., June 2008, Aalborg, Denmark.

  19. An integration architecture for knowledge management system and business process management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, J.; Choi, I.; Song, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, interests in the notion of process-oriented knowledge management (PKM) from academia and industry have been significantly increased. Comprehensive research and development requirements along with a cogent framework, however, have not been proposed for integrating knowledge management (KM)

  20. Integrating Relational Reasoning and Knowledge Revision during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese; Van Boekel, Martin; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Our goal in this theoretical contribution is to connect research on knowledge revision and relational reasoning. To achieve this goal, first, we review the "knowledge revision components framework" (KReC) that provides an account of knowledge revision processes, specifically as they unfold during reading of texts. Second, we review a…

  1. Knowledge Sharing, Communities of Practice, and Learning Asset Integration - DAU's Major Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickok, John

    2005-01-01

    .... What follows is an overview of Knowledge Sharing through the eyes of the Defense Acquisition University, along with some new initiatives called Learning Asset Integration and Workflow Learning...

  2. Knowledge-Intensive Gathering and Integration of Statistical Information on European Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkert, M.; Treur, J.; Verwaart, T.; Loganantharaj, R.; Palm, G.; Ali, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gathering, maintenance, integration and presentation of statistics are major activities of the Dutch Agricultural Economics Research Institute LEI. In this paper we explore how knowledge and agent technology can be exploited to support the information gathering and integration process. In

  3. Water soluble contrast enema examination of the integrity of the rectal anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal may be superfluous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anna; Lindmark, Gudrun; Syk, Ingvar; Buchwald, Pamela

    2015-03-01

    Defunctioning loop ileostomy in low anterior resection (LAR) is routinely used to reduce consequences of anastomotic leakage. The purpose of this study was to analyze which examination technique is optimal for evaluating the integrity of the anastomosis prior to loop ileostomy reversal. Retrospective analysis of 95 patients who had been subjected to LAR at Helsingborg Hospital and Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, was undertaken between January 2007 and June 2009. The examination techniques of the rectal anastomosis prior to reversal and the clinical outcome after reversal were studied. Radiologic anastomosis control using water soluble contrast enema, digital rectal examination (DRE), and rectoscopy were performed in 53 % (50/95), 98 % (93/95), and 69 % (66/95), respectively. In two patients, no control of the anastomosis was performed before reversal. Fifty-two percent (49/95) of the patients were examined using all techniques. Six patients demonstrated leakage detected before reversal of which two were only radiological leakages. These two patients underwent loop ileostomy reversal after delay without complications. They were the only ones where the three examination techniques did not prove coherence. Four patients had symptomatic leakage; these were detected with rectoscopy and DRE and verified with enema. Three patients developed anastomotic leakage after loop ileostomy reversal despite normal preoperative examinations. Two of these patients had rectovaginal fistulas (AVFs). This retrospective study indicates that contrast enema does not provide additional information if rectoscopy and DRE are normal. Despite negative examinations, three of nine leakages were diagnosed after loop ileostomy reversal. Especially, AVFs seem difficult to diagnose.

  4. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia

    2018-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  5. Knowledge-based approach for functional MRI analysis by SOM neural network using prior labels from Talairach stereotaxic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Willmes, Klaus; Thron, Armin; Oberschelp, Walter; Huang, H. K.

    2002-04-01

    Among the methods proposed for the analysis of functional MR we have previously introduced a model-independent analysis based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network technique. The SOM neural network can be trained to identify the temporal patterns in voxel time-series of individual functional MRI (fMRI) experiments. The separated classes consist of activation, deactivation and baseline patterns corresponding to the task-paradigm. While the classification capability of the SOM is not only based on the distinctness of the patterns themselves but also on their frequency of occurrence in the training set, a weighting or selection of voxels of interest should be considered prior to the training of the neural network to improve pattern learning. Weighting of interesting voxels by means of autocorrelation or F-test significance levels has been used successfully, but still a large number of baseline voxels is included in the training. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the inclusion of these voxels by using three different levels of segmentation and mapping from Talairach space: (1) voxel partitions at the lobe level, (2) voxel partitions at the gyrus level and (3) voxel partitions at the cell level (Brodmann areas). The results of the SOM classification based on these mapping levels in comparison to training with all brain voxels are presented in this paper.

  6. Evaluation of workers' perceived sense of slip and effect of prior knowledge of slipperiness during task performance on slippery surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, S; Bhattacharya, A; Succop, P A

    2000-01-01

    Forty healthy industrial workers (age: 41.0+/-14.9 years) were tested for postural stability for three simulated tasks: (1) standing upright; (2) rapid trunk movement; and (3) lateral reach during lifting. These tasks were performed on four levels of slippery surfaces under different environmental lighting with new or workers' own old shoes. Prior to postural stability tests, each subject was given the opportunity to assess the surface slipperiness that he or she would encounter in the subsequent postural stability tests. A perceived sense of slip (PSOS) scale was administrated immediately after each test to determine subjects' PSOS. Subjects' postural sway and instability during task performance was determined by using a strain gauge type force platform. Results from this study indicate that subjects who were cautious in assessing surface slipperiness had less postural instability during task performance. Subjects could perceive the likely slips due to the change in task (p=0.0001) and surface slipperiness (p=0.0001). The PSOS scale is reproducible, easy to use, and provides a simple way to evaluate potential slip hazards in the workplace. Results from this study should aid understanding of the factors critical to maintaining postural stability on slippery surfaces, and will help to develop guidelines for safety training and identify slip hazards in the workplace.

  7. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  8. An integrative model of knowledge management and team work

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia; Mª Elena Zarate-Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Human Resource Management relevance in Knowledge Management has been studied in academic literature mostly from the point of view of recruitment, selection, wages and salaries and career development processes. We have found few publications that are focused in the behaviour of the group of people who generate, share and transfer that knowledge while working in a team. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework that describes the relation between knowledge management and team work,, integ...

  9. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawrence

    Full Text Available The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2 area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN

  10. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  11. Ordering Disorders. Linking organization design and knowledge integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Fruytier, B.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies addressing the connections between knowledge and organization structures can be divided into two classes. One class holds that a perspective on knowledge signals shortcomings of classical design principles and calls for flatter hierarchy and less specification of the production structure.

  12. Using Date Specific Searches on Google Books to Disconfirm Prior Origination Knowledge Claims for Particular Terms, Words, and Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Sutton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Back in 2004, Google Inc. (Menlo Park, CA, USA began digitizing full texts of magazines, journals, and books dating back centuries. At present, over 25 million books have been scanned and anyone can use the service (currently called Google Books to search for materials free of charge (including academics of any discipline. All the books have been scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition and stored in its digital database. The present paper describes a very precise six-stage Boolean date-specific research method on Google, referred to as Internet Date Detection (IDD for short. IDD can be used to examine countless alleged facts and myths in a systematic and verifiable way. Six examples of the IDD method in action are provided (the terms, words, and names ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’, ‘Humpty Dumpty’, ‘living fossil’, ‘moral panic’, ‘boredom’, and ‘selfish gene’ and each of these examples is shown to disconfirm widely accepted expert knowledge belief claims about their history of coinage, conception, and published origin. The paper also notes that Google’s autonomous deep learning AI program RankBrain has possibly caused the IDD method to no longer work so well, addresses how it might be recovered, and how such problems might be avoided in the future.

  13. Enabling Integrated Decision Making for Electronic-Commerce by Modelling an Enterprise's Sharable Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    An enterprise model, a computational model of knowledge about an enterprise, is a useful tool for integrated decision-making by e-commerce suppliers and customers. Sharable knowledge, once represented in an enterprise model, can be integrated by the modeled enterprise's e-commerce partners. Presents background on enterprise modeling, followed by…

  14. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Martin Süß

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system. The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2 and figural reasoning (Study 2 – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1 cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2 in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly

  15. Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Prior Knowledge on Complex Problem Solving Performance – Empirical Results and a Plea for Ecologically Valid Microworlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süß, Heinz-Martin; Kretzschmar, André

    2018-01-01

    The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS) research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system) twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system). The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2) and figural reasoning (Study 2) – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1) cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2) in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly utilizes the

  16. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    of knowledge registered in the systems without standards to categorise and store this knowledge, to being difficult to access and retrieve the knowledge in the systems. Discussion: Transferring knowledge and experiences from users brings human factors into play and modelling the knowledge transfer process...... and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...

  17. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  18. Evaluation of errors in prior mean and variance in the estimation of integrated circuit failure rates using Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The critical point of any Bayesian analysis concerns the choice and quantification of the prior information. The effects of prior data on a Bayesian analysis are studied. Comparisons of the maximum likelihood estimator, the Bayesian estimator, and the known failure rate are presented. The results of the many simulated trails are then analyzed to show the region of criticality for prior information being supplied to the Bayesian estimator. In particular, effects of prior mean and variance are determined as a function of the amount of test data available.

  19. Integrated corridor management (ICM) knowledge and technology transfer (KTT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The ICM approach involves aggressive, : proactive integration of infrastructure : along major corridors so that : transportation professionals can fully : leverage all existing modal choices : and assets. ICM helps transportation : leaders improve tr...

  20. Knowledge Management Integration into Strategic Human Capital Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, Tony; Heler, David

    2014-01-01

    Leadership model philosophies: • Knowledge is fundamental – share it; • We are in the refueling outage business; • Cost effective does not necessarily mean cheap; • Working efficiently and event free; • Make conscious, informed decisions; • Excellence in Operational Focus; • Operations Leads the Station; • End of Licenses and Beyond 60; • Our Leadership Model - Our future

  1. Knowledge-enabled Customer Relationship Management: integrating customer relationship management and knowledge management concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Gebert, Henning; Geib, Malte; Kolbe, Lutz; Brenner, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of customer relationship management (CRM) and knowledge management (KM) both focus on allocating resources to supportive business activities in order to gain competitive advantages. CRM focuses on managing the relationship between a company and its current and prospective customer base as a key to success, while KM recognizes the knowledge available to a company as a major success factor.From a business process manager's perspective both the CRM and KM approaches promise a positi...

  2. Axiology on the Integration of Knowledge, Islam and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas’ud Zein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Islamic and science was done through integration-interconnected, referring to ontological, epistemological dan axiological perspectives. This paper will focus on the integration of Islam and science from axiological perspective.  In the view of axiology, science is seen as neutral and value-free; the value of science is given by its users. This condition motivates Muslim scholars to reintegrate science and religion. The first attempt made is my giving ideas on the Islamization of science. The attempt to Islamize the science in the Islamic world is dilemmatic, whether to wrap western science with the label of Islam or Islamic, or transforming religious norms based the Qur’an and the Hadith to fit empirical data. Both strategies are difficult if the effort is not based on the critic of epistemology.

  3. Indigenous Knowledge, Science, and Resilience: What Have We Learned from a Decade of International Literature on "Integration"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Bohensky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing trend worldwide of integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge in natural resource management, there has been little stock-taking of literature on lessons learned from bringing indigenous knowledge and science together and the implications for maintaining and building social-ecological system resilience. In this paper we investigate: (1 themes, questions, or problems encountered for integration of indigenous knowledge and science; (2 the relationship between knowledge integration and social-ecological system resilience; and (3 critical features of knowledge integration practice needed to foster productive and mutually beneficial relationships between indigenous knowledge and science. We examine these questions through content analyses of three special journal issues and an edited book published in the past decade on indigenous, local, and traditional knowledge and its interface with science. We identified broad themes in the literature related to: (1 similarities and differences between knowledge systems; (2 methods and processes of integration; (3 social contexts of integration; and (4 evaluation of knowledge. A minority of papers discuss a relationship between knowledge integration and social-ecological system resilience, but there remains a lack of clarity and empirical evidence for such a relationship that can help distinguish how indigenous knowledge and knowledge integration contribute most to resilience. Four critical features of knowledge integration are likely to enable a more productive and mutually beneficial relationship between indigenous and scientific knowledge: new frames for integration, greater cognizance of the social contexts of integration, expanded modes of knowledge evaluation, and involvement of inter-cultural "knowledge bridgers."

  4. Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bowen; Xing, Lei; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Chang, Daniel; Cheng, Jason; Li, Ruijiang

    2013-11-01

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid

  5. Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecological Science: a Question of Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gagnon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of integrating traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge have led to extensive discussions over the past decades, but much work is still needed to facilitate the articulation and co-application of these two types of knowledge. Through two case studies, we examined the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge by emphasizing their complementarity across spatial and temporal scales. We expected that combining Inuit traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge would expand the spatial and temporal scales of currently documented knowledge on the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus and the greater snow goose (Chen caerulescens atlantica, two important tundra species. Using participatory approaches in Mittimatalik (also known as Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, we documented traditional ecological knowledge about these species and found that, in fact, it did expand the spatial and temporal scales of current scientific knowledge for local arctic fox ecology. However, the benefits were not as apparent for snow goose ecology, probably because of the similar spatial and temporal observational scales of the two types of knowledge for this species. Comparing sources of knowledge at similar scales allowed us to gain confidence in our conclusions and to identify areas of disagreement that should be studied further. Emphasizing complementarities across scales was more powerful for generating new insights and hypotheses. We conclude that determining the scales of the observations that form the basis for traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge represents a critical step when evaluating the benefits of integrating these two types of knowledge. This is also critical when examining the congruence or contrast between the two types of knowledge for a given subject.

  6. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  7. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  8. The illogicality of stock-brokers: psychological experiments on the effects of prior knowledge and belief biases on logical reasoning in stock trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauff, Markus; Budeck, Claudia; Wolf, Ann G; Hamburger, Kai

    2010-10-18

    Explanations for the current worldwide financial crisis are primarily provided by economists and politicians. However, in the present work we focus on the psychological-cognitive factors that most likely affect the thinking of people on the economic stage and thus might also have had an effect on the progression of the crises. One of these factors might be the effect of prior beliefs on reasoning and decision-making. So far, this question has been explored only to a limited extent. We report two experiments on logical reasoning competences of nineteen stock-brokers with long-lasting vocational experiences at the stock market. The premises of reasoning problems concerned stock trading and the experiments varied whether or not their conclusions--a proposition which is reached after considering the premises--agreed with the brokers' prior beliefs. Half of the problems had a conclusion that was highly plausible for stock-brokers while the other half had a highly implausible conclusion. The data show a strong belief bias. Stock-brokers were strongly biased by their prior knowledge. Lowest performance was found for inferences in which the problems caused a conflict between logical validity and the experts' belief. In these cases, the stock-brokers tended to make logically invalid inferences rather than give up their existing beliefs. Our findings support the thesis that cognitive factors have an effect on the decision-making on the financial market. In the present study, stock-brokers were guided more by past experience and existing beliefs than by logical thinking and rational decision-making. They had difficulties to disengage themselves from vastly anchored thinking patterns. However, we believe, that it is wrong to accuse the brokers for their "malfunctions", because such hard-wired cognitive principles are difficult to suppress even if the person is aware of them.

  9. The illogicality of stock-brokers: psychological experiments on the effects of prior knowledge and belief biases on logical reasoning in stock trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Knauff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explanations for the current worldwide financial crisis are primarily provided by economists and politicians. However, in the present work we focus on the psychological-cognitive factors that most likely affect the thinking of people on the economic stage and thus might also have had an effect on the progression of the crises. One of these factors might be the effect of prior beliefs on reasoning and decision-making. So far, this question has been explored only to a limited extent. METHODS: We report two experiments on logical reasoning competences of nineteen stock-brokers with long-lasting vocational experiences at the stock market. The premises of reasoning problems concerned stock trading and the experiments varied whether or not their conclusions--a proposition which is reached after considering the premises--agreed with the brokers' prior beliefs. Half of the problems had a conclusion that was highly plausible for stock-brokers while the other half had a highly implausible conclusion. RESULTS: The data show a strong belief bias. Stock-brokers were strongly biased by their prior knowledge. Lowest performance was found for inferences in which the problems caused a conflict between logical validity and the experts' belief. In these cases, the stock-brokers tended to make logically invalid inferences rather than give up their existing beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the thesis that cognitive factors have an effect on the decision-making on the financial market. In the present study, stock-brokers were guided more by past experience and existing beliefs than by logical thinking and rational decision-making. They had difficulties to disengage themselves from vastly anchored thinking patterns. However, we believe, that it is wrong to accuse the brokers for their "malfunctions", because such hard-wired cognitive principles are difficult to suppress even if the person is aware of them.

  10. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  11. Integrating Conceptual Knowledge Within and Across Representational Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    McNorgan, Chris; Reid, Jackie; McRae, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that concepts are distributed across brain regions specialized for processing information from different sensorimotor modalities. Multimodal semantic models fall into one of two broad classes differentiated by the assumed hierarchy of convergence zones over which information is integrated. In shallow models, communication within- and between-modality is accomplished using either direct connectivity, or a central semantic hub. In deep models, modalities are connected via casc...

  12. "Exploring knowledge-user experiences in integrated knowledge translation: a biomedical investigation of the causes and consequences of food allergy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jenna; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious public health problem in Canada and other high-income countries, as it is potentially life threatening and severely impacts the quality of life for individuals and their families. Yet, many questions still remain as to its origins and determinants, and the best practices for treatment. Formed to tackle these very questions, the GET-FACTS research study centers on a novel concept in biomedical research: in order to make this science useful, knowledge creation must include meaningful interactions with knowledge-users. With this, knowledge-users are present at every stage of the research and are crucial, central and equal contributors. This study reflects on the early part of that journey from the perspective of the knowledge-users. We conducted interviews with all non-scientist members of the GET-FACTS steering committee, representing Canadian organizations that deal with patient advocacy and policy with regards to food allergy. Steering committee members had a clear sense that scientists and knowledge-users are equally responsible for putting knowledge into action and the importance of consulting and integrating knowledge-users throughout research. They also have high expectations for the GET-FACTS integrated process; that this model of doing science will create better scientists (e.g. improve communication skills) and make the scientific output more useful and relevant. Our work highlights both the unique contributions that knowledge-users can offer to knowledge creation as well as the challenges of trying to unify members from such different communities (policy/advocacy and biomedical science). There remains a real need to develop more touch points and opportunities for collaboration if true integration is to be achieved. Despite the obstacles, this model can help change the way knowledge is created in the biomedical world. ᅟ. Despite the burden of food allergic disease many questions remain as to its origins, determinants and best

  13. Virtual NC machine model with integrated knowledge data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, Sofija; Dukovski, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The concept of virtual NC machining was established for providing a virtual product that could be compared with an appropriate designed product, in order to make NC program correctness evaluation, without real experiments. This concept is applied in the intelligent CAD/CAM system named VIRTUAL MANUFACTURE. This paper presents the first intelligent module that enables creation of the virtual models of existed NC machines and virtual creation of new ones, applying modular composition. Creation of a virtual NC machine is carried out via automatic knowledge data saving (features of the created NC machine). (Author)

  14. Using Variable Precision Rough Set for Selection and Classification of Biological Knowledge Integrated in DNA Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Dmgz D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA microarrays have contributed to the exponential growth of genomic and experimental data in the last decade. This large amount of gene expression data has been used by researchers seeking diagnosis of diseases like cancer using machine learning methods. In turn, explicit biological knowledge about gene functions has also grown tremendously over the last decade. This work integrates explicit biological knowledge, provided as gene sets, into the classication process by means of Variable Precision Rough Set Theory (VPRS. The proposed model is able to highlight which part of the provided biological knowledge has been important for classification. This paper presents a novel model for microarray data classification which is able to incorporate prior biological knowledge in the form of gene sets. Based on this knowledge, we transform the input microarray data into supergenes, and then we apply rough set theory to select the most promising supergenes and to derive a set of easy interpretable classification rules. The proposed model is evaluated over three breast cancer microarrays datasets obtaining successful results compared to classical classification techniques. The experimental results shows that there are not significat differences between our model and classical techniques but it is able to provide a biological-interpretable explanation of how it classifies new samples.

  15. Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Ternier, Stefaan; Olmedilla, Daniel; Duval, Erik; Dicerto, Michele; Stefanov, Krassen; Sacristán, Naiara

    2007-01-01

    Demidova, E., Ternier, S., Olmedilla, D., Duval, E., Dicerto, M., Stefanov, K., et al. (2007). Integration of Heterogeneous Information Sources into a Knowledge Resource Management System for Lifelong. TENCompetence Workshop on Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development

  16. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems : A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available

  17. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  18. Exploring the Associations Among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C; Kolasa, Kathryn M; Díaz, Sebastián R; Duffrin, Melani W

    2018-01-01

    Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across North Carolina and Ohio; mean age 10 years old; gender (I = 53.2% female; C = 51.6% female). Dependent variable = post-test-nutrition knowledge; independent variables = baseline-nutrition knowledge, and post-test science and mathematics knowledge. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The hypothesized model predicted post-nutrition knowledge (F(437) = 149.4, p mathematics knowledge were predictive of nutrition knowledge indicating use of an integrative science and mathematics curriculum to improve academic knowledge may also simultaneously improve nutrition knowledge among fourth-grade students. Teachers can benefit from integration by meeting multiple academic standards, efficiently using limited classroom time, and increasing nutrition education provided in the classroom. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  19. Collaborative Knowledge Building and Integral Theory: On Perspectives, Uncertainty, and Mutual Regard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Murray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in knowing and communicating affect all aspects of modern life. Ubiquitous and inevitable uncertainty, including ambiguity and paradox, is particularly salient and important in knowledge building communities. Because knowledge building communities represent and evolve knowledge explicitly, the causes, effects, and approaches to this “epistemological indeterminacy” can be directly addressed in knowledge building practices. Integral theory’s approach (including “methodological pluralism” involves accepting and integrating diverse perspectives in ways that transcend and include them. This approach accentuates the problems of epistemological indeterminacy and highlights the general need to deal creatively with it. This article begins with a cursory analysis of textual dialogs among integral theorists, showing that, while integral theory itself points to leading-edge ways of dealing with epistemological indeterminacy, the knowledge building practices of integral theorists, by and large, exhibit the same limitations as traditional intellectual discourses. Yet, due to its values and core methods, the integral theory community is in a unique position to develop novel and more adequate modes of inquiry and dialog. This text explores how epistemological indeterminacy impacts the activities and products of groups engaged in collaborative knowledge building. Approaching the issue from three perspectives–mutual understanding, mutual agreement, and mutual regard—I show the interdependence of those perspectives and ground them in relation to integral theory’s concerns. This article proposes three phases of developing constructive alternatives drawn from the knowledge building field: awareness of the phenomena, understanding the phenomena, and offering some tools (and some hope for dealing with it. Though here I focus on the integral theory community (or communities, the conclusions of the article are meant to be applicable to any

  20. Collaborative Knowledge Building and Integral Theory:On Perspectives,Uncertainty, and Mutual Regard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Murray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty in knowing and communicating affect all aspects of modern life. Ubiquitous and inevitable uncertainty, including ambiguity and paradox, is particularly salient and important in knowledge building communities. Because knowledge building communities represent and evolve knowledge explicitly, the causes, effects, and approaches to this “epistemological indeterminacy” can be directly addressed in knowledge building practices. Integral theory's approach (including “methodological pluralism” involves accepting and integrating diverse perspectives in ways that transcend and include them. This approach accentuates the problems of epistemological indeterminacy and highlights the general need to deal creatively with it. This article begins with a cursory analysis of textual dialogs among integral theorists, showing that, while integral theory itself points to leading-edge ways of dealing with epistemological indeterminacy, the knowledge building practices of integral theorists, by and large, exhibit the same limitations as traditional intellectual discourses. Yet, due to its values and core methods, the integral theory community is in a unique position to develop novel and more adequate modes of inquiry and dialog. This text explores how epistemological indeterminacy impacts the activities and products of groups engaged in collaborative knowledge building. Approaching the issue from three perspectives—mutual understanding, mutual agreement, and mutual regard—I show the interdependence of those perspectives and ground them in relation to integral theory’s concerns. This article proposes three phases of developing constructive alternatives drawn from the knowledge building field: awareness of the phenomena, understanding the phenomena, and offering some tools (and some hope for dealing with it. Though here I focus on the integral theory community (or communities, the conclusions of the article are meant to be applicable to any

  1. Students integrate knowledge acquisition and practical work in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, E I; Sánchez-Hermosín, P; Díz-Pérez, J; Tovar, P; Camacho, R; Escribano, B M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in Reproduction course) at University of Córdoba in Córdoba, Spain. The design of the project's application methodology consisted of establishing a way in which problems would be tackled in the practical classes. For this purpose, the different tasks were set up so that students could relate them to the concepts learned in the theory classes. On the first day of class, the project was presented to the students. Groups of two to three students worked in the laboratory and set up an outline of the protocol of the practical work that they had done. This outline was performed individually and sent to the lecturers through a learning management system (Moodle). The teachers gave feedback and assessed student submissions. Upon finishing the course, students completed a survey. The project-based learning method promotes practical self-learning on the part of students. This methodology demonstrated to us that it stimulates a critical and self-critical capacity in students, both individually and in groups, and that writing didactic practical material helped students to enhance their theory knowledge. The experiment was a success in view of the scores obtained upon finishing the subject. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  2. Exploring the Associations among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Methods: Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across…

  3. Revised Bloom's Taxonomy and Integral Calculus: Unpacking the Knowledge Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmehr, Farzad; Drake, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the knowledge dimension for Revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) is unpacked for integral calculus. As part of this work, the 11 subtypes of the knowledge dimension are introduced, and through document analysis of chapter 4 of the RBT handbook, these subtypes are defined. Then, by consulting materials frequently used for teaching integral…

  4. An integrated framework of knowledge transfer and ICT issues in co-creation value networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagheri, S.; Kusters, R.J.; Trienekens, J.J.M.; Varajão, J.E.Q.; Cruz-Cunha, M.M.; Martinho, R.; Rijo, R.; Bjørn-Andersen, N.; Turner, R.; Alves, D.

    2016-01-01

    In dynamic value networks (VNs), knowledge serves as a basis for close collaboration of actors (i.e. firms with their partners and customers) to enhance co-creation of integrated solutions. In order to provide a technical foundation for seamless knowledge transfer among actors, VNs require

  5. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge into Social Work Education: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Marcia; Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge from the rapidly growing field of neuroscience has important implications for our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, yet little of this knowledge has made its way into social work education. This article presents a model for integrating neuroscience into instruction on human development, the bio psychosocial…

  6. The integration of expert knowledge in decision support systems for facility location planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of expert systems in DSS has led to a new generation of systems commonly referred to as knowledge-based or intelligent DSS. This paper investigates the use of expert system technology for the development of a knowledge-based DSS for the planning of retail and service facilities. The

  7. Integrative pathway knowledge bases as a tool for systems molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mingyu

    2007-08-20

    There exists a sense of urgency to begin to generate a cohesive assembly of biomedical knowledge as the pace of knowledge accumulation accelerates. The urgency is in part driven by the emergence of systems molecular medicine that emphasizes the combination of systems analysis and molecular dissection in the future of medical practice and research. A potentially powerful approach is to build integrative pathway knowledge bases that link organ systems function with molecules.

  8. Knowledge management driven leadership, culture and innovation success – an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Zieba, M.; Schivinski, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This article examines the relation between knowledge management (KM) driven leadership, culture and innovation success of knowledge-intensive small and medium sized companies. By building on the previously reported research on leadership, culture, innovation , and knowledge management, we synergistically integrate d KM-driven leadership and innovation success while exploring the meditational role of culture in that. Design/methodology/approach - A conceptual model comprising three c...

  9. On challenges and opportunities of designing integrated IT platforms for supporting knowledge works in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    Designing and implementing comprehensive IT-based support environments for KM in organizations is fraught with many problems. Solving them requires intimate knowledge about the information usage in knowledge works and the scopes of technology intervention. In this paper, the Task-oriented Organizational Knowledge Management or TOKM, a design theory for building integrated IT platforms for supporting organizational KM, is proposed. TOKM brings together two apparently mutually exclusive practic...

  10. Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  11. Integrating social science knowledge into natural resource management public involvement practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    This PhD study explores the long-recognized challenge of integrating social science knowledge into NRM public involvement practice theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, the study draws on research from adult learning, continuing rofessional education and professional knowledge development...... to better understand how social science knowledge can benefit NRM public involvement practice. Empirically, the study explores the potential of NRM continuing professional education as a means for introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. The study finds social science knowledge can...... be of value to NRM public involvement prospectively and retrospectively; and that continuing professional education can be an effective means to introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. In the design of NRM continuing professional education focused on social science knowledge...

  12. An Integrated Open Approach to Capturing Systematic Knowledge for Manufacturing Process Innovation Based on Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Process innovation plays a vital role in the manufacture realization of increasingly complex new products, especially in the context of sustainable development and cleaner production. Knowledge-based innovation design can inspire designers’ creative thinking; however, the existing scattered knowledge has not yet been properly captured and organized according to Computer-Aided Process Innovation (CAPI. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated approach to tackle this non-trivial issue. By analyzing the design process of CAPI and technical features of open innovation, a novel holistic paradigm of process innovation knowledge capture based on collective intelligence (PIKC-CI is constructed from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle. Then, a multi-source innovation knowledge fusion algorithm based on semantic elements reconfiguration is applied to form new public knowledge. To ensure the credibility and orderliness of innovation knowledge refinement, a collaborative editing strategy based on knowledge lock and knowledge–social trust degree is explored. Finally, a knowledge management system MPI-OKCS integrating the proposed techniques is implemented into the pre-built CAPI general platform, and a welding process innovation example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. It is expected that our work would lay the foundation for the future knowledge-inspired CAPI and smart process planning.

  13. WE-DE-BRA-01: SCIENCE COUNCIL JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Acceleration of a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System Using Adaptive Prior Knowledge Based Image Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an adaptive prior knowledge based image estimation method to reduce the scan angle needed in the LIVE system to reconstruct 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification. Methods: The LIVE system has been previously proposed to reconstructs 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. This system uses limited-angle beam’s eye view (BEV) MV cine images acquired from the treatment beam together with the orthogonally acquired limited-angle kV projections to reconstruct 4D-CBCT images for target verification during treatment. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the CBCT images. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on projections acquired in limited angle (orthogonal 6°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of patient motion.The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of this technique with LIVE system. A lung patient was simulated with different scenario, including baseline drifts, amplitude change and phase shift. Limited-angle orthogonal kV and beam’s eye view (BEV) MV projections were generated for each scenario. The CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. Results: Using orthogonal-view of 6° kV and BEV- MV projections, the VPD/COMS values were 12.7±4.0%/0.7±0.5 mm, 13.0±5.1%/0.8±0.5 mm, and 11.4±5.4%/0.5±0.3 mm for the three scenarios, respectively. Conclusion: The

  14. SU-D-17A-01: Geometric and Dosimetric Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Reconstruction Technique Using Prior Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a 4D-CBCT reconstruction technique both geometrically and dosimetrically Methods: A prior-knowledge guided 4DC-BCT reconstruction method named the motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) has been developed. MM-FD views each phase of the 4D-CBCT as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The deformation field is first solved by principal component analysis based motion modeling, followed by constrained free-form deformation.The 4D digital extended-cardiac- torso (XCAT) phantom was used for comprehensive evaluation. Based on a simulated 4D planning CT of a lung patient, 8 different scenarios were simulated to cover the typical on-board anatomical and respiratory variations: (1) synchronized and (2) unsynchronized motion amplitude change for body and tumor; tumor (3) shrinkage and (4) expansion; tumor average position shift in (5) superior-inferior (SI) direction, (6) anterior-posterior (AP) direction and (7) SI, AP and lateral directions altogether; and (8) tumor phase shift relative to the respiratory cycle of the body. Orthogonal-view 30° projections were simulated based on the eight patient scenarios to reconstruct on-board 4D-CBCTs. For geometric evaluation, the volume-percentage-difference (VPD) was calculated to assess the volumetric differences between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumor.For dosimetric evaluation, a gated treatment plan was designed for the prior 4D-CT. The dose distributions were calculated on the reconstructed 4D-CBCTs and the ground-truth images for comparison. The MM-FD technique was compared with MM-only and FD-only techniques. Results: The average (±s.d.) VPD values of reconstructed tumors for MM-only, FDonly and MM-FD methods were 59.16%(± 26.66%), 75.98%(± 27.21%) and 5.22%(± 2.12%), respectively. The average min/max/mean dose (normalized to prescription) of the reconstructed tumors by MM-only, FD-only, MM-FD methods and ground-truth tumors were 78.0%/122.2%/108.2%, 13%/117.7%/86%, 58

  15. WE-DE-BRA-01: SCIENCE COUNCIL JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR COMPETITION WINNER: Acceleration of a Limited-Angle Intrafraction Verification (LIVE) System Using Adaptive Prior Knowledge Based Image Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Zhang, Y [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an adaptive prior knowledge based image estimation method to reduce the scan angle needed in the LIVE system to reconstruct 4D-CBCT for intrafraction verification. Methods: The LIVE system has been previously proposed to reconstructs 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. This system uses limited-angle beam’s eye view (BEV) MV cine images acquired from the treatment beam together with the orthogonally acquired limited-angle kV projections to reconstruct 4D-CBCT images for target verification during treatment. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the CBCT images. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on projections acquired in limited angle (orthogonal 6°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of patient motion.The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of this technique with LIVE system. A lung patient was simulated with different scenario, including baseline drifts, amplitude change and phase shift. Limited-angle orthogonal kV and beam’s eye view (BEV) MV projections were generated for each scenario. The CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate the reconstruction accuracy. Results: Using orthogonal-view of 6° kV and BEV- MV projections, the VPD/COMS values were 12.7±4.0%/0.7±0.5 mm, 13.0±5.1%/0.8±0.5 mm, and 11.4±5.4%/0.5±0.3 mm for the three scenarios, respectively. Conclusion: The

  16. Farmers’ Technical Knowledge about Integrated Pest Management (IPM in Olive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a sustainable approach of pest control, contributing to reduced use of pesticides and risks on human health and the environment, farmers have shown limited interest in practicing this method. The present study explored the levels of technical knowledge about integrated management of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae among olive growers in Roudbar County of Iran and factors underpinning olive farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated management. Data were collected in a survey of olive farmers, on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Almost half of the farmers (48.4% had good to excellent levels of technical knowledge of integrated management, while almost a third of the farmers (35.4% had a moderate knowledge level. However, a noticeable portion of the farmers (15.9% had poor knowledge of integrated management. Moreover, most farmers showed average knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health. While most farmers showed good levels of social participation, cooperation with institutes, and participation in extension activities, they showed low levels of community involvement (involvement in a group of people that have and share common interests with each other. Olive imports and the lack of a common action for olive fly control were perceived as the main barriers of IPM adoption among most farmers. Regression analysis revealed that increased community involvement, large area under olive farming, participation in education activities, and high farming experience promoted farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated olive fly control. Strengthening growers’ technical knowledge of IPM through community involvement and extension services among inexperienced small-scale olive farmers is recommended for reducing possible unnecessary insecticide sprays in olive production.

  17. Integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with an EHR prototype and providing customized information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2014-09-01

    When clinicians use electronic health record (EHR) systems, their ability to obtain general knowledge is often an important contribution to their ability to make more informed decisions. In this paper we describe a method by which an external, formal representation of clinical and molecular genetic knowledge can be integrated into an EHR such that customized knowledge can be delivered to clinicians in a context-appropriate manner.Web Ontology Language-Description Logic (OWL-DL) is a formal knowledge representation language that is widely used for creating, organizing and managing biomedical knowledge through the use of explicit definitions, consistent structure and a computer-processable format, particularly in biomedical fields. In this paper we describe: 1) integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with a standards-based EHR prototype, 2) presentation of customized information from the knowledge base via the EHR interface, and 3) lessons learned via the process. The integration was achieved through a combination of manual and automatic methods. Our method has advantages for scaling up to and maintaining knowledge bases of any size, with the goal of assisting clinicians and other EHR users in making better informed health care decisions.

  18. Introducing Knowledge Management into the Integrated Management System of Nuclear Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Brandner, A.; Kosilov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The analysis for introducing knowledge management into an integrated management system in nuclear organizations, conducted by NKMI, and discussed in a number of meetings in IAEA and other organizations has shown that currently there is no full and comprehensive implementation of KM in IMS. NKMI has suggested and developed a common, systematic approach for introducing Knowledge Management in the IMS of a nuclear regulatory organization, based on the concept of competence, graded approach and continuous improvement. The approach is based on the concept of integrating an initial review of all knowledge and competence needed for effective and efficient process implementation including a gap analysis and provision of compensatory measures. Knowledge resources are represented as a knowledge resource matrix, which are necessary to complete a given process successfully. The “performance” of the available knowledge resources contribute to an efficient regulatory process is also reviewed at the end of process implementation where relevant decision for enhancement of knowledge and competence are taken, including capturing, preserving, sharing and reuse of new knowledge, gained through the process implementation. The “knowledge resource matrix” approach is fully based on IAEA recommendation and has already been applied in a number of regulatory processes. (author

  19. Prior-knowledge Fitting of Accelerated Five-dimensional Echo Planar J-resolved Spectroscopic Imaging: Effect of Nonlinear Reconstruction on Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zohaib; Wilson, Neil E; Thomas, M Albert

    2017-07-24

    1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic imaging (SI) is a powerful tool capable of investigating metabolism in vivo from mul- tiple regions. However, SI techniques are time consuming, and are therefore difficult to implement clinically. By applying non-uniform sampling (NUS) and compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction, it is possible to accelerate these scans while re- taining key spectral information. One recently developed method that utilizes this type of acceleration is the five-dimensional echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (5D EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) spectra from three spatial dimensions. The prior-knowledge fitting (ProFit) algorithm is typically used to quantify 2D spectra in vivo, however the effects of NUS and CS reconstruction on the quantitation results are unknown. This study utilized a simulated brain phantom to investigate the errors introduced through the acceleration methods. Errors (normalized root mean square error >15%) were found between metabolite concentrations after twelve-fold acceleration for several low concentra- tion (OGM) human brain matter were quantified in vivo using the 5D EP-JRESI sequence with eight-fold acceleration.

  20. Integration of object-oriented knowledge representation with the CLIPS rule based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, David S.; Kamil, Hasan

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes a portion of the work aimed at developing an integrated, knowledge based environment for the development of engineering-oriented applications. An Object Representation Language (ORL) was implemented in C++ which is used to build and modify an object-oriented knowledge base. The ORL was designed in such a way so as to be easily integrated with other representation schemes that could effectively reason with the object base. Specifically, the integration of the ORL with the rule based system C Language Production Systems (CLIPS), developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will be discussed. The object-oriented knowledge representation provides a natural means of representing problem data as a collection of related objects. Objects are comprised of descriptive properties and interrelationships. The object-oriented model promotes efficient handling of the problem data by allowing knowledge to be encapsulated in objects. Data is inherited through an object network via the relationship links. Together, the two schemes complement each other in that the object-oriented approach efficiently handles problem data while the rule based knowledge is used to simulate the reasoning process. Alone, the object based knowledge is little more than an object-oriented data storage scheme; however, the CLIPS inference engine adds the mechanism to directly and automatically reason with that knowledge. In this hybrid scheme, the expert system dynamically queries for data and can modify the object base with complete access to all the functionality of the ORL from rules.

  1. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  2. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2010-09-30

    Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA), which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK) to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1) Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA), and 2) Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR). In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1) Data collection and data preparation; 2) acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK) and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB); 3) PKB-guided analysis; 4) support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited); 5) incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6) post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering), applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. This paper presents EbCA and shows the convenience of

  3. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A.; Bertolini, Luca; Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2016-01-01

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  4. Integrating Expert Knowledge into Mapping Ecosystem Services Trade-offs for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. In fact, the continued capacity of mountain regions to provide goods and services to society is threatened by the impact of environmental changes on ecosystems. Although mapping ecosystem services values is known to support sustainable resource management, the integration of spatially explicit local expert knowledge on ecosystem dynamics and social responses to global changes has not yet been integrated in the modeling process. This contribution demonstrates the importance of integrating local knowledge into the spatially explicit valuation of ecosystem services. Knowledge acquired by expert surveys flows into a GIS-based Bayesian Network for valuing forest ecosystem services under a land-use and a climate change scenario in a case study in the Swiss Alps. Results show that including expert knowledge in ecosystem services mapping not only reduces uncertainties considerably, but also has an important effect on the ecosystem services values. Particularly the iterative process between integrating expert knowledge into the modeling process and mapping ecosystem services guarantees a continuous improvement of ecosystem services values maps while opening a new way for mutual learning between scientists and stakeholders which might support adaptive resource management.

  5. An experiential approach to improving the integration of knowledge during EIA in transport planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: julio.soria-lara@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Transport Research Unit, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl [Centre for Urban Studies, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    The integration of knowledge from stakeholders and the public at large is seen as one of the biggest process-related barriers during the scoping phase of EIA application in transport planning. While the academic literature offers abundant analyses, discussions and suggestions how to overcome this problem, the proposed solutions are yet to be adequately tested in practice. In order to address this gap, we test the effectiveness of a set of interventions and trigger mechanisms for improving different aspects of knowledge integration. The interventions are tested in an experiential study with two sequential cases, representing “close-to-real-life” conditions, in the context of two cities in Andalusia, Spain. In general terms, the participants perceived that the integration of knowledge improved during the simulation of the EIA scoping phase. Certain shortcomings were also discussed, fundamentally related to how the time spent during the scoping phase was crucial to lead an effective learning process between the involved people. The study concludes with a reflection on the effectiveness of the tested interventions according to similarities and differences obtained from the two experiential case studies, as well as with a discussion of the potential to generate new knowledge through the use of experiential studies in EIA practice. - Highlights: • It tests a set of interventions and mechanisms to improve the integration of knowledge. • The scoping phase of EIA is simulated to assess the effectiveness of interventions. • Two sequential case studies are used.

  6. Knowledge-based immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplant patients--from theoretical model to clinical integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeling, Walter; Plischke, Max; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Schuh, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is a risky necessity after a patient received a kidney transplant. To reduce risks, a knowledge-based system was developed that determines the right dosage of the immunosuppresive agent Tacrolimus. A theoretical model, to classify medication blood levels as well as medication adaptions, was created using data from almost 500 patients, and over 13.000 examinations. This model was then translated into an Arden Syntax knowledge base, and integrated directly into the hospital information system of the Vienna General Hospital. In this paper we give an overview of the construction and integration of such a system.

  7. Network analysis reveals stage-specific changes in zebrafish embryo development using time course whole transcriptome profiling and prior biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Molecular networks act as the backbone of molecular activities within cells, offering a unique opportunity to better understand the mechanism of diseases. While network data usually constitute only static network maps, integrating them with time course gene expression information can provide clues to the dynamic features of these networks and unravel the mechanistic driver genes characterizing cellular responses. Time course gene expression data allow us to broadly "watch" the dynamics of the system. However, one challenge in the analysis of such data is to establish and characterize the interplay among genes that are altered at different time points in the context of a biological process or functional category. Integrative analysis of these data sources will lead us a more complete understanding of how biological entities (e.g., genes and proteins) coordinately perform their biological functions in biological systems. In this paper, we introduced a novel network-based approach to extract functional knowledge from time-dependent biological processes at a system level using time course mRNA sequencing data in zebrafish embryo development. The proposed method was applied to investigate 1α, 25(OH)2D3-altered mechanisms in zebrafish embryo development. We applied the proposed method to a public zebrafish time course mRNA-Seq dataset, containing two different treatments along four time points. We constructed networks between gene ontology biological process categories, which were enriched in differential expressed genes between consecutive time points and different conditions. The temporal propagation of 1α, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-altered transcriptional changes started from a few genes that were altered initially at earlier stage, to large groups of biological coherent genes at later stages. The most notable biological processes included neuronal and retinal development and generalized stress response. In addition, we also investigated the relationship among

  8. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmowski, K.T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  9. Knowledge mobilization in bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries: A systematic integrative review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona; Booth, Andrew; Appleby, Ben

    2017-11-01

    To review published literature to identify when and how patients and healthcare practitioners have been involved in knowledge mobilization activity and the impact this may have had on their care. Improving patient outcomes, satisfaction and quality of care is increasingly reliant on shared decision-making between health professionals and patients. Knowledge mobilization, at its simplest: "moving knowledge to where it can be most useful" is a growing field of academic study. To date, it appears that much effort has focused on moving knowledge from researchers to healthcare practitioners. Knowledge mobilization to patients is currently under-researched. Integrative review. Methods of integrative review will be used to address the review problem. PRISMA guidelines were used as a general framework to guide structuring and reporting the review. Elements of method-specific reporting guidelines for specific streams of evidence will be used as required. This review will aim to provide a broad and deep understanding of patient-practitioner-researcher engagement in knowledge mobilization activity. This synthesis of the extant literature should offer insights into the optimum characteristics of methods for bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries in knowledge mobilization action. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vertical and horizontal integration of knowledge and skills - a working model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, W D; Kroon, J

    2005-02-01

    The new integrated outcomes-based curriculum for dentistry was introduced at the University of Pretoria in 1997. The first participants graduated at the end of 2001. Educational principles that underpin the new innovative dental curriculum include vertical and horizontal integration, problem-oriented learning, student-centred learning, a holistic attitude to patient care and the promotion of oral health. The aim of this research project was to develop and assay a model to facilitate vertical integration of knowledge and skills thereby justifying the above mentioned action. The learning methodology proposed for the specific outcome of the Odontology module, namely the diagnosis of dental caries and the design of a primary preventive programme, included problem-solving as the driving force for the facilitation of vertical and horizontal integration, and an instructional design for the integration of the basic knowledge and clinical skills into a single learning programme. The paper describes the methodology of problem-oriented learning as applied in this study together with the detail of the programme. The consensus of those teachers who represent the basic and clinical sciences and who participate in this learning programme is that this model is practical and can assist vertical as well as horizontal integration of knowledge.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Flush of an Integrated Minimized Perfusion Circuit Prior to Priming Prevents Spontaneous Air Release Into the Arterial Line During Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Marco C; de Vroege, Roel; Hoohenkerk, Gerard J F; Hofman, Frederik N; Kelder, Johannes C; Buchner, Bas; de Mol, Bastian A; Bruins, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Recently, an oxygenator with an integrated centrifugal blood pump (IP) was designed to minimize priming volume and to reduce blood foreign surface contact even further. The use of this oxygenator with or without integrated arterial filter was compared with a conventional oxygenator and nonintegrated centrifugal pump. To compare the air removal characteristics 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were alternately assigned into one of three groups to be perfused with a minimized extracorporeal circuit either with the conventional oxygenator, the oxygenator with IP, or the oxygenator with IP plus integrated arterial filter (IAF). Air entering and leaving the three devices was measured accurately with a bubble counter during cardiopulmonary bypass. No significant differences between all groups were detected, considering air entering the devices. Our major finding was that in both integrated devices groups incidental spontaneous release of air into the arterial line in approximately 40% of the patients was observed. Here, detectable bolus air (>500 µm) was shown in the arterial line, whereas in the minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC) group this phenomenon was not present. We decided to conduct an amendment of the initial design with METC-approval. Ten patients were assigned to be perfused with an oxygenator with IP and IAF. Importantly, the integrated perfusion systems used in these patients were flushed with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) prior to priming of the systems. In the group with CO 2 flush no spontaneous air release was observed in all cases and this was significantly different from the initial study with the group with the integrated device and IAF. This suggests that air spilling may be caused by residual air in the integrated device. In conclusion, integration of a blood pump may cause spontaneous release of large air bubbles (>500 µm) into the arterial line, despite the presence of an integrated arterial filter. CO 2 flushing of

  12. INTEGRATION OF FRACTAL AND NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES IN PEDAGOGICAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N Dvoryatkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of statement and solution of the problem of searching of theoretical justification and development of efficient didactic mechanisms of the organization of process of pedagogical monitoring and assessment of level of knowledge of trainees can be based on convergence of the leading psychological and pedagogical, mathematical, and informational technologies with accounting of the modern achievements in science. In the article, the pedagogical expediency of realization of opportunities of means of informational technologies in monitoring and assessment of the composite mathematical knowledge, in the management of cognitive activity of students is proved. The ability to integrate fractal methods and neural network technologies in perfecting of a system of pedagogical monitoring of mathematical knowledge of trainees as a part of the automated training systems (ATS is investigated and realized in practice. It is proved that fractal methods increase the accuracy and depth of estimation of the level of proficiency of students and also complexes of intellectual operations of the integrative qualities allowing to master and apply cross-disciplinary knowledge and abilities in professional activity. Neural network technologies solve a problem of realization of the personal focused tutoring from positions of optimum individualization of mathematical education and self-realization of the person. The technology of projection of integrative system of pedagogical monitoring of knowledge of students includes the following stages: establishment of the required tutoring parameters; definition and preparation of input data for realization of integration of fractal and neural network technologies; development of the diagnostic module as a part of the block of an artificial intelligence of ATS, filling of the databases structured by system; start of system for obtaining the forecast. In development of the integrative automated system of pedagogical

  13. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating contaminants with biological effects: A case study in the St. Croix River basin, MN, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Anthony L.; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.; Lee, Kathy E.; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Perkins, Edward J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating potential adverse effects of complex chemical mixtures in the environment is challenging. One way to address that challenge is through more integrated analysis of chemical monitoring and biological effects data. In the present study, water samples from five locations near two municipal wastewater treatment plants in the St. Croix River basin, on the border of MN and WI, USA, were analyzed for 127 organic contaminants. Known chemical-gene interactions were used to develop site-specific knowledge assembly models (KAMs) and formulate hypotheses concerning possible biological effects associated with chemicals detected in water samples from each location. Additionally, hepatic gene expression data were collected for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed in situ, for 12 d, at each location. Expression data from oligonucleotide microarrays were analyzed to identify functional annotation terms enriched among the differentially-expressed probes. The general nature of many of the terms made hypothesis formulation on the basis of the transcriptome-level response alone difficult. However, integrated analysis of the transcriptome data in the context of the site-specific KAMs allowed for evaluation of the likelihood of specific chemicals contributing to observed biological responses. Thirteen chemicals (atrazine, carbamazepine, metformin, thiabendazole, diazepam, cholesterol, p-cresol, phenytoin, omeprazole, ethyromycin, 17β-estradiol, cimetidine, and estrone), for which there was statistically significant concordance between occurrence at a site and expected biological response as represented in the KAM, were identified. While not definitive, the approach provides a line of evidence for evaluating potential cause-effect relationships between components of a complex mixture of contaminants and biological effects data, which can inform subsequent monitoring and investigation.

  14. The Community for Data Integration (CDI): Building Knowledge, Networks, and Integrated Science Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L.

    2017-12-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey determined that a focused effort on data integration was necessary to capture the full scientific potential of its topically and geographically diverse data assets. The Community for Data Integration was established to fill this role, and an emphasis emerged on grassroots learning and solving of shared data integration and management challenges. Now, eight years later, the CDI has grown to over 700 members and runs monthly presentations, working groups, special training events, and an annual USGS-wide grants program. With a diverse membership of scientists, technologists, data managers, program managers, and others, there are a wide range of motivations and interests competing to drive the direction of the community. Therefore, an important role of the community coordinators is to prioritize member interests while valuing and considering many different viewpoints. To do this, new tools and mechanisms are frequently introduced to circulate information and obtain community input and feedback. The coordinators then match community interests with opportunities to address USGS priorities. As a result, the community has facilitated the implementation of USGS-wide data policies and data management procedures, produced guidelines and lessons learned for technologies like mobile applications and use of semantic web technologies, and developed technical recommendations to enable integrated science capacity for USGS leadership.

  15. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  16. Bridging Professional Teacher Knowledge for Science and Literary Integration via Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Xavier; Gallagher, Tiffany L.

    2018-01-01

    We offer insights for using design-based research (DBR) as a model for constructing professional development that supports curriculum and instructional knowledge regarding science and literacy integration. We spotlight experiences in the DBR process from data collected from a sample of four elementary teachers. Findings from interviews, focus…

  17. Sustainable Design Re-Examined: Integrated Approach to Knowledge Creation for Sustainable Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a systematic approach to the instructional framework to incorporate three aspects of sustainable design. It also aims to provide an instruction model for sustainable design stressing a collective effort to advance knowledge creation as a community. It develops a framework conjoining the concept of integrated process in…

  18. Supporting Knowledge Integration in Chemistry with a Visualization-Enhanced Inquiry Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer L.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and impact of an inquiry-oriented online curriculum that takes advantage of dynamic molecular visualizations to improve students' understanding of chemical reactions. The visualization-enhanced unit uses research-based guidelines following the knowledge integration framework to help students develop coherent…

  19. Integrating the Use of Interdisciplinary Learning Activity Task in Creating Students' Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanin, Hajah Umisuzimah Haji; Shahrill, Masitah; Tan, Abby; Mahadi, Mar Aswandi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the use of interdisciplinary learning activity task to construct students' knowledge in Mathematics, specifically on the topic of scale drawing application. The learning activity task involved more than one academic discipline, which is Mathematics, English Language, Art, Geography and integrating the Brunei Darussalam…

  20. Tensions in R&D networks : Implications for knowledge search and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritala, Paavo; Huizingh, Eelko; Almpanopoulou, Argyro; Wijbenga, Paul

    R&D Networks comprise different actors with various goals and motivations. Thus, such networks are filled with tensions that emerge from simultaneously existing, competing or contradictory organizing elements and demands. In this study, we examine the knowledge search and integration behaviour of

  1. Advancing nursing practice: redefining the theoretical and practical integration of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an alternative knowing-how knowing-that framework of nursing knowledge, which in the past has been accepted as the provenance of advanced practice. The concept of advancing practice is central to the development of nursing practice and has been seen to take on many different forms depending on its use in context. To many it has become synonymous with the work of the advanced or expert practitioner; others have viewed it as a process of continuing professional development and skills acquisition. Moreover, it is becoming closely linked with practice development. However, there is much discussion as to what constitutes the knowledge necessary for advancing and advanced practice, and it has been suggested that theoretical and practical knowledge form the cornerstone of advanced knowledge. The design of this article takes a discursive approach as to the meaning and integration of knowledge within the context of advancing nursing practice. A thematic analysis of the current discourse relating to knowledge integration models in an advancing and advanced practice arena was used to identify concurrent themes relating to the knowing-how knowing-that framework which commonly used to classify the knowledge necessary for advanced nursing practice. There is a dichotomy as to what constitutes knowledge for advanced and advancing practice. Several authors have offered a variety of differing models, yet it is the application and integration of theoretical and practical knowledge that defines and develops the advancement of nursing practice. An alternative framework offered here may allow differences in the way that nursing knowledge important for advancing practice is perceived, developed and coordinated. What has inevitably been neglected is that there are various other variables which when transposed into the existing knowing-how knowing-that framework allows for advanced knowledge to be better defined. One of the more notable variables is

  2. Integration of knowledge management system for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear facility is a long term project, handling information which begins from the design, construction and operation. Moreover, the decommissioning project is likely to be extended because of the lack of the waste disposal site especially in Japan. In this situation, because the transfer of knowledge and education to the next generation is a crucial issue, integration and implementation of a system for knowledge management is necessary in order to solve it. For this purpose, the total system of decommissioning knowledge management system (KMS) is proposed. In this system, we have to arrange, organize and systematize the data and information of the plant design, maintenance history, trouble events, waste management records etc. The collected data, information and records should be organized by computer support system e.g. data base system. It becomes a base of the explicit knowledge. Moreover, measures of extracting tacit knowledge from retiring employees are necessary. The experience of the retirees should be documented as much as possible through effective questionnaire or interview process. The integrated knowledge mentioned above should be used for the planning, implementation of dismantlement or education for the future generation. (author)

  3. Development of a NASA Integrated Technical Workforce Career Development Model Entitled Requisite Occupation Competencies and Knowledge -- the ROCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menrad, Robert J.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shares the findings of NASA's Integrated Learning and Development Program (ILDP) in its effort to reinvigorate the HANDS-ON practice of space systems engineering and project/program management through focused coursework, training opportunities, on-the job learning and special assignments. Prior to March 2005, NASA responsibility for technical workforce development (the program/project manager, systems engineering, discipline engineering, discipline engineering and associated communities) was executed by two parallel organizations. In March 2005 these organizations merged. The resulting program-ILDP-was chartered to implement an integrated competency-based development model capable of enhancing NASA's technical workforce performance as they face the complex challenges of Earth science, space science, aeronautics and human spaceflight missions. Results developed in collaboration with NASA Field Centers are reported on. This work led to definition of the agency's first integrated technical workforce development model known as the Requisite Occupation Competence and Knowledge (the ROCK). Critical processes and products are presented including: 'validation' techniques to guide model development, the Design-A-CUrriculuM (DACUM) process, and creation of the agency's first systems engineering body-of-knowledge. Findings were validated via nine focus groups from industry and government, validated with over 17 space-related organizations, at an estimated cost exceeding $300,000 (US). Masters-level programs and training programs have evolved to address the needs of these practitioner communities based upon these results. The ROCK reintroduced rigor and depth to the practitioner's development in these critical disciplines enabling their ability to take mission concepts from imagination to reality.

  4. Exploration of student's creativity by integrating STEM knowledge into creative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, Tantri; Kadarohman, Asep; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kaniawati, Ida

    2016-02-01

    Creativity is an important capability that should be held to competitive standards in the 21st century in entering the era of information and knowledge. It requires a creative generation that is able to innovate to meet the challenges of an increasingly complex future. This study examines the student's creativity level by integrating STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) knowledge to make creative products in renewable energy (solar energy). Total respondents in this study were 29 students who take applied science course. This research used qualitative and quantitative method (mixed methods), and used "4P" dimension of creativity to assess student's creativity level. The result showed a creative product is influenced by STEM knowledge that can support student's creativity while collaborating an application of knowledge, skills, and ability to solve daily problems associated with STEM.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Applying fuzzy integral for evaluating intensity of knowledge work in jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Heidary Dahooie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a framework is proposed to define and identify knowledge work intensity in jobs, quantitatively. For determining the Knowledge Work Intensity Score (KWIS of a job, it is supposed that the job comprises some tasks and KWIS of the job is determined based on knowledge intensity of these tasks. Functional Job Analysis (FJA method is applied to determine tasks of jobs and then Task’s Knowledge Intensity Score (TKIS is computed by using Fuzzy integral method. Besides, importance weight and time weight of tasks are determined by utilizing appropriate methods. Finally, KWIS is calculated by a formula composed of tasks’ TKISs and the weights. For evaluating applicability of the framework, it is applied to calculate KWISs of two jobs (Deputy of Finance and service, Laboratory technician.

  7. Integrating movement in academic classrooms: understanding, applying and advancing the knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C A; Russ, L; Vazou, S; Goh, T L; Erwin, H

    2015-08-01

    In the context of comprehensive and coordinated approaches to school health, academic classrooms have gained attention as a promising setting for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time among children. The aims of this paper are to review the rationale and knowledge base related to movement integration in academic classrooms, consider the practical applications of current knowledge to interventions and teacher education, and suggest directions for future research. Specifically, this paper (i) situates movement integration amid policy and research related to children's health and the school as a health-promoting environment; (ii) highlights the benefits of movement integration; (iii) summarizes movement integration programs and interventions; (iv) examines factors associated with classroom teachers' movement integration; (v) offers strategies for translating research to practice and (vi) forwards recommendations for future inquiry related to the effectiveness and sustainability of efforts to integrate movement into classroom routines. This paper provides a comprehensive resource for developing state-of-the-art initiatives to maximize children's movement in academic classrooms as a key strategy for important goals in both education and public health. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Landscape characterization integrating expert and local spatial knowledge of land and forest resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    2013-09-01

    In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characterization approach to enhance spatial knowledge generation about the complex human-nature interactions in landscapes in the context of Zanzibar, Tanzania. We apply an integrated landscape conceptualization as a theoretical framework where the expert and local knowledge can meet in spatial context. The characterization is based on combining multiple data sources in GIS, and involves local communities and their local spatial knowledge since the beginning into the process. Focusing on the expected information needs for community forest management, our characterization integrates physical landscape features and retrospective landscape change data with place-specific community knowledge collected through participatory GIS techniques. The characterization is established in a map form consisting of four themes and their synthesis. The characterization maps are designed to support intuitive interpretation, express the inherently uncertain nature of the data, and accompanied by photographs to enhance communication. Visual interpretation of the characterization mediates information about the character of areas and places in the studied local landscape, depicting the role of forest resources as part of the landscape entity. We conclude that landscape characterization applied in GIS is a highly potential tool for participatory land and resource management, where spatial argumentation, stakeholder communication, and empowerment are critical issues.

  9. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain?

  10. Indicators and Measurement Tools for Health Systems Integration: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Suter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite far reaching support for integrated care, conceptualizing and measuring integrated care remains challenging. This knowledge synthesis aimed to identify indicator domains and tools to measure progress towards integrated care. Methods: We used an established framework and a Delphi survey with integration experts to identify relevant measurement domains. For each domain, we searched and reviewed the literature for relevant tools. Findings: From 7,133 abstracts, we retrieved 114 unique tools. We found many quality tools to measure care coordination, patient engagement and team effectiveness/performance. In contrast, there were few tools in the domains of performance measurement and information systems, alignment of organizational goals and resource allocation. The search yielded 12 tools that measure overall integration or three or more indicator domains. Discussion: Our findings highlight a continued gap in tools to measure foundational components that support integrated care. In the absence of such targeted tools, “overall integration” tools may be useful for a broad assessment of the overall state of a system. Conclusions: Continued progress towards integrated care depends on our ability to evaluate the success of strategies across different levels and context. This study has identified 114 tools that measure integrated care across 16 domains, supporting efforts towards a unified measurement framework.

  11. Indicators and Measurement Tools for Health Systems Integration: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D.; da Silva Lima, Maria Alice Dias; Stiphout, Michelle; Janke, Robert; Witt, Regina Rigatto; Van Vliet-Brown, Cheryl; Schill, Kaela; Rostami, Mahnoush; Hepp, Shelanne; Birney, Arden; Al-Roubaiai, Fatima; Marques, Giselda Quintana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite far reaching support for integrated care, conceptualizing and measuring integrated care remains challenging. This knowledge synthesis aimed to identify indicator domains and tools to measure progress towards integrated care. Methods: We used an established framework and a Delphi survey with integration experts to identify relevant measurement domains. For each domain, we searched and reviewed the literature for relevant tools. Findings: From 7,133 abstracts, we retrieved 114 unique tools. We found many quality tools to measure care coordination, patient engagement and team effectiveness/performance. In contrast, there were few tools in the domains of performance measurement and information systems, alignment of organizational goals and resource allocation. The search yielded 12 tools that measure overall integration or three or more indicator domains. Discussion: Our findings highlight a continued gap in tools to measure foundational components that support integrated care. In the absence of such targeted tools, “overall integration” tools may be useful for a broad assessment of the overall state of a system. Conclusions: Continued progress towards integrated care depends on our ability to evaluate the success of strategies across different levels and context. This study has identified 114 tools that measure integrated care across 16 domains, supporting efforts towards a unified measurement framework. PMID:29588637

  12. Development of an integrated knowledge-base and its management tool for computerized alarm processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, a number of alarm processing techniques have been researched to reduce the number of actuated alarms for operators to deal with effectively during the abnormal as well as the normal conditions. However, the strategy that the only systems with a few clear technologies should be used as a part of an alarm annunciation system has been adopted considering the effectiveness and the reliability in actual alarm processing systems. Therefore, alarm processing systems have difficult knowledge-base maintenance problems and limited expansion or enhancement defects. To solve these shortcomings, the integrated knowledge-base which can express the general information related to all the alarm processing techniques is proposed and its management tool, Knowledge Input Tool for Alarm (KIT-A) which can handle the data of the knowledge-base efficiently is developed. Since the integrated knowledge-base with KIT-A can manipulate all the alarm information without the modification of alarm processing system itself, it is expected to considerably advance the overall capability of maintenance and enhancement of the alarm processing systems

  13. Exploration and implementation of ontology-based cultural relic knowledge map integration platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiqiang; Dong, Yiqiang

    2018-05-01

    To help designers to better carry out creative design and improve the ability of searching traditional cultural relic information, the ontology-based knowledge map construction method was explored and an integrated platform for cultural relic knowledge map was developed. First of all, the construction method of the ontology of cultural relics was put forward, and the construction of the knowledge map of cultural relics was completed based on the constructed cultural relic otology. Then, a personalized semantic retrieval framework for creative design was proposed. Finally, the integrated platform of the knowledge map of cultural relics was designed and realized. The platform was divided into two parts. One was the foreground display system, which was used for designers to search and browse cultural relics. The other was the background management system, which was for cultural experts to manage cultural relics' knowledge. The research results showed that the platform designed could improve the retrieval ability of cultural relic information. To sum up, the platform can provide a good support for the designer's creative design.

  14. A Semiautomated Framework for Integrating Expert Knowledge into Disease Marker Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hoidal, John R.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Pounds, Joel G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Rodland, Karin D.; McDermott, Jason E.

    2013-10-01

    Background. The availability of large complex data sets generated by high throughput technologies has enabled the recent proliferation of disease biomarker studies. However, a recurring problem in deriving biological information from large data sets is how to best incorporate expert knowledge into the biomarker selection process. Objective. To develop a generalizable framework that can incorporate expert knowledge into data-driven processes in a semiautomated way while providing a metric for optimization in a biomarker selection scheme. Methods. The framework was implemented as a pipeline consisting of five components for the identification of signatures from integrated clustering (ISIC). Expert knowledge was integrated into the biomarker identification process using the combination of two distinct approaches; a distance-based clustering approach and an expert knowledge-driven functional selection. Results. The utility of the developed framework ISIC was demonstrated on proteomics data from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker candidates were identified in a mouse model using ISIC and validated in a study of a human cohort. Conclusions. Expert knowledge can be introduced into a biomarker discovery process in different ways to enhance the robustness of selected marker candidates. Developing strategies for extracting orthogonal and robust features from large data sets increases the chances of success in biomarker identification.

  15. Knowledge Assisted Integrated Design of a Component and Its Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, B. P.; Kulkarni, Nagesh; Khan, Danish; Zagade, Pramod; Reddy, Sreedhar; Uppaluri, Rohith

    Integrated design of a product and its manufacturing processes would significantly reduce the total cost of the products as well as the cost of its development. However this would only be possible if we have a platform that allows us to link together simulations tools used for product design, performance evaluation and its manufacturing processes in a closed loop. In addition to that having a comprehensive knowledgebase that provides systematic knowledge guided assistance to product or process designers who may not possess in-depth design knowledge or in-depth knowledge of the simulation tools, would significantly speed up the end-to-end design process. In this paper, we propose a process and illustrate a case for achieving an integrated product and manufacturing process design assisted by knowledge support for the user to make decisions at various stages. We take transmission component design as an example. The example illustrates the design of a gear for its geometry, material selection and its manufacturing processes, particularly, carburizing-quenching and tempering, and feeding the material properties predicted during heat treatment into performance estimation in a closed loop. It also identifies and illustrates various decision stages in the integrated life cycle and discusses the use of knowledge engineering tools such as rule-based guidance, to assist the designer make informed decisions. Simulation tools developed on various commercial, open-source platforms as well as in-house tools along with knowledge engineering tools are linked to build a framework with appropriate navigation through user-friendly interfaces. This is illustrated through examples in this paper.

  16. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagbohun B.J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty’s 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%, moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95% and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56% based on their overall weights.

  17. Capturing knowledge integration through collaborations: measures of the diversity and coherence in multiple proximity dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F.; Rafols, I.; Hopkins, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to determine changes that occur as a result of collaborations that is intended to support knowledge integration. The approach combines and applies indicators of proximity, diversity, coherence and has potential applications in the study and evaluation of research collaborations. The scientometric literature has been exploring the topic of knowledge integration and interdisciplinarity for more than a decade (Bordons, 2004; Zitt, 2005; Rafols, 2014). The paper builds on the line of research that seeks to develop measures of knowledge integration, namely diversity and coherence (Rafols, 2014). Successful exchange and integration of knowledge through collaboration not only requires disciplinary or cognitive diversity, as previously studied in the scientometric literature (Rafols & Meyer, 2009; Rafols, 2014) but also other dimensions linked to the social, cultural background of the individuals involved. Economic geographers have developed a framework, the proximity framework (Boschma, 2005), identifying five features that may be important for collaborative learning which are: cognitive, social, geographical, institutional, and organisational proximities. The paper therefore proposes to use the diversity and coherence measures to not only look at diversity from a cognitive standpoint, but also apply it to the other proximities proposed in the Boschma framework. These indicators will capture the relationship occurring betweenindividuals taking part in the research and the categories (proximity dimensions) that they are associated to. This paper reviews and integrates concepts from economic geography with the scientometric literature on interdisciplinarity to form a conceptual framework that the paper applies to an illustrative case study. In order to apply the framework, the paper develops indicators for diversity and coherence that can be applied to each of Boschma’s five proximities. The illustrative case study looks at

  18. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS.

  19. Moving knowledge into action for more effective practice, programmes and policy: protocol for a research programme on integrated knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D; Kothari, Anita; McCutcheon, Chris

    2018-02-02

    Health research is conducted with the expectation that it advances knowledge and eventually translates into improved health systems and population health. However, research findings are often caught in the know-do gap: they are not acted upon in a timely way or not applied at all. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is advanced as a way to increase the relevance, applicability and impact of research. With IKT, knowledge users work with researchers throughout the research process, starting with identification of the research question. Knowledge users represent those who would be able to use research results to inform their decisions (e.g. clinicians, managers, policy makers, patients/families and others). Stakeholders are increasingly interested in the idea that IKT generates greater and faster societal impact. Stakeholders are all those who are interested in the use of research results but may not necessarily use them for their own decision-making (e.g. governments, funders, researchers, health system managers and policy makers, patients and clinicians). Although IKT is broadly accepted, the actual research supporting it is limited and there is uncertainty about how best to conduct and support IKT. This paper presents a protocol for a programme of research testing the assumption that engaging the users of research in phases of its production leads to (a) greater appreciation of and capacity to use research; (b) the production of more relevant, useful and applicable research that results in greater impact; and (c) conditions under which it is more likely that research results will influence policy, managerial and clinical decision-making. The research programme will adopt an interdisciplinary, international, cross-sector approach, using multiple and mixed methods to reflect the complex and social nature of research partnerships. We will use ongoing and future natural IKT experiments as multiple cases to study IKT in depth, and we will take advantage of the team

  20. Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, A.M.E.; Bosch, P.R.; Buijs, S.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Moors, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1)

  1. Semantic Data Integration and Knowledge Management to Represent Biological Network Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losko, Sascha; Heumann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The vast quantities of information generated by academic and industrial research groups are reflected in a rapidly growing body of scientific literature and exponentially expanding resources of formalized data, including experimental data, originating from a multitude of "-omics" platforms, phenotype information, and clinical data. For bioinformatics, the challenge remains to structure this information so that scientists can identify relevant information, to integrate this information as specific "knowledge bases," and to formalize this knowledge across multiple scientific domains to facilitate hypothesis generation and validation. Here we report on progress made in building a generic knowledge management environment capable of representing and mining both explicit and implicit knowledge and, thus, generating new knowledge. Risk management in drug discovery and clinical research is used as a typical example to illustrate this approach. In this chapter we introduce techniques and concepts (such as ontologies, semantic objects, typed relationships, contexts, graphs, and information layers) that are used to represent complex biomedical networks. The BioXM™ Knowledge Management Environment is used as an example to demonstrate how a domain such as oncology is represented and how this representation is utilized for research.

  2. Key characteristics of knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare: integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentland, Duncan; Forsyth, Kirsty; Maciver, Donald; Walsh, Mike; Murray, Richard; Irvine, Linda; Sikora, Simon

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a review of literature relating to knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare. Treatment, planning and policy decisions in contemporary nursing and healthcare should be based on sound evidence wherever possible, but research knowledge remains generally underused. Knowledge transfer and exchange initiatives aim to facilitate the accessibility, application and production of evidence and may provide solutions to this challenge. This review was conducted to help inform the design and implementation of knowledge transfer and exchange activities for a large healthcare organization. Databases: ASSIA, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. An integrative literature review was carried out including an extensive literature search. English language systematic reviews, literature reviews, primary quantitative and qualitative papers and grey literature of high relevance evaluating, describing or discussing knowledge transfer or exchange activities in healthcare were included for review (January 1990-September 2009). Thirty-three papers were reviewed (four systematic reviews, nine literature reviews, one environmental scan, nine empirical studies and ten case studies). Robust research into knowledge transfer and exchange in healthcare is limited. Analysis of a wide range of evidence indicates a number of commonly featured characteristics but further evaluation of these activities would benefit their application in facilitating evidence-based practice in nursing. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Integrating declarative knowledge programming styles and tools for building expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuceanu, M; Trausan-Matu, S; Molnar, B

    1987-01-01

    The XRL system reported in this paper is an integrated knowledge programming environment whose major research theme is the investigation of declarative knowledge programming styles and features and of the way they can be effectively integrated and used to support AI programming. This investigation is carried out in the context of the structured-object representation paradigm which provides the glue keeping XRL components together. The paper describes several declarative programming styles and associated support tools available in XRL. These include an instantiation system supporting a generalized view of the ubiquous frame installation process, a description based programming system providing a novel declarative programming style which embeds a mathematical oriented description language in the structured object environment and a transformational interpreter for using it, a semantics oriented programming framework which offers a specific semantic construct based approach supporting maintenance and evolution and a self description and self generation tool which applies the latter approach to XRL itself. 29 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Food recognition and recipe analysis: integrating visual content, context and external knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz, Luis; Min, Weiqing; Jiang, Shuqiang

    2018-01-01

    The central role of food in our individual and social life, combined with recent technological advances, has motivated a growing interest in applications that help to better monitor dietary habits as well as the exploration and retrieval of food-related information. We review how visual content, context and external knowledge can be integrated effectively into food-oriented applications, with special focus on recipe analysis and retrieval, food recommendation, and the restaurant context as em...

  5. Knowledge-based and integrated monitoring and diagnosis in autonomous power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, J. A.; Zhang, Z. Z.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique of knowledge-based and integrated monitoring and diagnosis (KBIMD) to deal with abnormalities and incipient or potential failures in autonomous power systems is presented. The KBIMD conception is discussed as a new function of autonomous power system automation. Available diagnostic modelling, system structure, principles and strategies are suggested. In order to verify the feasibility of the KBIMD, a preliminary prototype expert system is designed to simulate the KBIMD function in a main electric network of the autonomous power system.

  6. Integration of genome-wide association studies with biological knowledge identifies six novel genes related to kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel I; Fuchsberger, Christian; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Böger, Carsten A; Endlich, Karlhans; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Liu, Ching-Ti; Smith, Albert V; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D; Gierman, Hinco J; Feitosa, Mary F; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Johansson, Asa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Coassin, Stefan; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; Hu, Frank; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S; Freedman, Barry I; Giulianini, Franco; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Gieger, Christian; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Stengel, Bénédicte; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Krämer, Bernhard K; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Siscovick, David S; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul M; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M; Kao, W H Linda; Fox, Caroline S; Köttgen, Anna

    2012-12-15

    In conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analytical approaches leveraging biological information may further understanding of the pathophysiology of clinical traits. To discover novel associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, we developed a strategy for integrating prior biological knowledge into the existing GWAS data for eGFR from the CKDGen Consortium. Our strategy focuses on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in genes that are connected by functional evidence, determined by literature mining and gene ontology (GO) hierarchies, to genes near previously validated eGFR associations. It then requires association thresholds consistent with multiple testing, and finally evaluates novel candidates by independent replication. Among the samples of European ancestry, we identified a genome-wide significant SNP in FBXL20 (P = 5.6 × 10(-9)) in meta-analysis of all available data, and additional SNPs at the INHBC, LRP2, PLEKHA1, SLC3A2 and SLC7A6 genes meeting multiple-testing corrected significance for replication and overall P-values of 4.5 × 10(-4)-2.2 × 10(-7). Neither the novel PLEKHA1 nor FBXL20 associations, both further supported by association with eGFR among African Americans and with transcript abundance, would have been implicated by eGFR candidate gene approaches. LRP2, encoding the megalin receptor, was identified through connection with the previously known eGFR gene DAB2 and extends understanding of the megalin system in kidney function. These findings highlight integration of existing genome-wide association data with independent biological knowledge to uncover novel candidate eGFR associations, including candidates lacking known connections to kidney-specific pathways. The strategy may also be applicable to other clinical phenotypes, although more testing will be needed to assess its potential for discovery in general.

  7. Integrating knowledge and control into hypermedia-based training environments: Experiments with HyperCLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Randall W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The issues of knowledge representation and control in hypermedia-based training environments are discussed. The main objective is to integrate the flexible presentation capability of hypermedia with a knowledge-based approach to lesson discourse management. The instructional goals and their associated concepts are represented in a knowledge representation structure called a 'concept network'. Its functional usages are many: it is used to control the navigation through a presentation space, generate tests for student evaluation, and model the student. This architecture was implemented in HyperCLIPS, a hybrid system that creates a bridge between HyperCard, a popular hypertext-like system used for building user interfaces to data bases and other applications, and CLIPS, a highly portable government-owned expert system shell.

  8. [Knowledge produced from the outcomes of the "Nursing Outcomes Classification--NOC": integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Natália Chantal Magalhães; de Souza Oliveira, Ana Railka; de Carvalho, Emília Campos

    2015-12-01

    To identify the knowledge produced from the outcomes of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A literature review using the integrative databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Scopus Info Site (SCOPUS), during the months of August and September 2014. The review consisted of 21 articles that addressed different issues: Translation and Cultural adaptation (4.77%); Applicability in clinical practice (33.33%); and, Validation (63.90%). Analysis of these articles showed that the knowledge produced from the Nursing Outcomes Classification includes translation and cultural adaptation, evaluation of applicability and validation of its items. Considering the continuous evolution of this classification, periodic reviews should be carried out to identify the knowledge, use and effects of the NOC.

  9. Knowledge produced from the outcomes of the "Nursing Outcomes Classification - NOC": integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chantal Magalhães da Silva

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the knowledge produced from the outcomes of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC. Method: A literature review using the integrative databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, US National Library of Medicine (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and Scopus Info Site (SCOPUS, during the months of August and September 2014. Results: The review consisted of 21 articles that addressed different issues: Translation and Cultural adaptation (4.77%; Applicability in clinical practice (33.33%; and, Validation (63.90%. Analysis of these articles showed that the knowledge produced from the Nursing Outcomes Classification includes translation and cultural adaptation, evaluation of applicability and validation of its items. Conclusion: Considering the continuous evolution of this classification, periodic reviews should be carried out to identify the knowledge, use and effects of the NOC.

  10. Users Ability to Share Knowledge when Integrated in New Product Development - Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Schultz, Carsten

    their professional experiences, but also concerningissues, which go beyond their pre-defined role. The overall research question for this paper is therefore: Can usersability to share their knowledge obtained in product development integration be differentiated by topic area? Are topicareas related to their own......In technological intensive industries knowledge input from both internal and external sources is crucial (Ahuja 2000,Gulati ét al. 2000, Von Hippel 2005; Thompson 2005). A highly well informed and increasingly recognized source ofknowledge is users of these technological products. By establishing...... and maintaining a close network with key users,firms can tap into unique knowledge, which can be useful in product development processes (Urban and von Hippel1988, Shah 2000, Rothwell 1994). Previous studies have here pointed to the professional capabilities of users, whichmay generate a community of common...

  11. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  12. A Methodology for Multiple Rule System Integration and Resolution Within a Singular Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, Frank N., III

    1988-01-01

    Expert Systems which support knowledge representation by qualitative modeling techniques experience problems, when called upon to support integrated views embodying description and explanation, especially when other factors such as multiple causality, competing rule model resolution, and multiple uses of knowledge representation are included. A series of prototypes are being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the process of systems engineering, design and configuration, and diagnosis and fault management. A study involves not only a generic knowledge representation; it must also support multiple views at varying levels of description and interaction between physical elements, systems, and subsystems. Moreover, it will involve models of description and explanation for each level. This multiple model feature requires the development of control methods between rule systems and heuristics on a meta-level for each expert system involved in an integrated and larger class of expert system. The broadest possible category of interacting expert systems is described along with a general methodology for the knowledge representation and control of mutually exclusive rule systems.

  13. The Prior-project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette; Albretsen, Jørgen

    digitisation of Arthur Prior’s Nachlass kept in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The DH infrastructure in question is the Prior Virtual Lab (PVL). PVL was established in 2011 in order to provide researchers in the field of temporal logic easy access to the papers of Arthur Norman Prior (1914-1969), and officially......In this paper, we present a DH research infrastructure which relies heavily on a combination of domain knowledge with information technology. The general goal is to develop tools to aid scholars in their interpretations and understanding of temporal logic. This in turn is based on an extensive...

  14. Relationships between family physicians’ referral for palliative radiotherapy, knowledge of indications for radiotherapy, and prior training: a survey of rural and urban family physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Robert A; Lengoc, Sonca; Tyldesley, Scott; French, John; McGahan, Colleen; Soo, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to assess the relationship between FPs’ knowledge of palliative radiotherapy (RT) and referral for palliative RT. 1001 surveys were sent to FPs who work in urban, suburban, and rural practices. Respondents were tested on their knowledge of palliative radiotherapy effectiveness and asked to report their self-assessed knowledge. The response rate was 33%. FPs mean score testing their knowledge of palliative radiotherapy effectiveness was 68% (SD = 26%). The majority of FPs correctly identified that painful bone metastases (91%), airway obstruction (77%), painful local disease (85%), brain metastases (76%) and spinal cord compression (79%) can be effectively treated with RT, though few were aware that hemoptysis (42%) and hematuria (31%) can be effectively treated. There was a linear relationship between increasing involvement in palliative care and both self-assessed (p < 0.001) and tested (p = 0.02) knowledge. FPs had higher mean knowledge scores if they received post-MD training in palliative care (12% higher; p < 0.001) or radiotherapy (15% higher; p = 0.002). There was a strong relationship between FPs referral for palliative radiotherapy and both self-assessed knowledge (p < 0.001) and tested knowledge (p = 0.01). Self-assessed and tested knowledge of palliative RT is positively associated with referral for palliative RT. Since palliative RT is underutilized, further research is needed to assess whether family physician educational interventions improve palliative RT referrals. The current study suggests that studies could target family physicians already in practice, with educational interventions focusing on hemostatic and other less commonly known indications for palliative RT

  15. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  16. Exploring Alternatives for Representing and Accessing Design Knowledge About Enterprise Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Purao, Sandeep

    Enterprise integration refers to solutions that facilitate meaningful interactions among heterogeneous legacy applications. The scale, complexity and specificity of most enterprise integration efforts mean that design knowledge for enterprise integration has resisted codification. Important exceptions to this include: use of Business Process Models (BPM) to understand integration requirements; and Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP), which present designers with abstract descriptions of recurring design tactics for integrating applications. The two, however, can be at odds. BPM encourages the control flow perspective; whereas EIP codifies an operational perspective. Mapping between the two to develop coherent solutions, therefore, tends to be problematic. To bridge the gap, we suggest an approach that builds on the theory of speech acts. We develop essential components of such an approach, including a re-representation of EIP as structures of speech acts, a characterization of tasks in BPM with action types, and a mapping between speech acts and action types. These components are accompanied by inference rules that produce a mapping between sets of tasks in a business process and structures of speech acts to allow reasoning on identification of appropriate EIPs for given set of tasks. We demonstrate usefulness of the proposed approach by application to industry cases.

  17. Integrating across Episodes: Investigating the Long-term Accessibility of Self-derived Knowledge in 4-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Nicole L.; Stewart, Rebekah A.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been previously investigated, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The present research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration, as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, though performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased, irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays, even in a population in which this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259

  18. Effectiveness of a culturally integrated liver cancer education in improving HBV knowledge among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Byung Joon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) educational program in increasing HBV knowledge. Using a cluster randomized control trial to recruit participants from the community-based organization in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area; a total of 877 Asian American participants completed a self-administered pretest. HBV knowledge was the outcome measure. The intervention group received a 30-minute educational program. After the educational program, the intervention group completed a post-education survey. Six months after the education, all participants were followed by phone. The intervention group showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the control group at the 6-month follow-up (between-group difference was 1.44 for knowledge of transmission modes and 0.59 for sequelae, p education was much higher than that at the 6-month follow-up (4.18 vs. 2.07), p educational effect: Those older than 60 years reported the lowest scores in all three points. Findings suggest that this culturally integrated liver cancer educational program increased HBV knowledge. Differential strategies are needed to target age groups, separately educating those younger and those older. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incorporation of Nuclear Knowledge Management to the Integrated System of Quality and Technological Innovation in Cubaenergía

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo Rivero, I.; González García, A.; Amado Picasso, M.; Yera López, B.; Contreras, M.; López Núñez, A.; García Rodríguez, B.; Elías Hardy, L. L.; Rivero Blanco, J. M.; Peña Tornet, A.; Quintana Castillo, N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Technical knowledge management and innovation become important tools for organizations to meet the needs and expectations of the market and society in general; especially those related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Since 2011 Cubaenergia, under the model of the UNE 166002, integrated process management Scientific and Technological Innovation to the requirements of NC-ISO 9001, compliance with national regulations applicable to the sector. In September 2015 the new ISO 9001 includes a clause that makes explicit mention knowledge. Although this clause is not a standard for knowledge management nor does it imply its obligatory; Cubaenergia decided to expand its integrated management system to include the Nuclear Knowledge Management system. In this article the conceptual framework for the integration of these three systems, diagnosis in the organization and the proposed design and implementation plan of management knowledge management integrated analyzes R&D and the quality management system in Cubaenergía. (author

  20. Relationships between family physicians’ referral for palliative radiotherapy, knowledge of indications for radiotherapy, and prior training: a survey of rural and urban family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this research was to assess the relationship between FPs’ knowledge of palliative radiotherapy (RT and referral for palliative RT. Methods 1001 surveys were sent to FPs who work in urban, suburban, and rural practices. Respondents were tested on their knowledge of palliative radiotherapy effectiveness and asked to report their self-assessed knowledge. Results The response rate was 33%. FPs mean score testing their knowledge of palliative radiotherapy effectiveness was 68% (SD = 26%. The majority of FPs correctly identified that painful bone metastases (91%, airway obstruction (77%, painful local disease (85%, brain metastases (76% and spinal cord compression (79% can be effectively treated with RT, though few were aware that hemoptysis (42% and hematuria (31% can be effectively treated. There was a linear relationship between increasing involvement in palliative care and both self-assessed (p  Conclusions Self-assessed and tested knowledge of palliative RT is positively associated with referral for palliative RT. Since palliative RT is underutilized, further research is needed to assess whether family physician educational interventions improve palliative RT referrals. The current study suggests that studies could target family physicians already in practice, with educational interventions focusing on hemostatic and other less commonly known indications for palliative RT.

  1. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.

  2. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  3. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  4. The Integrated Knowledge Space - the Foundation for Enhancing the Effectiveness of the University’s Innovative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury TELNOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the implementation of Integrated Knowledge Space as an effective method for knowledge management in a global university network which will integrate all interested parties of the educational space: the faculty, scholars and business people within the framework of distributed departments on the basis of Information Centre of Disciplines (ICD. ICD enables higher education institutions to accumulate and make on-line renewal of knowledge for teaching and learning processes and for enhancing innovation potential. ICD facilitates the development of human and relational capital of integrated and interconnected educational, research and business communities.

  5. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on

  6. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on

  7. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 4 : use of knowledge integrated visual analytics system in supporting bridge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The goals of integration should be: Supporting domain oriented data analysis through the use of : knowledge augmented visual analytics system. In this project, we focus on: : Providing interactive data exploration for bridge managements. : ...

  8. An Integrated Pest Management Intervention Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices in Family Child Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Michelle; Hazard, Kimberly; Moser, Debra; Cox, Dana; Rose, Roberta; Alkon, Abbey

    2017-10-26

    To reduce young children's exposure to pesticides when attending family child care homes (FCCHs), we developed an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention for FCCH directors. First, we developed IPM educational materials and resources to provide the foundation for an IPM educational intervention for FCCHs. Next, we conducted and evaluated a six-month nurse child care health consultant (CCHC)-led education and consultation IPM intervention to increase IPM knowledge, IPM practices, IPM policies, and decrease the presence or evidence of pests. The pilot intervention study was conducted by three CCHCs in 20 FCCHs in three counties in California. Pre- and post-intervention measures were completed by the FCCH directors and observation measures were completed by the CCHCs. Results indicated significant increases in IPM knowledge, ( t -statistic (degrees of freedom), ( t (df) = 2.55(10), p child care homes to harmful chemicals.

  9. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Prudat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions and quantitative (laboratory analyses data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ. The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status. This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU and (b soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content. The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  10. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2018-02-01

    Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ) evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions) and quantitative (laboratory analyses) data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs) and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs) based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ). The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential) and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status). This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a) estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU) and (b) soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content). The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  11. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan J. Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  12. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  13. A knowledge-based approach to the design of integrated renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakumar, R.; Abouzahr, I. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Engineering Energy Lab.); Ashenayi, K. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) utilize two or more renewable energy resources and end-use technologies to supply a variety of energy needs, often in a stand-alone mode. A knowledge-based design approach that minimizes the total capital cost at a pre-selected reliability level is presented. The reliability level is quantified by the loss of power supply probability (LPSP). The procedure includes some resource-need matching based on economics, the quality of energy needed, and the characteristics of the resource. A detailed example is presented in this paper and discussed to illustrate the usefullness of the design approach.

  14. Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.

  15. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly

  16. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana; Khan, M. K.; Munive, J. E.

    2014-07-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective.

  17. Stakeholder Meeting: Integrated Knowledge Translation Approach to Address the Caregiver Support Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; McMillan, Jacqueline; Jette, Nathalie; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette C; Duggleby, Wendy; Hanson, Heather M; Parmar, Jasneet

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers are an integral and increasingly overburdened part of the health care system. There is a gap between what research evidence shows is beneficial to caregivers and what is actually provided. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, a stakeholder meeting was held among researchers, family caregivers, caregiver associations, clinicians, health care administrators, and policy makers. The objectives of the meeting were to review current research evidence and conduct multi-stakeholder dialogue on the potential gaps, facilitators, and barriers to the provision of caregiver supports. A two-day meeting was attended by 123 individuals. Three target populations of family caregivers were identified for discussion: caregivers of seniors with dementia, caregivers in end-of-life care, and caregivers of frail seniors with complex health needs. The results of this meeting can and are being used to inform the development of implementation research endeavours and policies targeted at providing evidence-informed caregiver supports.

  18. Integrating design and production planning with knowledge-based inspection planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ghaleb Y.; Ketan, Hussein S.; Adil, Mazen B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an intelligent environment to integrate design and inspection earlier to the design stage. A hybrid knowledge-based approach integrating computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) was developed, thereafter called computer-aided design and inspection planning (CADIP). CADIP was adopted for automated dimensional inspection planning. Critical functional features were screened based on certain attributes for part features for inspection planning application. Testing the model resulted in minimizing the number of probing vectors associated with the most important features in the inspected prismatic part, significant reduction in inspection costs and release of human labor. In totality, this tends to increase customer satisfaction as a final goal of the developed system. (author)

  19. Integrating knowledge across domains to advance the science of health behavior: overcoming challenges and facilitating success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Grenen, Emily G; O'Connell, Mary; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hall, Kara L; Taber, Jennifer M; Vogel, Amanda L

    2017-03-01

    Health behaviors often co-occur and have common determinants at multiple levels (e.g., individual, relational, environmental). Nevertheless, research programs often examine single health behaviors without a systematic attempt to integrate knowledge across behaviors. This paper highlights the significant potential of cross-cutting behavioral research to advance our understanding of the mechanisms and causal factors that shape health behaviors. It also offers suggestions for how researchers could develop more effective interventions. We highlight barriers to such an integrative science along with potential steps that can be taken to address these barriers. With a more nuanced understanding of health behavior, redundancies in research can be minimized, and a stronger evidence base for the development of health behavior interventions can be realized.

  20. Integrated knowledge translation strategies in the acute care of older people: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Loretta; Godfrey, Christina M; Muscedere, John; Hendrikx, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the evidence on the use of integrated knowledge translation (iKT) strategies in acute care. This information will assist in the identification of the strategies used to engage stakeholders, such as patients and decision makers, in the research process and how their involvement has influenced the implementation or integration of research into practice. The extent to which these iKT activities have occurred in the context of care of the elderly, intensively ill patient will be examined. The question that will guide this review is: What iKT strategies have been used within the acute care environment for the care of an older person, specifically: (a) where have these strategies been used, and (b) how have iKT strategies been implemented?

  1. Development the conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milana; Khan, M K; Munive, J E

    2014-01-01

    The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increasing of automation in manufacturing process. This condition switches traditional maintenance perspective of inevitable cost into the business competitive driver. Consequently, maintenance strategy and operation decision needs to be synchronized to business and manufacturing concerns. This paper shows the development of conceptual design of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operation (KBIMSO). The framework of KBIMSO is elaborated to show the process of how the KBIMSO works to reach the maintenance decision. By considering the multi-criteria of maintenance decision making, the KB system embedded with GAP and AHP to support integrated maintenance strategy and operation which is novel in this area. The KBIMSO is useful to review the existing maintenance system and give reasonable recommendation of maintenance decisions in respect to business and manufacturing perspective

  2. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  3. 49 CFR 192.915 - What knowledge and training must personnel have to carry out an integrity management program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.915 What knowledge...

  4. INTEGRATING CASE-BASED REASONING, KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH AND TSP ALGORITHM FOR MINIMUM TOUR FINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Erfani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Imagine you have traveled to an unfamiliar city. Before you start your daily tour around the city, you need to know a good route. In Network Theory (NT, this is the traveling salesman problem (TSP. A dynamic programming algorithm is often used for solving this problem. However, when the road network of the city is very complicated and dense, which is usually the case, it will take too long for the algorithm to find the shortest path. Furthermore, in reality, things are not as simple as those stated in AT. For instance, the cost of travel for the same part of the city at different times may not be the same. In this project, we have integrated TSP algorithm with AI knowledge-based approach and case-based reasoning in solving the problem. With this integration, knowledge about the geographical information and past cases are used to help TSP algorithm in finding a solution. This approach dramatically reduces the computation time required for minimum tour finding.

  5. Interdisciplinary Knowledge Integration: Genuine Scientific Inquiry or 'Full-Bodied' Red Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.

    2004-12-01

    If the development of conceptual models is going to produce rigorous rules for the integration of knowledge from different disciplines and levels of organization, it should rely on an adequate understanding of scientific interdisciplinarity. Interdisciplinarity, however, is not always a clearly understood and widely accepted concept: (i) Interdisciplinarity has been viewed by certain groups in the same context as the unification of science, which refers to the pyramidal hierarchy that reduces one domain of science to another, seeking the unity of science and searching for the ultimate scientific truth. (ii) A distinction is made between interdisciplinarity producing a new discipline and interdisciplinarity involving the continuing interaction of a variety of disciplines without leading to a separate discipline. (iii) Another distinction is made between interdisciplinarity viewed as a merely practical activity happening on an everyday basis (e.g., studying the components of structured whole in isolation and applying ad hoc combinations to yield the final result) and interdisciplinarity considered for scientific research purposes (in which case issues of disciplinary incompleteness and non-reductive autonomy to be blended with another one may arise). In view of the above, genuinely interdisciplinary and innovative knowledge integration should not be confused with cosmetic inderdisciplinarity, the latter having a superficial and ad hoc interdisciplinary character allowing disciplinary business to go on as usual at the cheap price of some interdisciplinary rhetoric. In the cosmetic case 'interdisciplinarity' is used to describe -and praise- research projects as routinely as 'full-bodied' is used to describe red wines.

  6. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  7. Integrated Knowledge Translation and Grant Development: Addressing the Research Practice Gap through Stakeholder-informed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Rosenkranz, Susan; Chaim, Gloria; Beitchman, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We describe our stakeholder engagement process for grant application development that occurred as part of our integrated knowledge translation plan and make recommendations for researchers. In phase 1, a stakeholder consultation group was developed. In phase 2, surveys regarding knowledge gathering, research agenda, and research collaboration preferences were sent to 333 cross-sectoral youth-serving organizations in Ontario, including family and consumer organizations. In phase 1, 28 stakeholders from six sectors participated in the consultation group and provided input on multiple aspects of the proposal. Through this process, 19 stakeholders adopted formal roles within the project. In phase 2, 206 surveys were received (response rate = 62%). Survey responses supported the grant focus (concurrent youth mental health and substance use problems). Respondents also prioritized project goals and provided specific feedback on research and knowledge translation. Finally, although some stakeholders chose greater involvement, most survey respondents indicated a preference for a moderate level of participation in research rather than full team membership. Despite short timelines and feasibility challenges, stakeholders can be meaningfully engaged in and contribute to the grant proposal development process. Consideration is needed for the practical challenges that stakeholder organizations face in supporting and participating in research.

  8. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  9. Interactive Knowledge Co-Production and Integration for Healthy Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of cities towards healthy urban living environments for all is a challenge that needs to be addressed through collaboration of all relevant sectors in a transdisciplinary research processes. This paper reports on the design and showcase implementation of a methodological approach, named Interactive Spatial Understanding Support System (ISUSS, that is intended to support interactive knowledge co-production and integration among practitioners and researcher in a specific local context. The approach involves the combined use of interactive maps on a MapTable and a rich picture. The goal is to stimulate, articulate and map stakeholders’ knowledge on environmental health issues to come to a shared problem understanding. Drawing on the rich seam of data gathered over the reflexive engagement with the participants in Dortmund, Germany, we explored incidences of a transdisciplinary process. Findings suggest that the approach has the potential to encourage communication and social learning geared towards a shared understanding of the holistic problem situation. Whilst locally embedded spatial knowledge was shared using interactive maps on the MapTable, the rich picture elicited issues linked to wider geographical scale as well as non-spatial drivers. The paper concludes discussing research needs to further explore the approach among various other groups, including citizens.

  10. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  11. BOWiki: an ontology-based wiki for annotation of data and integration of knowledge in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Sergio E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Ontology development and the annotation of biological data using ontologies are time-consuming exercises that currently require input from expert curators. Open, collaborative platforms for biological data annotation enable the wider scientific community to become involved in developing and maintaining such resources. However, this openness raises concerns regarding the quality and correctness of the information added to these knowledge bases. The combination of a collaborative web-based platform with logic-based approaches and Semantic Web technology can be used to address some of these challenges and concerns. Results We have developed the BOWiki, a web-based system that includes a biological core ontology. The core ontology provides background knowledge about biological types and relations. Against this background, an automated reasoner assesses the consistency of new information added to the knowledge base. The system provides a platform for research communities to integrate information and annotate data collaboratively. Availability The BOWiki and supplementary material is available at http://www.bowiki.net/. The source code is available under the GNU GPL from http://onto.eva.mpg.de/trac/BoWiki.

  12. Integrating entertainment and scientific rigor to facilitate a co-creation of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The advancing research on the changing climate system and on its impacts has uncovered the magnitude of the expectable societal implications. It therefore created substantial awareness of the problem with stakeholders and the general public. But despite this awareness, unsustainable trends have continued untamed. For a transition towards a sustainable world it is, apparently, not enough to disseminate the "scientific truth" and wait for the people to "understand". In order to remedy this problem it is rather necessary to develop new entertaining formats to communicate the complex topic in an integrated and comprehensive way. Beyond that, it could be helpful to acknowledge that science can only generate part of the knowledge that is necessary for the transformation. The nature of the problem and its deep societal implications call for a co-creation of knowledge by science and society in order to enable change. In this spirit the RAMSES project (Reconciling Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development for Cities) follows a dialogic communication approach allowing for a co-formulation of research questions by stakeholders. A web-based audio-visual guidance application presents embedded scientific information in an entertaining and intuitive way on the basis of a "complexity on demand" approach. It aims at enabling decision making despite uncertainty and it entails a reframing of the project's research according to applied and local knowledge.

  13. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  14. Formation of a Community of Practice in the Watershed Scale, with Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural communities around the world face formidable problems such as resource depletion, environmental degradation and economic decline. While the term ‘community’ is often used without clear definition or context, it can be viewed as a group of people emerging through social interaction. Through a series of collaborative action toward a shared goal, a community of practice can be formed. This paper proposes a hypothetical framework of integrated local environmental knowledge (ILEK, and applies it to analyze the processes of collaborative actions in the case of the Nishibetsu Watershed in Hokkaido, Japan. The case study identified several phases of actions, all initiated by a group of local residents on a grassroots and voluntary basis. These local resident-initiated collaborative actions had a particular confluence of elements to facilitate gradual strengthening of formal and informal institutions in the watershed scale beyond jurisdictional boundaries, making this a worthy case to study. The local residents used diverse types of knowledge, including livelihood-based technologies and skills of working as a group and with local governments, for establishing and strengthening various institutions for collaborative actions, with such knowledge being used in the manner of tools in a box of bricolage for community formation.

  15. Four (Algorithms) in One (Bag): An Integrative Framework of Knowledge for Teaching the Standard Algorithms of the Basic Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Ira; Koichu, Boris; Peled, Irit; Zaslavsky, Orit

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present an integrative framework of knowledge for teaching the standard algorithms of the four basic arithmetic operations. The framework is based on a mathematical analysis of the algorithms, a connectionist perspective on teaching mathematics and an analogy with previous frameworks of knowledge for teaching arithmetic…

  16. An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…

  17. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...

  18. A methodology for developing high-integrity knowledge base using document analysis and ECPN matrix analysis with backward simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun

    1999-02-01

    When transitions occur in large systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or industrial process plants, it is often difficult to diagnose them. Various computer-based operator-aiding systems have been developed in order to help operators diagnose the transitions of the plants. In procedures for developing knowledge base system like operator-aiding systems, the knowledge acquisition and the knowledge base verification are core activities. This dissertation describes a knowledge acquisition method and a knowledge base verification method for developing high-integrity knowledge base system of NPP expert systems. The knowledge acquisition is one of the most difficult and time-consuming activities in developing knowledge base systems. There are two kinds of knowledge acquisition methods in view of knowledge sources. One is an acquisition method from human expert. This method, however, is not adequate to acquire the knowledge of NPP expert systems because the number of experts is not sufficient. In this work, we propose a novel knowledge acquisition method through documents analysis. The knowledge base can be built correctly, rapidly, and partially automatically through this method. This method is especially useful when it is difficult to find domain experts. Reliability of knowledge base systems depends on the quality of their knowledge base. Petri Net has been used to verify knowledge bases due to their formal outputs. The methods using Petri Net however are difficult to apply to large and complex knowledge bases because the Net becomes very large and complex. Also, with Petri Net, it is difficult to find proper input patterns that make anomalies occur. In order to overcome this difficulty, in this work, the anomaly candidates detection methods are developed based on Extended CPN (ECPN) matrix analysis. This work also defines the backward simulation of CPN to find compact input patterns for anomaly detection, which starts simulation from the anomaly candidates

  19. Integrating ecological knowledge, public perception and urgency of action into invasive species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplat, Paul; Coutts, Shaun R

    2011-11-01

    Recently Prévot-Julliard and colleagues presented a concept paper on biological conservation strategies using exotic species as a case study. They emphasized the difficulty of integrating conservation into a broad picture that accounts for public perception as well as scientific knowledge. We support this general call for better integration of society in conservation research, but we believe that the original framework might misguide conservation practices if wrongly interpreted. Our objective is to complement their paper and correct a few misleading points, by showing that (1) for regions of high endemicity "reservation" may be the best conservation practice, and does not prevent public participation, (2) aiming for broad societal agreement is valuable, but in some cases risky, and always complex, and (3) calling a harmful invasive species harmful shouldn't be an issue. The Australian context provides us with many cases of the labeling of exotic species as harmful or not, using inputs from scientists, industry, and the public. Integration of social and scientific points of view can only improve conservation on the ground if it allows managers to use the ecological, economic and social impacts of exotic species to prioritize conservation actions in an operative way.

  20. E-learning and nursing assessment skills and knowledge - An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ewan W; Boulton, Jessica L; Davis, Jacqueline L

    2018-07-01

    This review examines the current evidence on the effectiveness of digital technologies or e-based learning for enhancing the skills and knowledge of nursing students in nursing assessment. This integrative review identifies themes emerging from e-learning and 'nursing assessment' literature. Literature reviews have been undertaken in relation to digital learning and nursing education, including clinical skills, clinical case studies and the nurse-educator role. Whilst perceptions of digital learning are well covered, a gap in knowledge persists for understanding the effectiveness of e-learning on nursing assessment skills and knowledge. This is important as comprehensive assessment skills and knowledge are a key competency for newly qualified nurses. The MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source electronic databases were searched for the period 2006 to 2016. Hand searching in bibliographies was also undertaken. Selection criteria for this review included: FINDINGS: Twenty articles met the selection criteria for this review, and five major themes for e-based learning were identified (a) students become self-evaluators; (b) blend and scaffold learning; (c) measurement of clinical reasoning; (d) mobile technology and Facebook are effective; and (e) training and preparation is vital. Although e-based learning programs provide a flexible teaching method, evidence suggests e-based learning alone does not exceed face-to-face patient simulation. This is particularly the case where nursing assessment learning is not scaffolded. This review demonstrates that e-based learning and traditional teaching methods used in conjunction with each other create a superior learning style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  2. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  3. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  4. A semantic web framework to integrate cancer omics data with biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, Matthew E; McCusker, James P; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-25

    The RDF triple provides a simple linguistic means of describing limitless types of information. Triples can be flexibly combined into a unified data source we call a semantic model. Semantic models open new possibilities for the integration of variegated biological data. We use Semantic Web technology to explicate high throughput clinical data in the context of fundamental biological knowledge. We have extended Corvus, a data warehouse which provides a uniform interface to various forms of Omics data, by providing a SPARQL endpoint. With the querying and reasoning tools made possible by the Semantic Web, we were able to explore quantitative semantic models retrieved from Corvus in the light of systematic biological knowledge. For this paper, we merged semantic models containing genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from melanoma samples with two semantic models of functional data - one containing Gene Ontology (GO) data, the other, regulatory networks constructed from transcription factor binding information. These two semantic models were created in an ad hoc manner but support a common interface for integration with the quantitative semantic models. Such combined semantic models allow us to pose significant translational medicine questions. Here, we study the interplay between a cell's molecular state and its response to anti-cancer therapy by exploring the resistance of cancer cells to Decitabine, a demethylating agent. We were able to generate a testable hypothesis to explain how Decitabine fights cancer - namely, that it targets apoptosis-related gene promoters predominantly in Decitabine-sensitive cell lines, thus conveying its cytotoxic effect by activating the apoptosis pathway. Our research provides a framework whereby similar hypotheses can be developed easily.

  5. Revisiting current “barefoot doctors” in border areas of China: system of services, financial issue and clinical practice prior to introducing integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiuyun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-5-years child mortality remains high in rural China. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI was introduced to China in 1998, but only a few rural areas have been included. This study aimed at assessing the current situation of the health system of rural health care and evaluating the clinical competency of village doctors in management of childhood illnesses prior to implementing IMCI programme in remote border rural areas. Methods The study was carried out in the border areas of Puer prefecture of Yunnan province. There were 182 village doctors in the list of the health bureau in these border areas. Of these, 154 (84.6% were recruited into the study. The local health system components were investigated using a qualitative approach and analyzed with triangulation of information from different sources. The clinical component was assessed objectively and quantitatively presented using descriptive statistics. Results The study found that the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS coordinated the health insurance system and the provider service through 3 tiers: village doctor, township and county hospitals. The 30 RMB per person per year premium did not cover the referral cost, and thereby decreased the number of referrals. In contrast to available treatment facilities and drug supply, the level of basic medical education of village doctors and township doctors was low. Discontent among village doctors was common, especially concerning low rates of return from the service, exceptions being procedures such as injections, which in fact may create moral hazards to the patients. Direct observation on the assessment and management of paediatric patients by village doctors revealed inadequate history taking and physical examination, inability to detect potentially serious complications, overprescription of injection and antibiotics, and underprescription of oral rehydration salts and poor quality of counseling

  6. Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Child Care Centers Improves Knowledge, Pest Control, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Nouredini, Sahar; Swartz, Alicia; Sutherland, Andrew Mason; Stephens, Michelle; Davidson, Nita A; Rose, Roberta

    To reduce young children's exposure to pests and pesticides, an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention was provided for child care center staff. The 7-month IPM education and consultation intervention was conducted by trained nurse child care health consultants in 44 child care centers in California. IPM knowledge surveys were completed by child care staff, objective IPM assessments were completed by research assistants pre- and postintervention, and activity logs were completed by the nurses. There were significant increases in IPM knowledge for the child care staff who attended workshops. There were reductions in the prevalence of pests and increases in IPM practices at the postintervention compared with the preintervention time point. The nurses consulted an average of 5.4 hours per center. A nurse-led IPM intervention in child care centers can reduce exposure to harmful substances for young children attending child care centers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dirt: Integrating Scientific and Local Knowledge to Support Global Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, G.; Herrick, J.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Hanan, N. P.; Neff, J. C.; Peters, D. P. C.; Sala, O.; Salley, S. W.; Vivoni, E. R.; Wills, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    "Dirt." "It's that elm shade, red rust clay you grew up on - That plowed up ground that your dad damned his luck on." We will draw on the first lines of the chorus from a song by Florida Georgia Line to explain how our collective research can provide insights to help prevent the next Dust Bowl, increase returns on investments in land restoration, and limit nutrient runoff to the Gulf of Mexico. Our presentation will show how we are supporting management decisions in New Mexico, Namibia and Mongolia by integrating NRCS soil survey information with an understanding of soil variability, and landscape patterns and dynamics developed at the Jornada LTER and USDA-ARS research unit, working with and drawing on related research from around the world. We will highlight work identifying wind erosion thresholds based on easily measured changes in vegetation structure. We will also demonstrate how landscape stratification by soils can be used to increase the probability of success of restoration treatments. We will end with a demonstration of a suite of mobile phone apps that are being developed to increase access to scientific knowledge by farmers, policymakers and natural resource managers around the world, and to allow them to contextualize and share their own soil-specific local knowledge. A co-benefit is the use as a crowd-sourcing tool.

  8. Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives - A learning-centered participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Susana; Llovet, Joan; Ocampo-Melgar, Anahí; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Mayor, Ángeles G; Murias, Cristina; Vallejo, V Ramón; Orr, Barron J

    2017-06-15

    The adoption of sustainable land management strategies and practices that respond to current climate and human pressures requires both assessment tools that can lead to better informed decision-making and effective knowledge-exchange mechanisms that facilitate new learning and behavior change. We propose a learning-centered participatory approach that links land management assessment and knowledge exchange and integrates science-based data and stakeholder perspectives on both biophysical and socio-economic attributes. We outline a structured procedure for a transparent assessment of land management alternatives, tailored to dryland management, that is based on (1) principles of constructivism and social learning, (2) the participation of stakeholders throughout the whole assessment process, from design to implementation, and (3) the combination of site-specific indicators, identified by local stakeholders as relevant to their particular objectives and context conditions, and science-based indicators that represent ecosystem services of drylands worldwide. The proposed procedure follows a pattern of eliciting, challenging, and self-reviewing stakeholder perspectives that aims to facilitate learning. The difference between the initial baseline perspectives and the final self-reviewed stakeholder perspectives is used as a proxy of learning. We illustrate the potential of this methodology by its application to the assessment of land uses in a Mediterranean fire-prone area in East Spain. The approach may be applied to a variety of socio-ecological systems and decision-making and governance scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservation Biology and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Integrating Academic Disciplines for Better Conservation Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Drew

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biology and environmental anthropology are disciplines that are both concerned with the identification and preservation of diversity, in one case biological and in the other cultural. Both conservation biology and the study of traditional ecoloigcal knowledge function at the nexus of the social and natural worlds, yet historically there have been major impediments to integrating the two. Here we identify linguistic, cultural, and epistemological barriers between the two disciplines. We argue that the two disciplines are uniquely positioned to inform each other and to provide critical insights and new perspectives on the way these sciences are practiced. We conclude by synthesizing common themes found in conservation success stories, and by making several suggestions on integration. These include cross-disciplinary publication, expanding memberships in professional societies and conducting multidisciplinary research based on similar interests in ecological process, taxonomy, or geography. Finally, we argue that extinction threats, be they biological or cultural/linguistic are imminent, and that by bringing these disciplines together we may be able to forge synergistic conservation programs capable of protecting the vivid splendor of life on Earth.

  10. Jodï horticultural belief, knowledge and practice: incipient or integral cultivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Zent

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticultural practices of the Jodï were previously characterized as 'incipient cultivation' but such practices were poorly described and documented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticultural products and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plant management in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant species was documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodï prolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replanting operations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops: plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of natural gaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice is well integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as 'incipient' and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.

  11. Jodï horticultural belief, knowledge and practice: incipient or integral cultivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Zent

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticulturalpractices of the Jodï were previously characterized as ‘incipient cultivation’ but such practices were poorly described anddocumented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticulturalproducts and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plantmanagement in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant specieswas documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodïprolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replantingoperations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops:plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of naturalgaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice iswell integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as‘incipient’ and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.

  12. Putative bacterial interactions from metagenomic knowledge with an integrative systems ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordron, Philippe; Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, Maria-Paz; González, Mauricio; Thiele, Sven; Siegel, Anne; Maass, Alejandro; Eveillard, Damien

    2016-02-01

    Following the trend of studies that investigate microbial ecosystems using different metagenomic techniques, we propose a new integrative systems ecology approach that aims to decipher functional roles within a consortium through the integration of genomic and metabolic knowledge at genome scale. For the sake of application, using public genomes of five bacterial strains involved in copper bioleaching: Acidiphilium cryptum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, we first reconstructed a global metabolic network. Next, using a parsimony assumption, we deciphered sets of genes, called Sets from Genome Segments (SGS), that (1) are close on their respective genomes, (2) take an active part in metabolic pathways and (3) whose associated metabolic reactions are also closely connected within metabolic networks. Overall, this SGS paradigm depicts genomic functional units that emphasize respective roles of bacterial strains to catalyze metabolic pathways and environmental processes. Our analysis suggested that only few functional metabolic genes are horizontally transferred within the consortium and that no single bacterial strain can accomplish by itself the whole copper bioleaching. The use of SGS pinpoints a functional compartmentalization among the investigated species and exhibits putative bacterial interactions necessary for promoting these pathways. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Integrative computational and experimental approaches to establish a post-myocardial infarction knowledge map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen T Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vast research efforts have been devoted to providing clinical diagnostic markers of myocardial infarction (MI, leading to over one million abstracts associated with "MI" and "Cardiovascular Diseases" in PubMed. Accumulation of the research results imposed a challenge to integrate and interpret these results. To address this problem and better understand how the left ventricle (LV remodels post-MI at both the molecular and cellular levels, we propose here an integrative framework that couples computational methods and experimental data. We selected an initial set of MI-related proteins from published human studies and constructed an MI-specific protein-protein-interaction network (MIPIN. Structural and functional analysis of the MIPIN showed that the post-MI LV exhibited increased representation of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling. Known plasma or serum expression changes of the MIPIN proteins in patients with MI were acquired by data mining of the PubMed and UniProt knowledgebase, and served as a training set to predict unlabeled MIPIN protein changes post-MI. The predictions were validated with published results in PubMed, suggesting prognosticative capability of the MIPIN. Further, we established the first knowledge map related to the post-MI response, providing a major step towards enhancing our understanding of molecular interactions specific to MI and linking the molecular interaction, cellular responses, and biological processes to quantify LV remodeling.

  14. RAId_DbS: mass-spectrometry based peptide identification web server with knowledge integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogurtsov Aleksey Y

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing scientific literature is a rich source of biological information such as disease markers. Integration of this information with data analysis may help researchers to identify possible controversies and to form useful hypotheses for further validations. In the context of proteomics studies, individualized proteomics era may be approached through consideration of amino acid substitutions/modifications as well as information from disease studies. Integration of such information with peptide searches facilitates speedy, dynamic information retrieval that may significantly benefit clinical laboratory studies. Description We have integrated from various sources annotated single amino acid polymorphisms, post-translational modifications, and their documented disease associations (if they exist into one enhanced database per organism. We have also augmented our peptide identification software RAId_DbS to take into account this information while analyzing a tandem mass spectrum. In principle, one may choose to respect or ignore the correlation of amino acid polymorphisms/modifications within each protein. The former leads to targeted searches and avoids scoring of unnecessary polymorphism/modification combinations; the latter explores possible polymorphisms in a controlled fashion. To facilitate new discoveries, RAId_DbS also allows users to conduct searches permitting novel polymorphisms as well as to search a knowledge database created by the users. Conclusion We have finished constructing enhanced databases for 17 organisms. The web link to RAId_DbS and the enhanced databases is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBResearch/qmbp/RAId_DbS/index.html. The relevant databases and binaries of RAId_DbS for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available for download from the same web page.

  15. "We Like to Listen to Stories about Fish": Integrating Indigenous Ecological and Scientific Knowledge to Inform Environmental Flow Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue E. Jackson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that apply indigenous ecological knowledge to contemporary resource management problems are increasing globally; however, few of these studies have contributed to environmental water management. We interviewed three indigenous landowning groups in a tropical Australian catchment subject to increasing water resource development pressure and trialed tools to integrate indigenous and scientific knowledge of the biology and ecology of freshwater fish to assess their water requirements. The differences, similarities, and complementarities between the knowledge of fish held by indigenous people and scientists are discussed in the context of the changing socioeconomic circumstances experienced by indigenous communities of north Australia. In addition to eliciting indigenous knowledge that confirmed field fish survey results, the approach generated knowledge that was new to both science and indigenous participants, respectively. Indigenous knowledge influenced (1 the conceptual models developed by scientists to understand the flow ecology and (2 the structure of risk assessment tools designed to understand the vulnerability of particular fish to low-flow scenarios.

  16. Integration of biological, economic and sociological knowledge by Bayesian belief networks: the interdisciplinary evaluation of potential management plans for Baltic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levontin, Polina; Kulmala, Soile; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need to evaluate fisheries management plans in a comprehensive interdisciplinary context involving stakeholders. The use of a probabilistic management model to evaluate potential management plans for Baltic salmon fisheries is demonstrated. The analysis draws on several scientific...... studies: a biological stock assessment with integrated economic analysis of the commercial fisheries, an evaluation of recreational fisheries, and a sociological study aimed at understanding stakeholder perspectives and potential commitment to alternative management plans. A Bayesian belief network is used...... is highlighted by modelling the link between commitment and implementation success. Such analyses, relying on prior knowledge, can forewarn of the consequences of management choices before they are implemented...

  17. Impaired integration of object knowledge and visual input in a case of ventral simultanagnosia with bilateral damage to area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, E Charles; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Roberts, Daniel J; Yuen, Sung Lai; Hu, Mo; Rafal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how brain damage can affect the cognitive processes that support the integration of sensory input and prior knowledge during shape perception. It is based on the first detailed study of acquired ventral simultanagnosia, which was found in a patient (M.T.) with posterior occipitotemporal lesions encompassing V4 bilaterally. Despite showing normal object recognition for single items in both accuracy and response times (RTs), and intact low-level vision assessed across an extensive battery of tests, M.T. was impaired in object identification with overlapping figures displays. Task performance was modulated by familiarity: Unlike controls, M.T. was faster with overlapping displays of abstract shapes than with overlapping displays of common objects. His performance with overlapping common object displays was also influenced by both the semantic relatedness and visual similarity of the display items. These findings challenge claims that visual perception is driven solely by feedforward mechanisms and show how brain damage can selectively impair high-level perceptual processes supporting the integration of stored knowledge and visual sensory input.

  18. Integration of knowledge to support automatic object reconstruction from images and 3D data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boochs, F.; Truong, H; Marbs, A.; Karmacharya, A.; Cruz, C.; Habed, A.; Nicolle, C.; Voisin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Object reconstruction is a important task in many fields of application as it allows to generate digital representations of our physical world used as base for analysis, planning, construction, visualization or other aims. A reconstruction itself normally is based on reliable data (images, 3D point clouds for example) expressing the object in his complete extension. This data then has to be compiled and analyzed in order to extract all necessary geometrical elements, which represent the object and form a digital copy of it. Traditional strategies are largely based on manual interaction and interpretation, because with increasing complexity of objects human understanding is inevitable to achieve acceptable and reliable results. But human interaction is time consuming and expensive, why many research has already been invested to integrate algorithmic support, what allows to speed up the process and reduce manual work load. Presently most such algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. By means of these models, which normally will represent geometrical (flatness, roughness, for example) or physical features (color, texture), the data is classified and analyzed. This is succesful for objects with a limited complexity, but gets to its limits with increasing complexity of objects. Then purely numerical strategies are not able to sufficiently model the reality. Therefore, the intention of our approach is to take human cogni-tive strategy as an example, and to simulate extraction processes based on available knowledge for the objects of interest. Such processes will introduce a semantic structure for the objects and guide the algorithms used to detect and recognize objects, which will yield a higher effectiveness. Hence, our research proposes an approach using knowledge to guide the algorithms in 3D point cloud and image processing.

  19. Knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Renata Evangelista; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Machado, Daniel Rodrigues; Braga, Vanessa Augusta; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women. an integrative review was conducted in February 2016 on the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE databases, and in the SciELO journals directory. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected. the knowledge produced comprises two main themes: "health in face of economic adversities" and "reciprocity in social support between low-income older women and their social network". health professionals, especially nurses, should be attentive to aspects related to social determinants and the health of low-income older women, highlighting the fact that they are not always the recipients of care. identificar o conhecimento produzido sobre a saúde das mulheres idosas de baixa renda. revisão integrativa realizada em fevereiro de 2016, nas bases de dados SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE e no diretório de revistas SciELO. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 24 artigos. o conhecimento produzido congrega dois temas principais: "a saúde diante das adversidades econômicas" e "reciprocidade no apoio social entre as mulheres idosas de baixa renda e sua rede social". os profissionais de saúde, em especial o enfermeiro, devem atentar para aspectos relacionados aos determinantes sociais e de saúde de mulheres idosas de baixa renda, destacando-se que elas, nem sempre, são apenas receptoras de cuidado.

  20. RNA-protein binding motifs mining with a new hybrid deep learning based cross-domain knowledge integration approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Shen, Hong Bin

    2017-01-01

    , their domain specific features and formats have posed significant computational challenges. One of current difficulties is that the cross-source shared common knowledge is at a higher abstraction level beyond the observed data, resulting in a low efficiency of direct integration of observed data across domains...... space using multiple layers of learning blocks, where the shared representations across different domains are integrated. To validate our iDeep method, we performed experiments on 31 large-scale CLIP-seq datasets, and our results show that by integrating multiple sources of data, the average AUC can...... be improved by 8% compared to the best single-source-based predictor; and through cross-domain knowledge integration at an abstraction level, it outperforms the state-of-the-art predictors by 6%. Besides the overall enhanced prediction performance, the convolutional neural network module embedded in i...

  1. Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

  2. Integrating knowledge generation with knowledge diffusion and utilization: a case study analysis of the Consortium for Applied Research and Evaluation in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Hartford, Kathleen; Schrecker, Ted; Mitchell, Beth; Lent, Barbara; Bishop, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge diffusion and utilization (KDU) have become a key focus in the health research community because of the limited success to date of research findings to inform health policies, programs and services. Yet, evidence indicates that successful KDU is often predicated on the early involvement of potential knowledge users in the conceptualization and conduct of the research and on the development of a "partnership culture". This study describes the integration of KDU theory with practice via a case study analysis of the Consortium for Applied Research and Evaluation in Mental Health (CAREMH). This qualitative study, using a single-case design, included a number of data sources: proposals, meeting minutes, presentations, publications, reports and curricula vitae of CAREMH members. CAREMH has adopted the following operational strategies to increase KDU capacity: 1) viewing research as a means and not as an end; 2) bringing the university and researcher to the community; 3) using participatory research methods; 4) embracing transdisciplinary research and interactions; and 5) using connectors. Examples of the iterative process between researchers and potential knowledge users in their contribution to knowledge generation, diffusion and utilization are provided. This case study supports the importance of early and ongoing involvement of relevant potential knowledge users in research to enhance its utilization potential. It also highlights the need for re-thinking research funding approaches.

  3. Knowledge about complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAM) among registered health care providers in Swedish surgical care: a national survey among university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Stener Victorin, Elisabet; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2012-04-12

    Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. A total of 737 (42.0%) questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in such research. Half of the participants (55.8%) were

  4. Knowledge about complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAM among registered health care providers in Swedish surgical care: a national survey among university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerså Kristofer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. Method A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. Result A total of 737 (42.0% questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in

  5. The Knowledge-Integrated Network Biomarkers Discovery for Major Adverse Cardiac Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangxu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Zhao, Hong; Cui, Kemi; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan; Hazen, Stanley L.; Li, King; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2010-01-01

    The mass spectrometry (MS) technology in clinical proteomics is very promising for discovery of new biomarkers for diseases management. To overcome the obstacles of data noises in MS analysis, we proposed a new approach of knowledge-integrated biomarker discovery using data from Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) patients. We first built up a cardiovascular-related network based on protein information coming from protein annotations in Uniprot, protein–protein interaction (PPI), and signal transduction database. Distinct from the previous machine learning methods in MS data processing, we then used statistical methods to discover biomarkers in cardiovascular-related network. Through the tradeoff between known protein information and data noises in mass spectrometry data, we finally could firmly identify those high-confident biomarkers. Most importantly, aided by protein–protein interaction network, that is, cardiovascular-related network, we proposed a new type of biomarkers, that is, network biomarkers, composed of a set of proteins and the interactions among them. The candidate network biomarkers can classify the two groups of patients more accurately than current single ones without consideration of biological molecular interaction. PMID:18665624

  6. MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana Database (MAtDB): an integrated biological knowledge resource for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Heiko; Ernst, Rebecca; Nazarov, Vladimir; Pfeifer, Lukas; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F. X.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely studied model plant. Functional genomics is intensively underway in many laboratories worldwide. Beyond the basic annotation of the primary sequence data, the annotated genetic elements of Arabidopsis must be linked to diverse biological data and higher order information such as metabolic or regulatory pathways. The MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana database MAtDB aims to provide a comprehensive resource for Arabidopsis as a genome model that serves as a primary reference for research in plants and is suitable for transfer of knowledge to other plants, especially crops. The genome sequence as a common backbone serves as a scaffold for the integration of data, while, in a complementary effort, these data are enhanced through the application of state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools. This information is visualized on a genome-wide and a gene-by-gene basis with access both for web users and applications. This report updates the information given in a previous report and provides an outlook on further developments. The MAtDB web interface can be accessed at http://mips.gsf.de/proj/thal/db. PMID:14681437

  7. A graphical user interface for RAId, a knowledge integrated proteomics analysis suite with accurate statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Brendan; Lee, Danny; Rubio, Alex; Ogurtsov, Aleksey; Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-15

    RAId is a software package that has been actively developed for the past 10 years for computationally and visually analyzing MS/MS data. Founded on rigorous statistical methods, RAId's core program computes accurate E-values for peptides and proteins identified during database searches. Making this robust tool readily accessible for the proteomics community by developing a graphical user interface (GUI) is our main goal here. We have constructed a graphical user interface to facilitate the use of RAId on users' local machines. Written in Java, RAId_GUI not only makes easy executions of RAId but also provides tools for data/spectra visualization, MS-product analysis, molecular isotopic distribution analysis, and graphing the retrieval versus the proportion of false discoveries. The results viewer displays and allows the users to download the analyses results. Both the knowledge-integrated organismal databases and the code package (containing source code, the graphical user interface, and a user manual) are available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads/raid.html .

  8. Cambodian students’ prior knowledge of projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piten, S.; Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.

    2017-09-01

    Students always bring intuitive ideas about physics into classes, which can impact what they learn and how successful they are. To examine what Cambodian students think about projectile motion, we have developed seven open-ended questions and applied into grade 11 students before (N=124) and after (N=131) conventional classes. Results revealed several consistent misconceptions, for instance, many students believed that the direction of a velocity vector of a projectile follows the curved path at every position. They also thought the direction of an acceleration (or a force) follows the direction of motion. Observed by a pilot sitting on the plane, the falling object, dropped from a plane moving at a constant initial horizontal speed, would travel backward and land after the point of its release. The greater angle of the launched projectile creates the greater horizontal range. The hand force imparted with the ball leads the ball goes straight to hit the target. The acceleration direction points from the higher position to lower position. The misconceptions will be used as primary resources to develop instructional instruments to promote Cambodian students’ understanding of projectile motion in the following work.

  9. Hierarchical pre-segmentation without prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, A.; Florack, L.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    A new method to pre-segment images by means of a hierarchical description is proposed. This description is obtained from an investigation of the deep structure of a scale space image – the input image and the Gaussian filtered ones simultaneously. We concentrate on scale space critical points –

  10. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  11. Literacy Integration of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Elementary Schools: A Case Study of Collaborative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charlene A.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of educational technology in the context of e-books has experienced slow implementation in elementary schools, specifically in early literacy instruction. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is a framework for metacognitive reflection on how the learning of subject matter can be facilitated through the use of…

  12. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  13. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Electromagnetism by Integrating Concept Maps and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj

    2015-01-01

    This case study explored the development of two pre-service teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) of electromagnetism while integrating the use of concept maps (CM) and collaborative learning (CL) strategies. The study aimed at capturing how these pre-service teachers' SMK in electromagnetism was enhanced after having been taught SMK in a…

  14. Determinants of the sustainability of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, A.; Fisser, P.; Voogt, J.; Searson, M.; Ochoa, M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher design team was introduced to in-service science teachers in Tanzania between 2011 and 2012 as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills. This study was conducted to investigate the extent of the teachers’ continuous collaboration in

  15. Students' General Knowledge of the Learning Process: A Mixed Methods Study Illustrating Integrated Data Collection and Data Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Joke H.

    2018-01-01

    There were two purposes for this mixed methods study: to investigate (a) the realistic meaning of awareness and understanding as the underlying constructs of general knowledge of the learning process and (b) a procedure for data consolidation. The participants were 11th-grade high school and first-year university students. Integrated data…

  16. Integrating shallow and deep knowledge in the design of an on-line process monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallanti, M.; Gilardoni, L.; Guida, G.; Stefanini, A.; Tomada, L.

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring and malfunctions diagnosis of complex industrial plants involves, in addition to shallow empirical knowledge about plant operation, also deep knowledge about structure and function. This paper presents the results obtained in the design and experimentation of PROP and PROP-2 systems, devoted to on-line monitoring and diagnosis of pollution phenomena in the cycle water of a thermal power plant. In particular, it focuses on PROP-2 architecture, with encompasses a four-level hierarchical knowledge base including both empirical knowledge and a deep model of the plant. Shallow knowledge is represented by production rules and event-graphs (a formalism for expressing procedural knowledge), while deep knowledge is expressed using a representation language based on the concept of component. One major contribution of the proposed approach has been to show in a running experimental system that a suitable blend of shallow and deep knowledge can offer substantial advantages over a single paradigm.

  17. Knowledge Sharing, Communities of Practice, and Learning Asset Integration - DAU's Major Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickok, John

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of Knowledge Management (KM) and knowledge communities have matured over the past decade and are being recognized as major enablers for personal learning and job performance in achieving organizational business objectives...

  18. Integration, Provenance, and Temporal Queries for Large-Scale Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge bases that summarize web information in RDF triples deliver many benefits, including support for natural language question answering and powerful structured queries that extract encyclopedic knowledge via SPARQL. Large scale knowledge bases grow rapidly in terms of scale and significance, and undergo frequent changes in both schema and content. Two critical problems have thus emerged: (i) how to support temporal queries that explore the history of knowledge bases or flash-back to th...

  19. Referential Interactions of Turkish-Learning Children with Their Caregivers about Non-Absent Objects: Integration of Non-Verbal Devices and Prior Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Beyza S.; Küntay, Aylin C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way children younger than two use non-verbal devices (i.e., deictic gestures and communicative functional acts) and pay attention to discourse status (i.e., prior mention vs. newness) of referents in interactions with caregivers. Data based on semi-naturalistic interactions with caregivers of four children, at ages 1;00,…

  20. Requirement Volatility, Standardization and Knowledge Integration in Software Projects: An Empirical Analysis on Outsourced IS Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesri Govindaraju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information systems development (ISD projects are highly complex, with different groups of people having  to collaborate and exchange their knowledge. Considering the intensity of knowledge exchange that takes place in outsourced ISD projects, in this study a conceptual model was developed, aiming to examine the influence of four antecedents, i.e. standardization, requirement volatility, internal integration, and external integration, on two dependent variables, i.e. process performance and product performance. Data  were collected from 46 software companies in four big cities in Indonesia. The collected data were examined to verify the proposed theoretical model using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM technique. The results show that process performance is significantly influenced by internal integration and standardization, while product performance is  significantly influenced by external integration and  requirement volatility. This study contributes  to a better understanding of how knowledge integration can be managed in outsourced ISD projects in view of increasing their success.

  1. How Knowledge Mapping is Being Used to Integrate Plans for Safe and Reliable Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, John

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Intelligent decisions on prioritising and planning knowledge resources depends on knowing what you need to know and when you need to know it; • A systematic identification of knowledge needs is facilitated by the use of sophisticated knowledge mapping tools; • Knowledge maps can be used for a wide range of applications, from national nuclear manpower planning through to record retention schedules; • Collaboration on a single knowledge map can ensure consistency and efficiency in the activities of different departments and agencies

  2. Integrating Statistical and Expert Knowledge to Develop Phenoregions for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetated ecosystems typically exhibit unique phenological behavior over the course of a year, suggesting that remotely sensed land surface phenology may be useful for characterizing land cover and ecoregions. However, phenology is also strongly influenced by temperature and water stress; insect, fire, and storm disturbances; and climate change over seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time scales. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a remotely sensed measure of greenness, provides a useful proxy for land surface phenology. We used NDVI for the conterminous United States (CONUS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 250 m resolution to develop phenological signatures of emergent ecological regimes called phenoregions. By applying a unsupervised, quantitative data mining technique to NDVI measurements for every eight days over the entire MODIS record, annual maps of phenoregions were developed. This technique produces a prescribed number of prototypical phenological states to which every location belongs in any year. To reduce the impact of short-term disturbances, we derived a single map of the mode of annual phenological states for the CONUS, assigning each map cell to the state with the largest integrated NDVI in cases where multiple states tie for the highest frequency. Since the data mining technique is unsupervised, individual phenoregions are not associated with an ecologically understandable label. To add automated supervision to the process, we applied the method of Mapcurves, developed by Hargrove and Hoffman, to associate individual phenoregions with labeled polygons in expert-derived maps of biomes, land cover, and ecoregions. Utilizing spatial overlays with multiple expert-derived maps, this "label-stealing"' technique exploits the knowledge contained in a collection of maps to identify biome characteristics of our statistically derived phenoregions. Generalized land cover maps were produced by combining

  3. [Integrating obtained knowledge from transcriptome data by a new framework for data analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tomokazu

    2006-01-01

    Microarray analyses facilitate the investigation of quantitative information coded in the genome by measuring transcriptome, which records the decoded information from the genome. The state of a cell and differences from other states can be studied through genome information, by comparing one set of transcriptome data to other sets. Clearly, those data should be shared and compared with researchers, and the knowledge should be integrated. Unfortunately, at present data comparisons in microarray analyses are quite difficult; the accuracy as well as the reproducibility is low. The difficulties are originated from data analyses methods. Data comparison requires an intelligent framework, such as that discussed by philosopher Sir Karl R Popper. Frameworks for microarray analyses have been developed by many efforts of bioinformatitians. The frameworks currently used are being inspected and critically discussed. By checking the mathematical models that form the practical frameworks, arbitrariness such as the lack of falsifiability has been pointed out. The paradigm in this field of analyses is also criticized by disagreement with the scientific standard, and it is shown as the origin of errors in analyses. The excessive numbers of frameworks produced in an ad hoc manner has also been criticized, since the existence of so many allows researchers to select different frameworks, discussions beyond frameworks are always difficult. A new framework that uses a parametric model is introduced with an explanation of the bases of the framework and the process of testing. Additionally, differences of obtained results by these frameworks are presented using GeneChip data, in stability of log-ratio measurements and reproducibility of analyses. The possibility of artificial decoding of genome information by an extended framework is also discussed.

  4. Knowledge Toward Cancer Pain and the Use of Opioid Analgesics Among Medical Students in their Integrated Clinical Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fidelis C. Manalo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the focal issues of barriers to pain management include the physicians’ lack of knowledge about cancer pain and negative attitudes towards opioids. Many physicians and educators attribute this, at least in part, to limited exposure to pain and palliative care education during medical school.Aim: The researcher investigated the medical students’ knowledge about cancer pain and the use of opioid analgesics.Methods: The subjects were a sample of 50 students of the University of the Philippines College of Medicine in their integrated clinical clerkship year. Descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviation, rating scales were used to determine mean knowledge score and level of confidence with opioid use. The study also identified specific areas where students exhibited good or poor knowledge of opioids.Results: Approximately sixty-nine (69% of the study respondents mentioned that pain management was given to them during their Anesthesiology lectures while a few recalled that they had these lectures during their Family Medicine rotation in Supportive, Palliative and Hospice Care. More than a third (35% of the respondents admitted to not being confident with morphine use at present. The top three reasons cited as limitations in choice of opioids for cancer pain include fear of addiction, lack of adequate knowledge and experience and fear of side effects and complications. Out of a maximum of 13 correct answers, the mean knowledge score of the medical students was 6.6 ± 2.9. Less than 16% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on cancer pain and opioid use.Conclusions: The results show that basic knowledge of the role of opioids in cancer pain management among medical students in their integrated clinical clerkship year at the University of the Philippines is poor. The findings imply a need to look into making revisions in the medical curriculum to include a training program that will enable all students to

  5. Contingencies of Self-Worth and Psychological Distress in Iranian Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery: Integrative Self-Knowledge as Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valikhani, Ahmad; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-08-01

    Although previous studies have shown that people applying for cosmetic surgery experience high-intensity psychological distress, important variables that function as protective factors have rarely been the subject of study in this population. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of low and high self-knowledge in experiencing psychological distress and contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and to identify the mediatory role of the integrative self-knowledge in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Eighty-eight patients seeking cosmetic surgery were selected and completed the contingencies of self-worth and integrative self-knowledge scales, as well as the depression, anxiety and stress scale. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis using 5000 bootstrap resampling. The results of MANOVA showed that patients seeking cosmetic surgery with high self-knowledge had lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress compared to patients with low self-knowledge. They also gained lower scores in contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others. The results of path analysis indicated that self-knowledge is a complete mediator in the relationship between contingencies of self-worth to appearance and approval from others and psychological distress. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that self-knowledge as a protective factor plays a major role in relation to the psychological distress experienced by the patients seeking cosmetic surgery. In fact, by increasing self-knowledge among this group of patients, their psychological distress can be decreased. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Indicators and measurement tools for health system integration : a knowledge synthesis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Oelke, Nelly Donszelmann; Suter, Esther; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva; Vliet-Brown, Cheryl Van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health system integration is a key component of health system reform with the goal of improving outcomes for patients, providers, and the health system. Although health systems continue to strive for better integration, current delivery of health services continues to be fragmented. A key gap in the literature is the lack of information on what successful integration looks like and how to measure achievement towards an integrated system. This multi-site study protocol builds on a ...

  7. Risk factors of breast cancer and knowledge about the disease: an integrative revision of Latin American studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferreira de Araújo Jerônimo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this integrative review was to compare Latin American literature about risk and knowledge on breast cancer. Of 47 studies selected, 20 were about knowledge or awareness and 27 about risk of breast cancer. English was the dominant language in studies about risk, whereas studies about knowledge were mainly written in Spanish or Portuguese. Studies about knowledge were all cross- sectional, whereas case- control studies dominated authors’ interest about risk of breast cancer. Studies about knowledge were mainly focused on early detection of the disease and the most common study objective was breast self- examination (N = 14. In contrast, few studies about risk of breast cancer focused on early detection (N = 5. Obesity and overweight (N = 14, family history (N = 13, decreased parity (N = 12, and short breastfeeding duration (N = 10 were among the most frequent identified risk factors. Socio- economic factors such as income and educational level had variable effects on breast cancer risk and affected also knowledge of women about risk factors and early detection. Present results indicated that studies about risk of breast cancer were more often based on a better sound analytical background, compared to studies about knowledge, which were mostly descriptive.

  8. OECD/NEA data bank scientific and integral experiments databases in support of knowledge preservation and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Kodeli, I.; Mompean, F.J.; Briggs, J.B.; Gado, J.; Hasegawa, A.; D'hondt, P.; Wiesenack, W.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: 1) Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications; 2) Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use; 3) Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: 1) IRPhE - International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, 2) SINBAD - a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), 3) IFPE - International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, 4) TDB - The Thermochemical Database Project, 5) ICSBE - International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations, 6) CCVM - CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB. (author)

  9. Formalizing knowledge on international environmental regimes: A first step towards integrating political science in integrated assessments of global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, M.G.; Janssen, P.H.M.; Kok, M.T.J.; Frantzi, S.; Dellas, E.D.; Pattberg, P.H.; Petersen, A.C.; Biermann, F.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental regimes are considered key factors in dealing with global environmental change problems. It is important to understand if and how regimes are effective in tackling these problems, which requires knowledge on their potential impact on these problems as well as on their

  10. Innovative knowledge sharing, supply chain integration and firm performance of Australian manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, Prakash J.; Power, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A number of reports show that innovation in Australian manufacturing firms is declining. We propose that better knowledge sharing practices can assist these firms to become more innovative. In this paper, we examine this proposition by empirically testing the relationship between knowledge sharing

  11. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge with western science for optimal natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been recognized within indigenous communities for millennia; however, traditional ecological knowledge has received growing attention within the western science (WS) paradigm over the past twenty-five years. Federal agencies, national organizations, and university programs dedicated to natural resource management are beginning...

  12. Knowledge Systems and Value Chain Integration: The Case of Linseed Production in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagwiza, Clarietta; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study uses data from a sample of 150 oilseed farming households from Arsi Robe, Ethiopia, to assess the impact of different knowledge bases (education, training and experience) and their interactions on linseed productivity. Methodology: A multiple regression analysis was employed to assess the combined effect of the knowledge bases,…

  13. Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Robin Wall

    2012-01-01

    Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

  14. The role of boundary organizations in co-management: examining the politics of knowledge integration in a marine protected area in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella J. Gray

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are an increasingly popular tool for management of the marine commons. Effective governance is essential if MPAs are to achieve their objectives, yet many MPAs face conflicts and governance challenges, including lack of trust and knowledge integration between fishers, scientists, and policy makers. This paper considers the role of a boundary organization in facilitating knowledge integration in a co-managed MPA, the Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Marine Reserve in Belize. Boundary organizations can play an important role in resource management, by bridging the science-policy divide, facilitating knowledge integration, and enabling communication in conditions of uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Belize, the paper identifies four challenges for knowledge integration. First, actors have divergent perspectives on whether and how knowledge is being integrated. Second, actors disagree on resource conditions within the MPA and how these should be understood. Third, in order to maintain accountability with multiple actors, including fishers, government, and funders, the boundary organization has promoted the importance of different types of knowledge for different purposes (science and fishers’ knowledge, rather than the integration of these. Finally, a lack of trust and uneven power relations make it difficult to separate knowledge claims from political claims. However, even if knowledge integration proves difficult, boundary organizations may still play an important role by maintaining accountability, providing space for conflicting understandings to co-exist, and ultimately for governance institutions to evolve.

  15. Toward the integration of expert knowledge and instrumental data to control food processes: application to Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Baudrit, C; Corrieu, G

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the cheese ripening process remains a challenge because of its complexity. We still lack the knowledge necessary to understand the interactions that take place at different levels of scale during the process. However, information may be gathered from expert knowledge. Combining this expertise with knowledge extracted from experimental databases may allow a better understanding of the entire ripening process. The aim of this study was to elicit expert knowledge and to check its validity to assess the evolution of organoleptic quality during a dynamic food process: Camembert cheese ripening. Experiments on a pilot scale were carried out at different temperatures and relative humidities to obtain contrasting ripening kinetics. During these experiments, macroscopic evolution was evaluated from an expert's point of view and instrumental measurements were carried out to simultaneously monitor microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical kinetics. A correlation of 76% was established between the microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical data and the sensory phases measured according to expert knowledge, highlighting the validity of the experts' measurements. In the future, it is hoped that this expert knowledge may be integrated into food process models to build better decision-aid systems that will make it possible to preserve organoleptic qualities by linking them to other phenomena at the microscopic level. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An integrated knowledge-based and optimization tool for the sustainable selection of wastewater treatment process concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, A.; Cheali, Peam; Gómez, V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has involved an interest in improving the alternative treatment selection process. In this study, an integrated framework including an intelligent knowledge-based system and superstructure-based optimization has been developed and applied...... to a real case study. Hence, a multi-criteria analysis together with mathematical models is applied to generate a ranked short-list of feasible treatments for three different scenarios. Finally, the uncertainty analysis performed allows for increasing the quality and robustness of the decisions considering...... benefit and synergy is achieved when both tools are integrated because expert knowledge and expertise are considered together with mathematical models to select the most appropriate treatment alternative...

  17. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  18. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  19. Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management of Service and Product in the Internet of Things: Semantic Framework for Knowledge Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Min-Jung; Grozel, Clément; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2016-07-08

    This paper describes our conceptual framework of closed-loop lifecycle information sharing for product-service in the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework is based on the ontology model of product-service and a type of IoT message standard, Open Messaging Interface (O-MI) and Open Data Format (O-DF), which ensures data communication. (1) BACKGROUND: Based on an existing product lifecycle management (PLM) methodology, we enhanced the ontology model for the purpose of integrating efficiently the product-service ontology model that was newly developed; (2) METHODS: The IoT message transfer layer is vertically integrated into a semantic knowledge framework inside which a Semantic Info-Node Agent (SINA) uses the message format as a common protocol of product-service lifecycle data transfer; (3) RESULTS: The product-service ontology model facilitates information retrieval and knowledge extraction during the product lifecycle, while making more information available for the sake of service business creation. The vertical integration of IoT message transfer, encompassing all semantic layers, helps achieve a more flexible and modular approach to knowledge sharing in an IoT environment; (4) Contribution: A semantic data annotation applied to IoT can contribute to enhancing collected data types, which entails a richer knowledge extraction. The ontology-based PLM model enables as well the horizontal integration of heterogeneous PLM data while breaking traditional vertical information silos; (5) CONCLUSION: The framework was applied to a fictive case study with an electric car service for the purpose of demonstration. For the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the approach, the semantic model is implemented in Sesame APIs, which play the role of an Internet-connected Resource Description Framework (RDF) database.

  20. Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management of Service and Product in the Internet of Things: Semantic Framework for Knowledge Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jung Yoo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes our conceptual framework of closed-loop lifecycle information sharing for product-service in the Internet of Things (IoT. The framework is based on the ontology model of product-service and a type of IoT message standard, Open Messaging Interface (O-MI and Open Data Format (O-DF, which ensures data communication. (1 Background: Based on an existing product lifecycle management (PLM methodology, we enhanced the ontology model for the purpose of integrating efficiently the product-service ontology model that was newly developed; (2 Methods: The IoT message transfer layer is vertically integrated into a semantic knowledge framework inside which a Semantic Info-Node Agent (SINA uses the message format as a common protocol of product-service lifecycle data transfer; (3 Results: The product-service ontology model facilitates information retrieval and knowledge extraction during the product lifecycle, while making more information available for the sake of service business creation. The vertical integration of IoT message transfer, encompassing all semantic layers, helps achieve a more flexible and modular approach to knowledge sharing in an IoT environment; (4 Contribution: A semantic data annotation applied to IoT can contribute to enhancing collected data types, which entails a richer knowledge extraction. The ontology-based PLM model enables as well the horizontal integration of heterogeneous PLM data while breaking traditional vertical information silos; (5 Conclusion: The framework was applied to a fictive case study with an electric car service for the purpose of demonstration. For the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the approach, the semantic model is implemented in Sesame APIs, which play the role of an Internet-connected Resource Description Framework (RDF database.

  1. Closed-Loop Lifecycle Management of Service and Product in the Internet of Things: Semantic Framework for Knowledge Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Min-Jung; Grozel, Clément; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes our conceptual framework of closed-loop lifecycle information sharing for product-service in the Internet of Things (IoT). The framework is based on the ontology model of product-service and a type of IoT message standard, Open Messaging Interface (O-MI) and Open Data Format (O-DF), which ensures data communication. (1) Background: Based on an existing product lifecycle management (PLM) methodology, we enhanced the ontology model for the purpose of integrating efficiently the product-service ontology model that was newly developed; (2) Methods: The IoT message transfer layer is vertically integrated into a semantic knowledge framework inside which a Semantic Info-Node Agent (SINA) uses the message format as a common protocol of product-service lifecycle data transfer; (3) Results: The product-service ontology model facilitates information retrieval and knowledge extraction during the product lifecycle, while making more information available for the sake of service business creation. The vertical integration of IoT message transfer, encompassing all semantic layers, helps achieve a more flexible and modular approach to knowledge sharing in an IoT environment; (4) Contribution: A semantic data annotation applied to IoT can contribute to enhancing collected data types, which entails a richer knowledge extraction. The ontology-based PLM model enables as well the horizontal integration of heterogeneous PLM data while breaking traditional vertical information silos; (5) Conclusion: The framework was applied to a fictive case study with an electric car service for the purpose of demonstration. For the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of the approach, the semantic model is implemented in Sesame APIs, which play the role of an Internet-connected Resource Description Framework (RDF) database. PMID:27399717

  2. The functionality of biological knowledge in the workplace. Integrating school and workplace learning about reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazereeuw, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on a design research project about a learning, supervising and teaching strategy to enable students in agricultural preparatory vocational secondary education (VMBO) to recognize the functionality of biological knowledge of reproduction in work placement sites. Although

  3. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations with Real-World Knowledge: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; Fisher, Kristie J.; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)--N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving…

  4. Self-Monitoring and Knowledge-Building in Learning by Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Rod D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has established that learning by teaching depends upon peer tutors' engagement in knowledge-building, in which tutors integrate their knowledge and generate new knowledge through reasoning. However, many tutors adopt a "knowledge-telling bias" defined by shallow summarizing of source materials and didactic lectures.…

  5. Knowledge-based inspection:modelling complex processes with the integrated Safeguards Modelling Method (iSMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Increased level of complexity in almost every discipline and operation today raises the demand for knowledge in order to successfully run an organization whether to generate profit or to attain a non-profit mission. Traditional way of transferring knowledge to information systems rich in data structures and complex algorithms continue to hinder the ability to swiftly turnover concepts into operations. Diagrammatic modelling commonly applied in engineering in order to represent concepts or reality remains to be an excellent way of converging knowledge from domain experts. The nuclear verification domain represents ever more a matter which has great importance to the World safety and security. Demand for knowledge about nuclear processes and verification activities used to offset potential misuse of nuclear technology will intensify with the growth of the subject technology. This Doctoral thesis contributes with a model-based approach for representing complex process such as nuclear inspections. The work presented contributes to other domains characterized with knowledge intensive and complex processes. Based on characteristics of a complex process a conceptual framework was established as the theoretical basis for creating a number of modelling languages to represent the domain. The integrated Safeguards Modelling Method (iSMM) is formalized through an integrated meta-model. The diagrammatic modelling languages represent the verification domain and relevant nuclear verification aspects. Such a meta-model conceptualizes the relation between practices of process management, knowledge management and domain specific verification principles. This fusion is considered as necessary in order to create quality processes. The study also extends the formalization achieved through a meta-model by contributing with a formalization language based on Pattern Theory. Through the use of graphical and mathematical constructs of the theory, process structures are formalized enhancing

  6. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT PROCESSES: AN INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    HENAO-CALAD, MONICA; RIVERA-MONTOYA, PAULA; URIBE-OCHOA, BEATRIZ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intellectual property management, knowledge management are disciplines that have been treated independently, both in academia and in the organizational field. Through the legal discipline of intellectual property, the former manages intangible assets that are eligible for protection (copyright, patents and trademarks, among others) leaving aside those assets that cannot be realized in any way. The latter is devoted to the processes of knowledge management in general, namely, the know...

  7. Integration of Structural Knowledge in Design Studio Project: Assessment Study of Curriculum In Architecture Course in University Of Malaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural education should advance in parallel with the industrial growth of building technology. Universities as producers of future architects have yet to develop curriculums for building technology to suit the growth of the building industry. This gap between education and industrial growth has been a topic of debate for many researchers who are concerned about architectural pedagogy. Architectural instruction further aggravated the problem whereby in most architectural schools worldwide, teaching is divided between the design studio, where the design projects are taught and lecture classes where the technical parts are taught. The latter should be integrated with design studio to enhance design levels. Students face difficulty integrating and applying the structural knowledge gained from structure classes into their design. One explanation for this deficiency is because the current architectural structure subject's content is borrowed from an engineering syllabus. This study will examine the course content, instruction styles and method of teaching structure subjects and will investigate the learning outcomes of design studio through students' performance and perception in integrating structural knowledge in their design projects. Respondents were students from Year 1 to Year 5 doing their Bachelor of Science in Architecture and Bachelor of Architecture degrees in University of Malaya. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the design studio coordinators and structure lecturers. This study aims to find the ideal course content/method of teaching to facilitate more integration between structure and design studio.

  8. Integración de saberes para el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa Integrating knowledge to foster communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de la Caridad Cabrera Reyes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the findings of a research intended to foster the communicative competence of first year students of bachelors in Education and Language Teaching. The study of the bibliography allows the construction of a framework related to the integration of knowledge, by examining documents it was possible to establish the integrative nucleus, and modeling allows the design of the proposal, whereas the procedures of the action-research approach lead the practical introduction of the proposal and controlling its results. The paper offers the integrative nucleus for communicative competence training, the definition and proposition of comprehensive lesson needed to pursue it and the impact of the proposal on a sample of students with low levels of communicative competence. Keywords:verbal communication, language instruction, language skills, language enrichment.

  9. Broad knowledge of information technologies: a prerequisite for the effective management of the integrated information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, H.B.

    1980-09-01

    There is a trend towards the bringing together of various information technologies into integrated information systems. The managers of these total systems therefore must be familiar with each of the component technologies and how they may be combined into a total information system. To accomplish this, the effective manager should first define the overall system as an integrated flow of information with each step identified; then, the alternate technologies applicable to each step may be selected. Methods of becoming technologically aware are suggested and examples of integrated systems are discussed.

  10. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  11. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  12. Towards transdisciplinarity in Arctic sustainability knowledge co-production: Socially-Oriented Observations as a participatory integrated activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana; Volkov, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The paper is an attempt to tie together main biogeophysical and social science projects under the auspice of interdisciplinary sustainability science development. Special attention is put to the necessity of the transdisciplinary knowledge co-production based on activities and problem-solutions approaches. It puts attention to the role of monitoring activities in sustainability interdisciplinary science and transdisciplinary knowledge evolution in the Arctic. Socially focused monitoring named Socially-Oriented Observations creating a transdisciplinary space is viewed as one of sources of learning and transformations towards sustainability making possible to shape rapid changes happening in the Arctic based on sustainability knowledge co-production. Continuous Socially-Oriented Observations integrating scientific, education and monitoring methods enables to define adaptation and transformation pathways in the Arctic - the most rapidly changing region of our planet. Socially-Oriented Observations are based on the existing and developing interdisciplinary scientific approaches emerged within natural science and social science projects, sustainable development and resilience concepts putting principle attention to building sustainable and resilient socio-ecological systems. It is argued that the Arctic sustainability science is a valuable component of the whole and broader system of the Arctic Sustainability knowledge co-produced with the help of transdisciplinary approaches integrating science, local/traditional knowledge, entrepreneurship, education, decision-making. Socially-Oriented Observations are designed to be a transdisciplinary interactive continuous participatory process empowering deliberate choices of people that can shape the changes and enable transformation towards sustainability. Approaches of Socially-Oriented Observations and methods of implementation that have been developed since the IPY 2007/2008 and being practiced in different regions of the

  13. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  14. ERP and Knowledge Management Integration: The Case of Malaysian Business Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Kuppusamy, Mudiarasan

    2010-01-01

    In order to compete in a global environment, Malaysian business firms need to improve their products and services through best practices. This paper aims to investigate the critical success factors to adopt Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) with knowledge management (KM) strategies among Malaysian business firms. In order to achieve the research…

  15. Integrating science with farmer knowledge: Sorghum diversity management in north-east Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudadjie, C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:   Convergence of sciences, diversity management, experimentation, farmer knowledge, genetic diversity, Ghana, plant variation, private sector, research, Sorghum

  16. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2016-01-01

    of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, while dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate...

  17. Investigating Chinese University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Plagiarism from an Integrated Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…

  18. Workshops as practicum's to improve integration and knowledge exchange in collaborative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.; Zeiler, W.; Emmitt, S.; Prins, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooperation between the various disciplines interacting in an architectural design process is often inadequate or lacking. This is due to the growing complexity of building design processes involving many experts from different disciplines, having a different knowledge background, view and

  19. Integrating the Indigenous Knowledge of Borana Pastoralists into Rangeland Management Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Pastoralists' indigenous knowledge (IK) about ecology and social organization led to rangeland-management strategies appropriate to deal with the erratic rainfall in African drylands. Herd mobility was traditionally practiced as the key strategy to make use of the scattered rangeland resources on a large scale.

  20. PIRPLE: a penalized-likelihood framework for incorporation of prior images in CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stayman, J Webster; Dang, Hao; Ding, Yifu; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of diagnosis and treatment, it is common for a number of imaging studies to be acquired. Such imaging sequences can provide substantial patient-specific prior knowledge about the anatomy that can be incorporated into a prior-image-based tomographic reconstruction for improved image quality and better dose utilization. We present a general methodology using a model-based reconstruction approach including formulations of the measurement noise that also integrates prior images. This penalized-likelihood technique adopts a sparsity enforcing penalty that incorporates prior information yet allows for change between the current reconstruction and the prior image. Moreover, since prior images are generally not registered with the current image volume, we present a modified model-based approach that seeks a joint registration of the prior image in addition to the reconstruction of projection data. We demonstrate that the combined prior-image- and model-based technique outperforms methods that ignore the prior data or lack a noise model. Moreover, we demonstrate the importance of registration for prior-image-based reconstruction methods and show that the prior-image-registered penalized-likelihood estimation (PIRPLE) approach can maintain a high level of image quality in the presence of noisy and undersampled projection data. (paper)

  1. Organizational knowledge and capabilities in healthcare: Deconstructing and integrating diverse perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jenna M; Brown, Adalsteinn; Baker, G Ross

    2017-01-01

    Diverse concepts and bodies of work exist in the academic literature to guide research and practice on organizational knowledge and capabilities. However, these concepts have largely developed in parallel with minimal cross-fertilization, particularly in the healthcare domain. This contributes to confusion regarding conceptual boundaries and relationships, and to a lack of application of potentially useful evidence. The aim of this article is to assess three concepts associated with organizational knowledge content—intellectual capital, organizational core competencies, and dynamic capabilities—and to propose an agenda for future research. We conducted a literature review to identify and synthesize papers that apply the concepts of intellectual capital, organizational core competencies, and dynamic capabilities in healthcare settings. We explore the meaning of these concepts, summarize and critique associated healthcare research, and propose a high-level framework for conceptualizing how the concepts are related to each other. To support application of the concepts in practice, we conducted a case study of a healthcare organization. Through document review and interviews with current and former leaders, we identify and describe the organization’s intellectual capital, organizational core competencies, and dynamic capabilities. The review demonstrates that efforts to identify, understand, and improve organizational knowledge have been limited in health services research. In the literature on healthcare, we identified 38 papers on intellectual capital, 4 on core competencies, and 5 on dynamic capabilities. We link these disparate fields of inquiry by conceptualizing the three concepts as distinct, but overlapping concepts influenced by broader organizational learning and knowledge management processes. To aid healthcare researchers in studying and applying a knowledge-based view of organizational performance, we propose an agenda for future research involving

  2. The Predominance Of Integrative Tests Over Discrete Point Tests In Evaluating The Medical Students' General English Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Heydarpour Meymeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Multiple choice tests are the most common type of tests used in evaluating the general English knowledge of the students in most medical universities, however the efficacy of these tests are not examined precisely. Wecompare and examine the integrative tests and discrete point tests as measures of the English language knowledge of medical students.Methods: Three tests were given to 60 undergraduate physiotherapy and Audiology students in their second year of study (after passing their general English course. They were divided into 2 groups.The first test for both groups was an integrative test, writing. The second test was a multiple - choice test 0.(prepositions for group one and a multiple - choice test of tensesfor group two. The same items which were mostfi-equently used wrongly in thefirst test were used in the items of the second test. A third test, a TOEFL, was given to the subjects in order to estimate the correlation between this test and tests one and two.Results: The students performed better in the second test, discrete point test rather than the first which was an integrative test. The same grammatical mistakes in the composition were used correctly in the multiple choice tests by the students.Conclusion:Our findings show that student perform better in non-productive rather than productive test. Since being competent English language user is an expected outcome of university language courses it seems warranted to switch to integrative tests as a measure of English language competency.Keywords: INTEGRATIVE TESTS, ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR MEDICINE, ACADEMIC ENGLISH

  3. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  4. Modern tendencies in psychotherapy: The specialisation of practice and knowledge integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilov-Jerković Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers chronological and theoretical development of psychotherapy with the aim of formulating psychotherapeutic paradigm as an expression of scientific improvement in this field, as well as methodological and empirical assumption of integrative models in the psychotherapy. Special attention is paid to the phenomena that have characterised the field of psychotherapy in recent time, such as, on one hand, the emphasis on the increased need for the empirical evaluation of practice and accompanied trend regarding specialisation, and, on the other hand, the strengthening of the trend towards defining and researching general change mechanisms from wider, more integrative and transtheoretical perspective.

  5. Constrained noninformative priors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given

  6. Research integrity and rights of indigenous peoples: appropriating Foucault's critique of knowledge/power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swazo, Norman K

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I appropriate the philosophical critique of Michel Foucault as it applies to the engagement of Western science and indigenous peoples in the context of biomedical research. The science of population genetics, specifically as pursued in the Human Genome Diversity Project, is the obvious example to illustrate (a) the contraposition of modern science and 'indigenous science', (b) the tendency to depreciate and marginalize indigenous knowledge systems, and (c) the subsumption of indigenous moral preferences in the juridical armature of international human rights law. I suggest that international bioethicists may learn from Foucault's critique, specifically of the need for vigilance about the knowledge/power relation expressed by the contraposition of modern science and 'indigeneity'.

  7. An integrated approach for visual analysis of a multisource moving objects knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, N.; van Hage, W.R.; de Vries, G.; Janssens, J.H.M.; Malaisé, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present an integrated and multidisciplinary approach for analyzing the behavior of moving objects. The results originate from an ongoing research of four different partners from the Dutch Poseidon project (Embedded Systems Institute (2007)), which aims to develop new methods for Maritime Safety

  8. An Integrated Approach for Visual Analysis of a Multi-Source Moving Objects Knowledge Base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.; van Hage, W.R.; de Vries, G.K.D.; Janssens, J.; Malaisé, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present an integrated and multidisciplinary approach for analyzing the behavior of moving objects. The results originate from an ongoing research of four different partners from the Dutch Poseidon project (Embedded Systems Institute (2007)), which aims to develop new methods for Maritime Safety

  9. An integrated approach for visual analysis of a multi-source moving objects knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, N.; Hage, van W.R.; Vries, de G.; Janssens, J.H.M.; Malaisé, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present an integrated and multidisciplinary approach for analyzing the behavior of moving objects. The results originate from an ongoing research of four different partners from the Dutch Poseidon project (Embedded Systems Institute (2007)), which aims to develop new methods for Maritime Safety

  10. Filling the knowledge gap: Integrating quantitative genetics and genomics in graduate education and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics revolution provides vital tools to address global food security. Yet to be incorporated into livestock breeding, molecular techniques need to be integrated into a quantitative genetics framework. Within the U.S., with shrinking faculty numbers with the requisite skills, the capacity to ...

  11. Debating Life on Mars: The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) in Varied School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Linda

    Technology-enabled learning environments are beginning to come of age. Tools and frameworks are now available that have been shown to improve learning and are being deployed more widely in varied school settings. Teachers are now faced with the formidable challenge of integrating these promising new environments with the everyday context in which…

  12. Measuring Knowledge Integration Learning of Energy Topics: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Ryoo, Kihyun; Linn, Marcia C.; Sato, Elissa; Svihla, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers call for inquiry learning in science, science assessments rarely capture the impact of inquiry instruction. This paper reports on the development and validation of assessments designed to measure middle-school students' progress in gaining integrated understanding of energy while studying an inquiry-oriented curriculum. The…

  13. The methodological foundations of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in the field of physical education and sports and related sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of scientific knowledge in physical education and sport in contiguous scientific directions are considered. The advanced studies of leading specialists in area of physical education and sport are analysed. It is rotined that on the modern stage scientific developments in area of physical education and sport attained a level, when can be utillized in fundamental and applied sciences. Scientific researches in area of physical education and sport to the application scientific areas, such as pedagogics, psychology, design, programming et al are related. One of examples of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in area of physical education and sport there is theoretical conception of individualization of preparation of sportsmen.

  14. Health-care professionals' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to patient capacity to consent to treatment: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Scott; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chiarella, Mary

    2013-09-01

    This integrative review aims to provide a synthesis of research findings of health-care professionals' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to patient capacity to consent to or refuse treatment within the general hospital setting. Search strategies included relevant health databases, hand searching of key journals, 'snowballing' and expert recommendations. The review identified various knowledge gaps and attitudinal dispositions of health-care professionals, which influence their behaviours and decision-making in relation to capacity to consent processes. The findings suggest that there is tension between legal, ethical and professional standards relating to the assessment of capacity and consent within health care. Legislation and policy guidance concerning capacity assessment processes are lacking, and this may contribute to inconsistencies in practice.

  15. Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchu Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available China is undergoing economic growth and expansion to a free market economy at a scale and pace that are unprecedented in human history. This is placing great pressure on the country's environment and cultural diversity. This paper examines a number of case histories in China, focusing on the culturally varied and ecologically diverse southwest region of the country. We show how developments in recent Chinese history have devalued and in some cases eliminated indigenous knowledge and practices in the quest to strengthen the centralized state. Despite these changes, more than 30 ethnic minorities live in southwest China. For generations these peoples have maintained landscapes through traditional land use and cultural practices. This indigenous knowledge places a high value on protecting forests, landscapes, and water catchments while preserving biodiversity. These values are maintained through religious beliefs, hunting taboos, and the protection of sacred sites. We advocate a conservation policy for China that includes the indigenous knowledge and values needed to maintain the environment and the traditional cultures themselves. There are seminal signs that the government is beginning to support indigenous cultures in China. The Organic Law of 1998 granted villages the legal right to self-government and gave indigenous communities greater responsibility for land and resource use. Traditional and indigenous cultural products have also developed a market and an economic value within a growing tourism industry. In many cases, however, indigenous people remain isolated from major land-use and conservation decisions that are the result of centrally planned policy. Meanwhile, frequent oscillations in forest policy and land tenure insecurity since the 1950s have led to the erosion of many local institutions and the loss of indigenous knowledge. We suggest that the long-term viability of the environment requires an interactive approach that involves

  16. Integrated systems, design and technology 2010 knowledge transfer in new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Madjid

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge creation and technological experiences resulting from modern production life cycles are definitely the most Economical and important intellectual capitals in the current manufacturing endeavors. These are also the basis for enabling industrial competition through managing and identifying organizational and product related needs and opportunities; e. g. health care systems society needs clean environment, sustainable production life cycles needs flexible approachable design and engineering of materials whilst valuable materials are needed for renewable energies and the production of

  17. Knowledge representation and management: towards an integration of a semantic web in daily health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, N; Charlet, J; Darmoni, Sj

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A synopsis of the four selected articles for the IMIA Yearbook 2013 KRM section is provided, as well as highlights of current KRM trends, in particular, of the semantic web in daily health practice. The manual selection was performed in three stages: first a set of 3,106 articles, then a second set of 86 articles followed by a third set of 15 articles, and finally the last set of four chosen articles. Among the four selected articles (see Table 1), one focuses on knowledge engineering to prevent adverse drug events; the objective of the second is to propose mappings between clinical archetypes and SNOMED CT in the context of clinical practice; the third presents an ontology to create a question-answering system; the fourth describes a biomonitoring network based on semantic web technologies. These four articles clearly indicate that the health semantic web has become a part of daily practice of health professionals since 2012. In the review of the second set of 86 articles, the same topics included in the previous IMIA yearbook remain active research fields: Knowledge extraction, automatic indexing, information retrieval, natural language processing, management of health terminologies and ontologies.

  18. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND CONVERSION MODEL AND THE COMPETING VALUES FRAMEWORK: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO COSTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contemporaneously, and with the successive paradigmatic revolutions inherent to management since the XVII century, we are witnessing a new era marked by the structural rupture in the way organizations are perceived. Market globalization, cemented by quick technological evolutions, associated with economic, cultural, political and social transformations characterize a reality where uncertainty is the only certainty for organizations and managers. Knowledge management has been interpreted by managers and academics as a viable alternative in a logic of creation and conversation of sustainable competitive advantages. However, there are several barriers to the implementation and development of knowledge management programs in organizations, with organizational culture being one of the most preponderant. In this sense, and in this article, we will analyze and compare The Knowledge Creation and Conversion Model proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 and Quinn and Rohrbaugh's Competing Values Framework (1983, since both have convergent conceptual lines that can assist managers in different sectors to guide their organization in a perspective of productivity, quality and market competitiveness.

  19. A code guidance system for integrated nuclear data evaluation system on the basis of knowledge engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1994-01-01

    The integrated nuclear data evaluation system (INDES) is being made in order to support the nuclear data evaluation work. A guidance system in INDES, 'Evaluation Tutor (ET)', is under development in order to support users in selecting the most suitable set of theoretical calculation codes by applying knowledge engineering technology and the experiences of evaluation work for JENDL-3. In this paper, the function of ET is introduced as well as the functions and databases of INDES. An example run of ET for 56 Fe in the 1-20 MeV neutron energy region is also explained. (author)

  20. MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana Database (MAtDB): an integrated biological knowledge resource based on the first complete plant genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Heiko; Zaccaria, Paolo; Gundlach, Heidrun; Lemcke, Kai; Rudd, Stephen; Kolesov, Grigory; Arnold, Roland; Mewes, H. W.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.

    2002-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the first plant for which the complete genome has been sequenced and published. Annotation of complex eukaryotic genomes requires more than the assignment of genetic elements to the sequence. Besides completing the list of genes, we need to discover their cellular roles, their regulation and their interactions in order to understand the workings of the whole plant. The MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana Database (MAtDB; http://mips.gsf.de/proj/thal/db) started out as a repository for genome sequence data in the European Scientists Sequencing Arabidopsis (ESSA) project and the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Our aim is to transform MAtDB into an integrated biological knowledge resource by integrating diverse data, tools, query and visualization capabilities and by creating a comprehensive resource for Arabidopsis as a reference model for other species, including crop plants. PMID:11752263

  1. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  2. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C; Moynihan, Paula

    2016-08-03

    Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local resources. The intervention

  3. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. Objective The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Methods Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. Results The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local

  4. Systematic Integration of Innovation in Process Improvement Projects Using the Enhanced Sigma-TRIZ Algorithm and Its Effective Use by Means of a Knowledge Management Software Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea FULEA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an evolving, highly turbulent and uncertain socio-economic environment, organizations must consider strategies of systematic and continuous integration of innovation within their business systems, as a fundamental condition for sustainable development. Adequate methodologies are required in this respect. A mature framework for integrating innovative problem solving approaches within business process improvement methodologies is proposed in this paper. It considers a TRIZ-centred algorithm in the improvement phase of the DMAIC methodology. The new tool is called enhanced sigma-TRIZ. A case study reveals the practical application of the proposed methodology. The integration of enhanced sigma-TRIZ within a knowledge management software platform (KMSP is further described. Specific developments to support processes of knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge transfer and knowledge application in a friendly and effective way within the KMSP are also highlighted.

  5. Knowledge management and economic integration in Southern Africa: unpacking the contribution of a regional spatial perspective in building regional competitiveness and prosperity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available spatial planning office under-girded by a southern African spatial development perspective protocol. The office could become a fountain of enhanced spatial knowledge management and a platform for generating economic integration intervention levers...

  6. Features of construction of the individual trajectory education to computer science on the basis dynamic integrated estimation of level of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of realisation of the mechanism of construction of an optimum trajectory of education to computer science on the basis of a dynamic integrated estimation of level of knowledge are considered.

  7. Integration of evidence-based knowledge management in microsystems: a tele-ICU experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Teresa A

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's proposed 6 aims to improve health care are timely, safe, effective, efficient, equitable, and patient-centered care. Unfortunately, it also asserts that improvements in these 6 dimensions cannot be achieved within the existing framework of care systems. These systems are based on unrealistic expectations on human cognition and vigilance, and demonstrate a lack of dependence on computerized systems to support care processes and put information at the point of use. Knowledge-based care and evidence-based clinical decision-making need to replace the unscientific care that is being delivered in health care. Building care practices on evidence within an information technology platform is needed to support sound clinical decision-making and to influence organizational adoption of evidence-based practice in health care. Despite medical advances and evidence-based recommendations for treatment of severe sepsis, it remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. It is a complex disease state that has proven difficult to define, diagnose, and treat. Supporting bedside teams with real-time knowledge and expertise to target early identification of severe sepsis and compliance to Surviving Sepsis Campaign, evidence-based practice bundles are important to improving outcomes. Using a centralized, remote team of expert nurses and an open-source software application to advance clinical decision-making and execution of the severe sepsis bundle will be examined.

  8. Integration of Pathway Knowledge and Dynamic Bayesian Networks for the Prediction of Oral Cancer Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourou, Konstantina; Papaloukas, Costas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2017-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma has been characterized as a complex disease which involves dynamic genomic changes at the molecular level. These changes indicate the worth to explore the interactions of the molecules and especially of differentially expressed genes that contribute to cancer progression. Moreover, based on this knowledge the identification of differentially expressed genes and related molecular pathways is of great importance. In the present study, we exploit differentially expressed genes in order to further perform pathway enrichment analysis. According to our results we found significant pathways in which the disease associated genes have been identified as strongly enriched. Furthermore, based on the results of the pathway enrichment analysis we propose a methodology for predicting oral cancer recurrence using dynamic Bayesian networks. The methodology takes into consideration time series gene expression data in order to predict a disease recurrence. Subsequently, we are able to conjecture about the causal interactions between genes in consecutive time intervals. Concerning the performance of the predictive models, the overall accuracy of the algorithm is 81.8% and the area under the ROC curve 89.2% regarding the knowledge from the overrepresented pre-NOTCH Expression and processing pathway.

  9. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Kurvits

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified.

  10. CEO Appointments and the Loss of Firm-specific Knowledge - Putting Integrity Back into Hiring Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Katja; Salomo, Søren

    2008-01-01

    that over the past decades the dishonesty of the predecessor has become relatively more important for the appointment decisions of firms. We conclude that outside hires are a suboptimal trend because external candidates even step up the regression of integrity in firms: As nobody has an incentive to invest......A rarely studied trend in corporate governance is the increasing tendency to fill CEO openings through external hires rather than through internal promotions: Kevin J. Murphy and Ján Zábojník (2004) show that the proportion of outside hires has doubled and their pay premium almost quadrupled over...

  11. CEO Appointments and the Loss of Firm-specific Knowledge - Putting Integrity Back into Hiring Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Katja; Salomo, Søren

    2008-01-01

    the last thirty years. Assuming that general managerial skills are becoming more important relative to firm-specific skills, the authors conclude that competition in the managerial labor market establishes optimal contracts. In our model and our empirical analysis we question this explanation by assuming...... that over the past decades the dishonesty of the predecessor has become relatively more important for the appointment decisions of firms. We conclude that outside hires are a suboptimal trend because external candidates even step up the regression of integrity in firms: As nobody has an incentive to invest...

  12. CEO Appointments and the Loss of Firm-Specific Knowledge - Putting Integrity Back into Hiring Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Katja; Salomo, Søren; Osterloh, Margit

    2008-01-01

    the last thirty years. Assuming that general managerial skills are becoming more important relative to firm-specific skills, the authors conclude that competition in the managerial labor market establishes optimal contracts. In our model and our empirical analysis we question this explanation by assuming...... that over the past decades the dishonesty of the predecessor has become relatively more important for the appointment decisions of firms. We conclude that outside hires are a suboptimal trend because external candidates even step up the regression of integrity in firms: As nobody has an incentive to invest...

  13. Strengthening Regulatory Competence through Techno-managerial Knowledge Integration: Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhotla, S.

    2016-01-01

    Competence development is the process of identifying the competencies required to perform a given job, role or set of tasks successfully at workplace. Strengthening regulatory competence, for the nuclear regulator, is essential to ensure skilled and competent human resources for performing the functions of the Regulatory Body. The strengthening of existing competence level for the Indian nuclear regulator, takes into account the understanding of the elements such as legal basis and regulatory processes governing operations of regulatory body, technological competences for performing regulatory functions, competences pertinent to regulatory practices, and competences related to personal and interpersonal effectiveness within the organization. Competency data from AERB divisions was compiled to identify gaps at various positions with recommendations for making specialized training modules and modifications to basic and refresher training modules. The exercise is aimed at providing continual improvement in skills and knowledge of human resources at AERB in a phased manner. (author)

  14. Registration methods for pulmonary image analysis integration of morphological and physiological knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Various applications in the field of pulmonary image analysis require a registration of CT images of the lung. For example, a registration-based estimation of the breathing motion is employed to increase the accuracy of dose distribution in radiotherapy. Alexander Schmidt-Richberg develops methods to explicitly model morphological and physiological knowledge about respiration in algorithms for the registration of thoracic CT images. The author focusses on two lung-specific issues: on the one hand, the alignment of the interlobular fissures and on the other hand, the estimation of sliding motion at the lung boundaries. He shows that by explicitly considering these aspects based on a segmentation of the respective structure, registration accuracy can be significantly improved.

  15. Integrating GIS components with knowledge discovery technology for environmental health decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Yvan; Gosselin, Pierre; Rivest, Sonia; Proulx, Marie-Josée; Nadeau, Martin; Lebel, Germain; Gagnon, Marie-France

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a new category of decision-support tools that builds on today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) technologies to facilitate Geographic Knowledge Discovery (GKD). This new category, named Spatial OLAP (SOLAP), has been an R&D topic for about 5 years in a few university labs and is now being implemented by early adopters in different fields, including public health where it provides numerous advantages. In this paper, we present an example of a SOLAP application in the field of environmental health: the ICEM-SE project. After having presented this example, we describe the design of this system and explain how it provides fast and easy access to the detailed and aggregated data that are needed for GKD and decision-making in public health. The SOLAP concept is also described and a comparison is made with traditional GIS applications.

  16. VET Students' Integration of Knowledge Engaged with in School-Based and Workplace-Based Learning Environments in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartman, L. K. J.; Kilbrink, N.; de Bruijn, E.

    2018-01-01

    In vocational education, students learn in different school-based and workplace-based learning environments and engage with different types of knowledge in these environments. Students are expected to integrate these experiences and make meaning of them in relation to their own professional knowledge base. This study focuses both on…

  17. Psychological Contract Development: An Integration of Existing Knowledge to Form a Temporal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Windle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract has received substantial theoretical attention over the past two decades as a popular framework within which to examine contemporary employment relationships. Previous research mostly examines breach and violation of the psychological contract and its impact on employee organization outcomes. Few studies have employed longitudinal, prospective research designs to investigate the psychological contract and as a result, psychological contract content and formation are incompletely understood. It is argued that employment relationships may be better proactively managed with greater understanding of formation and changes in the psychological contract. We examine existing psychological contract literature to identify five key factors proposed to contribute to the formation of psychological contracts. We extend the current research by integrating these factors for the first time into a temporal model of psychological contract development.

  18. [Using the notion of vulnerability in the production of knowledge about tuberculosis: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffacciolli, Rosana; Hahn, Giselda Veronice; Rossetto, Maíra; Almeida, Carlos Podalirio Borges de; Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Paiva, Tiago Sousa; Oliveira, Dora Lucia Leidens Correa de

    2015-01-01

    to identify how the notion of vulnerability is used in national and international scientific publications that address the problem of tuberculosis. an integrative review of literature published in the databases of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, the United States National Library of Medicine and the Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, considering the descriptors Tuberculosis and Vulnerability in Portuguese and English. we selected fifty-eight studies published between 1992 and February 2014, which resulted in three categories of analysis. CONCLUSION the link between tuberculosis and the notion of vulnerability has not been sufficiently consolidated in national and international literature. This creates an obstacle for the achievement of the epistemological transformations and pragmatic measures that are required to obtain better results from interventions in the field.

  19. Teacher Design in Teams as a Professional Development Arrangement for Developing Technology Integration Knowledge and Skills of Science Teachers in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills among in-service science teachers. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Tanzania, where 12 in-service science teachers participated in a workshop about technology integration in…

  20. Realizing Relevance: The Influence of Domain-Specific Information on Generation of New Knowledge through Integration in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    In accumulating knowledge, direct modes of learning are complemented by productive processes, including self-generation based on integration of separate episodes. Effects of the number of potentially relevant episodes on integration were examined in 4- to 8-year-olds (N = 121; racially/ethnically heterogeneous sample, English speakers, from large…